maxilla

Summary

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Bone graft remodelling and implant success rate in the treatment of the severely resorbed maxilla: a 5-year longitudinal study
    E Nystrom
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Umeaå, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 31:158-64. 2002
  2. ncbi Immediate functional loading of implants placed with flapless surgery in the edentulous maxilla: 1-year follow-up of a single cohort study
    Gioacchino Cannizzaro
    Department of Dentistry and Maxillo Facial Surgery, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22:87-95. 2007
  3. ncbi A clinical and histologic evaluation of implant integration in the posterior maxilla after sinus floor augmentation with autogenous bone, bovine hydroxyapatite, or a 20:80 mixture
    Mats Hallman
    Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Public Health Service, Gävle City, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17:635-43. 2002
  4. ncbi Short implants in the severely resorbed maxilla: a 2-year retrospective clinical study
    Franck Renouard
    Department of Periodontology, Paris VII University, Paris, France
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 7:S104-10. 2005
  5. ncbi Trial with Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Bio-Oss used as grafting materials in the treatment of the severe maxillar bone atrophy: clinical and radiological evaluations
    F Inchingolo
    School in Dental Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, University Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14:1075-84. 2010
  6. ncbi Single implants in the anterior maxilla after 15 years of follow-up: comparison with central implants in the edentulous maxilla
    Torsten Jemt
    Department Prosthetic Dentistry Dental Material Science, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Int J Prosthodont 21:400-8. 2008
  7. ncbi Treatment effects produced by Fränkel appliance in patients with class II, division 1 malocclusion
    Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida
    Lins Dental School, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Lins City, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Angle Orthod 72:418-25. 2002
  8. doi Accuracy of three-dimensional measurements obtained from cone beam computed tomography surface-rendered images for cephalometric analysis: influence of patient scanning position
    Bassam Hassan
    Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, The Netherlands
    Eur J Orthod 31:129-34. 2009
  9. ncbi Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a 1-year prospective clinical study
    Giuseppe Cardaropoli
    Department of Periodontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Clin Oral Implants Res 17:165-71. 2006
  10. ncbi A survey of hypodontia in Japanese orthodontic patients
    Toshiya Endo
    Nippon Dental University Hospital at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 129:29-35. 2006

Detail Information

Publications271 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Bone graft remodelling and implant success rate in the treatment of the severely resorbed maxilla: a 5-year longitudinal study
    E Nystrom
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Umeaå, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 31:158-64. 2002
    ..7 mm at the 5-year examination. A substantial amount of bone can be gained in patients with extremely resorbed maxillae, when treated with bone graft according to the procedure described in this study...
  2. ncbi Immediate functional loading of implants placed with flapless surgery in the edentulous maxilla: 1-year follow-up of a single cohort study
    Gioacchino Cannizzaro
    Department of Dentistry and Maxillo Facial Surgery, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22:87-95. 2007
    ..To evaluate success rates and complications of implants placed with a flapless technique and immediately loaded in fully edentulous maxillae...
  3. ncbi A clinical and histologic evaluation of implant integration in the posterior maxilla after sinus floor augmentation with autogenous bone, bovine hydroxyapatite, or a 20:80 mixture
    Mats Hallman
    Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Public Health Service, Gävle City, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 17:635-43. 2002
    ..This study was designed to clinically and histologically evaluate the integration of titanium implants in different grafting materials used for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures...
  4. ncbi Short implants in the severely resorbed maxilla: a 2-year retrospective clinical study
    Franck Renouard
    Department of Periodontology, Paris VII University, Paris, France
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 7:S104-10. 2005
    ..predictability of endosseous dental implants is well documented, the restoration of the posterior region of the maxilla remains a challenge...
  5. ncbi Trial with Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Bio-Oss used as grafting materials in the treatment of the severe maxillar bone atrophy: clinical and radiological evaluations
    F Inchingolo
    School in Dental Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, University Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14:1075-84. 2010
    ....
  6. ncbi Single implants in the anterior maxilla after 15 years of follow-up: comparison with central implants in the edentulous maxilla
    Torsten Jemt
    Department Prosthetic Dentistry Dental Material Science, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Int J Prosthodont 21:400-8. 2008
    To present long-term clinical and radiographic data on single-implant treatment in the anterior maxilla and to compare these results with comparable data of central implants supporting fixed prostheses in the edentulous maxilla.
  7. ncbi Treatment effects produced by Fränkel appliance in patients with class II, division 1 malocclusion
    Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida
    Lins Dental School, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Lins City, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Angle Orthod 72:418-25. 2002
    ..It was concluded that the main effects of the Fränkel appliance during this time period were mostly dentoalveolar with a smaller but significant skeletal mandibular effect...
