virus activation

Summary

Summary: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Expression of latent HIV induced by the potent HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid
    Nancie M Archin
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:207-12. 2009
  2. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
  3. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
  4. ncbi Chromatin control of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infection
    David M Knipe
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:211-21. 2008
  5. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
  6. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
  7. pmc Noncytotoxic lytic granule-mediated CD8+ T cell inhibition of HSV-1 reactivation from neuronal latency
    Jared E Knickelbein
    Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Science 322:268-71. 2008
  8. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
  9. pmc Role for tumor necrosis factor-α in JC virus reactivation and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Hassen S Wollebo
    Center for Neurovirology, Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 233:46-53. 2011
  10. pmc Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity
    Leslie J Marshall
    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1296, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:3042-52. 2010

Detail Information

Publications263 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Expression of latent HIV induced by the potent HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid
    Nancie M Archin
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:207-12. 2009
    ..These results suggest that potent, selective HDAC inhibitors may allow improved targeting of persistent proviral HIV infection, and define parameters for in vivo studies using SAHA...
  2. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
    ..Our study expands the number of classes of latency-reversing therapeutics and demonstrates the utility of this in vitro model for finding strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection...
  3. pmc HIV rebounds from latently infected cells, rather than from continuing low-level replication
    Beda Joos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16725-30. 2008
    ..Furthermore, a prolonged delay in restoration of pretreatment viral diversity after treatment interruption demonstrates a surprisingly sustained evolutionary bottleneck induced by punctuated antiretroviral therapy...
  4. ncbi Chromatin control of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infection
    David M Knipe
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:211-21. 2008
    ....
  5. ncbi Prostratin: activation of latent HIV-1 expression suggests a potential inductive adjuvant therapy for HAART
    J Kulkosky
    Dorrance H Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Blood 98:3006-15. 2001
    ..This novel observation suggests the agent may be an excellent candidate to augment HAART by inducing expression of latent HIV-1 with the ultimate goal of eliminating persistent viral reservoirs in certain individuals infected with HIV-1...
  6. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
    ....
  7. pmc Noncytotoxic lytic granule-mediated CD8+ T cell inhibition of HSV-1 reactivation from neuronal latency
    Jared E Knickelbein
    Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Science 322:268-71. 2008
    ..Here, we describe a nonlethal mechanism of viral inactivation in which the lytic granule component, granzyme B, degrades the HSV-1 immediate early protein, ICP4, which is essential for further viral gene expression...
  8. ncbi Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons
    A Wald
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98122, USA
    N Engl J Med 342:844-50. 2000
    ..Historically, it has been assumed that these persons have less frequent viral reactivation than those with symptomatic infection...
  9. pmc Role for tumor necrosis factor-α in JC virus reactivation and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Hassen S Wollebo
    Center for Neurovirology, Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 233:46-53. 2011
    ..Immunohistochemistry of HIV+/PML revealed robust labeling for TNF-α and TNFR-1. These data suggest TNF-α stimulation of κB may contribute to JCV reactivation in HIV+/PML...
  10. pmc Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity
    Leslie J Marshall
    Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Neuroscience, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1296, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:3042-52. 2010
    ..These results suggest that Spi-B could regulate JCV gene expression in susceptible cells, and may play an important role in JCV activity in the immune and nervous systems...
  11. ncbi Human polyomavirus JC reactivation and pathogenetic mechanisms of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and cancer in the era of monoclonal antibody therapies
    A Bellizzi
    Department of Health Sciences and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University, P le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
    J Neurovirol 18:1-11. 2012
    ....
  12. ncbi Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency
    Wolfgang Amon
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Virology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Rev Med Virol 15:149-56. 2005
    ..This review considers the mechanisms by which EBV reactivation is controlled and discusses possible therapeutic approaches...
  13. pmc Systematic review: the effect of preventive lamivudine on hepatitis B reactivation during chemotherapy
    Rohit Loomba
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Ann Intern Med 148:519-28. 2008
    ..Lamivudine is increasingly being used to prevent hepatitis B reactivation in patients with cancer who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and are undergoing chemotherapy...
  14. pmc Control of cytomegalovirus lytic gene expression by histone acetylation
    Jane C Murphy
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    EMBO J 21:1112-20. 2002
    ....
  15. pmc Rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adults
    Karen E Mark
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98122, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1141-9. 2008
    ..Recent in situ data show the localization of HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells at the dermal epidermal junction next to peripheral sensory nerve endings, suggesting that viral reactivation may occur more frequently than previously appreciated...
  16. ncbi An in vitro system to model the establishment and reactivation of HIV-1 latency
    Alessandra Marini
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Immunol 181:7713-20. 2008
    ..Thus, this system may allow us to study the biology of HIV-1 latency, as well as the mechanisms of CD4(+) T cell death following HIV-1 reactivation...
  17. ncbi Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes
    John Chen
    Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA
    Science 323:139-41. 2009
    ..Thus, phages may participate in a far more expansive network of genetic information exchange among bacteria of different species than originally thought, with important implications for the evolution of human pathogens...
  18. pmc Pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy--revisited
    Martyn K White
    Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:578-86. 2011
    ..In this review, we will revisit these areas and examine what the available evidence suggests...
  19. ncbi An epidemiological and molecular study of the relationship between smoking, risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Epstein-Barr virus activation
    Feng Hua Xu
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, China
    J Natl Cancer Inst 104:1396-410. 2012
    ..Several lifestyle factors, including smoking, have also been associated with NPC risk. We hypothesized that some specific lifestyle factors induce transformation of EBV from the latent to the lytic stage and contribute to NPC occurrence...
