virus shedding

Summary

Summary: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

Top Publications

  1. pmc Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children
    Chung Chen Li
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1265-72. 2010
  2. ncbi Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
    Bin Cao
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
  3. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
  4. ncbi Viral load in patients infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus
    Kelvin K W To
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    J Med Virol 82:1-7. 2010
  5. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
  6. ncbi Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    N Engl J Med 356:790-9. 2007
  7. pmc Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in South Africa
    Sinead Delany
    Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    AIDS 23:461-9. 2009
  8. pmc Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge
    Thomas R Hird
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002599. 2012
  9. ncbi Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies
    Fabrice Carrat
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, UMR S 707, Paris, France
    Am J Epidemiol 167:775-85. 2008
  10. pmc Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data
    Elsa Jourdain
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e8935. 2010

Detail Information

Publications325 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children
    Chung Chen Li
    Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1265-72. 2010
    ..7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus...
  2. ncbi Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
    Bin Cao
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
    ..Persons in whom infection was confirmed were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them were closely observed for the purpose of investigating the nature and duration of the disease...
  3. ncbi Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia
    Neil M Ferguson
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Nature 437:209-14. 2005
    ..Policy effectiveness depends critically on how quickly clinical cases are diagnosed and the speed with which antiviral drugs can be distributed...
  4. ncbi Viral load in patients infected with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus
    Kelvin K W To
    Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    J Med Virol 82:1-7. 2010
    ..Younger age was associated with prolonged shedding in the respiratory tract and higher viral load in the stool. Data from this quantitative analysis of viral shedding may have implications for formulating infection control measures...
  5. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
    ..Historically, it has been assumed that these persons have less frequent viral reactivation than those with symptomatic infection...
  6. ncbi Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    N Engl J Med 356:790-9. 2007
    ..Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility...
  7. pmc Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in South Africa
    Sinead Delany
    Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa
    AIDS 23:461-9. 2009
    ..Several studies suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may enhance HIV-1 transmission and disease progression...
  8. pmc Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge
    Thomas R Hird
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002599. 2012
    ..The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV...
  9. ncbi Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies
    Fabrice Carrat
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, UMR S 707, Paris, France
    Am J Epidemiol 167:775-85. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data
    Elsa Jourdain
    Section for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 5:e8935. 2010
    ..Our study also shows the relevance of using telemetry to monitor disease in animals...
  11. pmc Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: experimental infection data
    Dustin M Arsnoe
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22633. 2011
    ..The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl...
  12. ncbi Circulation of influenza viruses in wild waterfowl wintering in Italy during the 1993-99 period: evidence of virus shedding and seroconversion in wild ducks
    M A De Marco
    Istituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica A Ghigi, 9 via Ca Fornacetta, 40064 Ozzano Emilia BO, Italy
    Avian Dis 47:861-6. 2003
    ..Moreover, seroconversion rates (obtained from ducks recaptured during the same season) suggest a frequency of influenza infections higher than expected on the basis of the virus isolation rates...
  13. ncbi Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species
    Nicole Nemeth
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:1-13. 2006
    ..We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding...
  14. ncbi Genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding among women with below detectable plasma viral load
    Susan Cu-Uvin
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Miriam Hospital Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA
    AIDS 24:2489-97. 2010
    ..Few studies have assessed longitudinal genital tract HIV-1 shedding. We determined patterns of genital tract HIV-1 RNA shedding over time among women with suppressed plasma viral load (PVL) on antiretroviral treatment...
  15. ncbi Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 from Egypt escapes vaccine-induced immunity but confers clinical protection against a heterologous clade 2.2.1 Egyptian isolate
    Christian Grund
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vaccine 29:5567-73. 2011
    ..In conclusion, monitoring vaccine-driven evolution of HPAIV H5N1 by surveillance, antigenic characterization, and challenge studies is essential to assess efficacy of AIV vaccination campaigns...
  16. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight
    D L Pierson
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 19:235-42. 2005
    ..Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight...
  17. ncbi Protection of chickens against overt clinical disease and determination of viral shedding following vaccination with commercially available Newcastle disease virus vaccines upon challenge with highly virulent virus from the California 2002 exotic Newcastl
    Darrell R Kapczynski
    Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 934 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605, USA
    Vaccine 23:3424-33. 2005
    ..and viral titers shed from chickens in comparison with sham controls, but did not prevent infection and virus shedding. In addition, both doses of live vaccine protected birds and significantly decreased the number of birds ..
  18. pmc Rapidly cleared episodes of oral and anogenital herpes simplex virus shedding in HIV-infected adults
    Karen E Mark
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:482-8. 2010
    ..To determine whether rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation occur in HIV-infected adults...
  19. ncbi Lack of transmission of a human influenza virus with avian receptor specificity between ferrets is not due to decreased virus shedding but rather a lower infectivity in vivo
    Kim L Roberts
    Department of Virology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:1822-31. 2011
    ....
  20. ncbi Residual HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA production in the genital tract reservoir of women treated with HAART: the prospective ANRS EP24 GYNODYN study
    Odile Launay
    Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Antivir Ther 16:843-52. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to prospectively assess residual HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA production in the genital tract reservoir of women initiating HAART over an 18-month period...