  8. doi Accuracy of three-dimensional measurements obtained from cone beam computed tomography surface-rendered images for cephalometric analysis: influence of patient scanning position
    Bassam Hassan
    Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam ACTA, The Netherlands
    Eur J Orthod 31:129-34. 2009
    ..The findings indicate that measurements based on 3D CBCT surface images are accurate and that small variations in the patient's head position do not influence measurement accuracy...
  9. ncbi Tissue alterations at implant-supported single-tooth replacements: a 1-year prospective clinical study
    Giuseppe Cardaropoli
    Department of Periodontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Clin Oral Implants Res 17:165-71. 2006
    ..The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate dimensional alterations of the peri-implant tissues at single-tooth restorations from the time of implant placement to 1-year post-loading...
  10. ncbi A survey of hypodontia in Japanese orthodontic patients
    Toshiya Endo
    Nippon Dental University Hospital at Niigata, Niigata, Japan
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 129:29-35. 2006
    ..The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of hypodontia in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, in a sample of Japanese orthodontic patients...
  11. ncbi An assessment of the accuracy of ridge-mapping in planning implant therapy for the anterior maxilla
    F Allen
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, University of Newcastle, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW, UK
    Clin Oral Implants Res 11:34-8. 2000
    The use of ridge-mapping to assess bone levels available for implant placement in the anterior maxilla avoids some of the problems associated with CT scanning...
  12. doi Management of the posterior maxilla with sinus lift: review of techniques
    Sunitha V Raja
    Department of Periodontics, Meenakshiammal Dental College, Chennai, India
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1730-4. 2009
    The posterior maxilla presents several challenges to the implant dentist. The pneumatization of the maxillary sinus is one such problem...
  13. ncbi A finite element analysis of tilted versus nontilted implant configurations in the edentulous maxilla
    Chiara M Bellini
    Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico IRCCS, Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy
    Int J Prosthodont 22:155-7. 2009
    ..The tilted configurations showed a lower absolute value of compressive stress compared with the nontilted, indicating a possible biomechanical advantage in reducing stresses at the bone-implant interface...
  14. ncbi A new rat model of maxilla allotransplantation
    Ilker Yazici
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Ann Plast Surg 58:338-44. 2007
    We developed a rat model to test the effects of vascularized maxilla allotransplantation on composite maxillary substructures...
  15. doi Frequency of agenesis, impaction, angulation, and related pathologic changes of third molar teeth in orthodontic patients
    Mevlut Celikoglu
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:990-5. 2010
    ..The objectives of the present study were to investigate the frequency of impaction, agenesis, angular position, and related pathologic changes of third molar teeth in a group of orthodontic patients...
  16. ncbi Reconstruction of the atrophic edentulous maxilla with free iliac crest grafts and implants: a 3-year report of a prospective clinical study
    Mats Sjöström
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 9:46-59. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to perform a longitudinal follow-up study of implant stability in grafted maxillae with the aid of clinical, radiological, and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) parameters...
  17. ncbi Direct implant loading in the edentulous maxilla using a bone density-adapted surgical protocol and primary implant stability criteria for inclusion
    Pär Olov Ostman
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Surgical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 7:S60-9. 2005
    Long healing periods and submerged implant placement are commonly used in the maxilla. This extends the time of oral handicap and makes the use of immediate loading protocols an attractive option...
  18. doi A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltrations
    Grace Evans
    Division of Endodontics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
    J Endod 34:389-93. 2008
    ..In conclusion, a maxillary infiltration of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine statistically improved anesthetic success when compared with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the lateral incisor but not in the first molar...
  19. doi Three-dimensional analysis of midfacial soft tissue changes according to maxillary superior movement after horizontal osteotomy of the maxilla
    Yong Il Kim
    Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
    J Craniofac Surg 21:1587-90. 2010
    ..It is essential that clinicians concerned about the management of soft tissue and the quality of treatment outcomes understand the pattern of soft tissue change after double-jaw surgery...
  20. ncbi Bone-implant contact on machined and dual acid-etched surfaces after 2 months of healing in the human maxilla
    Paolo Trisi
    J Periodontol 74:945-56. 2003
    ..This study evaluated the 2-month bone-implant contact for dual acid-etched and machined implant surfaces to determine if this criterion had been met...
  21. doi Influence of endodontic treatment, post insertion, and ceramic restoration on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars
    K Bitter
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Medicine, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Int Endod J 43:469-77. 2010
    ..To investigate the effects of endodontic treatment, post placement and ceramic restoration type on the fracture resistance of premolars...