  20. ncbi Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages--genomes in motion
    Sylvia Herold
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, D 01037 Dresden, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 294:115-21. 2004
    ..Stx-phages may be considered to represent highly mobile genetic elements that play an important role in the expression of Stx, in horizontal gene transfer, and hence in genome diversification...
  21. ncbi Evaluation of intervention strategy based on CMV-specific immune responses after allogeneic SCT
    G Avetisyan
    Division of Haematology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Bone Marrow Transplant 40:865-9. 2007
    ..01). There was no effect as regards the type of conditioning, donor type, stem cell source or acute GVHD. Monitoring the immunity of SCT patients may allow more targeted use of antiviral therapy...
  22. pmc Role for a phage promoter in Shiga toxin 2 expression from a pathogenic Escherichia coli strain
    P L Wagner
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:2081-5. 2001
    ..By showing this central role for the prophage in stx(2)AB expression, our findings contradict the prevailing assumption that phages serve merely as agents for virulence gene transfer...
  23. pmc Cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill immunocompetent patients
    Ajit P Limaye
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA 98195 7110, USA
    JAMA 300:413-22. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi Bacteriophage control of Shiga toxin 1 production and release by Escherichia coli
    Patrick L Wagner
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    Mol Microbiol 44:957-70. 2002
    ..By amplifying stx(1)AB copy number, regulating stx(1)AB transcription and allowing for Stx1 release, the biology of the Stx-encoding phages contributes greatly to the production of Stx, the principal virulence factor of STEC...
  25. pmc In vivo changes in the patterns of chromatin structure associated with the latent herpes simplex virus type 1 genome in mouse trigeminal ganglia can be detected at early times after butyrate treatment
    Donna M Neumann
    Department of Ophthalmology LSU Eye Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    J Virol 81:13248-53. 2007
    ..5 h and 1 h post-butyrate treatment, respectively. This is the first study to combine in vivo reactivation with the examination of the HSV-1 genome through ChIP assays at early times after the introduction of in vivo reactivation stimuli...
  26. pmc Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency requires MEK/ERK, JNK and p38 multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
    Jianping Xie
    Tumor Virology Program, Greehey Children s Cancer Research Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 8403 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Virology 371:139-54. 2008
    ..Together, these findings suggest that MAPK pathways might have general roles in regulating the life cycle of KSHV by mediating both viral infection and switch from viral latency to lytic replication...
  27. pmc Chromatin remodeling of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF50 promoter correlates with reactivation from latency
    Fang Lu
    The Wistar Institute Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 77:11425-35. 2003
    ..Together, these results suggest that remodeling of a stably positioned nucleosome at the transcriptional initiation site of ORF50 is a regulatory step in the transition from latent to lytic infection...
  28. ncbi Aspects of human cytomegalovirus latency and reactivation
    M Reeves
    Infectious Diseases, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 325:297-313. 2008
    ..Defining the role of these viral proteins in latently infected cells will be important for our full understanding of HCMV latency and reactivation in vivo...
  29. pmc A Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 ORF50 deletion mutant is defective for reactivation of latent virus and DNA replication
    Yiyang Xu
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Howard Bldg, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA
    J Virol 79:3479-87. 2005
    ..1 expression was not detected in TPA-induced BAC36Delta50-containing cells. These results showed that K-Rta is essential for lytic viral reactivation and transactivation of viral genes contributing to DNA replication...
  30. ncbi Reactivation of hepatitis B virus following rituximab-based regimens: a serious complication in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients
    Sung nan Pei
    Division of Hema Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Ann Hematol 89:255-62. 2010
    ..In conclusion, rituximab-based therapy may cause serious HBV-related complications and even death in both HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients...
  31. pmc Activation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) lytic replication by human cytomegalovirus
    J Vieira
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, and Program in Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 75:1378-86. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate that HCMV can activate KSHV lytic replication and suggest that HCMV could influence KSHV pathogenesis...
  32. pmc The operator and early promoter region of the Shiga toxin type 2-encoding bacteriophage 933W and control of toxin expression
    Jessica S Tyler
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48103, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:7670-9. 2004
    ..This finding provides direct evidence that measurable expression of the stx genes encoded by a 933W prophage requires induction of that prophage with the concomitant initiation of phage gene expression...
  33. pmc Changes to euchromatin on LAT and ICP4 following reactivation are more prevalent in an efficiently reactivating strain of HSV-1
    Clinton C Creech
    Department of Ophthalmology LSU Eye Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15416. 2010
    ..Considering that many post-translational histone marks are reversible in nature, epigenetic mechanisms may also play a critical role in the process of induced HSV-1 reactivation...
  34. pmc Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a site of murine cytomegalovirus latency and reactivation
    Christof K Seckert
    Institute for Virology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Hochhaus am Augustusplatz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
    J Virol 83:8869-84. 2009
    ..These findings identified LSECs as the main cellular site of murine CMV latency and reactivation in the liver...
  35. ncbi Frequency of hepatitis B virus reactivation in cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy: a prospective study of 626 patients with identification of risk factors
    W Yeo
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin
    J Med Virol 62:299-307. 2000
    ..In HBV endemic areas, patients with risk factors for HBV reactivation should be identified prior to receiving cytotoxic treatment and monitored closely. The potential benefit of lamivudine requires further confirmation...