  21. ncbi Effect of different routes of inoculation on infectivity and viral shedding of LPAI viruses in mallards
    M Franca
    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 56:981-5. 2012
    ..In conclusion, mallards can be infected with LPAIV by various routes of inoculation, and this corroborates their high susceptibility to infection by these viruses...
  22. ncbi Persistent HIV RNA shedding in semen despite effective antiretroviral therapy
    Prameet M Sheth
    Department of Medicine, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 23:2050-4. 2009
    ..Isolates were drug-sensitive, and this phenomenon was not associated with semen drug levels or regimen...
  23. pmc Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine
    FRANK R JONES
    Etubics Corporation, Seattle, WA 98199, USA
    Vaccine 29:7020-6. 2011
    ..The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases...
  24. ncbi Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak among 15 school-aged HIV-1-infected children
    Cornelia Feiterna-Sperling
    Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Helmut Ruska Haus, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 51:e90-4. 2010
    ..Oseltamivir shortened the duration of viral shedding...
  25. pmc Experimental infection of chickens, ducks and quails with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus
    Ok Mi Jeong
    National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430 824, Korea
    J Vet Sci 10:53-60. 2009
    ..avian species varied significantly in their clinical signs, mortality, tissue virus titers, and duration of virus shedding. Our observations suggest that duck and quail farms should be monitored particularly closely for the presence ..
  26. pmc HIV Gag mimics the Tsg101-recruiting activity of the human Hrs protein
    Owen Pornillos
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    J Cell Biol 162:425-34. 2003
    ..HIV-1 Gag apparently mimics this Hrs activity, and thereby usurps Tsg101 and other components of the MVB vesicle fission machinery to facilitate viral budding...
  27. pmc A recombinant Hendra virus G glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge
    Jackie Pallister
    CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
    Vaccine 29:5623-30. 2011
    ..A vaccine that prevents virus shedding in infected horses could interrupt the chain of transmission to humans and therefore prevent HeV disease in ..
  28. ncbi The effect of genital tract infections on HIV-1 shedding in the genital tract: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Leigh F Johnson
    Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Sex Transm Dis 35:946-59. 2008
    ..These infections are likely to be particularly important in promoting the sexual transmission and mother-to-child intrapartum transmission of HIV-1, and should therefore be the focus of HIV prevention strategies...
  29. pmc Detailed analysis of mucosal herpes simplex virus-2 replication kinetics with and without antiviral therapy
    Joshua T Schiffer
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98102, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:2593-600. 2011
    ..We sought to describe the impact of twice-daily aciclovir and famciclovir on shedding episodes...
  30. pmc Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance
    Kaci K VanDalen
    National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e12851. 2010
    ..Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical...
  31. ncbi Shedding and transmission of novel influenza virus A/H1N1 infection in households--Germany, 2009
    Thorsten Suess
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Epidemiol 171:1157-64. 2010
    ..Compared with other nasopharyngeal specimen types, nasal wash was the most sensitive. These results support the notion that epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of NIV are in many aspects similar to those of seasonal influenza...
  32. ncbi Oseltamivir compared with the Chinese traditional therapy maxingshigan-yinqiaosan in the treatment of H1N1 influenza: a randomized trial
    Chen Wang
    Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Ann Intern Med 155:217-25. 2011
    ..Observational studies from Asia suggest that maxingshigan-yinqiaosan may be effective in the treatment of acute H1N1 influenza...
  33. ncbi The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    C C Wang
    Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 2499, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:1017-22. 2001
    ..2- and 4.2-fold after treating Candida and Trichomonas, respectively. These data suggest that HIV-1 transmission intervention strategies that incorporate diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent infections warrant evaluation...
  34. pmc Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia
    D J Hulse-Post
    Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10682-7. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat...
  35. ncbi The effect of age on avian influenza viral shedding in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
    T P Costa
    Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, 501 DW Brooks Drive, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 54:581-5. 2010
    ..This information may help us better understand the natural history of these viruses, interpret field and experimental data, and plan future experimental trials...
  36. ncbi Suppressive acyclovir therapy reduces HIV cervicovaginal shedding in HIV- and HSV-2-infected women, Chiang Rai, Thailand
    Eileen F Dunne
    National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 49:77-83. 2008
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is important in the HIV epidemic and may contribute to increased HIV transmission. We evaluated the effect of suppressive acyclovir therapy on cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding...
  37. ncbi Longitudinal assessment of HIV-1 and HSV-2 shedding in the genital tract of West African women
    Nicolas Nagot
    Centre Muraz, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:632-4. 2005
    ..This study showed that eCVL is a reliable sampling method for detecting both viruses. Three measurement points (at weekly intervals in this study) seem to adequately allow detection of most HIV-1 or HSV-2 genital shedders...
  38. ncbi Studying possible cross-protection of Canada geese preexposed to North American low pathogenicity avian influenza virus strains (H3N8, H4N6, and H5N2) against an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge
    Y Berhane
    National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4, Canada
    Avian Dis 54:548-54. 2010
    ..In vitro cell proliferation assays demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from each group were no better stimulated by homologous vs. heterologous antigens...
