Genomes and Genes
Summary: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percent body fat.
Publications326 found, 100 shown here
- Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balanceEliza B Geer
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
Gend Med 6:60-75. 2009Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance...
- Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristicsElisabeth Le Bihan-Duval
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA, UR83 Recherches Avicoles, F 37380 Nouzilly, France
BMC Genet 9:53. 2008..The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers...
- Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid metabolism?Amany K Elshorbagy
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 88:738-46. 2008..of cystathionine beta-synthase-deficient homocystinuria and the positive association of plasma total cysteine (tCys) with body mass index (BMI) suggest that total homocysteine (tHcy) and tCys are associated with body composition.
- Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adultsKatherine M Flegal
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 89:500-8. 2009..Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-stature ratio (WSR) are considered to be possible proxies for adiposity...
- Sexual dimorphism of body compositionJonathan C K Wells
Pediatric Nutrition Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:415-30. 2007Sexual dimorphism in human body composition is evident from fetal life, but emerges primarily during puberty. At birth, males have a similar fat mass to females but are longer and have greater lean mass...
- Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public healthT Lobstein
IASO International Obesity TaskForce, 231 North Gower Street, London NW1 2NS, UK
Obes Rev 5:4-104. 2004
- Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capitalCesar G Victora
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
Lancet 371:340-57. 2008..Its prevention will probably bring about important health, educational, and economic benefits. Chronic diseases are especially common in undernourished children who experience rapid weight gain after infancy...
- Genome-wide association study identifies Loci for body composition and structural soundness traits in pigsBin Fan
Department of Animal Science and Center for Integrated Animal Genomics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e14726. 2011..The recent completion of the swine genome sequencing project and development of a high density porcine SNP array has made genome-wide association (GWA) studies feasible in pigs...
- Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differencesM Mohsen Ibrahim
Cardiology Department, Cairo University, 1 El Sherifein Street, Abdeen, Cairo 11111, Egypt
Obes Rev 11:11-8. 2010..VAT carries a greater prediction of mortality than SCAT...
- Intrahepatic fat, not visceral fat, is linked with metabolic complications of obesityElisa Fabbrini
Center for Human Nutrition and Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15430-5. 2009..Furthermore, alterations in tissue fatty acid transport could be involved in the pathogenesis of ectopic triglyceride accumulation by redirecting plasma fatty acid uptake from adipose tissue toward other tissues...
- Body composition, visceral fat, leptin, and insulin resistance in Asian Indian menM A Banerji
Department of Medicine, State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn 11203, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:137-44. 1999..Increased visceral fat is related to dyslipidemia and increased frequency of insulin resistance and may account for the increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians...
- Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationshipP Deurenberg
Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Obes Rev 3:141-6. 2002..Hence, the relationship between BF% and BMI is ethnic-specific. For comparisons of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups, universal BMI cut-off points are not appropriate...
- A regulatory mutation in IGF2 causes a major QTL effect on muscle growth in the pigAnne Sophie Van Laere
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 597, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
Nature 425:832-6. 2003..The result supports the long-held view that regulatory mutations are important for controlling phenotypic variation...
- Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesityChristian Dina
CNRS 8090 Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France
Nat Genet 39:724-6. 2007..The at-risk haplotype yields a proportion of attributable risk of 22% for common obesity. We conclude that FTO contributes to human obesity and hence may be a target for subsequent functional analyses...
- Relationship of obesity with osteoporosisLan Juan Zhao
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Missouri Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:1640-6. 2007..Previous analyses, however, did not control for the mechanical loading effects of total body weight on bone mass and may have generated a confounded or even biased relationship between obesity and osteoporosis...
- Objectively measured physical activity and fat mass in a large cohort of childrenAndy R Ness
Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, United Kingdom
PLoS Med 4:e97. 2007..Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity...
- The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition studyBret H Goodpaster
Department of Medicine, MUH N809, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61:1059-64. 2006..The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking...
- Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese geneJ L Halaas
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockfeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 269:543-6. 1995..2 to 0.7 percent. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores...
- Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general populationA Romero-Corral
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, MN 55905, USA
Int J Obes (Lond) 32:959-66. 2008..Body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure to diagnose obesity. However, the accuracy of BMI in detecting excess body adiposity in the adult general population is largely unknown...