  36. pmc Synergistic roles of antibody and interferon in noncytolytic clearance of Sindbis virus from different regions of the central nervous system
    Rebeca Burdeinick-Kerr
    W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:5628-36. 2007
    ....
  37. pmc Herpes simplex virus type 2 triggers reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency and collaborates with HIV-1 Tat
    Qiao Tang
    State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 7:e31652. 2012
    ....
  38. pmc Cooperative roles of NF-κB and NFAT4 in polyomavirus JC regulation at the KB control element
    Hassen S Wollebo
    Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Virology 432:146-54. 2012
    ..This interplay is inhibited by C/EBPβ and by agents that block the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. The importance of these events in the regulation of JCV latency and reactivation is discussed...
  39. ncbi Cytolytic virus activation therapy for Epstein-Barr virus-driven tumors
    Maarten A Wildeman
    Departments of Head and Neck Oncology and Surgery and Medical Oncology, The Netherlands
    Clin Cancer Res 18:5061-70. 2012
    ..We developed a cytolytic virus activation (CLVA) therapy for NPC treatment, reactivating latent EBV, triggering immune recognition, and inducing ..
  40. pmc The herpes simplex virus type 1 latency associated transcript locus is required for the maintenance of reactivation competent latent infections
    Richard L Thompson
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0524, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:552-8. 2011
    ..Here, we report that the latency associated transcript locus of HSV-1 is required for long-term maintenance of reactivation competent latent infections...
  41. ncbi Diagnosis, prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation during anticancer therapy
    Winnie Yeo
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y K Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
    Hepatology 43:209-20. 2006
  42. pmc Short communication: activation of latent HIV type 1 gene expression by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor approved for use to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma
    Leonard C Edelstein
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Immunology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:883-7. 2009
    ..SAHA, a relatively nontoxic, FDA-approved compound, should be considered for developing a strategy to eliminate HIV from patients...
  43. pmc Isolation and characterization of temperate bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile
    Shan Goh
    Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1079-83. 2005
    ..Superinfection and DNA analyses revealed relatedness between the phages, while partial sequencing of phiC2 showed nucleotide homology to the sequenced C. difficile strain CD630...
  44. ncbi Signaling through Toll-like receptors triggers HIV-1 replication in latently infected mast cells
    J Bruce Sundstrom
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Immunol 172:4391-401. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that mast cells may serve both as a viral reservoir and as a model for studying mechanisms of postintegration latency in HIV infection...
  45. ncbi Hydrogen peroxide-mediated induction of the Shiga toxin-converting lambdoid prophage ST2-8624 in Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Joanna M Los
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Poland
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 58:322-9. 2010
    ....
  46. pmc HIV-1 infects multipotent progenitor cells causing cell death and establishing latent cellular reservoirs
    Christoph C Carter
    Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Nat Med 16:446-51. 2010
    ..These findings have major implications for understanding HIV bone marrow pathology and the mechanisms by which HIV causes persistent infection...
  47. ncbi The KSHV immediate-early transcription factor RTA encodes ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that targets IRF7 for proteosome-mediated degradation
    Yanxing Yu
    Molecular Virology Laboratories, Viral Oncology Program, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 2123, USA
    Immunity 22:59-70. 2005
    ..Therefore, manipulation of the stability and function of IRF7 by the KSHV RTA transcription factor provides an unexpected regulatory strategy for circumventing the innate immune defence system...
  48. pmc Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication
    Ferdinand Roesch
    Institut Pasteur, Unité Virus et Immunite, Departement de Virologie, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002792. 2012
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity...
  49. ncbi Association between anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and human herpesvirus 6 reactivation and hypogammaglobulinemia
    Yoko Kano
    Department of Dermatology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Arch Dermatol 140:183-8. 2004
    ..The identification of predisposing factors is clearly needed to predict the incidence and outcome of AHS; attention has recently been focused on reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)...
  50. ncbi Activation of a prophage-encoded tyrosine kinase by a heterologous infecting phage results in a self-inflicted abortive infection
    David I Friedman
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Mol Microbiol 82:567-77. 2011
    ..Exclusion of HK97 appears to be specific since other phages tested, λ, φ80, H-19B, λ-P22dis and T4rII, were not excluded. Infection of the 933W lysogen with a non-excluded phage fails to induce Stk-determined phosphorylation...
  51. pmc NF-kappaB inhibits gammaherpesvirus lytic replication
    Helen J Brown
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Virol 77:8532-40. 2003
    ..They also suggest that NF-kappaB may be a novel target for the disruption of virus latency and therefore the treatment of gammaherpesvirus-related malignancies...
  52. pmc Activities of ICP0 involved in the reversal of silencing of quiescent herpes simplex virus 1
    Michael W Ferenczy
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 514 Bridgeside Point II, 450 Technology Dr, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
    J Virol 85:4993-5002. 2011
    ....
  53. ncbi Reactivation of overt and occult hepatitis B infection in various immunosuppressive settings
    Nicola Coppola
    Department of Public Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    J Med Virol 83:1909-16. 2011
    ..Supportive therapy without antiviral drugs or Lamivudine monotherapy may not be effective for treating patients with HBV reactivation...
  54. ncbi Retrospective and prospective studies of hepatitis B virus reactivation in malignant lymphoma with occult HBV carrier
    N Fukushima
    Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan
    Ann Oncol 20:2013-7. 2009
    ..We looked at both retrospective and prospective studies to determine the prevalence, clinical course and risk factor of HBV reactivation during chemotherapy in lymphoma patients...