  22. ncbi Retrospective study of maxilla growth in a Spanish population sample
    Juan Alió-Sanz
    Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 16:e271-7. 2011
    This study has been designed to evaluate the vertical and sagittal changes in the maxilla due to growth. A sample group was chosen of 38 individuals with normal occlusion, composed of 16 females and 22 males between the ages of 8 and 18...
  23. ncbi Pattern of third molar impaction in a Singapore Chinese population: a retrospective radiographic survey
    S L Quek
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 5 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119054
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 32:548-52. 2003
    ..The frequency was three-fold higher in the mandible (1024/1079=90%) than in the maxilla (306/1077=28%), with a significantly higher frequency (P<0.05) in females (56%) than males (44%)...
  24. ncbi Radiographic assessment of congenitally missing teeth in orthodontic patients
    R Silva Meza
    Department of Orthodontics, Intercontinental University, Mexico
    Int J Paediatr Dent 13:112-6. 2003
    ..To estimate the prevalence of congenitally missing teeth (CMT) in patients evaluated for orthodontic care. A sample of 668 panoramic radiographs from Mexican population was reviewed from orthodontic healthy patients, 9-20 years old...
  25. ncbi Efficiency of a pendulum appliance for molar distalization related to second and third molar eruption stage
    Gero S M Kinzinger
    Department of Orthodontics, University of Aachen, Germany
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 125:8-23. 2004
    ..09 degrees, respectively, in PG 3). Moreover, measurement of dental casts in the horizontal plane showed not only the targeted mesiobuccal rotation of both maxillary molars, but also a vestibular drift of the unbanded second molars...
  26. ncbi Impacted teeth in the maxilla: usefulness of 3D Dental-CT for preoperative evaluation
    Tsuyoshi Sawamura
    Department of Dental Radiology, Dental Hospital, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8586, Japan
    Eur J Radiol 47:221-6. 2003
    ....
  27. ncbi Treatment of severe atrophy of the maxilla with the prefabricated free vascularized fibula flap
    Dennis Rohner
    Department of Reconstructive Surgery, University of Basel, University Hospital, Switzerland
    Clin Oral Implants Res 13:44-52. 2002
    ..This paper presents the augmentation of the maxilla with a prefabricated free vascularized fibula flap in combination with ITI implants (Straumann AG, Waldenburg, ..
  28. ncbi Face, palate, and craniofacial morphology in patients with a solitary median maxillary central incisor
    I Kjaer
    Department of Orthodontics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Eur J Orthod 23:63-73. 2001
    ..normal standards for girls showed a short anterior cranial base, a short, retrognathic and posteriorly inclined maxilla, and a retrognathic and posteriorly inclined mandible...
  29. ncbi Early craniofacial morphology and growth in children with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate
    N V Hermann
    Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Clinical Genetics, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J 41:424-38. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi Long-term skeletal changes with rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review
    Manuel O Lagravere
    Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Angle Orthod 75:1046-52. 2005
    ..RME appears not to produce clinically significant anteroposterior or vertical changes in the position of the maxilla and mandible...
  31. ncbi A radiographic assessment of progressive loading on bone around single osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla
    Richard S Appleton
    University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
    Clin Oral Implants Res 16:161-7. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi Reconstruction of extensive maxillary defects using zygomaticus implants
    Brian L Schmidt
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 94143 0440, USA
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62:82-9. 2004
    ..This article is a clinical retrospective analysis of patients reconstructed with zygomaticus implants after maxillary ablation...
  33. ncbi Functional regulator treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions
    S M Chadwick
    Countess of Chester NHS Trust, Health Park, Liverpool Road, Chester, UK
    Eur J Orthod 23:495-505. 2001
    ..1 degree increase in LI-Mand. The Fränkel appliance was thus found to be effective in producing desirable occlusal and dental changes in the majority of patients treated...
  34. ncbi Remaining tooth structure associated with various preparation designs for the endodontically treated maxillary second premolar
    Liang Lin Seow
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 13:57-64. 2005
    ....
  35. ncbi Immediate loading of single-tooth ITI implants in the anterior maxilla: a prospective 5-year pilot study
    Eivind Andersen
    Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway
    Clin Oral Implants Res 13:281-7. 2002
    ..to evaluate the success rate of immediately loaded single-tooth ITI solid plasma-sprayed (TPS) implants in the maxilla. Eight implants were loaded immediately after placement in eight different patients, and were followed for five ..
