virus activation

Summary

Summary: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.

Top Publications

  1. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
  2. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
  3. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
  4. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
  5. ncbi Bacteriophage control of Shiga toxin 1 production and release by Escherichia coli
    Patrick L Wagner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Mol Microbiol 44:957-70. 2002
  6. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
  7. pmc Expression of latent HIV induced by the potent HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid
    Nancie M Archin
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:207-12. 2009
  8. ncbi Diagnosis, prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation during anticancer therapy
    Winnie Yeo
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hepatology 43:209-20. 2006
  9. pmc Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients
    Ajit P Limaye
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195 7110, USA
    JAMA 300:413-22. 2008
  10. pmc Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity
    Leslie J Marshall
    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1296, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:3042-52. 2010

Research Grants

  1. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2005
  3. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of Pneumonia
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2005
  8. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. REPRESSION OF HIV-1 TRANSCRIPTION BY DNA METHYLATION
    KAREN PRATT; Fiscal Year: 1990

Detail Information

Publications233 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
    ..Furthermore, a prolonged delay in restoration of pretreatment viral diversity after treatment interruption demonstrates a surprisingly sustained evolutionary bottleneck induced by punctuated antiretroviral therapy...
  2. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
    ..Our study expands the number of classes of latency-reversing therapeutics and demonstrates the utility of this in vitro model for finding strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection...
  3. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
    ..Historically, it has been assumed that these persons have less frequent viral reactivation than those with symptomatic infection...
  5. ncbi Bacteriophage control of Shiga toxin 1 production and release by Escherichia coli
    Patrick L Wagner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Mol Microbiol 44:957-70. 2002
    ..By amplifying stx(1)AB copy number, regulating stx(1)AB transcription and allowing for Stx1 release, the biology of the Stx-encoding phages contributes greatly to the production of Stx, the principal virulence factor of STEC...
  6. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
    ..This novel observation suggests the agent may be an excellent candidate to augment HAART by inducing expression of latent HIV-1 with the ultimate goal of eliminating persistent viral reservoirs in certain individuals infected with HIV-1...
  7. pmc Expression of latent HIV induced by the potent HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid
    Nancie M Archin
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:207-12. 2009
    ..These results suggest that potent, selective HDAC inhibitors may allow improved targeting of persistent proviral HIV infection, and define parameters for in vivo studies using SAHA...
  8. ncbi Diagnosis, prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation during anticancer therapy
    Winnie Yeo
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hepatology 43:209-20. 2006
  9. pmc Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients
    Ajit P Limaye
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195 7110, USA
    JAMA 300:413-22. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity
    Leslie J Marshall
    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1296, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:3042-52. 2010
    ..These results suggest that Spi-B could regulate JCV gene expression in susceptible cells, and may play an important role in JCV activity in the immune and nervous systems...
  11. ncbi Aspects of human cytomegalovirus latency and reactivation
    M Reeves
    Infectious Diseases, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 325:297-313. 2008
    ..Defining the role of these viral proteins in latently infected cells will be important for our full understanding of HCMV latency and reactivation in vivo...
  12. ncbi An in vitro system to model the establishment and reactivation of HIV-1 latency
    Alessandra Marini
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 181:7713-20. 2008
    ..Thus, this system may allow us to study the biology of HIV-1 latency, as well as the mechanisms of CD4(+) T cell death following HIV-1 reactivation...
  13. doi Chromatin control of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infection
    David M Knipe
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:211-21. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc In vivo changes in the patterns of chromatin structure associated with the latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genome in mouse trigeminal ganglia can be detected at early times after butyrate treatment
    Donna M Neumann
    Department of Ophthalmology LSU Eye Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Virol 81:13248-53. 2007
    ..5 h and 1 h post-butyrate treatment, respectively. This is the first study to combine in vivo reactivation with the examination of the HSV-1 genome through ChIP assays at early times after the introduction of in vivo reactivation stimuli...
  15. ncbi Reactivation of hepatitis B virus following rituximab-based regimens: a serious complication in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients
    Sung nan Pei
    Division of Hema Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Ann Hematol 89:255-62. 2010
    ..In conclusion, rituximab-based therapy may cause serious HBV-related complications and even death in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients...
  16. pmc Role for a phage promoter in Shiga toxin 2 expression from a pathogenic Escherichia coli strain
    P L Wagner
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:2081-5. 2001
    ..By showing this central role for the prophage in stx(2)AB expression, our findings contradict the prevailing assumption that phages serve merely as agents for virulence gene transfer...
  17. pmc A Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 ORF50 deletion mutant is defective for reactivation of latent virus and DNA replication
    Yiyang Xu
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Howard Bldg, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    J Virol 79:3479-87. 2005
    ..1 expression was not detected in TPA-induced BAC36Delta50-containing cells. These results showed that K-Rta is essential for lytic viral reactivation and transactivation of viral genes contributing to DNA replication...
  18. pmc Activation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) lytic replication by human cytomegalovirus
    J Vieira
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, and Program in Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 75:1378-86. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate that HCMV can activate KSHV lytic replication and suggest that HCMV could influence KSHV pathogenesis...
  19. doi Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes
    John Chen
    Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA
    Science 323:139-41. 2009
    ..Thus, phages may participate in a far more expansive network of genetic information exchange among bacteria of different species than originally thought, with important implications for the evolution of human pathogens...