- Beyond body mass indexA M Prentice
MRC International Nutrition Group, Public Health Nutrition Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 49 51 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK
Obes Rev 2:141-7. 2001..We argue that BMI continues to serve well for many purposes, but that the time is now right to initiate a gradual evolution beyond BMI towards standards based on actual measurements of body fat mass...
- Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT)Scott A Lear
School of Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Am J Clin Nutr 86:353-9. 2007..Previous studies have not adequately investigated differences in discrete regions of abdominal adiposity across ethnic groups...
- The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: a key site for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activityRoberto Coppari
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Cell Metab 1:63-72. 2005..These data demonstrate that leptin signaling in the ARH is sufficient for mediating leptin's effects on glucose homeostasis and locomotor activity...
- Body composition in healthy agingR N Baumgartner
Division of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque 87131, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 904:437-48. 2000..These nonfat components of body composition play critical roles, influencing cognitive and physical functional status, nutritional and endocrine status, ..
- Infant growth and later body composition: evidence from the 4-component modelSirinuch Chomtho
The Medical Research Council, Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 87:1776-84. 2008..Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with higher body mass index in later life, but its relation with individual body-composition components remains unclear...
- Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass indexS C Savva
Research and Education Program of Child Health, Cyprus
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:1453-8. 2000..Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults...
- Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trialJoanna McMillan-Price
Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Arch Intern Med 166:1466-75. 2006..Despite the popularity of low-glycemic index (GI) and high-protein diets, to our knowledge no randomized, controlled trials have systematically compared their relative effects on weight loss and cardiovascular risk...
- Diet-induced obesity causes severe but reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neuronsPablo J Enriori
Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
Cell Metab 5:181-94. 2007..These results highlight the physiological importance of leptin sensing in the melanocortin circuits and show that their loss of leptin sensing likely contributes to the pathology of leptin resistance...
- Obesity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome in older men and womenBret H Goodpaster
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Arch Intern Med 165:777-83. 2005..We determined whether patterns of regional fat deposition are associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults...
- Decreased muscle strength and quality in older adults with type 2 diabetes: the health, aging, and body composition studySeok Won Park
Department of Internal Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Pochon, Korea
Diabetes 55:1813-8. 2006..and muscle mass in 485 older adults with diabetes and 2,133 without diabetes in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study...
- Attenuation of skeletal muscle and strength in the elderly: The Health ABC StudyB H Goodpaster
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
J Appl Physiol (1985) 90:2157-65. 2001..yr participating in baseline studies of the Health ABC Study, a longitudinal study of health, aging, and body composition. Strength was higher in men than in women (132.3 +/- 34.5 vs. 81.4 +/- 22.0 N x m, P < 0.01)...
- Visceral fat is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in menJennifer L Kuk
School of Physical and Health Education, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:336-41. 2006..To examine the independent associations of abdominal fat (visceral and subcutaneous) and liver fat with all-cause mortality...
- Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE--a randomized controlled studyCris A Slentz
Divisions of Cardiology, Geriatric Medicine, and General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke Center for Living, Center for Health Policy Research, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Arch Intern Med 164:31-9. 2004..Obesity is a major health problem due, in part, to physical inactivity. The amount of activity needed to prevent weight gain is unknown...
- Programming of body composition by early growth and nutritionJonathan C K Wells
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Proc Nutr Soc 66:423-34. 2007..postnatal growth for such associations remains controversial. Body composition may play a key role in the 'programming' of such diseases, through itself being programmed by early growth, ..
- Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body compositionBrian A Irving
Department of Human Services, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1863-72. 2008..The metabolic syndrome is a complex clustering of metabolic defects associated with physical inactivity, abdominal adiposity, and aging...
- Metformin in gestational diabetes: the offspring follow-up (MiG TOFU): body composition at 2 years of ageJanet A Rowan
Department of Obstetrics, National Women s Health, Auckland, New Zealand
Diabetes Care 34:2279-84. 2011..Metformin crosses the placenta, so it is important to assess potential effects on growth of the children...
- Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity SocietyDennis T Villareal
Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Obes Res 13:1849-63. 2005..Therefore, weight-loss therapy that minimizes muscle and bone losses is recommended for older persons who are obese and who have functional impairments or medical complications that can benefit from weight loss...
- Variations in infant feeding practice are associated with body composition in childhood: a prospective cohort studySian M Robinson
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:2799-805. 2009Most studies of infant diet and later body composition focus on milk feeding; few consider the influence of variations in the weaning diet.