  39. pmc Infectious HIV-1 assembles in late endosomes in primary macrophages
    Annegret Pelchen-Matthews
    Cell Biology Unit, Medical Research MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Cell Biol 162:443-55. 2003
    ..This notion has significant implications for understanding the biology of HIV and its cell-cell transmission...
  40. ncbi AIP1/ALIX is a binding partner for HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 functioning in virus budding
    Bettina Strack
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 114:689-99. 2003
    ..These observations identify AIP1 as a component of the viral budding machinery, which serves to link a distinct region in the L domain of HIV-1 p6 and EIAV p9 to ESCRT-III...
  41. ncbi Factors associated with oropharyngeal human immunodeficiency virus shedding
    Richard A Zuckerman
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:142-5. 2003
    ..In multivariate analysis, receipt of antiretroviral therapy, higher CD4 cell count, and history of tonsillectomy were predictors of lower pharyngeal HIV RNA levels...
  42. ncbi Evaluation of the protection induced by avian influenza vaccines containing a 1994 Mexican H5N2 LPAI seed strain against a 2008 Egyptian H5N1 HPAI virus belonging to clade 2.2.1 by means of serological and in vivo tests
    Calogero Terregino
    OIE FAO and National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell Universita 10, Legnaro, Padua, Italy
    Avian Pathol 39:215-22. 2010
    ..The data reported in this study also indicate that there may be a low degree of correlation between haemagglutination inhibition titres, clinical protection and reduction of shedding...
  43. ncbi DIVA--a vaccination strategy enabling the detection of field exposure to avian influenza
    I Capua
    OIE and National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro PD, Italy
    Dev Biol (Basel) 119:229-33. 2004
    ..1 and 95.7, respectively. The results of the present investigation suggest that the "DIVA" control strategy may represent a tool to support the eradication of avian influenza infections in poultry...
  44. pmc Effect of acquisition and treatment of cervical infections on HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy
    Ruth W Gitau
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
    AIDS 24:2733-7. 2010
    ..Cervicitis increases the quantity of HIV-1 RNA in cervical secretions when women are not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), and successful treatment of cervicitis reduces HIV-1 shedding in this setting...
  45. pmc Long-term shedding of influenza A virus in stool of immunocompromised child
    Benjamin A Pinsky
    Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5324, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1165-7. 2010
    ..We describe chronic influenza A virus infection in an immunocompromised child who had prolonged shedding of culturable influenza virus in stool...
  46. ncbi Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial
    Alicia M Fry
    Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Electronic address
    Lancet Infect Dis 14:109-18. 2014
    ....
  47. ncbi Detection of hepatitis E virus shedding in feces of pigs at different stages of production using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
    Salceda Fernandez-Barredo
    Departamento de Atención Sanitaria, Salud Pública y Sanidad Animal, Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, Moncada Valencia, Spain
    J Vet Diagn Invest 18:462-5. 2006
    ..Detection of HEV in manure ditches raises the concern of how to deal with manure of swine origin, because it is used as soil fertilizer...
  48. pmc Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women
    Clare Tanton
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e17480. 2011
    ..i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania...
  49. ncbi Cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding is highly correlated with markers of immunosuppression in CMV-seropositive women
    Ashley L Schoenfisch
    Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    J Med Microbiol 60:768-74. 2011
    ..The positive predictive value of CMV IgM seropositivity for CMV DNA shedding in either PBMCs or CVL was 20 %. In summary, CMV shedding in CVL and PBMCs was highly correlated with each other and with markers of immune suppression...
  50. pmc Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge
    Olen M Kew
    WHO Global Specialized Reference Laboratory, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 82:16-23. 2004
    ..Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence...
  51. ncbi Cross sectional and longitudinal surveys of canine enteric coronavirus infection in kennelled dogs: a molecular marker for biosecurity
    Jenny Stavisky
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Wirral CH64 7TE, United Kingdom
    Infect Genet Evol 12:1419-26. 2012
    ..We also propose that the diversity of viruses like CECoV in these populations may provide a novel surrogate marker for the success of biosecurity...
  52. pmc Multidrug-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses maintain fitness and transmissibility in ferrets
    Matthew J Memoli
    Viral Pathogenesis and Evolution Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:348-57. 2011
    ....
  53. ncbi A vaccine candidate of attenuated genotype VII Newcastle disease virus generated by reverse genetics
    Shunlin Hu
    Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China
    Vaccine 27:904-10. 2009
    ..closer to epidemic viruses provide better protection than conventional vaccines in terms of reducing virus shedding and transmission...
  54. ncbi Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a persistent infection
    R W Wills
    Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames 50011 1250, USA
    Vet Microbiol 55:231-40. 1997
    ..An important element in the transmission of PRRSV is the duration of virus shedding. The results of this study provided direct evidence of persistent PRRSV infection and explain field ..
  55. pmc Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus from the genital tract of women in a periurban community in Andhra Pradesh, India
    Michelle I Silver
    Departments of Epidemiology and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2435-9. 2011
    ..The strong association between the presence of EBV and cervical disease warrants future exploration to determine whether EBV plays a causal role in disease development or if it is merely a bystander in the process...