  36. ncbi Rapid maxillary expansion--tooth tissue-borne versus tooth-borne expanders: a computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal effects
    Daniela G Garib
    Orthodontics, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Angle Orthod 75:548-57. 2005
    ..axial sections were scanned parallel to the palatal plane, comprising the dentoalveolar area and the base of the maxilla up to the inferior third of the nasal cavity...
  37. ncbi Immediate functional loading of edentulous maxilla: a 5-year retrospective study of 388 titanium implants
    Marco Degidi
    Dental School, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Periodontol 76:1016-24. 2005
    ..Because of a lack of experimental reports regarding edentulous maxilla, we decided to evaluate the survival rate of immediately loaded dental implants in this area.
  38. ncbi Prosthodontic guidelines for surgical reconstruction of the maxilla: a classification system of defects
    D J Okay
    Department of Dentistry, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 86:352-63. 2001
    ..The aim of this defect-oriented classification system was to organize and define the complex nature of the restorative decision-making process for the maxillectomy patient...
  39. ncbi Fate of monocortical bone blocks grafted in the human maxilla: a histological and histomorphometric study
    Ilara R Zerbo
    Department of Oral Cell Biology, ACTA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Oral Implants Res 14:759-66. 2003
    Local bone defects in the anterior maxilla are commonly grafted with monocortical blocks of autologous bone in order to restore the defect site prior to the placement of dental implants...
  40. doi Labial talon cusps: a South American archaeological case in the deciduous dentition and review of a rare trait
    E Pomeroy
    Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge
    Br Dent J 206:277-82. 2009
    ..Differences between these traits in sex distribution, frequency of maxillary and mandibular cases, and the most commonly affected teeth are demonstrated...
  41. ncbi Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of human cadaver bone: microstructural data from maxilla and mandible
    Mete I Fanuscu
    Division of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1668, USA
    Clin Oral Implants Res 15:213-8. 2004
    ..Moderately resorbed edentulous maxilla and mandible from a human cadaver were scanned in the conventional CT unit with opaque markers indicating ..
  42. doi Nongrafting implant options for restoration of the edentulous maxilla
    Michael S Block
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:872-81. 2009
    Patients who need implant-supported prostheses in the maxilla might not have sufficient bone height in the posterior region for implants...
  43. doi Long-term evaluation of maxillary reconstruction by iliac bone graft
    Stefano Tete
    Department of Oral Science, Nano and Biotechnologies, University G D Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
    J Craniofac Surg 22:1702-7. 2011
    ..After a long period from the grafting (T2), BSP expression decreases along with MMP-2, VEGF, and iNOS, suggesting the presence of only weak arrangement phenomena of the graft...
  44. doi Inlay-onlay grafting for three-dimensional reconstruction of the posterior atrophic maxilla with mandibular bone
    L Cordaro
    Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, Eastman Dental Hospital, Roma, Italy
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 39:350-7. 2010
    This prospective study describes and evaluates a surgical approach for 3D reconstruction of the posterior maxilla with autogenous mandibular bone in 16 patients (mean age 51 years)...
  45. doi Responses of BrdU label-retaining dental pulp cells to allogenic tooth transplantation into mouse maxilla
    Noriko Mutoh
    Division of Endodontics, Department of Oral Medicine, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Japan
    Histochem Cell Biol 136:649-61. 2011
    ..This study aims to clarify responses of LRCs to allogenic tooth transplantation into mouse maxilla using prenatal BrdU-labeling, in situ hybridization for osteopontin and periostin, and immunohistochemistry for ..
  46. doi Cancellous bone block allografts for the augmentation of the anterior atrophic maxilla
    Joseph Nissan
    Department of Oral Rehabilitation, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 13:104-11. 2011
    Pre-implant augmentative surgery is a prerequisite in many cases in the anterior maxilla to achieve a stable, long-term esthetic final result.
  47. ncbi Single-tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla by means of immediate implantation and provisionalization: a review
    Tim De Rouck
    Department of Prosthodontics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB, School of Dental Medicine, Brussels, Belgium
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 23:897-904. 2008
    ....
  48. doi A 9-14 year follow-up of onlay bone grafting in the atrophic maxilla
    E Nystrom
    Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 38:111-6. 2009
    Treatment of the atrophic edentulous maxilla is challenging especially when bone graft procedures are necessary...
  49. doi Reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla with interpositional bone grafting/Le Fort I osteotomy and endosteal implants: a 11-16 year follow-up
    E Nystrom
    Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Umea, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 38:1-6. 2009
    ..The bone level stabilised after 2 years. This technique results in good facial morphology, good oral function and aesthetics. All patients are still wearing their original fixed bridges...