  55. ncbi Presence of VZV and HSV-1 DNA in human nodose and celiac ganglia
    D H Gilden
    Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, Denver 80262, USA
    Virus Genes 23:145-7. 2001
    ..The ability of reactivated VZV to produce serious, sometimes fatal neurological disease in the absence of rash, raises the possibility that VZV reactivation from autonomic ganglia might be involved in visceral disease...
  56. pmc FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection
    Brian Murphy
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4206 Vet Med 3A, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Retrovirology 9:12. 2012
    ..Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment...
  57. pmc Spontaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in latently infected murine sensory ganglia
    Todd P Margolis
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, UCSF, Medical Sciences Building S 310, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
    J Virol 81:11069-74. 2007
    ..Since most cases of human viral shedding and reactivation are not associated with a known trigger, spontaneous ganglionic reactivation of HSV-1 may be a better model of human disease than existing models...
  58. pmc Inhibition of inflammatory interleukin-6 activity via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling antagonizes human cytomegalovirus reactivation from dendritic cells
    Matthew B Reeves
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    J Virol 85:12750-8. 2011
    ..Clinically, HCMV reactivation occurs in highly inflammatory environments (i.e., transplantation); thus, the implications of this study could potentially provide novel approaches for therapeutic intervention...
  59. pmc Host cell gene expression during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency and reactivation and effects of targeting genes that are differentially expressed in viral latency
    Vyjayanthi Krishnan
    HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1868, USA
    J Virol 78:9458-73. 2004
    ....
  60. ncbi How to control an infectious bead string: nucleosome-based regulation and targeting of herpesvirus chromatin
    Michael Nevels
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Germany
    Rev Med Virol 21:154-80. 2011
    ..We also present an overview on emerging histone-directed antiviral strategies that may be developed into 'epigenetic therapies' to improve current prevention and treatment options targeting herpesvirus infection and disease...
  61. ncbi A novel link between stress and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection: sympathetic hyperactivity stimulates HCMV activation
    S Prosch
    Department of Medical Virology, Humboldt University, Berlin, D 10098, Germany
    Virology 272:357-65. 2000
    ..Elucidating the molecular mechanism of virus activation, we could show that catecholamines directly stimulate the HCMV immediate-early (IE) enhancer/promoter in ..
  62. ncbi Prostratin induces HIV activation and downregulates HIV receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes
    Joaquín Rullas
    AIDS Immunopathogenesis Unit, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Antivir Ther 9:545-54. 2004
    ..These data support the potential use of prostratin to activate HIV from latency and purge viral reservoirs...
  63. pmc Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in a latency-associated transcript-independent manner in neuronal cells
    Robert J Danaher
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry and College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0297, USA
    J Neurovirol 11:306-17. 2005
    ..e., recrudescence)...
  64. pmc HIV reproducibly establishes a latent infection after acute infection of T cells in vitro
    Albert Jordan
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94141, USA
    EMBO J 22:1868-77. 2003
    ..These observations demonstrate that HIV can reproducibly establish a latent infection as a consequence of integration in or near heterochromatin...
  65. pmc Disruption of the M2 gene of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 alters splenic latency following intranasal, but not intraperitoneal, inoculation
    Meagan A Jacoby
    Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Virol 76:1790-801. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the requirements for the establishment of latency are affected by the route of infection...
  66. pmc Allogeneic transplantation induces expression of cytomegalovirus immediate-early genes in vivo: a model for reactivation from latency
    M Hummel
    Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Virol 75:4814-22. 2001
    ..Allogeneic transplantation combined with immunosuppression may be required to achieve complete reactivation in vivo...
  67. pmc Interferon gamma regulates acute and latent murine cytomegalovirus infection and chronic disease of the great vessels
    R M Presti
    Center for Immunology, Departments of Pathology and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 188:577-88. 1998
    ..This provides a new model for analysis of the interrelationships among herpesvirus latency, the immune system, and chronic disease of the great vessels...
  68. pmc Killing niche competitors by remote-control bacteriophage induction
    Laura Selva
    Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1234-8. 2009
    ..However, this strategy has as a by-product the release of active phage, which can potentially spread mobile genetic elements carrying virulence genes...
  69. ncbi Ocular HSV-1 latency, reactivation and recurrent disease
    Hassanain S Toma
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112 2234, USA
    Semin Ophthalmol 23:249-73. 2008
    ..This review will highlight basic HSV-1 virology, and will compare the animal models of latency, reactivation, and recurrent ocular disease to the current clinical data...
  70. pmc Human neutrophils and their products induce Shiga toxin production by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    P L Wagner
    Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    Infect Immun 69:1934-7. 2001
    ..Both H2O2 and neutrophils were found to augment Stx2 production, raising the possibility that these agents may lead to prophage induction in vivo and thereby contribute to EHEC pathogenesis...
  71. pmc Identification of direct transcriptional targets of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Rta lytic switch protein by conditional nuclear localization
    Wei Bu
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA
    J Virol 82:10709-23. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that the induction of most of the KSHV lytic cycle genes requires additional protein expression after the expression of Rta...
  72. ncbi Recurrent chemical reactivations of EBV promotes genome instability and enhances tumor progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
    Chih Yeu Fang
    National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan
    Int J Cancer 124:2016-25. 2009
    ..These results suggest that recurrent EBV reactivations may result in accumulation of genome instability and promote the tumor progression of NPC...
  73. pmc Effects of NFkappaB activation on KSHV latency and lytic reactivation are complex and context-dependent
    Claudia Grossmann
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco 94143, USA Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA Department of Microbiology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Virology 375:94-102. 2008
    ....