  56. ncbi Experimental transmission of avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus between immunologically naïve and vaccinated pigs
    Lucy E Lloyd
    Animal Health Trust, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 5:357-64. 2011
    ..Two studies in an experimental transmission model are presented here, one in immunologically naïve and one in a combination of vaccinated and naïve pigs...
  57. ncbi Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children
    John A Vanchiere
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Med Virol 75:447-54. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the timing of SV40 infections in humans may be similar to that of BKV and that urine from healthy children could contribute to the ubiquity of BKV infection early in life...
  58. ncbi Control of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection of ferret lungs by non-adjuvant-containing pandemic and seasonal vaccines
    Steven Rockman
    CSL Limited, Parkville, 3052 Victoria, Australia
    Vaccine 30:3618-23. 2012
    ..These results implicate non-classical protective mechanisms that prevent severe pulmonary disease but not viral shedding and imply that particular non-adjuvanted vaccines may have retained the ability to induce these responses...
  59. pmc Comparison of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to viral culture for assessment of respiratory syncytial virus shedding
    Ann R Falsey
    Department of Medicine Infectious Disease Unit, Rochester General Hospital, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14621, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4160-5. 2003
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR has an excellent correlation with viral titers, as measured by culture, and should be a useful tool for future studies addressing viral load and disease pathogenesis...
  60. ncbi The onset of virus shedding and clinical signs in chickens infected with high-pathogenicity and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses
    Anna R Spickler
    Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Avian Pathol 37:555-77. 2008
    ..The present review examines the onset of virus shedding and the development of clinical signs for a variety of avian influenza viruses in chickens...
  61. ncbi Infection dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in chickens, turkeys and ducks
    E W Aldous
    Virology Department, Surrey, UK
    Avian Pathol 39:265-73. 2010
    ..chickens, turkeys and ducks intranasally/intraocularly, and infection was confirmed by the detection of virus shedding from the buccal or cloacal route by analysis of swabs collected using real-time reverse transcriptase-..
  62. pmc IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model
    Celina G Vega
    Instituto de Virologia, CICV y A INTA Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    PLoS ONE 7:e42788. 2012
    ..titer = 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent...
  63. pmc Dynamics of influenza virus infection and pathology
    Roberto A Saenz
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:3974-83. 2010
    ..The resulting dynamics indicate a powerful role for innate immunity in controlling the rapid peak in virus shedding. As a corollary, cells are much less depleted than suggested by a model of human influenza based only on virus-..
  64. pmc Virus shedding and potential for interspecies waterborne transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in sparrows and chickens
    Heather L Forrest
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Mailstop 330, Memphis, TN 38105 2794, USA
    J Virol 84:3718-20. 2010
    ..The viral shedding and susceptibility to infection we observed in sparrows, coupled with their presence in poultry houses, could facilitate virus spread among poultry and wild birds in the face of an H5N1 influenza virus outbreak...
  65. pmc H1N1pdm influenza infection in hospitalized cancer patients: clinical evolution and viral analysis
    Thiago Moreno L Souza
    Laboratório de vírus respiratórios e do sarampo, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 5:e14158. 2010
    ....
  66. ncbi The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally
    Brandon Z Londt
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 4:17-25. 2010
    ..Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl...
  67. pmc Polyomavirus shedding in the stool of healthy adults
    John A Vanchiere
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2388-91. 2009
    ..001). These findings support the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tract may be a site of polyomavirus persistence, and they suggest a fecal-oral route of viral transmission...
  68. pmc A double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate valacyclovir alone and with aspirin for asymptomatic HSV-1 DNA shedding in human tears and saliva
    Manish Kumar
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5601-8. 2009
    ..Ocular and oral swabs were collected twice daily for 30 days. DNA was extracted from all swabs and HSV-1 DNA copy numbers were determined. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the DNA copy numbers of the three groups...
  69. ncbi Association between genital tract cytomegalovirus infection and bacterial vaginosis
    Shannon A Ross
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35233, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1727-30. 2005
    ..In addition, most of the women who were shedding CMV were infected with >1 virus strain. These results suggest that local CMV replication and infection with multiple CMV strains is facilitated by the presence of BV...
  70. ncbi Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of immunoglobulin Y as adjunct to standard supportive therapy for rotavirus-associated diarrhea among pediatric patients
    Shofiqur Rahman
    Immunology Research Institute in Gifu, EW Nutrition Japan, 839 7 Sano, Gifu 501 1101, Japan
    Vaccine 30:4661-9. 2012
    ....
  71. pmc Aichi virus shedding in high concentrations in patients with acute diarrhea
    Jan Felix Drexler
    University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1544-8. 2011
    We assessed Aichi virus shedding in patients with gastroenteritis and negative test results for other viral and bacterial infections. High concentrations of up to 1.32 × 1012 RNA copies/g stool were found in 10 (2...
  72. ncbi Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus
    Nicole M Nemeth
    USDA APHIS WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    Avian Pathol 39:411-8. 2010
    ....
  73. pmc Experimental infection of chickens as candidate sentinels for West Nile virus
    S A Langevin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:726-9. 2001
    ..These are all considered positive attributes of a sentinel species for WN virus surveillance programs...