  20. pmc Systematic review: the effect of preventive lamivudine on hepatitis B reactivation during chemotherapy
    Rohit Loomba
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Ann Intern Med 148:519-28. 2008
    ..Lamivudine is increasingly being used to prevent hepatitis B reactivation in patients with cancer who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and are undergoing chemotherapy...
  21. pmc The operator and early promoter region of the Shiga toxin type 2-encoding bacteriophage 933W and control of toxin expression
    Jessica S Tyler
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:7670-9. 2004
    ..This finding provides direct evidence that measurable expression of the stx genes encoded by a 933W prophage requires induction of that prophage with the concomitant initiation of phage gene expression...
  22. pmc Activities of ICP0 involved in the reversal of silencing of quiescent herpes simplex virus 1
    Michael W Ferenczy
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 514 Bridgeside Point II, 450 Technology Dr, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
    J Virol 85:4993-5002. 2011
    ....
  23. pmc Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication
    Ferdinand Roesch
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Virus et Immunite, Departement de Virologie, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002792. 2012
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity...
  24. ncbi Association between anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and hypogammaglobulinemia
    Yoko Kano
    Department of Dermatology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Arch Dermatol 140:183-8. 2004
    ..The identification of predisposing factors is clearly needed to predict the incidence and outcome of AHS; attention has recently been focused on reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)...
  25. ncbi The KSHV immediate-early transcription factor RTA encodes ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that targets IRF7 for proteosome-mediated degradation
    Yanxing Yu
    Molecular Virology Laboratories, Viral Oncology Program, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 2123, USA
    Immunity 22:59-70. 2005
    ..Therefore, manipulation of the stability and function of IRF7 by the KSHV RTA transcription factor provides an unexpected regulatory strategy for circumventing the innate immune defence system...
  26. pmc NF-kappaB inhibits gammaherpesvirus lytic replication
    Helen J Brown
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 77:8532-40. 2003
    ..They also suggest that NF-kappaB may be a novel target for the disruption of virus latency and therefore the treatment of gammaherpesvirus-related malignancies...
  27. doi Activation of a prophage-encoded tyrosine kinase by a heterologous infecting phage results in a self-inflicted abortive infection
    David I Friedman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Mol Microbiol 82:567-77. 2011
    ..Exclusion of HK97 appears to be specific since other phages tested, λ, φ80, H-19B, λ-P22dis and T4rII, were not excluded. Infection of the 933W lysogen with a non-excluded phage fails to induce Stk-determined phosphorylation...
  28. pmc Spontaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latently infected murine sensory ganglia
    Todd P Margolis
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, UCSF, Medical Sciences Building S 310, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    J Virol 81:11069-74. 2007
    ..Since most cases of human viral shedding and reactivation are not associated with a known trigger, spontaneous ganglionic reactivation of HSV-1 may be a better model of human disease than existing models...
  29. ncbi Presence of VZV and HSV-1 DNA in human nodose and celiac ganglia
    D H Gilden
    Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Denver 80262, USA
    Virus Genes 23:145-7. 2001
    ..The ability of reactivated VZV to produce serious, sometimes fatal neurological disease in the absence of rash, raises the possibility that VZV reactivation from autonomic ganglia might be involved in visceral disease...
  30. doi Retrospective and prospective studies of hepatitis B virus reactivation in malignant lymphoma with occult HBV carrier
    N Fukushima
    Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan
    Ann Oncol 20:2013-7. 2009
    ..We looked at both retrospective and prospective studies to determine the prevalence, clinical course and risk factor of HBV reactivation during chemotherapy in lymphoma patients...
  31. pmc The herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) enhancer/rcr is hyperacetylated during latency independently of LAT transcription
    Nicole J Kubat
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 100266, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    J Virol 78:12508-18. 2004
    ..This result suggests a role for the 5' exon LAT enhancer region as a cis-acting regulator of transcription that maintains a transcriptionally permissive chromatin domain in the HSV-1 latent episome...
  32. doi How to control an infectious bead string: nucleosome-based regulation and targeting of herpesvirus chromatin
    Michael Nevels
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Germany
    Rev Med Virol 21:154-80. 2011
    ..We also present an overview on emerging histone-directed antiviral strategies that may be developed into 'epigenetic therapies' to improve current prevention and treatment options targeting herpesvirus infection and disease...
  33. pmc Role for tumor necrosis factor-α in JC virus reactivation and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Hassen S Wollebo
    Center for Neurovirology, Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 233:46-53. 2011
    ..Immunohistochemistry of HIV+/PML revealed robust labeling for TNF-α and TNFR-1. These data suggest TNF-α stimulation of κB may contribute to JCV reactivation in HIV+/PML...
  34. pmc Inhibition of inflammatory interleukin-6 activity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling antagonizes human cytomegalovirus reactivation from dendritic cells
    Matthew B Reeves
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Virol 85:12750-8. 2011
    ..Clinically, HCMV reactivation occurs in highly inflammatory environments (i.e., transplantation); thus, the implications of this study could potentially provide novel approaches for therapeutic intervention...
  35. doi Reactivation of overt and occult hepatitis B infection in various immunosuppressive settings
    Nicola Coppola
    Department of Public Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    J Med Virol 83:1909-16. 2011
    ..Supportive therapy without antiviral drugs or Lamivudine monotherapy may not be effective for treating patients with HBV reactivation...
  36. pmc FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection
    Brian Murphy
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4206 Vet Med 3A, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Retrovirology 9:12. 2012
    ..Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment...