  74. pmc Gamma interferon can block herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation from latency, even in the presence of late gene expression
    Vilma Decman
    University of Pittsburgh, Department of Ophthalmology, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Virol 79:10339-47. 2005
    ....
  75. pmc Host range of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells
    Jill T Bechtel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Microbiology and Medicine, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco 94143, USA
    J Virol 77:6474-81. 2003
    ....
  76. pmc The latent human herpesvirus-6A genome specifically integrates in telomeres of human chromosomes in vivo and in vitro
    Jesse H Arbuckle
    Department of Molecular Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5563-8. 2010
    ....
  77. pmc Toll-like receptor signaling controls reactivation of KSHV from latency
    Sean M Gregory
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:11725-30. 2009
    ..Our findings have broad implications for physiological triggers of latent viral infections, such as herpesviral reactivation and persistence in the host...
  78. pmc Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: a systematic review
    Ryosuke Osawa
    Infectious Diseases Section, VA Medical Center, University Drive C, Pittsburgh, PA 15420 USA
    Crit Care 13:R68. 2009
    ..The precise role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in contributing to outcomes in critically ill immunocompetent patients has not been fully defined...
  79. ncbi Human cytomegalovirus: Latency and reactivation in the myeloid lineage
    John Sinclair
    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    J Clin Virol 41:180-5. 2008
    ..Thus there is a crucial link between the differentiation of myeloid cells and transcriptional reactivation of latent virus which is likely to play a key role in viral pathogenesis...
  80. ncbi Pre-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus remains the most important determinant of CMV reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the era of surveillance and preemptive therapy
    B George
    Haematology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia
    Transpl Infect Dis 12:322-9. 2010
    ..049). CMV reactivation and disease remains a major problem in high-risk patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Novel prophylactic measures such as immunotherapy and drug prophylaxis need to be considered in this specific group of patients...
  81. pmc Bacteriophage crosstalk: coordination of prophage induction by trans-acting antirepressors
    Sebastien Lemire
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, UPR3404, Universite Paris Sud, Gif sur Yvette, France
    PLoS Genet 7:e1002149. 2011
    ....
  82. pmc The herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) enhancer/rcr is hyperacetylated during latency independently of LAT transcription
    Nicole J Kubat
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 100266, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
    J Virol 78:12508-18. 2004
    ..This result suggests a role for the 5' exon LAT enhancer region as a cis-acting regulator of transcription that maintains a transcriptionally permissive chromatin domain in the HSV-1 latent episome...
  83. pmc Kruppel-associated box domain-associated protein-1 as a latency regulator for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and its modulation by the viral protein kinase
    Pei Ching Chang
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Medicine and University of California Davis Cancer Center, California 95817, USA
    Cancer Res 69:5681-9. 2009
    ..In summary, the cellular transcriptional repressor KAP-1 plays a role in regulating KSHV latency, and viral protein kinase modulates the chromatin remodeling function of this repressor...
  84. ncbi The replicative activity of human endogenous retrovirus K102 (HERV-K102) with HIV viremia
    Marian P Laderoute
    Bloodborne Pathogens Section, Blood Safety Surveillance and Healthcare Acquired Infections Division, Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    AIDS 21:2417-24. 2007
    ..To address the activation and replicative activity of HERV-K102 in vivo associated with HIV viremia...
  85. ncbi EBV and systemic lupus erythematosus: a new perspective
    Andrew J Gross
    Division of Rheumatology, Tufts New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Immunol 174:6599-607. 2005
    ..We conclude that the abnormal regulation of EBV infection in SLE patients reflects the sensitivity of the virus to perturbation of the immune system...
  86. pmc Diversity of the CD8+ T-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 proteins among persons with genital herpes
    Nancy Hosken
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    J Virol 80:5509-15. 2006
    ..Whether this variability in the CD8(+) T-cell response within individuals is associated with the frequency of viral reactivation warrants further study...
  87. pmc A novel viral transcript with homology to human interleukin-10 is expressed during latent human cytomegalovirus infection
    Christina Jenkins
    Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute and University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, 2145 Australia
    J Virol 78:1440-7. 2004
    ..Expression of a latency-associated cmvIL-10 may confer upon the virus an ability to avoid immune recognition and clearance during the latent phase of infection...
  88. pmc Plasma cell-specific transcription factor XBP-1s binds to and transactivates the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 promoter
    Chia Chi Sun
    Department of Pathology, Jaharis Building, Tufts University School of Medicine, 150 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Virol 81:13566-77. 2007
    ..We are currently investigating other signals, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins, which act upstream of XBP-1s, to identify other interacting factors that initiate and/or amplify the lytic switch...
  89. ncbi Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in hepatitis B virus carriers with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis: a case series in Taiwan
    Yung Tsu Cho
    Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Dermatol 39:269-73. 2012
    ..It can be considered as an alternative in psoriasis patients treated by TNF-α inhibitors, especially in areas with a high HBV burden and in hepatitis B e-antigen-negative patients who have a lower risk of viral reactivation...
  90. ncbi Patterns of cytomegalovirus reactivation are associated with distinct evolutive profiles of immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    Hélène Moins-Teisserenc
    Laboratoire d Immunologie et d Histocompatibilité, Centre d Investigations Biomédicales Hématologie Oncologie Greffes, Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 198:818-26. 2008
    ..Evaluation of CMV-specific immune responses during the first episode of reactivation, together with extended phenotypes, could thus improve immune monitoring, especially in recipients at risk of uncontrolled viral reactivation...