  74. pmc Effect of prophylactic valacyclovir on the presence of human herpesvirus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals after dental treatment
    Craig S Miller
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine and College of Dentistry, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2173-80. 2005
    ....
  75. ncbi Prolonged influenza virus infection during lymphocytopenia and frequent detection of drug-resistant viruses
    Jairo Gooskens
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 199:1435-41. 2009
    ..Clinical improvement in influenza lower respiratory tract infection is observed during oseltamivir treatment, but complete viral clearance is dependent on lymphocyte reconstitution, irrespective of receipt of antiviral medication...
  76. ncbi Effect of different vaccination schedules on excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains
    Majid Laassri
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:2092-8. 2005
    ..This suggests that IPV-vaccinated communities are partially protected from the spread of poliovirus. Further enhancement of IPV potency may lead to even higher levels of mucosal immunity...
  77. ncbi Persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1) in infected chickens: feather as a suitable sample for diagnosis
    Nuria Busquets
    Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, UAB IRTA, Campus de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Gen Virol 91:2307-13. 2010
    ..were collected from 15-day-old chicks infected with H7N1 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) and the kinetics of virus shedding during active infection were evaluated...
  78. ncbi Viral shedding duration of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus during an elementary school outbreak--Pennsylvania, May-June 2009
    Achuyt Bhattarai
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 52:S102-8. 2011
    ..Highest and lowest virus titers detected, 2 and 5 days following fever onset, were 3.2 and 1.2 log(10) TCID(50)/mL respectively. Overall, shedding duration in children and adults were similar to seasonal influenza viruses...
  79. pmc Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding
    Patricia Kissinger
    Tulane University Health Sciences Center School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70012, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 36:11-6. 2009
    ..Vaginal HIV-1 shedding has been associated with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and could play a role in HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to examine if effective TV treatment reduces the presence of vaginal HIV-1 RNA...
  80. ncbi Pathogenicity of Chinese H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in pigeons
    Beibei Jia
    Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People s Republic of China
    Arch Virol 153:1821-6. 2008
    ..These results indicate that pigeons are susceptible to the more recent Asian H5N1 HPAI and could be a source of infection to other animals, including humans...
  81. pmc Longitudinal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast milk and of its relationship to infant infection and maternal disease
    Christine M Rousseau
    Department of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:741-7. 2003
    ..3-3.0; P<.001). These results indicate that the risk of infant infection from breast-feeding is influenced by breast-milk virus load, which is highest early after delivery...
  82. ncbi Viral shedding in children with influenza virus infections treated with neuraminidase inhibitors
    Masatoki Sato
    Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima South Aizu Hospital, Tajima, Japan
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:931-2. 2005
    We examined the efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors for reducing the duration of virus shedding after naturally occurring influenza virus infection...
  83. ncbi A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1)
    Nazeer H Kalhoro
    Institut fur Virologie, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Stiftung Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, Bunteweg 17, D 30559 Hannover, Germany
    Vaccine 27:1174-83. 2009
    ..We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses...
  84. pmc Real-time PCR quantification of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women coinfected with HSV and HIV
    Jerome Legoff
    Unité INSERM Internationale U743 Immunologie Humaine, Equipe Immunité et Biothérapie Muqueuse, Centre de Recherches Biomedicales des Cordeliers, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 44:423-32. 2006
    ....
  85. ncbi Biologic characterization of H4, H6, and H9 type low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses from wild birds in chickens and turkeys
    Antonio C Morales
    Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Avian Dis 53:552-62. 2009
    The pathogenesis, virus shedding, and serologic response in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial turkeys against H4, H6, and H9 type low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) from wild birds was examined...
  86. ncbi The effect of a killed porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine treatment on virus shedding in previously PRRSV infected pigs
    D Nilubol
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames 50011, USA
    Vet Microbiol 102:11-8. 2004
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if virus shedding could be reduced following a killed porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination (KV) of PRRSV infected pigs...
  87. ncbi Measuring the infectiousness of persons with HIV-1: opportunities for preventing sexual HIV-1 transmission
    Jared M Baeten
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle 98104 2499, USA
    Curr HIV Res 1:69-86. 2003
    ..Unresolved issues related to optimal measurement techniques for genital HIV-1, promises and limitations of antiretroviral therapy and vaccines to reduce infectiousness, and other intervention strategies still in development are reviewed...
  88. ncbi Transmission of equine influenza virus to dogs
    P C Crawford
    College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Science 310:482-5. 2005
    ..Evidence of infection in pet dogs suggests that this infection may also become enzootic in this population...
  89. ncbi Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant
    Zane A Brown
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195 6460, USA
    JAMA 289:203-9. 2003
    ..Furthermore, no data exist on whether cesarean delivery, the standard of care for women with genital herpes lesions at the time of delivery, reduces HSV transmission...
  90. ncbi Use of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for monitoring the shedding of feline coronavirus by healthy cats
    D D Addie
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Glasgow
    Vet Rec 148:649-53. 2001
    ..Four of the cats were resistant to infection. Seventy-three per cent of the virus shedding episodes lasted up to three months and 95 per cent up to nine months...