  37. pmc Host cell gene expression during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency and reactivation and effects of targeting genes that are differentially expressed in viral latency
    Vyjayanthi Krishnan
    HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1868, USA
    J Virol 78:9458-73. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi A novel link between stress and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection: sympathetic hyperactivity stimulates HCMV activation
    S Prosch
    Department of Medical Virology, Humboldt University, Berlin, D 10098, Germany
    Virology 272:357-65. 2000
    ..Elucidating the molecular mechanism of virus activation, we could show that catecholamines directly stimulate the HCMV immediate-early (IE) enhancer/promoter in ..
  39. doi Ocular HSV-1 latency, reactivation and recurrent disease
    Hassanain S Toma
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2234, USA
    Semin Ophthalmol 23:249-73. 2008
    ..This review will highlight basic HSV-1 virology, and will compare the animal models of latency, reactivation, and recurrent ocular disease to the current clinical data...
  40. pmc Human neutrophils and their products induce Shiga toxin production by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    P L Wagner
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Infect Immun 69:1934-7. 2001
    ..Both H2O2 and neutrophils were found to augment Stx2 production, raising the possibility that these agents may lead to prophage induction in vivo and thereby contribute to EHEC pathogenesis...
  41. pmc Identification of direct transcriptional targets of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Rta lytic switch protein by conditional nuclear localization
    Wei Bu
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    J Virol 82:10709-23. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that the induction of most of the KSHV lytic cycle genes requires additional protein expression after the expression of Rta...
  42. pmc Control of cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression by histone acetylation
    Jane C Murphy
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    EMBO J 21:1112-20. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi Recurrent chemical reactivations of EBV promotes genome instability and enhances tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
    Chih Yeu Fang
    National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan
    Int J Cancer 124:2016-25. 2009
    ..These results suggest that recurrent EBV reactivations may result in accumulation of genome instability and promote the tumor progression of NPC...
  44. pmc Effects of NFkappaB activation on KSHV latency and lytic reactivation are complex and context-dependent
    Claudia Grossmann
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco 94143, USA Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA Department of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Virology 375:94-102. 2008
    ....
  45. pmc Gamma interferon can block herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation from latency, even in the presence of late gene expression
    Vilma Decman
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Ophthalmology, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Virol 79:10339-47. 2005
    ....
  46. pmc Host range of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells
    Jill T Bechtel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Medicine, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco 94143, USA
    J Virol 77:6474-81. 2003
    ....
  47. pmc The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro
    Jesse H Arbuckle
    Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5563-8. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling controls reactivation of KSHV from latency
    Sean M Gregory
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11725-30. 2009
    ..Our findings have broad implications for physiological triggers of latent viral infections, such as herpesviral reactivation and persistence in the host...
  49. pmc A novel viral transcript with homology to human interleukin-10 is expressed during latent human cytomegalovirus infection
    Christina Jenkins
    Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute and University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, 2145 Australia
    J Virol 78:1440-7. 2004
    ..Expression of a latency-associated cmvIL-10 may confer upon the virus an ability to avoid immune recognition and clearance during the latent phase of infection...
  50. pmc Diversity of the CD8+ T-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 proteins among persons with genital herpes
    Nancy Hosken
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    J Virol 80:5509-15. 2006
    ..Whether this variability in the CD8(+) T-cell response within individuals is associated with the frequency of viral reactivation warrants further study...
  51. ncbi EBV and systemic lupus erythematosus: a new perspective
    Andrew J Gross
    Division of Rheumatology, Tufts New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Immunol 174:6599-607. 2005
    ..We conclude that the abnormal regulation of EBV infection in SLE patients reflects the sensitivity of the virus to perturbation of the immune system...
  52. pmc Allogeneic transplantation induces expression of cytomegalovirus immediate-early genes in vivo: a model for reactivation from latency
    M Hummel
    Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Virol 75:4814-22. 2001
    ..Allogeneic transplantation combined with immunosuppression may be required to achieve complete reactivation in vivo...
  53. pmc Killing niche competitors by remote-control bacteriophage induction
    Laura Selva
    Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1234-8. 2009
    ..However, this strategy has as a by-product the release of active phage, which can potentially spread mobile genetic elements carrying virulence genes...
  54. pmc Plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s binds to and transactivates the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 promoter
    Chia Chi Sun
    Department of Pathology, Jaharis Building, Tufts University School of Medicine, 150 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Virol 81:13566-77. 2007
    ..We are currently investigating other signals, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins, which act upstream of XBP-1s, to identify other interacting factors that initiate and/or amplify the lytic switch...
  55. pmc Essential role of RBP-Jkappa in activation of the K8 delayed-early promoter of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by ORF50/RTA
    Yan Wang
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 359:19-27. 2007
    ..Taken together, RTA activates the K8 promoter through an indirect binding mechanism, i.e. being recruited to the K8 promoter through interaction with RBP-Jkappa bound to an RBP-Jkappa motif in the promoter...
  56. pmc Pharmacologic reactivation of latent feline immunodeficiency virus ex vivo in peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes
    Samantha J McDonnel
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4206 Vet Med 3A, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Virus Res 170:174-9. 2012
    ....
  57. ncbi Early is superior to deferred preemptive lamivudine therapy for hepatitis B patients undergoing chemotherapy
    George K K Lau
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
    Gastroenterology 125:1742-9. 2003
    ....