- Fetal programming and adult healthK M Godfrey
MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, UK
Public Health Nutr 4:611-24. 2001..Although the influences that impair fetal development and programme adult cardiovascular disease remain to be defined, there are strong pointers to the importance of maternal body composition and dietary balance during pregnancy.
- Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age childrenLourdes Ibanez
Endocrinology Unit, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, University of Barcelona, Passeig de Sant Joan de Déu, 2, 08950 Esplugues, Barcelona, Spain
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2153-8. 2006..SETTING, DESIGN, AND PATIENTS: This was a longitudinal cohort study in low birth weight (SGA; birth weight < -2 sd; n = 29) and normal birth weight (AGA; n = 22) children from Barcelona...
- Effects of a multidisciplinary inpatient intervention on body composition, aerobic fitness, and quality of life in severely obese girls and boysBruno H KnOpfli
Alpine Children s Hospital Davos, Switzerland
J Adolesc Health 42:119-27. 2008..The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender differences of an 8-week multidisciplinary inpatient program on body weight, body composition, aerobic fitness, and quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents.
- The relationship between BMI and percent body fat, measured by bioelectrical impedance, in a large adult sample is curvilinear and influenced by age and sexS Meeuwsen
Bodystat Ltd, P O Box 50, Douglas, Isle of Man IM99 1DQ, United Kingdom
Clin Nutr 29:560-6. 2010..The study aimed to establish the effects of age, gender and age-gender interactions on BMI-% fat relationships over a wide range of BMI and age. It also aimed to examine controversies regarding linear or curvilinear BMI-% fat relationships...
- Body composition and quality of life in adults treated with GH therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysisAhmad Hazem
Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Eur J Endocrinol 166:13-20. 2012To summarise the evidence about the efficacy and safety of using GH in adults with GH deficiency focusing on quality of life and body composition.
- Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trialGeorge A Bray
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
JAMA 307:47-55. 2012..The role of diet composition in response to overeating and energy dissipation in humans is unclear...
- The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body compositionA Vrieze
Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, Room F4 159 2, 1105, AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Diabetologia 53:606-13. 2010..This review discusses the relationships between the following: composition of gut microbiota, energy extracted from diet, synthesis of gut hormones involved in energy homeostasis, production of butyrate and the regulation of fat storage...
- Evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and the conicity index as screening tools for high trunk fat mass, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in children aged 3-19 yR W Taylor
Departments of Human Nutrition, Medicine, and Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Am J Clin Nutr 72:490-5. 2000..Because adiposity tracks from childhood into adulthood, the ability of simple anthropometric techniques to correctly measure truncal adiposity in childhood needs to be assessed...
- The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopauseMolly C Carr
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 6426, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2404-11. 2003..A better understanding of these metabolic changes with menopause will aid in the recognition and treatment of women at risk for future CVD, leading to appropriate interventions...
- Effect of a multistage ultra-endurance triathlon on body composition: World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006B Knechtle
Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland
Br J Sports Med 42:121-5; discussion 125. 2008To investigate the effect of a multistage ultra-endurance triathlon on body composition in ultra-triathletes.
- Total-body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry methodJaehee Kim
Obesity Research Center, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital and the Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10025, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 76:378-83. 2002..A large proportion of total-body SM is found in the extremities, and a large proportion of extremity lean soft tissue is SM. A strong link should thus exist between appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST) mass and total-body SM mass...
- The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight lossPetra Stiegler
Department of Human and Health Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK
Sports Med 36:239-62. 2006..Exercise training is associated with an increase in energy expenditure, thus promoting changes in body composition and bodyweight while keeping dietary intake constant...
- Contributions of total body fat, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments, and visceral adipose tissue to the metabolic complications of obesityS R Smith
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
Metabolism 50:425-35. 2001..375). These data suggest that total body fat is a major contributor to the metabolic sequelae of obesity, with specific fat depots, VAT, and DSAT also making significant contributions...
- BMI, fat mass, abdominal adiposity and visceral fat: where is the 'beef'?C Bouchard
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
Int J Obes (Lond) 31:1552-3. 2007
- Time spent being sedentary and weight gain in healthy adults: reverse or bidirectional causality?Ulf Ekelund
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 88:612-7. 2008..Whether obesity is a cause or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle has not yet been fully elucidated, which leaves uncertainty about the direction of causality...
- Body composition in psychotic disorders: a general population surveyS E Saarni
National Public Health Institute, Department for Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
Psychol Med 39:801-10. 2009..We examined the detailed body composition of people with different psychotic disorders in a large population-based sample.
- Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry body composition reference values from NHANESThomas L Kelly
Hologic, Inc, Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
PLoS ONE 4:e7038. 2009....
- A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adultsKim S Stote
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Beltsville, MD, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 85:981-8. 2007..A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested...
- Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a reviewDavid A Fields
Department of Internal Medicine, The Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University, St Louis, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 75:453-67. 2002..Wide intersubject variations between methods are partly attributed to technical precision and biological error but to a large extent remain unexplained. On the basis of this review, future research goals are suggested...
- Programmed obesity in intrauterine growth-restricted newborns: modulation by newborn nutritionMina Desai
Perinatal Research Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Torrance, CA, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R91-6. 2005..of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns...
- Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly menA W van den Beld
Department of Internal Medicine III, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:3276-82. 2000..study of 403 independently living elderly men, we tested the hypothesis that the decreases in bone mass, body composition, and muscle strength with age are related to the fall in circulating endogenous testosterone (T) and estrogen ..
- A critique of the expression of paediatric body composition dataJ C Wells
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Arch Dis Child 85:67-72. 2001There is increasing interest in body composition in paediatric research, as distinct from growth and nutritional status, as almost all diseases have adverse effects on either fatness or the fat-free mass...
- Pediatric reference data for lean tissue properties: density and hydration from age 5 to 20 yJonathan C K Wells
Institute of Child Health, London, UK
Am J Clin Nutr 91:610-8. 2010Hydrometry and densitometry are widely used to assess pediatric body composition due to their ease of application...
- Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescentsBernard Gutin
Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 81:746-50. 2005..It is unclear how moderate and vigorous intensities of physical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and percentage of body fat (%BF) in adolescents...
- Age and sex effects on the association between body composition and bone mineral density in healthy Chinese men and womenQun Cheng
Shanghai Geriatric Institute, Department of Osteoporosis, Research Section of Geriatric Metabolic Bone Disease, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
Menopause 19:448-55. 2012Many studies have examined the relationships between body composition and bone mineral density (BMD), but little attention has been given to how these relationships vary by age and sex...
- Effects of metformin on body weight and body composition in obese insulin-resistant children: a randomized clinical trialJack A Yanovski
Unit on Growth and Obesity, Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Diabetes 60:477-85. 2011..Our objective was to determine whether metformin treatment causes weight loss and improves obesity-related comorbidities in obese children, who are insulin-resistant...
- Metabolic benefits of resistance training and fast glycolytic skeletal muscleNathan K Lebrasseur
Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300:E3-10. 2011..that increase muscle mass and glycolytic capacity, and not necessarily oxidative competence, can improve body composition and systemic metabolism...
- Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition StudyLisa H Colbert
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Am Geriatr Soc 52:1098-104. 2004..To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use...
- DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine statusKevin D Sinclair
School of Biosciences and School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19351-6. 2007....
- Limits of body mass index to detect obesity and predict body compositionD C Frankenfield
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Penn State s Milton S Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Nutrition 17:26-30. 2001..In this study, we determined how accurately BMI could determine body composition and identify obese from non-obese individuals...
- Race and sex effects on the association between muscle strength, soft tissue, and bone mineral density in healthy elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition StudyD R Taaffe
Epidemiology, Demography and Biometry Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Bone Miner Res 16:1343-52. 2001Two factors generally reported to influence bone density are body composition and muscle strength. However, it is unclear if these relationships are consistent across race and sex, especially in older persons...
- Resistance training and reduction of treatment side effects in prostate cancer patientsDaniel A Galvão
School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia
Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:2045-52. 2006To examine the effect of progressive resistance training on muscle function, functional performance, balance, body composition, and muscle thickness in men receiving androgen deprivation for prostate cancer.
- Cortisol levels and measures of body composition in middle-aged and older menThomas G Travison
New England Research Institutes, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67:71-7. 2007..We undertook an analysis to determine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between body composition and serum cortisol concentrations in a randomly chosen group of 999 community-dwelling men, aged 40-79 years.
- Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspringChristy L White
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R1464-72. 2009..Together, these data suggest that maternal adiposity, and not dietary fat per se, induces hyperleptinemia and insulin resistance in offspring, as well as an increased body weight that persists into adulthood...
- Beneficial effects of individualized physical activity on prescription on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors: results from a randomized controlled trialLena V Kallings
Department of Neurobiology, Health Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 16:80-4. 2009..Insufficient physical activity (PA), overweight and abdominal obesity are increasing global public health problems...
