virus shedding

Summary

Summary: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Top Publications

  1. pmc Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children
    Chung Chen Li
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1265-72. 2010
  2. doi Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
    Bin Cao
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
  3. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
  4. doi Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies
    Fabrice Carrat
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, UMR S 707, Paris, France
    Am J Epidemiol 167:775-85. 2008
  5. doi Viral load in patients infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus
    Kelvin K W To
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    J Med Virol 82:1-7. 2010
  6. ncbi Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    N Engl J Med 356:790-9. 2007
  7. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
  8. pmc Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in South Africa
    Sinead Delany
    Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    AIDS 23:461-9. 2009
  9. pmc Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data
    Elsa Jourdain
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e8935. 2010
  10. ncbi Circulation of influenza viruses in wild waterfowl wintering in Italy during the 1993-99 period: evidence of virus shedding and seroconversion in wild ducks
    M A De Marco
    Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica A Ghigi, 9 via Ca Fornacetta, 40064 Ozzano Emilia BO, Italy
    Avian Dis 47:861-6. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Adenovirus Persistence in Human Lymphoid Tissues
    Linda Gooding; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Therapeutic Ocular HSV Vaccine in HLA Transgenic Rabbits
    Lbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. A Novel Approach to RSV Vaccination
    Joan E Durbin; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. OCULAR HSV: LATENCY, REACTIVATION, & RECURRENCE
    James Hill; Fiscal Year: 1991
  5. Measles Virotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme
    Evanthia Galanis; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. PROTECTION OF GENITAL MUCOSA AND GANGLIA AGAINST HSV-2
    Gregg Milligan; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. Does the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) encode a protein?
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 2007
  8. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Vaccinia Viruses
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications299 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children
    Chung Chen Li
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1265-72. 2010
    ..7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus...
  2. doi Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
    Bin Cao
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
    ..Persons in whom infection was confirmed were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them were closely observed for the purpose of investigating the nature and duration of the disease...
  3. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
    ..Policy effectiveness depends critically on how quickly clinical cases are diagnosed and the speed with which antiviral drugs can be distributed...
  4. doi Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies
    Fabrice Carrat
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, UMR S 707, Paris, France
    Am J Epidemiol 167:775-85. 2008
    ....
  5. doi Viral load in patients infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus
    Kelvin K W To
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    J Med Virol 82:1-7. 2010
    ..Younger age was associated with prolonged shedding in the respiratory tract and higher viral load in the stool. Data from this quantitative analysis of viral shedding may have implications for formulating infection control measures...
  6. ncbi Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    N Engl J Med 356:790-9. 2007
    ..Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility...
  7. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
    ..Historically, it has been assumed that these persons have less frequent viral reactivation than those with symptomatic infection...
  8. pmc Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in South Africa
    Sinead Delany
    Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    AIDS 23:461-9. 2009
    ..Several studies suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may enhance HIV-1 transmission and disease progression...
  9. pmc Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data
    Elsa Jourdain
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e8935. 2010
    ..Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals...
  10. ncbi Circulation of influenza viruses in wild waterfowl wintering in Italy during the 1993-99 period: evidence of virus shedding and seroconversion in wild ducks
    M A De Marco
    Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica A Ghigi, 9 via Ca Fornacetta, 40064 Ozzano Emilia BO, Italy
    Avian Dis 47:861-6. 2003
    ..Moreover, seroconversion rates (obtained from ducks recaptured during the same season) suggest a frequency of influenza infections higher than expected on the basis of the virus isolation rates...
  11. pmc Innate immune responses to human rotavirus in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model
    Ana M Gonzalez
    Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    Immunology 131:242-56. 2010
    ..Stimulation of the anti-inflammatory effects of pDCs after the high dose, without increasing their pro-inflammatory impacts, may be critical to reduce further immunopathology during HRV infection...
  12. ncbi Studying possible cross-protection of Canada geese preexposed to North American low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2) against an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge
    Y Berhane
    National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4, Canada
    Avian Dis 54:548-54. 2010
    ..In vitro cell proliferation assays demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from each group were no better stimulated by homologous vs. heterologous antigens...
  13. pmc Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine
    FRANK R JONES
    Etubics Corporation, Seattle, WA 98199, USA
    Vaccine 29:7020-6. 2011
    ..The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases...
  14. pmc Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model
    Emmie de Wit
    Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1432. 2011
    ..The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks...