  58. pmc Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a site of murine cytomegalovirus latency and reactivation
    Christof K Seckert
    Institute for Virology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Hochhaus am Augustusplatz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
    J Virol 83:8869-84. 2009
    ..These findings identified LSECs as the main cellular site of murine CMV latency and reactivation in the liver...
  59. pmc Human polyoma viruses and disease with emphasis on clinical BK and JC
    Raghavender Boothpur
    Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, United States
    J Clin Virol 47:306-12. 2010
    ..There are no known effective antiviral agents for any of the polyoma viruses...
  60. pmc NF-kappaB serves as a cellular sensor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency and negatively regulates K-Rta by antagonizing the RBP-Jkappa coactivator
    Yoshihiro Izumiya
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    J Virol 83:4435-46. 2009
    ..An important feature of this model is that the interplay between RBP-Jkappa and NF-kappaB on viral promoters controls viral gene expression mediated by K-Rta...
  61. pmc Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection by synergistic action of rituximab and dexamethasone renders EBV-positive lymphoma cells more susceptible to ganciclovir cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo
    Masanori Daibata
    Department of Hematology and Respiratory Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi 783 8505, Japan
    J Virol 79:5875-9. 2005
    ..These data suggest that induction of the lytic EBV infection with dexamethasone/rituximab in combination with GCV could be a potential virally targeted therapy for EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma...
  62. ncbi Occult hepatitis B virus infection: detection and significance
    Wolfram H Gerlich
    Institute for Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    Dig Dis 28:116-25. 2010
    ..Infection of vaccinated individuals favors development of OBI as we observed in 6 blood donors. HB vaccination may solve the problem of overt HBV infection but may favor OBI...
  63. ncbi Monitoring cytomegalovirus IE-1 and pp65-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations
    Jan W Gratama
    Department of Internal Oncology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74:211-20. 2008
    ..Thus, monitoring of particular CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic SCT may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations...
  64. pmc Lysosomal localization and mechanism of membrane penetration influence nonenveloped virus activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome
    A U Barlan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Virology 412:306-14. 2011
    ..Thus, not only lysosomal localization, but the mechanism of membrane penetration influences viral activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome...
  65. ncbi An epidemiological and molecular study of the relationship between smoking, risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Epstein-Barr virus activation
    Feng Hua Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, China
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:1396-410. 2012
    ..Several lifestyle factors, including smoking, have also been associated with NPC risk. We hypothesized that some specific lifestyle factors induce transformation of EBV from the latent to the lytic stage and contribute to NPC occurrence...
  66. pmc The single RBP-Jkappa site within the LANA promoter is crucial for establishing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency during primary infection
    Jie Lu
    Department of Microbiology and, Tumor Virology Program of the Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, 201E Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 85:6148-61. 2011
    ..This system provides a powerful tool for use in indentifying additional cellular and viral molecules involved in LANA-mediated latency maintenance during the early stages of KSHV infection...
  67. doi Human cytomegalovirus: Latency and reactivation in the myeloid lineage
    John Sinclair
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    J Clin Virol 41:180-5. 2008
    ..Thus there is a crucial link between the differentiation of myeloid cells and transcriptional reactivation of latent virus which is likely to play a key role in viral pathogenesis...
  68. ncbi Incidence of hepatitis virus infection and severe liver dysfunction in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies
    T Kawatani
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
    Eur J Haematol 67:45-50. 2001
    ....
  69. pmc Role of protein kinase C delta in reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Einat Deutsch
    Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
    J Virol 78:10187-92. 2004
    ....
  70. ncbi HIV-1 infection of primary effusion lymphoma cell line triggers Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) reactivation
    Rastine Merat
    Policlinique de Dermatologie, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris, France
    Int J Cancer 97:791-5. 2002
    ..By showing that HIV-1 infection directly reactivates latent KSHV, our results suggest a direct role of HIV-1 in the onset of KS in coinfected individuals...
  71. doi Prevalence and mortality associated with cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunosuppressed patients in the intensive care unit
    Andre C Kalil
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Crit Care Med 37:2350-8. 2009
    ..Cytomegalovirus is the most common viral opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. However, recent studies have demonstrated active cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunosuppressed intensive care unit patients...
  72. pmc Persistence of HIV-1 receptor-positive cells after HSV-2 reactivation is a potential mechanism for increased HIV-1 acquisition
    Jia Zhu
    Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Med 15:886-92. 2009
    ..The persistence and enrichment of HIV receptor-positive inflammatory cells in the genitalia help explain the inability of anti-HSV-2 therapy to reduce HIV acquisition...
  73. pmc Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency requires MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
    Jianping Xie
    Tumor Virology Program, Greehey Children s Cancer Research Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 8403 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Virology 371:139-54. 2008
    ..Together, these findings suggest that MAPK pathways might have general roles in regulating the life cycle of KSHV by mediating both viral infection and switch from viral latency to lytic replication...
  74. ncbi A model for reactivation of CMV from latency
    Mary Hummel
    Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Clin Virol 25:S123-36. 2002
    ..Reactivation of CMV from latency results in serious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised transplant recipients. The mechanism by which CMV reactivates from latency has not been well understood...
  75. pmc Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Fuqu Yu
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e44. 2007
    ....
  76. pmc Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: a systematic review
    Ryosuke Osawa
    Infectious Diseases Section, VA Medical Center, University Drive C, Pittsburgh, PA 15420 USA
    Crit Care 13:R68. 2009
    ..The precise role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in contributing to outcomes in critically ill immunocompetent patients has not been fully defined...