  91. ncbi Ex vivo expansion and prophylactic infusion of CMV-pp65 peptide-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    Kenneth Micklethwaite
    Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia
    Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 13:707-14. 2007
    ..Prophylactic adoptive transfer of NLV-specific T cells is safe and may be effective in preventing cytomegalovirus reactivation...
  92. ncbi Prophylaxis with lamivudine of hepatitis B virus reactivation in chronic HbsAg carriers with hemato-oncological neoplasias treated with chemotherapy
    Giuseppe Rossi
    Sezione Ematologia, Dipartimento di Medicina, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy
    Leuk Lymphoma 44:759-66. 2003
    ..The results obtained with lamivudine both as treatment and as prophylaxis of hepatic flares are analysed in detail in order to provide a rational basis for clinical decisions before treating HBV carriers with chemotherapy...
  93. pmc The single RBP-Jkappa site within the LANA promoter is crucial for establishing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency during primary infection
    Jie Lu
    Department of Microbiology and, Tumor Virology Program of the Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, 201E Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 85:6148-61. 2011
    ..This system provides a powerful tool for use in indentifying additional cellular and viral molecules involved in LANA-mediated latency maintenance during the early stages of KSHV infection...
  94. pmc Lysosomal localization and mechanism of membrane penetration influence nonenveloped virus activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome
    A U Barlan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Virology 412:306-14. 2011
    ..Thus, not only lysosomal localization, but the mechanism of membrane penetration influences viral activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome...
  95. ncbi Occult hepatitis B virus infection: detection and significance
    Wolfram H Gerlich
    Institute for Medical Virology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany
    Dig Dis 28:116-25. 2010
    ..Infection of vaccinated individuals favors development of OBI as we observed in 6 blood donors. HB vaccination may solve the problem of overt HBV infection but may favor OBI...
  96. pmc Pharmacologic reactivation of latent feline immunodeficiency virus ex vivo in peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes
    Samantha J McDonnel
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4206 Vet Med 3A, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Virus Res 170:174-9. 2012
    ....
  97. pmc Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection by synergistic action of rituximab and dexamethasone renders EBV-positive lymphoma cells more susceptible to ganciclovir cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo
    Masanori Daibata
    Department of Hematology and Respiratory Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi 783 8505, Japan
    J Virol 79:5875-9. 2005
    ..These data suggest that induction of the lytic EBV infection with dexamethasone/rituximab in combination with GCV could be a potential virally targeted therapy for EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma...
  98. pmc Human polyoma viruses and disease with emphasis on clinical BK and JC
    Raghavender Boothpur
    Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, United States
    J Clin Virol 47:306-12. 2010
    ..There are no known effective antiviral agents for any of the polyoma viruses...
  99. ncbi Monitoring cytomegalovirus IE-1 and pp65-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations
    Jan W Gratama
    Department of Internal Oncology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 74:211-20. 2008
    ..Thus, monitoring of particular CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses after allogeneic SCT may identify patients at risk for recurrent CMV reactivations...
  100. pmc NF-kappaB serves as a cellular sensor of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency and negatively regulates K-Rta by antagonizing the RBP-Jkappa coactivator
    Yoshihiro Izumiya
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    J Virol 83:4435-46. 2009
    ..An important feature of this model is that the interplay between RBP-Jkappa and NF-kappaB on viral promoters controls viral gene expression mediated by K-Rta...
  101. pmc Essential role of RBP-Jkappa in activation of the K8 delayed-early promoter of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by ORF50/RTA
    Yan Wang
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 359:19-27. 2007
    ..Taken together, RTA activates the K8 promoter through an indirect binding mechanism, i.e. being recruited to the K8 promoter through interaction with RBP-Jkappa bound to an RBP-Jkappa motif in the promoter...

Research Grants67

  1. SYNTHETIC STUDIES ON TUMOR PROMOTERS AND INHIBITORS
    PAUL ANTHONY WENDER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tea used by healers in Samoa and now in preclinical development for eradicating HIV/AIDS virus through latent virus activation, and at evaluation of the promising anticancer activity of the analogs, their role in PKC signaling, and ..
  2. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of Pneumonia
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the control of HIV transcription by the dominant-negative form of C/EBPbeta protein and inhibit resurgent virus activation in the lung and the development of associated lesions...
  3. HIV ACTIVATION & REGULATION IN LUNG--VIRAL DETERMINANTS
    RONALD COLLMAN; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..biological and genetic differences among M-tropic HIV-1 variants in the lung that contribute to local virus activation and replication, and that evolution over time may result in the emergence of variants with enhanced ..
  4. ACTIVATION & TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN B CELLS BY EB VIRUS
    Erwin Gelfand; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ....
  5. THE ISOLATION OF AN ACTIVE UBIGUITOUS UQ MOBILE ELEMENT
    Peter Peterson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..controlled transposition, including an examination of the Uq transcripts, would allow an investigation of the virus activation mechanism...
  6. ACTIVATION OF HIV-1 IN MACROPHAGES BY LUNG CELLS
    Maureen Goodenow; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The results will identify mechanisms by which cell contact between macrophages and lung endothelial or fibroblast cells modulates virus factors in the LTR and mediates virus activation.
  7. Activation of the LMP-1 Protein of Epstein-Barr Virus
    Jennifer Martin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Description, ..
  8. Epstein-Barr Virus: Activation of WNT
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A detailed understanding of the activation of this pathway may provide new opportunities for treatment of EBV-associated cancers and also of similar cancers considered EBV-negative, that develop in the immunosuppressed. ..