  15. doi Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 from Egypt escapes vaccine-induced immunity but confers clinical protection against a heterologous clade 2.2.1 Egyptian isolate
    Christian Grund
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vaccine 29:5567-73. 2011
    ..In conclusion, monitoring vaccine-driven evolution of HPAIV H5N1 by surveillance, antigenic characterization, and challenge studies is essential to assess efficacy of AIV vaccination campaigns...
  16. pmc Infectious HIV-1 assembles in late endosomes in primary macrophages
    Annegret Pelchen-Matthews
    Cell Biology Unit, Medical Research MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Cell Biol 162:443-55. 2003
    ..This notion has significant implications for understanding the biology of HIV and its cell-cell transmission...
  17. doi Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak among 15 school-aged HIV-1-infected children
    Cornelia Feiterna-Sperling
    Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Helmut Ruska Haus, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 51:e90-4. 2010
    ..Oseltamivir shortened the duration of viral shedding...
  18. pmc Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance
    Kaci K VanDalen
    National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e12851. 2010
    ..Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical...
  19. doi A vaccine candidate of attenuated genotype VII Newcastle disease virus generated by reverse genetics
    Shunlin Hu
    Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China
    Vaccine 27:904-10. 2009
    ..closer to epidemic viruses provide better protection than conventional vaccines in terms of reducing virus shedding and transmission...
  20. doi Oseltamivir compared with the Chinese traditional therapy maxingshigan-yinqiaosan in the treatment of H1N1 influenza: a randomized trial
    Chen Wang
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Ann Intern Med 155:217-25. 2011
    ..Observational studies from Asia suggest that maxingshigan-yinqiaosan may be effective in the treatment of acute H1N1 influenza...
  21. doi Shedding and transmission of novel influenza virus A/H1N1 infection in households--Germany, 2009
    Thorsten Suess
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Epidemiol 171:1157-64. 2010
    ..Compared with other nasopharyngeal specimen types, nasal wash was the most sensitive. These results support the notion that epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of NIV are in many aspects similar to those of seasonal influenza...
  22. ncbi The effect of age on avian influenza viral shedding in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
    T P Costa
    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 54:581-5. 2010
    ..This information may help us better understand the natural history of these viruses, interpret field and experimental data, and plan future experimental trials...
  23. ncbi The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    C C Wang
    Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:1017-22. 2001
    ..2- and 4.2-fold after treating Candida and Trichomonas, respectively. These data suggest that HIV-1 transmission intervention strategies that incorporate diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent infections warrant evaluation...
  24. pmc Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia
    D J Hulse-Post
    Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10682-7. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat...
  25. doi Suppressive acyclovir therapy reduces HIV cervicovaginal shedding in HIV- and HSV-2-infected women, Chiang Rai, Thailand
    Eileen F Dunne
    National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:77-83. 2008
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is important in the HIV epidemic and may contribute to increased HIV transmission. We evaluated the effect of suppressive acyclovir therapy on cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding...
  26. ncbi AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding
    Bettina Strack
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 114:689-99. 2003
    ..These observations identify AIP1 as a component of the viral budding machinery, which serves to link a distinct region in the L domain of HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 to ESCRT-III...
  27. pmc Virus shedding and potential for interspecies waterborne transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in sparrows and chickens
    Heather L Forrest
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Mailstop 330, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    J Virol 84:3718-20. 2010
    ..The viral shedding and susceptibility to infection we observed in sparrows, coupled with their presence in poultry houses, could facilitate virus spread among poultry and wild birds in the face of an H5N1 influenza virus outbreak...
  28. pmc Dynamics of influenza virus infection and pathology
    Roberto A Saenz
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:3974-83. 2010
    ..The resulting dynamics indicate a powerful role for innate immunity in controlling the rapid peak in virus shedding. As a corollary, cells are much less depleted than suggested by a model of human influenza based only on virus-..
  29. pmc H1N1pdm influenza infection in hospitalized cancer patients: clinical evolution and viral analysis
    Thiago Moreno L Souza
    Laboratório de vírus respiratórios e do sarampo, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 5:e14158. 2010
    ....
  30. pmc A double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate valacyclovir alone and with aspirin for asymptomatic HSV-1 DNA shedding in human tears and saliva
    Manish Kumar
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5601-8. 2009
    ..Ocular and oral swabs were collected twice daily for 30 days. DNA was extracted from all swabs and HSV-1 DNA copy numbers were determined. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the DNA copy numbers of the three groups...