  77. pmc Gamma interferon can prevent herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation from latency in sensory neurons
    T Liu
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-2588, USA
    J Virol 75:11178-84. 2001
    ....
  78. doi Transactivators Zta and Rta of Epstein-Barr virus promote G0/G1 to S transition in Raji cells: a novel relationship between lytic virus and cell cycle
    Qingwei Guo
    Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Key Medical Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Chinese Medicine Immunology of Shandong Province, Jinan 250062, PR China
    Mol Immunol 47:1783-92. 2010
    ....
  79. pmc The antirepressor needed for induction of linear plasmid-prophage N15 belongs to the SOS regulon
    Andrey V Mardanov
    Centre Bioengineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prosp 60 let Oktiabria, Bldg 7 1, Moscow 117312, Russia
    J Bacteriol 189:6333-8. 2007
    ..Mitomycin C-stimulated N15 induction required RecA-dependent autocleavage of LexA and expression of AntC protein. Thus, a cellular repressor whose activity is regulated by DNA damage controls N15 prophage induction...
  80. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus specific salivary antibodies as related to stress caused by examinations
    O Sarid
    Matilda and Leon Recanati School of Health Professions, Beer-Sheva, Israel
    J Med Virol 64:149-56. 2001
    ..EBV reactivation should be confirmed by measuring salivary EBV DNA or infectious virus...
  81. doi Virus activation and immune function during intense training in rugby football players
    R Yamauchi
    University of Tsukuba, Sports Medicine, Japan
    Int J Sports Med 32:393-8. 2011
    ..05). The number of URS increased along with the EBV-DNA expression and decrease of SIgA levels. These results suggest that the appearance of URS is associated with reactivation of EBV and reduction of SIgA during training...
  82. pmc Establishment of B-cell lines latently infected with reactivation-competent murine gammaherpesvirus 68 provides evidence for viral alteration of a DNA damage-signaling cascade
    J Craig Forrest
    The Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Virol 82:7688-99. 2008
    ..In addition, such cell lines may be of value in evaluating targeted therapies to gammaherpesvirus-related tumors...
  83. pmc The human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 locus can activate the full Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication cycle
    Richard Wells
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 83:4695-9. 2009
    ..It was found that the UL112-113 locus was able to activate the complete KSHV lytic cycle, while the UL122-123 locus, encoding the IE1 and IE2 proteins, known to be strong transactivators, did not...
  84. ncbi Latency and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus
    John Sinclair
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    J Gen Virol 87:1763-79. 2006
    ....
  85. pmc X box binding protein XBP-1s transactivates the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF50 promoter, linking plasma cell differentiation to KSHV reactivation from latency
    Sam J Wilson
    Department of Infection, UCL, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:13578-86. 2007
    ..This links B-cell terminal differentiation to KSHV lytic reactivation...
  86. ncbi The Rta/Orf50 transactivator proteins of the gamma-herpesviridae
    M R Staudt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 804 Mary Ellen Jones Bldg, CB 7290, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 312:71-100. 2007
    ..Here we discuss the Rta/Orf50 of KSHV in comparison to the Rta/Orf50s of other gammaherpesviruses in an effort to identify structural motifs, mechanisms of action, and modulating host factors...
  87. pmc Epstein-Barr virus BGLF4 kinase induces disassembly of the nuclear lamina to facilitate virion production
    Chung Pei Lee
    Graduate Institute and Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Virol 82:11913-26. 2008
    ..UL kinases of alpha- and betaherpesviruses also induce the disassembly of the nuclear lamina through similar sites on lamin A/C, suggesting a conserved mechanism for the nuclear egress of herpesviruses...
  88. ncbi Does cytomegalovirus play a causative role in the development of various inflammatory diseases and cancer?
    C Soderberg-Naucler
    Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, L8 03, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Intern Med 259:219-46. 2006
    ..Thus, the various drugs now available for treatment of HCMV disease (e.g. ganciclovir, acyclovir and foscarnet), may also prove to be useful in the treatment of other, more widespread diseases...
  89. pmc Systematic mutagenesis of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M2 protein identifies domains important for chronic infection
    Jeremy H Herskowitz
    Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Virol 82:3295-310. 2008
    ..Taken together, these analyses will aide future studies for identifying M2 interacting partners and B-cell signaling pathways that are manipulated by the M2 protein...
  90. ncbi High hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load is an important risk factor for HBV reactivation in breast cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy
    S Zhong
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
    J Viral Hepat 11:55-9. 2004
    ..Such information may be useful in determining which patients would benefit most from prophylactic antiviral therapy during cytotoxic chemotherapy...
  91. pmc Establishment and maintenance of long-term murine gammaherpesvirus 68 latency in B cells in the absence of CD40
    David O Willer
    Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Rd N E, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol 79:2891-9. 2005
    ..Taken together, these findings are consistent with a model in which chronic virus infection of CD40(-/-) mice is maintained through virus reactivation in the lungs and reseeding of latency reservoirs...
  92. pmc Reactivation of a latent precore mutant hepatitis B virus related chronic hepatitis during infliximab treatment for severe spondyloarthropathy
    D Wendling
    Ann Rheum Dis 64:788-9. 2005
  93. ncbi Hide-and-seek: the challenge of viral persistence in HIV-1 infection
    Luc Geeraert
    Tibotec BVBA, BE 2800 Mechelen, Belgium
    Annu Rev Med 59:487-501. 2008
    ..A more detailed understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the establishment and long-term maintenance of HIV-1 reservoirs will be critical in developing new eradication approaches...