  50. doi Factors affecting soft tissue level around anterior maxillary single-tooth implants
    Kanokwan Nisapakultorn
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Oral Implants Res 21:662-70. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affected the facial marginal mucosal level and papilla level around single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla.
  51. ncbi The challenge of implant therapy in the posterior maxilla: providing a rationale for the use of short implants
    Marianne Morand
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    J Oral Implantol 33:257-66. 2007
    Rehabilitating patients with a resorbed maxilla presents several challenges when the desired treatment plan involves the placement of endosseous implants...
  52. ncbi Malocclusion and crowding in an orthodontically referred Turkish population
    M Ozgur Sayin
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Suleyman Demirel, Isparta, Turkey
    Angle Orthod 74:635-9. 2004
    ..Moderate maxillary and severe mandibular crowding in the same patient was another rare finding for all malocclusion groups...
  53. doi Influence of single-jaw surgery vs bimaxillary surgery on the outcome and duration of combined orthodontic-surgical treatment
    Ian Arad
    Department of Orthodontics and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, United Kingdom
    Angle Orthod 81:983-7. 2011
    To analyze the effects of single-jaw surgery (mandible or maxilla only) vs bimaxillary surgery on final peer assessment rating (PAR) score outcome and overall treatment duration.
  54. doi Biomechanical analysis of the effects of implant diameter and bone quality in short implants placed in the atrophic posterior maxilla
    Shih Hao Chang
    Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5, Fusing St, Gueishan Township, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan
    Med Eng Phys 34:153-60. 2012
    ..Attaining a proper occlusal scheme design or selective occlusal adjustments to reduce the lateral occlusal force upon the SDIs is recommended...
  55. ncbi Leprosy: dental and periodontal status of the anterior maxilla in 76 patients
    J M Núñez-Martí
    Hospital San Francisco de Borja de Fontilles, Alicante, Spain
    Oral Dis 10:19-21. 2004
    To evaluate the presence of oral disease, as assessed by dental and periodontal indices, in the anterior maxilla of a group of 76 patients with leprosy, compared with a group of matched control subjects.
  56. doi Comparison of biomechanical behaviour of maxilla following Le Fort I osteotomy with 2- versus 4-plate fixation using 3D-FEA. Part 1: advancement surgery
    M S Atac
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, 82 Sok 06510, Emek, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 37:1117-24. 2008
    ..aimed to calculate the location and intensity of the maximum stress fields on the fixation plates and surrounding maxilla following Le Fort I osteotomies after advancement procedures using three-dimensional finite element analysis...
  57. ncbi Cone-beam CT (CB Throne) applied to dentomaxillofacial region
    Aya Yajima
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tokyo Dental College, Japan
    Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 47:133-41. 2006
    ..This article reports the characteristics of this system, and its diagnostic power for maxillofacial lesions and the pre-operative planning dental implants...
  58. doi Atrophic jaw reconstruction by means of calvarial bone graft: long-term results
    Stefano Tete
    Department of Oral Science, University G D Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
    J Craniofac Surg 21:1147-52. 2010
    ..On the contrary, these phenomena could not be observed in samples obtained after a long period (T2), which reveal a morphologic and an immunohistochemical pattern comparable to that recorded in calvarial native bone (T0)...
  59. ncbi The thickness and the lengths of the anterior wall of adult maxilla of the West Anatolian Turkish people
    Candan Arman
    Department of Anatomy, Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dali, 35340, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey
    Surg Radiol Anat 28:553-8. 2006
    The maxilla is the key structure on facial formation and stability. The knowledge about maxillary thickness and dimensions is crucial during facial reconstruction including this bone...
  60. ncbi Treatment of the atrophic edentulous maxilla: short implants versus bone augmentation for placing longer implants. Five-month post-loading results of a pilot randomised controlled trial
    Pietro Felice
    Department of Peridontology and Implantology, Univeristy of Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Oral Implantol 4:191-202. 2011
    ..To evaluate whether short (5 to 8.5 mm) dental implants could be a suitable alternative to longer (>11.5 mm) implants placed in atrophic maxillae augmented with autogenous bone for supporting dental prostheses...
  61. ncbi Long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla
    M A Rawashdeh
    Jordan University of Science and Technology King Abdullah University Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baghdad Street, P O Box 3795, Irbid, Jordan
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 35:60-6. 2006
    ..long-term clinical and radiological follow up of the surgical management of central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 patients--5 male and 7 female whose ages ranged from 9 to 41 years, ..