  31. ncbi Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children
    John A Vanchiere
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Med Virol 75:447-54. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the timing of SV40 infections in humans may be similar to that of BKV and that urine from healthy children could contribute to the ubiquity of BKV infection early in life...
  32. pmc Comparison of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to viral culture for assessment of respiratory syncytial virus shedding
    Ann R Falsey
    Department of Medicine Infectious Disease Unit, Rochester General Hospital, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14621, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4160-5. 2003
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR has an excellent correlation with viral titers, as measured by culture, and should be a useful tool for future studies addressing viral load and disease pathogenesis...
  33. ncbi Association between genital tract cytomegalovirus infection and bacterial vaginosis
    Shannon A Ross
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35233, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1727-30. 2005
    ..In addition, most of the women who were shedding CMV were infected with >1 virus strain. These results suggest that local CMV replication and infection with multiple CMV strains is facilitated by the presence of BV...
  34. pmc Polyomavirus shedding in the stool of healthy adults
    John A Vanchiere
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2388-91. 2009
    ..001). These findings support the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tract may be a site of polyomavirus persistence, and they suggest a fecal-oral route of viral transmission...
  35. doi The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally
    Brandon Z Londt
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 4:17-25. 2010
    ..Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl...
  36. doi Infection dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 39:265-73. 2010
    ..chickens, turkeys and ducks intranasally/intraocularly, and infection was confirmed by the detection of virus shedding from the buccal or cloacal route by analysis of swabs collected using real-time reverse transcriptase-..
  37. doi The onset of virus shedding and clinical signs in chickens infected with high-pathogenicity and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses
    Anna R Spickler
    Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Avian Pathol 37:555-77. 2008
    ..The present review examines the onset of virus shedding and the development of clinical signs for a variety of avian influenza viruses in chickens...
  38. pmc Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge
    Thomas R Hird
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002599. 2012
    ..The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV...
  39. doi Control of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection of ferret lungs by non-adjuvant-containing pandemic and seasonal vaccines
    Steven Rockman
    CSL Limited, Parkville, 3052 Victoria, Australia
    Vaccine 30:3618-23. 2012
    ..These results implicate non-classical protective mechanisms that prevent severe pulmonary disease but not viral shedding and imply that particular non-adjuvanted vaccines may have retained the ability to induce these responses...
  40. pmc IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model
    Celina G Vega
    Instituto de Virologia, CICV y A INTA Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    PLoS ONE 7:e42788. 2012
    ..titer = 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent...
  41. doi Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of immunoglobulin Y as adjunct to standard supportive therapy for rotavirus-associated diarrhea among pediatric patients
    Shofiqur Rahman
    Immunology Research Institute in Gifu, EW Nutrition Japan, 839 7 Sano, Gifu 501 1101, Japan
    Vaccine 30:4661-9. 2012
    ....
  42. doi Prolonged influenza virus infection during lymphocytopenia and frequent detection of drug-resistant viruses
    Jairo Gooskens
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 199:1435-41. 2009
    ..Clinical improvement in influenza lower respiratory tract infection is observed during oseltamivir treatment, but complete viral clearance is dependent on lymphocyte reconstitution, irrespective of receipt of antiviral medication...
  43. pmc Aichi virus shedding in high concentrations in patients with acute diarrhea
    Jan Felix Drexler
    University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1544-8. 2011
    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2...
  44. pmc Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus
    S A Langevin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:726-9. 2001
    ..These are all considered positive attributes of a sentinel species for WN virus surveillance programs...
  45. doi Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus
    Nicole M Nemeth
    USDA APHIS WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Avian Pathol 39:411-8. 2010
    ....
  46. pmc Effect of prophylactic valacyclovir on the presence of human herpesvirus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals after dental treatment
    Craig S Miller
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine and College of Dentistry, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2173-80. 2005
    ....
  47. ncbi Effect of different vaccination schedules on excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains
    Majid Laassri
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:2092-8. 2005
    ..This suggests that IPV-vaccinated communities are partially protected from the spread of poliovirus. Further enhancement of IPV potency may lead to even higher levels of mucosal immunity...
  48. doi Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in infected chickens: feather as a suitable sample for diagnosis
    Nuria Busquets
    Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, UAB IRTA, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Gen Virol 91:2307-13. 2010
    ..were collected from 15-day-old chicks infected with H7N1 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) and the kinetics of virus shedding during active infection were evaluated...