  9. Does the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) encode a protein?
    Clinton Jones; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Studies will also determine whether LAT encoded proteins inhibit apoptosis, and whether these proteins are necessary for the latency reactivation cycle. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. THE IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF MURINE ALLOGRAFT ACCEPTANCE
    Charles Cook; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In general, these studies will explore the immunobiology of murine allograft acceptance, and its relationship to allograft tolerance. ..
  11. Respiratory Viruses and Airflow Obstruction after HCT
    Michael Boeckh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will improve our understanding of the interaction between respiratory viruses and late pulmonary complications after HCT, which will ultimately enable us to formulate more rational treatment strategies. ..
  12. Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C in Injection Drug Users
    Anna Wald; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Modeling, Estimation and Control in HIV Dynamics
    H Banks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  14. The Role of CXCL9 in Genital HSV-2 Infection
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g., vaccine or gene transfer) to reduce the incidence of infection or reduce the capacity of latent virus to reactivate. ..
  15. Herpesviruses in Vestibular Neuritis
    JEFFREY VRABEC; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information can help determine why some individuals with latent virus in the vestibular ganglion develop clinical symptoms due to reactivation and some do not. ..
  16. HHV-6 and CNS disease following stem cell transplant
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Data from this project will not only inform current diagnosis of and prognosis for HHV-6 CNS dysfunction, but will also be used to design an intervention trial. ..
  17. DEFINING PRIMARY HHV-6 AND HHV7 INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will also give me the opportunity to develop the required skills to perform clinical research and to reach my long term goal; to become an independent investigator in an academic institution. ..
  18. Anti-Viral Gene Delivery in the Nervous System
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Gene Expression in Acute and Chronic Neurologic Disease
    Donald Gilden; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This concerted effort is focused on prospective studies to delineate the cause, pathogenesis and eventual prevention of viral and demyelinating diseases of the human nervous system. ..
  20. A Novel Genetic Therapy for Herpes Keratitis
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An ex vivo model of HSV-1 reactivation in explanted mouse trigeminal ganglia is proposed as an efficient means for determining effective strategies for the delay or inhibition of reactivation. ..
  21. Spontaneous Lytic Replication of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..2. Analyze the X219 genome to identify genetic differences compared to the parental virus. 3. Determine the genotype of X219 responsible for the phenotype of spontaneous lytic replication. ..
  22. NEUROIMMUNOLOGY OF AED IN OCULAR HSV-1 INFECTION
    Daniel Carr; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  23. Oral-Pharyngeal HHV-8 Infection
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. IL-6 IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 OCULAR REACTIVATION
    JOHN KRIESEL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Novel and specific viral mutants will be constructed based on the results of HSV-DNA binding and transient expression assays. ..
  25. Transmission and Acquisition of KSHV
    Jeffrey Vieira; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..2. To investigate the transmission of KSHV across the oral mucosa using in vitro organ culture models. 3. To determine the cells of oral mucosa organ cultures that are sites of primary KSHV infection. ..
  26. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CMV AND SIV IN RHESUS MACAQUES
    Amitinder Kaur; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aim #3: To examine mechanisms of restoration of CMV-specific immunity in SIV-infected macaques treated with HAART. ..
  27. Computer Simulation of Epstein Barr Virus Infection
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e. cure) of the virus is realistic or even possible. ..
  28. THE ROLE OF APOPTOTIC MOLECULES IN HERPETIC STROMAL
    Patrick M Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This is important because the more inflammation that occurs the worse will be damage to the cornea. In addition, we will test a potential therapy that is designed to further control and possibly prevent inflammation. ..
  29. VZV Receptors and Infective Mechanisms
    Anne Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It may also make it possible to develop a safer and more efficacious vaccine. ..
  30. AMELIORATION OF RECURRENT HERPES KERATITIS
    PATRICK STUART; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Furthermore, these studies could possibly suggest more effective immunotherapies designed to ameliorate human HSK disease. ..
  31. Novel RNase-based Immunotoxin for CD74-positive B-cell Malignancies
    Chien Hsing Chang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. HTS for inhibitors of HIV-1 latency establishement
    Olaf Kutsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this application, we propose to perform drug screening for inhibitors of latency formation with the mid- to long-tem goal of developing drugs to be used in HIV-1 therapy with the intention of viral eradication. ..
  33. Under the Skin: Understanding the Role of Stress and Immune Function in Health Di
    JENNIFER DOWD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will test whether these immune and infection markers are related to psychosocial and economic stressors and whether they mediate the relationship between SES and health outcomes including mortality. ..
  34. FUNCTIONS FOR HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ICP22 AND US1.5
    Bernard Roizman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In all instances a key question to be resolved is the contribution of each of these functions of ICP22 to the biology of the virus in the experimental animal host. ..
  35. Early cellular immune responses to EBV
    Sumita Bhaduri McIntosh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It is also expected to enhance the understanding of EBV lymphoproliferative diseases and have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OF VARICELLA VIRUS
    Charles Grose; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These proposed VZV studies will provide further insight into the multiple functions of gE and the gE:gI complex. ..
  37. OCULAR PATHOGENESIS AND THERAPY OF BACTERIAL KERATITIS
    James Hill; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  38. Neuroimmune Modulation of Virus Immunity In Aging
    Raymond Stowe; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These data will subsequently be used to support an R01 application to develop a mechanistic investigation on how neuroendocrine hormones modulate herpesvirus-specific immunity in the elderly. ..