  91. pmc Recombinant nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge
    Hana M Weingartl
    NCFAD, CFIA, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3M4, Canada
    J Virol 80:7929-38. 2006
    ..Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest...
  92. ncbi The effect of hormonal contraception on genital tract shedding of HIV-1
    Chia C Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 2499, USA
    AIDS 18:205-9. 2004
    ..We conducted a prospective study to determine if cervical shedding of HIV-1 increased after initiating hormonal contraception...
  93. ncbi Rotavirus vaccines: viral shedding and risk of transmission
    Evan J Anderson
    Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at Children s Memorial and Northwestern Memorial Hospitals, Chicago, IL 60614, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:642-9. 2008
    ..Since the risk of vaccine transmission and subsequent vaccine-derived disease with the current vaccines is much less than the risk of wildtype rotavirus disease in immunocompromised contacts, vaccination should be encouraged...
  94. pmc Amplified transmission of HIV-1: comparison of HIV-1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Center for Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    AIDS 21:1723-30. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection...
  95. ncbi Effects of early oseltamivir therapy on viral shedding in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection
    Li M Ling
    Departments of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore
    Clin Infect Dis 50:963-9. 2010
    ..Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 is susceptible to oseltamivir. There are few reports on its clinical and virologic response to oseltamivir...
  96. ncbi Minute excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) from experimentally infected domestic pigeons (Columbia livia) and lack of transmission to sentinel chickens
    Ortrud Werner
    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut FLI, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    J Gen Virol 88:3089-93. 2007
    ..All surviving birds shed virus via the oropharynx and the cloaca at minimal titres and seroconverted. Sentinel chickens reared in direct contact to the pigeons neither developed clinical signs nor seroconverted to the H5N1 virus...
  97. ncbi Susceptibility of wood ducks to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    Justin D Brown
    Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Department of Population Health, Wildlife Health Building, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    J Wildl Dis 43:660-7. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection increases the risk of perinatal HIV transmission: possibility to further decrease transmission?
    Liesbeth Jm Bollen
    Thailand Ministry of Public Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand
    AIDS 22:1169-76. 2008
    ..To evaluate the association between maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity and genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding with perinatal HIV transmission...
  99. pmc Detection of oseltamivir resistance during treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients: utility of cycle threshold values of qualitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR
    Tejal Mehta
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Beaumont Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:4326-8. 2010
    ..Oseltamivir resistance was later confirmed by pyrosequencing...
  100. pmc Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model
    Emmie de Wit
    Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1432. 2011
    ..The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks...
  101. ncbi Correlates of HIV-1 shedding in cervicovaginal secretions and effects of antiretroviral therapies
    Jose Ramon Fiore
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Bari, Italy
    AIDS 17:2169-76. 2003
    ..To evaluate the determinants of HIV-1 RNA shedding in cervicovaginal secretions and the effects of antiretroviral therapy in a group of infected women...

Research Grants63

  1. Newcastle Disease Virus Vectored Vaccines for Norovirus Infection
    Siba K Samal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Determination of virus load in tissue samples, virus shedding, and clinical signs will be used as the criteria to evaluate the protective efficacy of our antigens...
  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL HOST PATHWAY THAT REGULATES CHLAMYDIAL DEVELOPMENT
    Robert V Schoborg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Augmented virus shedding, induced by either co-infection or contact with chlamydial antigens, could also increase HSV transmission...
  3. Oral prodrug of a novel antiviral that blocks neuronal reactivation of HSV
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..novel oral treatment for HSV latent infections of neurons and, importantly, will prevent both asymptomatic virus shedding and the resulting transmission of infection to sex partners...
  4. Therapeutic Ocular HSV Vaccine in HLA Transgenic Rabbits
    Lbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A major gap in our current knowledge is: "How can we prevent or significantly reduce virus shedding in tears and HSV-induced ocular disease due to spontaneous reactivation of latent virus in the TG?" HSV-..
  5. Evaluation of Protective CMV Vaccines in Rhesus Macaques
    Don J Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lead to the hypothesis that vaccine strategies targeting the UL128 complex will show enhanced restriction of virus shedding in bodily fluids...
  6. Bioresponsive Combination Microbicide Delivery System for HIV and HSV
    PATRICK FRANKLIN contact KISER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will first establish and validate a SHIV and HSV dose in macaques that produces virus shedding and disease development...
  7. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Donald M Coen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HSV-1 also establishes life-long latent infections characterized by periodic reactivation, virus shedding and recurrent disease...
  8. Therapeutic immunization to impact HSV-2 latency and associated pathogenesis
    Nigel Bourne; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..model which experience spontaneous reactivation events during latent HSV-2 infection resulting in recurrent virus shedding and clinical signs similar to human disease...
  9. Translational Research: From Mechanisms of Influenza Transmission to Prevention
    Donald Kirby Milton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. asthma), virus type and strain, and drug resistance on virus shedding into respiratory droplets...
  10. A Novel Approach to RSV Vaccination
    Joan E Durbin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Disease in seropositive adults and older children is usually limited to the upper airway, but significant virus shedding has been observed at each reinfection thus maintaining the virus within an immune population...