  49. doi Genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding among women with below detectable plasma viral load
    Susan Cu-Uvin
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Miriam Hospital Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA
    AIDS 24:2489-97. 2010
    ..Few studies have assessed longitudinal genital tract HIV-1 shedding. We determined patterns of genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding over time among women with suppressed plasma viral load (PVL) on antiretroviral treatment...
  50. doi Viral shedding duration of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus during an elementary school outbreak--Pennsylvania, May-June 2009
    Achuyt Bhattarai
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:S102-8. 2011
    ..Highest and lowest virus titers detected, 2 and 5 days following fever onset, were 3.2 and 1.2 log(10) TCID(50)/mL respectively. Overall, shedding duration in children and adults were similar to seasonal influenza viruses...
  51. pmc Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding
    Patricia Kissinger
    Tulane University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70012, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 36:11-6. 2009
    ..Vaginal HIV-1 shedding has been associated with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and could play a role in HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine if effective TV treatment reduces the presence of vaginal HIV-1 RNA...
  52. pmc Longitudinal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast milk and of its relationship to infant infection and maternal disease
    Christine M Rousseau
    Department of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:741-7. 2003
    ..3-3.0; P<.001). These results indicate that the risk of infant infection from breast-feeding is influenced by breast-milk virus load, which is highest early after delivery...
  53. doi Pathogenicity of Chinese H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in pigeons
    Beibei Jia
    Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People s Republic of China
    Arch Virol 153:1821-6. 2008
    ..These results indicate that pigeons are susceptible to the more recent Asian H5N1 HPAI and could be a source of infection to other animals, including humans...
  54. pmc Recombinant nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge
    Hana M Weingartl
    NCFAD, CFIA, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4, Canada
    J Virol 80:7929-38. 2006
    ..Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest...
  55. pmc Amplified transmission of HIV-1: comparison of HIV-1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Center for Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    AIDS 21:1723-30. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection...
  56. doi Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission
    Evan J Anderson
    Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at Children s Memorial and Northwestern Memorial Hospitals, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:642-9. 2008
    ..Since the risk of vaccine transmission and subsequent vaccine-derived disease with the current vaccines is much less than the risk of wildtype rotavirus disease in immunocompromised contacts, vaccination should be encouraged...
  57. ncbi The effect of hormonal contraception on genital tract shedding of HIV-1
    Chia C Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 2499, USA
    AIDS 18:205-9. 2004
    ..We conducted a prospective study to determine if cervical shedding of HIV-1 increased after initiating hormonal contraception...
  58. doi Effects of early oseltamivir therapy on viral shedding in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection
    Li M Ling
    Departments of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Clin Infect Dis 50:963-9. 2010
    ..Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 is susceptible to oseltamivir. There are few reports on its clinical and virologic response to oseltamivir...
  59. ncbi Minute excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) from experimentally infected domestic pigeons (Columbia livia) and lack of transmission to sentinel chickens
    Ortrud Werner
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut FLI, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    J Gen Virol 88:3089-93. 2007
    ..All surviving birds shed virus via the oropharynx and the cloaca at minimal titres and seroconverted. Sentinel chickens reared in direct contact to the pigeons neither developed clinical signs nor seroconverted to the H5N1 virus...
  60. doi Maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection increases the risk of perinatal HIV transmission: possibility to further decrease transmission?
    Liesbeth Jm Bollen
    Thailand Ministry of Public Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    AIDS 22:1169-76. 2008
    ..To evaluate the association between maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding with perinatal HIV transmission...
  61. ncbi Susceptibility of wood ducks to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    Justin D Brown
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, Wildlife Health Building, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:660-7. 2007
    ....
  62. ncbi Prolonged fecal excretion of hepatitis A virus in adult patients with hepatitis A as determined by polymerase chain reaction
    H Yotsuyanagi
    First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 24:10-3. 1996
    ..These results show that fecal shedding of HAV can last for months after resolution of symptoms and such patients could be a source of further spreading of the virus in the community...
  63. pmc Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine
    Julien Thiry
    Department of Animal Health and Well Being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
    BMC Vet Res 3:33. 2007
    ....
  64. doi Virus shedding and environmental deposition of novel A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus: interim findings
    B Killingley
    Division of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Health Technol Assess 14:237-354. 2010
    ..Further information about the deposition of viable influenza virus in the immediate vicinity of patients with pandemic influenza is fundamental to our understanding of the routes and mechanisms of transmission...