  62. doi Early headgear effect on the eruption pattern of maxillary second molars
    Yossi Abed
    Department of Orthodontics, Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hebrew University Jerusalem, Israel
    Angle Orthod 80:454-60. 2010
    ..To test the hypothesis that the use of a combination headgear (HG) during the first phase of orthodontic treatment has no effect on the eruption pattern of the maxillary second permanent molars...
  63. doi Clinical evaluation of freeze-dried cancellous block allografts for ridge augmentation and implant placement in the maxilla
    Stephen Wallace
    Division of Periodontics and Interim Chair, Department of Stomatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
    Implant Dent 19:272-9. 2010
    ..In this case series, cancellous allograft blocks were used for horizontal augmentation of the maxilla. The observed increase in ridge width allowed subsequent implant placement after a 5-month healing period...
  64. doi Immediate and conventional single implant treatment in the anterior maxilla: 1-year results of a case series on hard and soft tissue response and aesthetics
    Filiep Raes
    Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dental School, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
    J Clin Periodontol 38:385-94. 2011
    ..study was to document midfacial soft tissue dynamics following single immediate implant treatment (IIT) and conventional implant treatment (CIT) in the anterior maxilla when performed by experienced clinicians in well-selected patients.
  65. doi The tolerance of the maxilla to blunt impact
    Joseph Cormier
    Biodynamic Research Corporation, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
    J Biomech Eng 133:064501. 2011
    This study reports the results of 38 infraorbital maxilla impacts performed on male cadavers. Impacts were performed using an unpadded, cylindrical impactor (3.2 kg) at velocities between 1 and 5 m/s...
  66. doi Extra short dental implants supporting an overdenture in the edentulous maxilla: a proof of concept
    N Van Assche
    Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Clin Oral Implants Res 23:567-76. 2012
    ..This study investigates the outcome of short implants additionally placed with longer implants to support a maxillary overdenture...
  67. doi Osteonecrosis of the maxilla and mandible in patients with advanced cancer treated with bisphosphonate therapy
    Cherry L Estilo
    D Dental Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Oncologist 13:911-20. 2008
    ..Clinical outcomes of patients with ONJ were variable with 11 patients demonstrating improvement or healing with conservative management. Our ONJ experience is presented here...
  68. ncbi Immediately loaded implants supporting fixed prostheses in the edentulous maxilla: a preliminary clinical and radiologic report
    Göran Bergkvist
    Implantatcentrum, Norrkoping, Sweden
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20:399-405. 2005
    To evaluate the survival rate of immediately loaded ITI sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) solid-screw dental implants in the edentulous maxilla after 8 months of loading.
  69. doi Early implant survival in posterior maxilla with or without beta-tricalcium phosphate sinus floor graft
    Sina Uckan
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:1642-5. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the survival rates of implants inserted in the posterior maxilla (without sinus lift) to simultaneous implant insertion with sinus lift.
  70. ncbi Embolisation of arteriovenous malformation of the maxilla
    S Nekooei
    Department of Radiology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
    Dentomaxillofac Radiol 35:451-5. 2006
    ..Physical examination showed gingival swelling of the right maxilla and loosening of the molar teeth...
  71. ncbi Material properties of the dentate maxilla
    Jill Peterson
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Avenue, Dallas, TX 75246, USA
    Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 288:962-72. 2006
    The aim of this study was to determine regional variability of material properties in the dentate maxilla. Cortical samples were removed from 15 sites of 15 adult dentate fresh-frozen maxillas...
  72. doi Immediate single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla: 3-year results of a case series on hard and soft tissue response and aesthetics
    Jan Cosyn
    Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Ghent, Dental School, Ghent, Belgium
    J Clin Periodontol 38:746-53. 2011
    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the overall outcome of immediate single implant treatment in the anterior maxilla after a 3-year observation period.
  73. doi Success rate and risk factors associated with mini-implants reinstalled in the maxilla
    Seung Hak Baek
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
    Angle Orthod 78:895-901. 2008
    ..To determine the difference in the success rate for two types of oral installed mini-implants (OMIs): one type of initially installed OMI and a new implant of the same type that is reinstalled...
  74. doi Concentrations of metals in maxilla and mandible deciduous and permanent human teeth
    Agnieszka Fischer
    Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Silesia, 4 Jagiellonska Street, 41 200 Sosnowiec, Poland
    Biol Trace Elem Res 132:19-26. 2009
    ..Fe, Zn, Na, K, Mg, and Ca) in deciduous and permanent teeth with respect to their location in the oral cavity (maxilla, mandible)...