  11. IONTOPHORESIS OF ANTIVIRALS TO HERPES EYE INFECTIONS
    James Hill; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..We found that iontophoresis of epinephrine to rabbit eyes previously infected with results in virus shedding. We have established that iontophoresis of epinephrine will be safe and efficient method of obtaining HSV ..
  12. Adenovirus Persistence in Human Lymphoid Tissues
    Linda Gooding; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The subgroup C adenoviruses cause respiratory tract infections in young children leading to episodic virus shedding for months to years after primary infection...
  13. Bat rabies virus in its natural host
    MATTHIAS JOHANNES SCHNELL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..this study is: There are significant differences in regard to mode of virus transmission, viral spread, and virus shedding in bats infected with either the bat rabies variant causing most human rabies cases in the US, another bat ..
  14. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF GENITAL HERPES
    ANDRE NAHMIAS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Studies on natural defense mechanisms to HSV, which could influence the varied virus shedding patterns and clinical expressions of the first infection in the normal host or of reactivated infection in the ..
  15. DRUGS TO PREVENT RECURRENT HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS
    George Wright; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>Virus shedding during subclinical recurrences may infect sex partners or newborns...
  16. MOUSE THYMIC VIRUS (MTLV)
    Stephen Morse; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Little is known about comparative responses to infection (seroconversion, virus shedding) of different mouse strains, essential for validating diagnostic procedures; this will be defined for several ..
  17. Measles Virotherapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme
    Evanthia Galanis; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..dose level as manifested by the serum CEA concentrations and to assess viremia, viral replication, and measles virus shedding and persistence; c) to determine humoral and cellular immune response to the injected virus and correlate it ..
  18. ORAL DIAGNOSIS OF HIV INFECTED HEMOPHILIAC CHILDREN
    WILLIAM BATTERSON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..To adapt newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodologies to the detection of virus shedding and infections in the oral cavity; 2...
  19. ORAL PATHOGENESIS OF GAMMAHERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS
    Frederick Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of oral transmission for KSHV infection remains to be determined, but persistent oral infection and oral virus shedding are common features for EBV and KSHV infections...
  20. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Vaccinia Viruses
    James Crowe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..epitopes following primary immunization is associated with adverse events that are related to failure to clear virus shedding rapidly...
  21. SOCIAL SUPPORT, STRESS, AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFECTION
    Sheldon Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Analyses focus on whether interpersonal factors predict clinical illness (virus shedding or four-fold increase in viral- specific antibody plus clinical diagnosis) and whether these relations are ..
  22. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will use sensitive PCR and immunological techniques to accurately measure levels of virus shedding, virus infected cells, EBV specific CD4 and CD8 cells and neutralizing antibody as acute infection resolves ..
  23. Immunization to Reduce Genital and Neonatal Herpes
    Nigel Bourne; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..of immunization on the magnitude of latent infection and recurrent disease (both clinical recurrences and virus shedding into the genital trac)...
  24. LATENCY AND TRANSFORMATION BY HERPESVIRUSES
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..animals virus latency is established in the peripheral nervous system, with virus reactivation resulting in virus shedding or recurrent disease that may be life-threatening in the immunocompromised cancer patient and may be a factor ..
  25. PATHOGENESIS- HUMAN CALICIVIRUSES IN GNOTOBIOTIC ANIMALS
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Parameters to be assessed include host age, clinical signs, viremia, virus shedding, seroconversion and antibody impact on re-exposure, and organs and cell types infected including antigen and ..
  26. Ocular HSV-1: Preventing Recurrent Corneal Disease
    STEVEN WECHSLER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Virus shedding, recurrent eye disease, and anti-HSV-1 antibody titers will all be examined...
  27. MALE GENITAL TRACT RESERVOIRS AND VIRAL SHEDDING
    JOHN KRIEGER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Specific Aim 2. To examine mechanisms of viral-viral interaction that facilitate seminal virus shedding. We will test the hypothesis that expression of one genital virus can up-regulate expression and shedding of ..
  28. Measles Virus Therapy for Ovarian Cancer
    Evanthia Galanis; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..dose level as manifested by the serum CEA concentrations and to assess viremia, viral replication, and measles virus shedding and persistence; c) to determine humoral and cellular immune response to the injected virus and correlate it ..
  29. ROTAVIRUS VACCINE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
    MAHARAJ BHAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Medical Sciences, the tertiary care referral hospital; establish and standardize assays for immunogenicity and virus shedding; and establish facilities for proper storage of vaccines and clinical specimens to enable the trail to be ..
  30. Recombinant Antibodies for Neonatal HSV Prophylaxis
    Pietro Sanna; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..affordable, low impact prophylactic measures to prevent cases of neonatal HSV infection due to asymptomatic virus shedding. Transplacental antibodies to HSV are believed to greatly influence both the severity of neonatal HSV ..
  31. ANTI-VIRAL IMMUNE MECHANISMS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is readily detected in urine, and immunologic control of infection can be defined in relation to cessation of virus shedding. Three Research Projects will use innovative flow- cytometry based methods to analyze antiviral immune ..
  32. DETECTION OF AN ACTIVE HSV INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY
    BERGE HAMPAR; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Infection is usually associated with an active maternal genital infection with virus shedding at the time of delivery...