  94. pmc ICP0 is not required for efficient stress-induced reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 from cultured quiescently infected neuronal cells
    Craig S Miller
    Center for Oral Health Research, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry, Lexington, KY 40536 0297, USA
    J Virol 80:3360-8. 2006
    ....
  95. pmc X-box-binding protein 1 activates lytic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in combination with protein kinase D
    Prasanna M Bhende
    Department of Medicine, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    J Virol 81:7363-70. 2007
    ....
  96. ncbi Lamivudine prophylaxis in HBV carriers with haemato-oncological malignancies who receive chemotherapy
    Ramazan Idilman
    Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:828-31. 2005
    ..Finally, the prophylactic use of lamivudine in inactive HBV carriers with haemato-oncological malignancy prevents interruptions in their treatment for primary disease as a result of HBV reactivation...
  97. pmc Activation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic gene expression during epithelial differentiation
    Andrew S Johnson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Box 358070, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98109 8070, USA
    J Virol 79:13769-77. 2005
    ..219 at the epithelial surface. These findings demonstrate that KSHV lytic activation occurs as keratinocytes differentiate into a mature epithelium, and it may be responsible for the presence of infectious KSHV in saliva...
  98. ncbi Sensory neurons regulate the effector functions of CD8+ T cells in controlling HSV-1 latency ex vivo
    Kartik Prabhakaran
    Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Immunity 23:515-25. 2005
    ..In the latter subset, LG appear to provide a nonlethal block of viral reactivation...
  99. pmc Pulmonary cytomegalovirus reactivation causes pathology in immunocompetent mice
    Charles H Cook
    Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
    Crit Care Med 34:842-9. 2006
    ..Using an animal model of latency/reactivation, we studied the pathobiology of CMV reactivation in the immunocompetent host...
  100. pmc The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M2 gene is required for efficient reactivation from latently infected B cells
    Jeremy H Herskowitz
    Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol 79:2261-73. 2005
    ....
  101. pmc Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the mouse trigeminal ganglion: an in vivo study of virus antigen and cytokines
    C Shimeld
    Departments of Ophthalmology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
    J Virol 73:1767-73. 1999
    ..The presence of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-6) indicates a role for antibody. Thus, several clearance mechanisms may be at work...

Research Grants122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  2. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  3. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  4. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of Pneumonia
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  5. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of P*
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  6. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  7. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  8. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  9. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  10. REPRESSION OF HIV-1 TRANSCRIPTION BY DNA METHYLATION
    KAREN PRATT; Fiscal Year: 1990
    DNA methylation may be important in maintaining latency of AIDS virus. It has been demonstrated that virus activation is induced in cells harboring latent virus by treatment with 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent (Bednarik et al., J...
  11. SYNTHETIC STUDIES ON TUMOR PROMOTERS AND INHIBITORS
    PAUL ANTHONY WENDER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..tea used by healers in Samoa and now in preclinical development for eradicating HIV/AIDS virus through latent virus activation, and at evaluation of the promising anticancer activity of the analogs, their role in PKC signaling, and ..
  12. HIV ACTIVATION & REGULATION IN LUNG--VIRAL DETERMINANTS
    RONALD COLLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..biological and genetic differences among M-tropic HIV-1 variants in the lung that contribute to local virus activation and replication, and that evolution over time may result in the emergence of variants with enhanced ..
  13. HIV ACTIVATION & REGULATION IN LUNG--VIRAL DETERMINANTS
    RONALD COLLMAN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..biological and genetic differences among M-tropic HIV-1 variants in the lung that contribute to local virus activation and replication, and that evolution over time may result in the emergence of variants with enhanced ..
  14. ACTIVATION & TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN B CELLS BY EB VIRUS
    Erwin Gelfand; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  15. MECHANISMS OF EBV ACTIVATION IN B-CELLS
    CAREL MULDER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..b>Virus activation is central to the pathogenesis of EBV infection. Recent topics of EBV reactivation focus on AIDS patients...
  16. THE ISOLATION OF AN ACTIVE UBIGUITOUS UQ MOBILE ELEMENT
    Peter Peterson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..controlled transposition, including an examination of the Uq transcripts, would allow an investigation of the virus activation mechanism...
  17. Evaluation of Treatment Strategies to induce Latent Virus Activation in Primary
    Celsa Spina; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. ACTIVATION OF HIV-1 IN MACROPHAGES BY LUNG CELLS
    Maureen Goodenow; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The results will identify mechanisms by which cell contact between macrophages and lung endothelial or fibroblast cells modulates virus factors in the LTR and mediates virus activation.
  19. ACTIVATION OF HIV-1 IN MACROPHAGES BY LUNG CELLS
    Maureen Goodenow; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The results will identify mechanisms by which cell contact between macrophages and lung endothelial or fibroblast cells modulates virus factors in the LTR and mediates virus activation.
  20. Activation of the LMP-1 Protein of Epstein-Barr Virus
    Jennifer Martin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Description, ..
  21. Activation of the LMP-1 Protein of Epstein-Barr Virus
    Jennifer Martin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  23. THE IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MURINE ALLOGRAFT ACCEPTANCE
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In general, these studies will explore the immunobiology of murine allograft acceptance, and its relationship to allograft tolerance. ..