  75. ncbi Juvenile ossifying fibroma of the maxilla
    G Sun
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatology Hospital of Nanjing, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 30 Zhongyang Road, Nanjing 210008, PR China
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 36:82-5. 2007
    ..Reported here is a case of a massive juvenile ossifying fibroma of the maxilla in an 11-year-old male child...
  76. doi Morphologic quantification of the maxilla and the mandible with cone-beam computed tomography
    Toshio Deguchi
    National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 137:218-22. 2010
    The purpose of this pilot study was to use cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to determine the volumes of the maxilla and the mandible in subjects with skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions...
  77. doi Immediate single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla: a 1-year case cohort study on hard and soft tissue response
    Tim De Rouck
    Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, Free Univeristy of Brussels VUB, Brussels, Belgium
    J Clin Periodontol 35:649-57. 2008
    ..and aesthetic outcome 1 year after immediate placement and provisionalization of single-tooth implants in the pre-maxilla. All patients underwent the same strategy, that is mucoperiosteal flap elevation, immediate implant placement, ..
  78. ncbi A clinical study of changes in the volume of bone grafts in the atrophic maxilla
    B Johansson
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, S 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
    Dentomaxillofac Radiol 30:157-61. 2001
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the volumetric changes in bone grafts to the severely atrophic edentulous maxilla over 6 months...
  79. ncbi Multifaceted aspects of implant esthetics: the anterior maxilla
    A S el Askary
    Implant Dent 10:182-91. 2001
    ..This article reviews most of the current techniques that help to maximize the esthetic results and introduces a new classification for soft tissue management according to the time of clinical intervention...
  80. ncbi Early treatment of posterior and anterior crossbite in a child with bilaterally constricted maxilla: report of case
    I Kocadereli
    Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    ASDC J Dent Child 65:41-6. 1998
    ..Early orthodontic therapy using a simple, removable, maxillary expansion appliance provided the patient with a stable, functional occlusion and good esthetics...
  81. ncbi A prospective clinical study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of narrow-diameter threaded implants in the anterior region of the maxilla
    E Andersen
    Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 16:217-24. 2001
    ..25-mm) implants replacing either a central or a lateral incisor in the maxilla. In an attempt to create an ideal emergence profile and to regenerate papillae, individual acrylic resin tooth-..
  82. ncbi Recurrent desmoplastic ameloblastoma of the maxilla: a case report
    Rejeev Sivasankar Pillai
    Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, College of Dental Surgery, Manipal, Karnataka, India
    J Can Dent Assoc 70:100-4. 2004
    ..This tumour appeared in the premolar region of the left maxilla with involvement of the antrum...
  83. ncbi Stability of bone grafting and placement of implants in the severely atrophic maxilla
    S Reinert
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Mund, Kiefer und Gesichtschirurgie, Universitatsklinikum Tubingen, Osianderstrasse 2 8, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 41:249-55. 2003
    A severely atrophic maxilla can be restored by bone grafts to allow the insertion of implants...
  84. ncbi Changing of facial skeleton for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
    R Foltán
    Department of Stomatology of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, and General Teaching Hospital, Czech Republic
    Prague Med Rep 106:149-58. 2005
    ..Thus also muscles fixed to the facial skeleton and upper airway dilatators are moved forward. The discussion also mentions possible complications and limitations of this surgical technique...
  85. ncbi [Patient perception of functional and cosmetic outcome of orthognathic surgery. Retrospective analysis of 45 patients]
    K Kharrat
    Service de Stomatologie et Chirurgie Maxillo Faciale, CHU de la Timone, Marseille
    Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac 107:9-14; discussion 15-6. 2006
    ..Orthognathic surgery is generally indicated for the treatment of maxillo-mandibular deformities. Surgery is performed to repair functional abnormalities, but also has a cosmetic impact...
  86. ncbi Prevalence of postoperative complications after orthognathic surgery: a 15-year review
    Lop Keung Chow
    Discipline of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:984-92. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of postoperative complications after orthognathic surgery and evaluate the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in relation to the infection rate...
  87. ncbi Talon cusp: a case series
    Ilkay Peker
    Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara, Turkey
    Gen Dent 57:524-7. 2009
    ..The remaining eight talon cusps were observed bilaterally, with six affecting the permanent maxillary lateral incisors and the other two affecting the permanent maxillary canines...
  88. ncbi Long-term implant survival in the grafted maxilla: results of a 12-year retrospective study
    Kaan C Yerit
    University Hospital of Cranio Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Clin Oral Implants Res 15:693-9. 2004
    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of implant insertion in the augmented severely atrophied maxilla.