- Early life origins of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countriesC S Yajnik
Diabetes Unit, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Research Center, Rasta Peth, Pune 411011, India
J Nutr 134:205-10. 2004..This thin-fat phenotype is present at birth. Neonatal size and body composition are influenced by parental size, maternal food intake, physical activity and circulating concentrations of ..
- Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adultsElaine C Rush
Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, AUT University, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1020, New Zealand
Br J Nutr 102:632-41. 2009..Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking...
- Metabolic and body composition factors in subgroups of obesity: what do we know?Antony D Karelis
Departement de Nutrition, Unité métabolique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1A8
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2569-75. 2004..The purpose of this review was to investigate the roles of metabolic, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk in subtypes of obesity...
- Rheumatoid cachexia, central obesity and malnutrition in patients with low-active rheumatoid arthritis: feasibility of anthropometry, Mini Nutritional Assessment and body composition techniquesAnn Charlotte Elkan
Department of Rheumatology, R92, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden
Eur J Nutr 48:315-22. 2009..The objectives of this study were to evaluate body composition and nutritional status in patients with RA and the feasibility of bioelectrical impedance (BIA) to detect ..
- Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I treatment inhibits gluconeogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitusPatricia Pennisi
Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Betheda, MD 20892, USA
Endocrinology 147:2619-30. 2006..rhIGF-I treatment also increased body weight in MKR with concomitant changes in body composition such as a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass...
- Long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on circulating ghrelin and leptin concentrations and body composition in prepubertal childrenLucia Pacifico
Department of Pediatrics, La Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy
Eur J Endocrinol 158:323-32. 2008..This finding raises the possibility that the infection might affect growth in children by reducing the ghrelin production...
- The role of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor-IClaes Ohlsson
Division of Endocrinology, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
Endocr Rev 30:494-535. 2009..All of the described multiple endocrine effects of liver-derived IGF-I should be considered in the development of possible novel treatment strategies aimed at increasing or reducing endocrine IGF-I activity...
- Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: a statement for professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology FoundSamuel Klein
Circulation 110:2952-67. 2004..The data demonstrate that weight loss and physical activity can prevent and treat obesity-related coronary heart disease risk factors and should be considered a primary therapy for obese patients with cardiovascular disease...
- Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the Health, Aging and Body Composition StudyAnne B Newman
Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 82:872-8; quiz 915-6. 2005..Weight loss may contribute to the loss of lean mass with age...
- Prenatal high protein exposure decreases energy expenditure and increases adiposity in young ratsMaren Daenzer
Department Biochemistry and Physiology of Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition, 14558 Bergholz Rehbrucke, Germany
J Nutr 132:142-4. 2002..05). Postnatal HP alone had no significant effect on body composition or metabolic rate...
- Regulation of adiponectin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: relationship to body composition and metabolic indicesQiang Tong
Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1559-64. 2003..control subjects). Adiponectin concentrations correlated with body composition [correlation coefficient (r) = -0.47, P = 0.002 vs. trunk fat:total fat; r = 0.51, P < 0.001 vs...
- Phase II open label study of valproic acid in spinal muscular atrophyKathryn J Swoboda
Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics, Neonatology and General Clinical Research Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America
PLoS ONE 4:e5268. 2009..maximum ulnar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), body composition and bone density via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and quantitative blood SMN mRNA levels...
- Increases in serum leptin levels during peritoneal dialysis are associated with inflammation and a decrease in lean body massP Stenvinkel
Division of Renal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
J Am Soc Nephrol 11:1303-9. 2000..is not clear, and it is not known whether elevated leptin levels contribute to uremic anorexia and changes in body composition. In this prospective study, serum leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma insulin, and body composition (..
- Similarity of changes in body composition in intensive care patients following severe sepsis or major blunt injuryL D Plank
University Department of Surgery, Auckland Hospital, New Zealand
Ann N Y Acad Sci 904:592-602. 2000..admitted to the intensive care unit with severe sepsis or major blunt injury undergo massive changes in body composition. We compared these changes in 12 patients with generalized peritonitis, and in 18 patients with major blunt ..
- Adjustment of fat-free mass and fat mass for height in children aged 8 yJ C K Wells
MRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:947-52. 2002To explore the relationships between height and (a) fat-free mass (FFM) and (b) fat mass (FM) in children in order to determine the optimum means of adjusting body composition for height.