  33. Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C in Injection Drug Users
    Anna Wald; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV-1 Infectivity in Women
    RAYMOND SCOTT MCCLELLAND; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  35. Opportunistic Oral HSV-- Mechanisms of Reactivation
    Craig Miller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  36. REGULATION OF FELV REPLICATION AND PATHOGENESIS
    Julie Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In this regard, it is striking that in both FeLV and HIV infection, there is selection for T-cell tropic, cytopathic variants in the host, despite the many differences between these viruses. ..
  37. PREVENTION OF HIV SHEDDING IN WOMEN--TRIAL OF VITAMIN A
    Julie Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..If this preliminary result is confirmed in a full-scale clinical trial, vitamin A supplementation may offer a simple inexpensive intervention to decrease heterosexual and vertical transmission of HIV-1 in the developing world. ..
  38. LENTIVIRAL VARIATION AND AIDS
    Julie Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Collectively these studies will define the interplay between the properties of the infecting virus, the immune response and replication fitness in SIV/HIV pathogenesis. ..
  39. HIV-1 Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Breastmilk
    Grace John Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The resulting findings will be relevant to development of vaccines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. ..
  40. CORE GRANT FOR VISION RESEARCH
    Herbert Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This Core Grant has [unreadable] been a vital force in keeping vision research highly active at LSU for the past 25 years, and we hope that it will continue to serve this function in the future. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. Initiating Studies of Genitourinary HIV-1 Shedding among Kenyan Men
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. CCR5 and CXCR4 Binding Chemokines and Oral HIV Infection
    Grace John Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. PATHOGENESIS OF MURINE PARVOVIRUS FIELD STRAINS
    David Besselsen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, these studies will provide information about perturbations in host physiology and gene expression induced by murine parvoviruses, and basic scientific information about parvovirus host interaction. ..
  44. OCULAR HERPES SIMPLEX
    Herbert Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If they are additive to or synergistic with acyclovir in suppressing viral DNA production, tests on human infection could almost certainly follow. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
    Robert Webster; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  46. Immunomodulatory Mechanisms of Sublingual Immunotherapy
    Louis Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..To investigate this controversial therapy, these studies will use a novel rat model to compare the efficacy of high vs. low doses of allergen drops and to elucidate mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy. ..
  47. Randomized trial of HIV / STD prevention in Zimbabwean youth
    Frances Cowan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The most valid method will then be used in the final outcomes survey for the parent trial. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  48. 5 NUCLEASE ASSAYS FOR RODENT HEALTH MONITORING
    David Besselsen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..FFPNA will greatly enhance the diagnostic capabilities for routine health monitoring of laboratory rodents and will provide a viable, cost-effective alternative for RAP testing. ..
  49. Non-parenteral transmission of hepatitis C
    Chia Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Oral HIV Pathogenesis and Shedding
    Robert Coombs; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Retrovial Infections of the Nervous System in Peru
    JOSEPH RAYMOND ZUNT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition to continuing our investigations, we plan to continue training activities to address the research, education, training, and mentoring needs and opportunities related to CNS infection identified during the R21 planning grant. ..
  52. Social and psychological risk for infectious illness
    Sheldon A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Measures of illness collected immediately before and daily during the cloister include virus shedding and titer, nasal pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral cytokine production, nasal and general ..
  53. ANTI-VIRAL TREATMENT OF DEVELOPING BOVINE EMBRYOS
    Maurice Givens; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  54. EVOLUTION OF VIRULENCE OF EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS
    Susan Payne; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The EIAV system provides an excellent and tractable experimental model for study of evolutionary change in retroviruses, and for understanding the evolution and determinants of virulence. ..
  55. Viral determinants of hantavirus pulmonary disease in the hamster
    Charles F Fulhorst; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The plasmid-based genetic system could be used in future studies to develop vaccines to prevent infection or disease and to (in the face of clinical disease) mitigate the severity of HPS. ..
  56. LENTIVIRUS INFECTION OF NEONATAL DENDRITIC CELLS
    Ruth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The overall approach is designed to shed light on the basic biology of how DC generate immune responses in neonates to viral infections generally, and to dissemination of HIV-1 in particular. ..
  57. A longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection in Uganda
    MARCEL CURLIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These hypotheses will be tested by longitudinal sampling and phylogenetic analysis of viral genes in rapidly progressing and slowly progressing Ugandans infected with HIV-1 subtypes A and D. ..
  58. HIV and the Mucosal Immune System:New Vaccine Strategies
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Moreover, this proposed study might identify important correlates of protective immune responses that will be useful in designing effective therapeutic strategies. ..
  59. LENTIVIRUS-HOST INTERACTIONS DURING ASSEMBLY AND RELEASE
    Markus Thali; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  60. A randomized trial of influenza vaccination of Hutterite children
    Mark Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the trial we propose will lead to important data that can inform policy on influenza immunization strategy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. ECOLOGY OF EMERGING ARENAVIRUSES IN SOUTHWESTERN U.S.
    CHARLES FULHORST; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Knowledge of the rodent host relationship (including duration and magnitude of virus shedding in infected rodents) and geographical distribution of infected rodents is essential to an accurate ..