  39. REGULATION OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS GENE EXPRESSION
    Mark Stinski; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will investigate the functions of this replication defective HCMV in activation of viral or cellular gene expression and compare these functions to those of the 1E72 and 1E86 proteins. ..
  40. SUBCLINICAL CMV INFECTION AFTER MARROW TRANSPLANTATION
    William Nichols; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This award will support my first step towards obtaining my long-term career goal, which is to be a proficient clinical investigator for infections in the immunocompromised host. ..
  41. CONTROL OF VIRAL RNA SYNTHESIS IN HERPES VIRUS INFECTION
    TIMOTHY OSBORNE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will also study kinetic modifications of expression of the VP19 capsid protein, the virion trans- activating protein, and the immediate-early ICP 27 promoter. ..
  42. Intervention for Colorectal Cancer
    Charles Bennett; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed interventions will improve the standard Veterans Affairs colorectal cancer screening protocol and will provide a model for methods and materials to increase screening rates in other settings. ..
  43. Rational Design of Peptide-Based Tumor Vaccine
    WILSON MENG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The research proposed will also benefit the development of peptide-based vaccines for viral and microbial infections. ..
  44. NOVEL THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME
    H Deeg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Optimization of therapy, in turn, should reduce morbidity and mortality associated with MDS and improve the quality of life of patients with MDS. ..
  45. HIV VPX/VPR STRUCTURE/FUNCTION
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..What are the roles of Vpr/x Interactive Cellular Proteins in HIV Infection? a. What is the role of li interaction with Vpx? b. Are there other Vpx- interactive proteins, and do they interact with Vpr? ..
  46. PEDIATRICS AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP
    Anne Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We have competent, outstanding staff whose aim is not only to provide compassionate medical care to HIV-infected patients but also to perform meaningful and useful research on prevention and treatment of HIV infection. ..
  47. HIV1 ASSEMBLY MECHANISM AND INHIBITION
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In each case, they will examine the effects on membrane interactions and the structure and expression of extracellular virions, as well as identify the domains in Pr55gag that are critical for regulation by Vif or Vpu. ..
  48. FAS L INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN CORNEA TRANSPLANTATION
    PATRICK STUART; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Consequently, we propose studies to better define the role that Fas and FasL play in corneal neovascularization. ..
  49. HIV/SIV Vpx-Invariant chain Interaction
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will map the domains of SIVmac Vpx that are critical for nuclear localization and li interaction. Mutant SIVmac Vpx selectively missing each activity will then be studied by infection of rhesus macaques. ..
  50. A GFP Based HTS Assay for HIV-1 Tat Inhibitors (RMI)
    Olaf Kutsch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In this application, we propose to transfer the reporter assay to a 384-weil plate format and to establish several counter-screen and verification assays that will allow for the rapid and reliable screen of large compound libraries. ..
  51. Cell immune responses in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys
    Amitinder Kaur; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Lactococcal vaccine for strep throat
    Bruce Geller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..pyogenes ..
  53. DISSECTION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ICPO
    Bernard Roizman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The experimental design includes identification of the products of alternative splicing and characterization of the role of the ligands in infection. ..
  54. Role of phage in expression & transmission of STX genes
    David Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Viral Model for Neuroimmune Interaction in Brain
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. EXPERIMENTAL PATHOGENESIS & THERAPY OF OCULAR ADENOVIRUS
    Y Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, a better understanding of antiviral resistance and the innate immune host defenses will enable us to optimize our therapeutic options against this significant ocular pathogen. ..
  57. Training of Claflin Minorities at the USC Cancer Center
    Omar Bagasra; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The PIs of these projects will be Dr. Omar Bagasra of Claflin University, and Dr. Kim E. Creek of the SCCC. ..
  58. Biology and Function of anti-HSV CD8 T Cells
    Stephen Jennings; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Greater insight into CD8 T cell biology will result from these studies. ..
  59. HTLV Receptor Identification and Characterization
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Lastly, we will determine if the identified cDNA enhances HTLV-1 envelope binding to murine cell lines, and whether this allows HTLV replication and/or immortalization of murine T cells. ..
  60. Interaction between influenza virus and H. influenzae
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This could be particularly important during an influenza pandemic and may be more broadly applicable to other respiratory viruses. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Chemo/Antiretroviral therapy for HTLV-1 ATLL
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. DEVELOPMENTAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF FETAL BRAIN TO CMV
    Peter Barry; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  63. Gene expression in non-functional CD8 T cells
    Sally Sarawar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The data are likely to lead to a new understanding of how CD8 T cells function in the control of persistent viral infections and mechanisms of CD8 T cell activation. ..
  64. Interaction of HIV gp120 & G protein coupled receptors
    Lee Ratner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  65. MATURATION OF HERPESVIRAL NUCLEAR PROTEINS
    David Knipe; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies should provide information that is important for designing antiviral strategies for HSV and for engineering HSV-2 strains for genital herpes vaccines. ..
  66. MHC Restricted Immunotherapeutic Targets in AML
    Dean Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..I anticipate that this translational research could lead directly to clinical trials evaluating antigen specific active (vaccines) or passive (adoptive transfer) immunotherapy for AML. ..
  67. LSRII Four Laser Analytical Flow Cytometer
    David Thorley Lawson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This renders the acquisition of a new LSR II essential, if we are to meet the flow cytometry needs, both in time and available technology, for the community of NIH funded researchers at TUSM and T-NEMC. [unreadable] [unreadable]..