- Dutch obesity intervention in teenagers: effectiveness of a school-based program on body composition and behaviorAmika S Singh
Department of Public Health, VU University Medical Center, EMGO Institute, Van der Boechorststraat 7, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163:309-17. 2009..health promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents (defined as persons between 12 and 14 years of age) would be successful in influencing body composition and dietary and physical activity behavior in both the short and long terms.
- Effects of physical training on body composition and organ weights in ovariectomized and hyperestrogenic ratsM Shinoda
Dokkyo University, School of Medicine, Mibu machi, Tochigi 321 0293, Japan
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:335-43. 2002..To investigate whether regular endurance-type exercise can benefit rats submitted to a model of ovariectomy (OVX)-induced obesity with or without estrogen replacement...
- Increased muscle PGC-1alpha expression protects from sarcopenia and metabolic disease during agingTina Wenz
Department of Neurology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL33136, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20405-10. 2009....
- A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adultsDonald K Layman
University of Illinois, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
J Nutr 139:514-21. 2009..45%, P < 0.05) with greater improvement in body composition; however, weight loss did not differ between groups (-10.4 +/- 1.2 kg vs. -8.4 +/- 0.9 kg; P = 0.18)...
- Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weightMichael Rosenbaum
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 115:3579-86. 2005..These responses suggest that the weight-reduced state may be regarded as a condition of relative leptin insufficiency. Prevention of weight regain might be achievable by strategies relevant to reversing this leptin-insufficient state...
- Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry studyA Goulding
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand
J Pediatr 139:509-15. 2001..with distal forearm fractures differ from fracture-free control subjects in bone mineral density (BMD) or body composition. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control study of 100 patients with fractures (aged 3 to 19 years) and l00 age-matched ..
- Most of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, cathepsin S, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, nerve growth factor, and interleukin 18 release by explants of human adipose tissue is by the non-fat cells, not by the adipocytesJohn N Fain
Department of Molecular Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Metabolism 55:1113-21. 2006..Our results suggest that the non-fat cells in human adipose tissue contribute to most of the release of NGF, IL-18, IL-1Ra, cathepsin S, and MIF seen during primary culture of adipose tissue explants from obese women...
- Sarcopenia, obesity, and inflammation--results from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors studyMatteo Cesari
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 82:428-34. 2005..Age-related body-composition changes are associated with health-related outcomes in elders. This relation may be explained by inflammation and hemostatic abnormalities...
- A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndromeH Masuzaki
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
Science 294:2166-70. 2001..Increased adipocyte 11beta HSD-1 activity may be a common molecular etiology for visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
- Body composition estimates from NHANES III bioelectrical impedance dataW C Chumlea
Department of Community Health, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio, USA
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:1596-609. 2002b>Body composition estimates for the US population are important in order to analyze trends in obesity, sarcopenia and other weight-related health conditions. National body composition estimates have not previously been available.
- Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79: the health, aging and body composition studyMarjolein Visser
Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Am Geriatr Soc 50:897-904. 2002..Our aim was to determine whether low leg muscle mass and greater fat infiltration in the muscle were associated with poor lower extremity performance (LEP)...
- Effects of identical weight loss on body composition and features of insulin resistance in obese women with high and low liver fat contentMirja Tiikkainen
Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Helsinki, FIN 00029 HUCH, Helsinki, Finland
Diabetes 52:701-7. 2003..These data suggest that LFAT is regulated by factors other than intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Therefore, LFAT does not appear to simply reflect the size of endogenous fat stores...
- Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activityHendrik J F Helmerhorst
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
Diabetes 58:1776-9. 2009....
- Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat dietNora Chen
Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia
Nutr Res 29:784-93. 2009..long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was ..
- ANABOLIC THERAPIES AND THEIR METABOLIC EFFECTS IN AIDSMorris Schambelan; Fiscal Year: 1993..In the studies proposed herein, we will measure body composition (nitrogen and electrolyte balance, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, D(2)O dilution),..
- Metabolic Abnormalities in HIVDominic Reeds; Fiscal Year: 2007..and training plan to develop expertise in the assessment of whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism, and body composition in patients with HIV infection who are assigned one of three class-sparing Highly Active Anti-Retroviral ..
- A New QMR-based Technique for Body Composition Analysis in infantsGERSH TAICHER; Fiscal Year: 2007Accurate assessment and tracking of infant body composition is useful for evaluating the amount and quality of weight gain, which can provide key information in both clinical and research settings...