  65. doi Infection studies with two highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (Vietnamese and Indonesian) in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), with particular reference to clinical disease, tissue tropism and viral shedding
    John Bingham
    CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
    Avian Pathol 38:267-78. 2009
    ..The higher prevalence of virus from swabs from ducks infected with the Vietnamese strain indicates that this strain may be more adapted to ducks than the Indonesia strain...
  66. doi Neurotropism in blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) and red-billed queleas (Quelea quelea) after highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infection
    A Breithaupt
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vet Pathol 48:924-32. 2011
    ..They monitored all birds for clinical signs and oropharyngeal and cloacal virus shedding. They also performed immunohistochemistry and obtained molecular virologic data by real-time reverse ..
  67. pmc The YPLGVG sequence of the Nipah virus matrix protein is required for budding
    Jared R Patch
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA
    Virol J 5:137. 2008
    ..Here, we have used this system to further explore the budding process by analyzing elements within the M protein that are critical for particle release...
  68. doi Evaluation of the protection induced by avian influenza vaccines containing a 1994 Mexican H5N2 LPAI seed strain against a 2008 Egyptian H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to clade 2.2.1 by means of serological and in vivo tests
    Calogero Terregino
    OIE FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, Legnaro, Padua, Italy
    Avian Pathol 39:215-22. 2010
    ..The data reported in this study also indicate that there may be a low degree of correlation between haemagglutination inhibition titres, clinical protection and reduction of shedding...
  69. ncbi Caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine with the LTK63 mutant as a mucosal adjuvant induces strong protection against genital infection in goats
    M Tempesta
    Department of Animal Health and Well Being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Strada P le per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
    Vaccine 25:7927-30. 2007
    ..IgA and were significantly protected after challenge with the virulent CpHV-1 strain, with marked decrease in virus shedding, while the unvaccinated goats were not...
  70. pmc Frequent genital herpes simplex virus 2 shedding in immunocompetent women. Effect of acyclovir treatment
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    J Clin Invest 99:1092-7. 1997
    ..HSV-2 shedding in the genital mucosa occurs much more frequently than previously appreciated. This frequent reactivation likely plays a role in the epidemic spread of genital herpes worldwide...
  71. ncbi A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir in late pregnancy for the reduction of herpes simplex virus shedding and cesarean delivery
    D Heather Watts
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:836-43. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of acyclovir in the reduction of herpes simplex virus culture and polymerase chain reaction positivity and cesarean delivery...
  72. ncbi The dynamics of herpesvirus and polyomavirus reactivation and shedding in healthy adults: a 14-month longitudinal study
    Paul D Ling
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1571-80. 2003
    ..50). Thus, adults independently control persistent viruses, which display discordant, sporadic reactivations...
  73. doi Experimental infections of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by intranasal inoculation of virus and ingestion of virus-infected chicken meat
    Justin D Brown
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, Wildlife Health Building, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Pathol 37:393-7. 2008
    ....
  74. ncbi Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital HIV-1 DNA shedding, and breast infections
    G C John
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:206-212. 2001
    ..Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions...
  75. ncbi Measuring the infectiousness of persons with HIV-1: opportunities for preventing sexual HIV-1 transmission
    Jared M Baeten
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98104 2499, USA
    Curr HIV Res 1:69-86. 2003
    ..Unresolved issues related to optimal measurement techniques for genital HIV-1, promises and limitations of antiretroviral therapy and vaccines to reduce infectiousness, and other intervention strategies still in development are reviewed...
  76. ncbi Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 in childbearing-aged and pregnant women living in Gabon
    Francis Ozouaki
    Maternité Joséphine Bongo, Gabon
    Int J STD AIDS 17:124-7. 2006
    ....
  77. ncbi Infectious correlates of HIV-1 shedding in the female upper and lower genital tracts
    Jenell S Coleman
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    AIDS 21:755-9. 2007
    ..To determine the effects of vaginal, cervical, and endometrial infections on shedding of HIV-1 RNA in the female genital tract...
  78. doi Lack of transmission of a human influenza virus with avian receptor specificity between ferrets is not due to decreased virus shedding but rather a lower infectivity in vivo
    Kim L Roberts
    Department of Virology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:1822-31. 2011
    ....