  24. Respiratory Viruses and Airflow Obstruction after HCT
    Michael Boeckh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will improve our understanding of the interaction between respiratory viruses and late pulmonary complications after HCT, which will ultimately enable us to formulate more rational treatment strategies. ..
  25. Bacterial Sepsis & Reactivation of Latent Cytomegalovirus
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Bacterial Sepsis & Reactivation of Latent Cytomegaloviru
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Bacterial Sepsis & Reactivation of Laten Cytomegalovirus
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. Does the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) encode a protein?
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Studies will also determine whether LAT encoded proteins inhibit apoptosis, and whether these proteins are necessary for the latency reactivation cycle. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Bacterial Sepsis & Reactivation of Laten Cytomegalovirus
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Does the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) encode a protein?
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Studies will also determine whether LAT encoded proteins inhibit apoptosis, and whether these proteins are necessary for the latency reactivation cycle. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Respiratory Viruses and Airflow Obstruction after HCT
    Michael Boeckh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will improve our understanding of the interaction between respiratory viruses and late pulmonary complications after HCT, which will ultimately enable us to formulate more rational treatment strategies. ..
  32. THE IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MURINE ALLOGRAFT ACCEPTANCE
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In general, these studies will explore the immunobiology of murine allograft acceptance and its relationship to allograft tolerance. ..
  33. Respiratory Viruses and Airflow Obstruction after HCT
    Michael Boeckh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will improve our understanding of the interaction between respiratory viruses and late pulmonary complications after HCT, which will ultimately enable us to formulate more rational treatment strategies. ..
  34. Bacterial Sepsis & Reactivation of Laten Cytomegalovirus
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. OCULAR HSV INFECTION-LATENCY AND PATHOGENESIS
    Richard Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The information gained in these studies will permit the design of more effective vaccines and interventive drug therapies. ..
  36. OCULAR HSV INFECTION-LATENCY AND PATHOGENESIS
    Richard Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  37. Modeling, Estimation and Control in HIV Dynamics
    H Banks; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  38. HHV-6 and CNS disease following stem cell transplant
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Data from this project will not only inform current diagnosis of and prognosis for HHV-6 CNS dysfunction, but will also be used to design an intervention trial. ..
  39. OCULAR HSV INFECTION-LATENCY AND PATHOGENESIS
    Richard Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. Modeling, Estimation and Control in HIV Dynamics
    H Banks; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  41. Mathematical and Statistical Modeling to Inform Design of HIV Clinical Trials
    H Banks; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The rich longitudinal data collected during the trial will be used to facilitate development of these strategies. ..
  42. National surveillance of emerging MDR in pediatric Enterobacteriaceae infections
    DANIELLE M contact ZERR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  43. Mathematical and Statistical Modeling to Inform Design of HIV Clinical Trials
    H Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The rich longitudinal data collected during the trial will be used to facilitate development of these strategies. ..
  44. DEFINING PRIMARY HHV-6 AND HHV7 INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will also give me the opportunity to develop the required skills to perform clinical research and to reach my long term goal; to become an independent investigator in an academic institution. ..
  45. HHV-6 and CNS disease following stem cell transplant
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Data from this project will not only inform current diagnosis of and prognosis for HHV-6 CNS dysfunction, but will also be used to design an intervention trial. ..
  46. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It is anticipated that in achieving this goal, significant insight will be accomplished in the identification of pathways involved in blocking HSV-1 reactivation and spread within the nervous system. ..
  47. Gene Expression in Acute and Chronic Neurologic Disease
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This concerted effort is focused on prospective studies to delineate the cause, pathogenesis and eventual prevention of viral and demyelinating diseases of the human nervous system. ..
  48. Transmission and Acquisition of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..2. To investigate the transmission of KSHV across the oral mucosa using in vitro organ culture models. 3. To determine the cells of oral mucosa organ cultures that are sites of primary KSHV infection. ..
  49. Transmission and Acquisition of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..2. To investigate the transmission of KSHV across the oral mucosa using in vitro organ culture models. 3. To determine the cells of oral mucosa organ cultures that are sites of primary KSHV infection. ..
  50. Corneal Lymphatics & Adaptive Immunity
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  51. Clinical Research in HSV Infections
    Anna Wald; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Training in ethics of conduct of research is also provided, as is access to seminars, collaborators and classes in related fields. ..
  52. NEUROBIOLOGY OF VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Understanding latency will lead to approaches designed to prevent the cascade of events leading to virus reactivation, a cause of serious neurologic disease in the rapidly increasing elderly and immunocompromised populations. ..
  53. Spontaneous Lytic Replication of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..2. Analyze the X219 genome to identify genetic differences compared to the parental virus. 3. Determine the genotype of X219 responsible for the phenotype of spontaneous lytic replication. ..
  54. Clinical Research in HSV Infections
    Anna Wald; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Training in ethics of conduct of research is also provided, as is access to seminars, collaborators and classes in related fields. ..
  55. Transmission and Acquisition of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..2. To investigate the transmission of KSHV across the oral mucosa using in vitro organ culture models. 3. To determine the cells of oral mucosa organ cultures that are sites of primary KSHV infection. ..
  56. NEUROVIROLOGY-MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Upon completion, post-doctorals are qualified to begin junior faculty positions as independent investigators to study neurovirologic or molecular biologic aspects of neurologic diseases. ..