- Bone Marrow Adiposity, Bone and Body CompositionANN V contact SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010..A better understanding of the process underlying the accumulation of marrow fat with age and osteoporosis may provide new targets for treatments to prevent bone loss. ..
- Mechanisms of Testosterone ActionShalendar Bhasin; Fiscal Year: 2010..muscle mass and strength, and decreases fat mass in men, but the mechanisms by which testosterone regulates body composition are poorly understood...
- Prenatal stress biology, infant body composition and obesity riskSonja Entringer; Fiscal Year: 2010..is to examine the influence of adverse intrauterine conditions, or prenatal stress, on newborn and infant body composition and obesity risk. Obesity is one of the most important health issues facing our nation...
- Physical Activity Following Surgery-Induced Weight LossBret Goodpaster; Fiscal Year: 2009..loss + physical activity will provide additive (and thus independent) positive effects on: 1) weight loss and body composition; 2) metabolic risk factors such as insulin action and other markers of the metabolic syndrome; and 3) markers ..
- Assisted Exercise in Prematurity: Effects and MechanismsDan Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2007..which state-of-the-art, minimally invasive techniques using bone and muscle ultrasound will be used to assess body composition and compared with dual x-ray absorptiometry...
- Mechanisms of Cancer Treatment Related SymptomsLisa J Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010..decreased appetite, sleep disturbance, difficulty thinking, anemia, pain, depressed mood and changes in body composition. These symptoms can greatly influence the subjective sensation of cancer treatment related fatigue (CTRF) ..
- Regulation of Maternal Fuel Supply and Neonatal AdiposityLinda Barbour; Fiscal Year: 2010..that maternal obesity and diabetes create an intrauterine environment promoting fetal overgrowth which alters body composition at birth and may potentiate the risk of childhood obesity...
- Body Composition & REE Responses to Bariatric SurgeriesDympna Gallagher; Fiscal Year: 2007Important unanswered questions surround the nature of body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) after substantial and sustained weight loss by severely obese persons...
- EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND OVARIAN FUNCTIONBarbara Sternfeld; Fiscal Year: 2001Vigorous physical training, either independently or in conjunction with factors such as weight, body composition and/or energy intake, is associated with various disruptions in ovarian function, including oligo/amenorrhea, shortened ..
- Limiting Weight Gain in Overweight Pregnant Women: Effects on Mother and ChildMatthew Gillman; Fiscal Year: 2009..Unfortunately, the funding for this trial is not sufficient to collect data on body composition and cardio-metabolic outcomes for mother and child...
- Metabolic and Nutritional Effects of ART in ChildrenMeera Chhagan; Fiscal Year: 2009..Specific aims of this study are to: 1) describe growth and body composition changes in the 2 years following initiation of ART; 2) describe the incidence of metabolic derangements and ..
- Limiting Weight Gain in Overweight Pregnant Women: Effects on Mother and ChildMatthew W Gillman; Fiscal Year: 2010..Unfortunately, the funding for this trial is not sufficient to collect data on body composition and cardio-metabolic outcomes for mother and child...
- Metabolic and Nutritional Effects of ART in ChildrenMeera Chhagan; Fiscal Year: 2007..Specific aims of this study are to: 1) describe growth and body composition changes in the 2 years following initiation of ART; 2) describe the incidence of metabolic derangements and ..
- Weight Loss and Exercise in Frail Obese Elderly SubjectsDENNIS VILLAREAL; Fiscal Year: 2007..are to evaluate the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise on physical function, body composition, bone and muscle metabolism, and quality of life in frail, obese elderly men and women...
- Fluoride & Other Factors in Childhood and Adolescent Bone DevelopmentSteven Levy; Fiscal Year: 2009..collect age 15 and 17 bone, fluoride intake and dietary, alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, maturity, and body composition data...
- Fluoride & Other Factors in Childhood and Adolescent Bone DevelopmentSteven M Levy; Fiscal Year: 2010..collect age 15 and 17 bone, fluoride intake and dietary, alcohol, tobacco, physical activity, maturity, and body composition data...
- Genetic and Environmental Influences on Childhood GrowthBradford Towne; Fiscal Year: 2006..at regular intervals from approximately 900 boys and girls a comprehensive battery of growth, maturation, body composition, and health status measures, as well as information on specific environmental factors that likely impact the ..