  79. ncbi Cidofovir is effective against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats
    Maria Tempesta
    Department of Animal Health and Well Being, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Università di Bari Strada Prov Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, BA, Italy
    Antiviral Res 74:138-41. 2007
    ..CpHV-1 infection in goats may represent an excellent animal model for the study of novel strategies for the treatment of primary genital HSV-2 infection in man...
  80. ncbi Herpes simplex virus type 1 shedding in the oral cavity of seropositive patients
    L M da Silva
    Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Oral Dis 11:13-6. 2005
    ..In addition, the relation between recrudescence and the presence of the virus in the saliva was assessed...
  81. ncbi Prolonged shedding of multidrug-resistant influenza A virus in an immunocompromised patient
    David M Weinstock
    N Engl J Med 348:867-8. 2003
  82. doi Viral loads and duration of viral shedding in adult patients hospitalized with influenza
    Nelson Lee
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    J Infect Dis 200:492-500. 2009
    ..The goal of this study was to characterize viral loads and factors affecting viral clearance in persons with severe influenza...
  83. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight
    D L Pierson
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 19:235-42. 2005
    ..Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight...
  84. ncbi Latency and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in goats and of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CapHV-1) in calves
    A Six
    Institute of Virology, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, , Switzerland
    Arch Virol 146:1325-35. 2001
    ..Based on these results we conclude that goats should indeed be regarded as a potential BHV-1 reservoir, which must be considered during IBR eradication programs...
  85. doi No impact of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on herpes simplex virus shedding in HIV-infected adults
    Darrell Hs Tan
    University Health Network Division of Infectious Diseases, Canada bUniversity of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 25:207-10. 2011
    ..to determine the impact of oral tenofovir as part of combination antiretroviral therapy on asymptomatic herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding...
  86. pmc Effects of oseltamivir treatment on duration of clinical illness and viral shedding and household transmission of influenza virus
    Sophia Ng
    Department of Community Medicine, University of Hong Kong, China
    Clin Infect Dis 50:707-14. 2010
    ..We assessed the indirect effectiveness of oseltamivir in reducing secondary household transmission in an incident cohort of influenza index patients and their household members...
  87. pmc Rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adults
    Karen E Mark
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1141-9. 2008
    ..Recent in situ data show the localization of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells at the dermal epidermal junction next to peripheral sensory nerve endings, suggesting that viral reactivation may occur more frequently than previously appreciated...
  88. ncbi The efficacy of valacyclovir in preventing recurrent herpes simplex virus infections associated with dental procedures
    Craig S Miller
    Department of Oral Health Practice, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry and College of Medicine, Lexington 40536 0297, USA
    J Am Dent Assoc 135:1311-8. 2004
    ..This study determined the efficacy and safety of oral valacyclovir in suppressing dentally related cold sore outbreak and HSV shedding...
  89. doi Pathobiology and virus shedding of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/H1N1) infection in mallards exposed to oseltamivir
    Caroline Bröjer
    Section of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7028, SE750 07, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Wildl Dis 49:103-13. 2013
    ....
  90. pmc Quantitative Epstein-Barr virus shedding and its correlation with the risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
    Carol J Holman
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Clin Transplant 26:741-7. 2012
    ....
  91. doi Experimental transmission of avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus between immunologically naïve and vaccinated pigs
    Lucy E Lloyd
    Animal Health Trust, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 5:357-64. 2011
    ..Two studies in an experimental transmission model are presented here, one in immunologically naïve and one in a combination of vaccinated and naïve pigs...
  92. doi Susceptibility of two species of wild terrestrial birds to infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype
    Yoshikazu Fujimoto
    Tottori University, Japan
    Avian Pathol 39:95-8. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that there is variation in clinical outcome after infection of wild terrestrial birds, and that some bird species could become subclinical excretors of the H5N1 virus...
  93. doi A comparative infection study of pigeon and avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in pigeons: evaluation of clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion
    J C F M Dortmans
    Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Avian Pathol 40:125-30. 2011
    ..After inoculation by the combined intraocular, intranasal and intratracheal route, clinical signs, virus shedding and serological responses were examined. Clinical signs were observed only in the FL-Herts-infected group...
  94. pmc A rat model of picornavirus-induced airway infection and inflammation
    Louis A Rosenthal
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Virol J 6:122. 2009
    ....
  95. pmc Use of the designation "shedder" in mucosal detection of herpes simplex virus DNA involving repeated sampling
    A S Magaret
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 85:270-5. 2009
    ..We evaluated two methods to describe detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital mucosa...