  57. IL-6 IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 OCULAR REACTIVATION
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Novel and specific viral mutants will be constructed based on the results of HSV-DNA binding and transient expression assays. ..
  58. NEUROIMMUNOLOGY OF AED IN OCULAR HSV-1 INFECTION
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. NEUROIMMUNOLOGY OF AED IN OCULAR HSV-1 INFECTION
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. A Novel Genetic Therapy for Herpes Keratitis
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An ex vivo model of HSV-1 reactivation in explanted mouse trigeminal ganglia is proposed as an efficient means for determining effective strategies for the delay or inhibition of reactivation. ..
  61. Oral-Pharyngeal HHV-8 Infection
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. NEUROBIOLOGY OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These studies will yield information on the molecular basis of viral latency and reactivation which in turn provides the foundation for future studies designed to eradicate neurologic disease in the elderly produced by VZV...
  63. NEUROBIOLOGY OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These studies will yield information on the molecular basis of viral latency and reactivation which in turn provides the foundation for future studies designed to eradicate neurologic disease in the elderly produced by VZV...
  64. NEUROBIOLOGY OF VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These studies will yield information on the molecular basis of viral latency and reactivation which in turn provides the foundation for future studies designed to eradicate neurologic disease in the elderly produced by VZV...
  65. Anti-Viral Gene Delivery in the Nervous System
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  66. Ecologic Stressors, PTSD, and Drug Use in Detroit
    Allison E Aiello; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  67. HIV1 ASSEMBLY MECHANISM AND INHIBITION
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In each case, they will examine the effects on membrane interactions and the structure and expression of extracellular virions, as well as identify the domains in Pr55gag that are critical for regulation by Vif or Vpu. ..
  68. Interaction between influenza virus and H. influenzae
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This could be particularly important during an influenza pandemic and may be more broadly applicable to other respiratory viruses. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  69. The Role of CXCL9 in Genital HSV-2 Infection
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..g., vaccine or gene transfer) to reduce the incidence of infection or reduce the capacity of latent virus to reactivate. ..
  70. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It is anticipated that in achieving this goal, significant insight will be accomplished in the identification of pathways involved in blocking HSV-1 reactivation and spread within the nervous system. ..
  71. DEVELOPMENTAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF FETAL BRAIN TO CMV
    Peter Barry; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  72. VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS
    Anne Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..They will investigate gene expression during putative latency, including the comparative virulence of wild type and vaccine type VZV. ..
  73. HIV1 ASSEMBLY MECHANISM AND INHIBITION
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In each case, they will examine the effects on membrane interactions and the structure and expression of extracellular virions, as well as identify the domains in Pr55gag that are critical for regulation by Vif or Vpu. ..
  74. Proliferative Effects of HTLV-1
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Aim 3. What regulates the cell-type specificity of HTLV transformation? What is the role of IL15 in Tax transgenic animals? ..
  75. Anti-viral DC/NK interactions
    CHRISTIAN MUNZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  76. Gene expression in non-functional CD8 T cells
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The data are likely to lead to a new understanding of how CD8 T cells function in the control of persistent viral infections and mechanisms of CD8 T cell activation. ..
  77. A Non-Human Primate Model for Cytomegalovirus Vaccines
    Peter Barry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This application seeks to demonstrate that a vaccine directed against cmvlL-10 should be included as one of the components. ..
  78. Effect of Suppressive Therapy on Behavioral Determinants of HSV-2 Transmission
    KAREN MARK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  79. A Non-Human Primate Model for Cytomegalovirus Vaccines
    Peter Barry; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This would fundamentally alter the paradigm for vaccine approaches to HCMV. ..
  80. Chemo/Antiretroviral therapy for HTLV-1 ATLL
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  81. DC/NK interactions in human secondary lymphoid organs
    CHRISTIAN MUNZ; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will investigate the effect of NK activation in secondary lymphoid organs on DC maturation and alloreactive as well as EBV specific T cell polarization. ..
  82. Interaction of HIV gp120 & G protein coupled receptors
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  83. A Non-Human Primate Model for Cytomegalovirus Vaccines
    Peter Barry; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This would fundamentally alter the paradigm for vaccine approaches to HCMV. ..
  84. Health Concordance in Older Mexican American Couples
    MARY PEEK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Structural equation modeling will be used for model estimation on three waves of data (1993-94 -1998/9.) ..
  85. Chemo/Antiretroviral therapy for HTLV-1 ATLL
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  86. Immunological control of a persistent viral infection
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The information obtained in these studies may be of significant value in designing novel immunotherapeutic agents, vaccines or protocols to combat viral reactivation in individuals with poor CD4 T cell function. ..
  87. Chemo/Antiretroviral therapy for HTLV-1 ATLL
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  88. VZV Receptors and Infective Mechanisms
    Anne Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It may also make it possible to develop a safer and more efficacious vaccine. ..
  89. Endogenous MHC class II antigen processing via autophagy
    CHRISTIAN MUNZ; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will allow us to understand better how tumors can be detected by the immune system and how we can enhance immune responses to cancer. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  90. Immunological control of a persistent viral infection
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The information obtained in these studies may be of significant value in designing novel immunotherapeutic agents, vaccines or protocols to combat viral reactivation in individuals with poor CD4 T cell function. ..
  91. Proliferative Effects of HTLV-1
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3. What regulates the cell-type specificity of HTLV transformation? What is the role of IL15 in Tax transgenic animals? ..