  96. pmc Use of a novel real-time PCR assay to detect oral polio vaccine shedding and reversion in stool and sewage samples after a mexican national immunization day
    Stephanie B Troy
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5208, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1777-83. 2011
    ....
  97. ncbi Duration of influenza A virus shedding in hospitalized patients and implications for infection control
    Surbhi Leekha
    Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinical College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 28:1071-6. 2007
    ..To assess the duration of shedding of influenza A virus detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture among patients hospitalized with influenza A virus infection...
  98. ncbi The impact of syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on genital shedding of HIV-1
    Dawit Wolday
    Ethio Netherlands AIDS Research Project ENARP, the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Black Lion Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    AIDS 18:781-5. 2004
    ..To examine the impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) syndromic treatment on genital shedding of HIV and the impact among women in whom STD treatment was not successful...
  99. pmc Frequency of drug-resistant viruses and virus shedding in pediatric influenza patients treated with neuraminidase inhibitors
    Daisuke Tamura
    Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of MedicalScience, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Infect Dis 52:432-7. 2011
    ..We therefore compared the prevalence of drug-resistant viruses and virus shedding in seasonal influenza virus-infected children treated with either oseltamivir or zanamivir.
  100. pmc APOE genotype is associated with oral herpetic lesions but not genital or oral herpes simplex virus shedding
    David M Koelle
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 86:202-6. 2010
    ..Apolipoprotein E is polymorphic in the human population. APOE4 has previously been reported to correlate with symptomatic oral and genital herpes disease...
  101. doi Transmission of canine influenza virus (H3N8) among susceptible dogs
    Faris F Jirjis
    Intervet Schering Plough Animal Health, 21401 West Center Road, Elkhorn, NE 68022, USA
    Vet Microbiol 144:303-9. 2010
    ..The onset of clinical signs, virus shedding, seroconversion, and appearance of lung lesions were observed earlier in experimentally infected dogs; however,..

Research Grants72

  1. Adenovirus Persistence in Human Lymphoid Tissues
    Linda Gooding; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The subgroup C adenoviruses cause respiratory tract infections in young children leading to episodic virus shedding for months to years after primary infection...
  2. Therapeutic Ocular HSV Vaccine in HLA Transgenic Rabbits
    Lbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A major gap in our current knowledge is: "How can we prevent or significantly reduce virus shedding in tears and HSV-induced ocular disease due to spontaneous reactivation of latent virus in the TG?" HSV-..
  3. A Novel Approach to RSV Vaccination
    Joan E Durbin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Disease in seropositive adults and older children is usually limited to the upper airway, but significant virus shedding has been observed at each reinfection thus maintaining the virus within an immune population...
  4. OCULAR HSV: LATENCY, REACTIVATION, & RECURRENCE
    James Hill; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Thses basic studies involving induction of virus shedding and recurrent epithelial disease will continue in two previously developed rabbit models: 1) ocular ..
  5. Measles Virotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme
    Evanthia Galanis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..dose level as manifested by the serum CEA concentrations and to assess viremia, viral replication, and measles virus shedding and persistence; c) to determine humoral and cellular immune response to the injected virus and correlate it ..
  6. PROTECTION OF GENITAL MUCOSA AND GANGLIA AGAINST HSV-2
    Gregg Milligan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..latent infection in the sensory ganglia, periodically reactivate, and cause recurrent lesions or asymptomatic virus shedding in genital tissues thus increasing its chances of infecting new hosts...
  7. Does the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) encode a protein?
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..External stimuli can induce reactivation from latency resulting in virus shedding, recurrent disease, and spread to uninfected individuals...
  8. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Vaccinia Viruses
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..epitopes following primary immunization is associated with adverse events that are related to failure to clear virus shedding rapidly...
  9. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will use sensitive PCR and immunological techniques to accurately measure levels of virus shedding, virus infected cells, EBV specific CD4 and CD8 cells and neutralizing antibody as acute infection resolves ..
  10. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will use sensitive PCR and immunological techniques to accurately measure levels of virus shedding, virus infected cells, EBV specific CD4 and CD8 cells and neutralizing antibody as acute infection resolves ..
  11. Immunization to Reduce Genital and Neonatal Herpes
    Nigel Bourne; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..of immunization on the magnitude of latent infection and recurrent disease (both clinical recurrences and virus shedding into the genital tract)...