  89. ncbi Position of teeth on the edentulous atrophic maxilla
    L V Lassila
    Institute of Dentistry and Biomedicals Research, University of Turku, Finland
    J Oral Rehabil 28:267-72. 2001
    ..9 years, and 125 dentulous post-menopausal women were correlated. In the edentulous maxilla the sagittal position of canine teeth can be determined by the oral edge of incisive papilla...
  90. ncbi Effect of abutment angulation on the strain on the bone around an implant in the anterior maxilla: a finite element study
    Xavier E Saab
    Department of Prosthodontics, The University of Texas Health Science Center Dental Branch at Houston, Houston, TX, USA
    J Prosthet Dent 97:85-92. 2007
    Angled abutments are often used to restore dental implants placed in the anterior maxilla due to esthetic or spatial needs. The effect of abutment angulation on bone strain is unknown.
  91. ncbi Patients' perception of improvement after orthognathic surgery: pilot study
    M Modig
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, 721 89 Vasteras, Sweden
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 44:24-7. 2006
    ..We conclude that patients' perceptions after orthognathic operations were generally favourable but there is a need for improved information to patients during the treatment...
  92. ncbi Developments in reconstruction of midface and maxilla
    Neal D Futran
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street Box 356515, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Lancet Oncol 7:249-58. 2006
    Loss of the maxilla and midfacial structures after tumour removal has substantial functional and aesthetic consequences...
  93. pmc Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for assessment of mandibular changes after orthognathic surgery
    Lucia H S Cevidanes
    Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7450, USA
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 131:44-50. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess alterations in the 3-dimensional (3D) position of the mandibular rami and condyles in patients receiving either maxillary advancement and mandibular setback or maxillary surgery only...
  94. ncbi Immediate occlusal loading of double acid-etched surface titanium implants in 41 consecutive full-arch cases in the mandible and maxilla: 6- to 74-month results
    Juan C Ibañez
    Postgraduate Area of Implantology, School of Dentistry, Cordoba University, Cordoba, Argentina
    J Periodontol 76:1972-81. 2005
    ..Starting with a few implants immediately loaded with a bar overdenture in the mandible, the concept of immediate loading evolved to loading multiple implants in both the maxilla and mandible.
  95. ncbi Osteonecrosis of the mandible or maxilla associated with the use of new generation bisphosphonates
    Matthew C Farrugia
    Department of Otolaryngology, Botsford General Hospital, Farmington Hills, Michigan 48336, USA
    Laryngoscope 116:115-20. 2006
    ..Osteonecrosis of the mandible or maxilla associated with the use of bisphosphonates is a newly described entity never before discussed in the ..
  96. ncbi A comparison of jaw dimensional and quality assessments of bone characteristics with cone-beam CT, spiral tomography, and multi-slice spiral CT
    Miet Loubele
    ESAT PSI, Medical Imaging Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 22:446-54. 2007
    ..Secondly, the subjective image quality of CBCT images with those obtained by multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) of a fixed ex vivo cadaver with its soft tissues was compared...
  97. ncbi Factorial analysis of variables influencing mechanical characteristics of a single tooth implant placed in the maxilla using finite element analysis and the statistics-based Taguchi method
    Chun Li Lin
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao Yuan, Taiwan
    Eur J Oral Sci 115:408-16. 2007
    ..An implant with a tapered interference fit connection performed better as a force-transmission mechanism than other configurations...
  98. ncbi Rehabilitation of the severely atrophied maxilla by horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy (HLFO)
    Kaan C Yerit
    University Hospital of Cranio Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 97:683-92. 2004
    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of the horseshoe Le Fort I osteotomy (HLFO) as a preprosthetic operation technique for implant insertion in the extremely atrophied maxilla.
  99. doi Two alternative surgical techniques for enhancing primary implant stability in the posterior maxilla: a clinical study including bone density, insertion torque, and resonance frequency analysis data
    Ilser Turkyilmaz
    Department of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43218 2357, USA
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 10:231-7. 2008
    ..The primary stability of dental implants associated with resistance to micromotion during healing is affected by surgical technique and implant design, which are important especially in the soft bone, where implant failures are more likely...
  100. ncbi Corticotomy and compression osteogenesis in the posterior maxilla for treating severe anterior open bite
    T Kanno
    Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Kagawa, Japan
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 36:354-7. 2007
    ..The compression osteogenesis method with a two-stage corticotomy was used in the posterior maxilla to treat a woman with severe anterior open bite...
  101. ncbi Immediate loading in the maxilla using flapless surgery, implants placed in predetermined positions, and prefabricated provisional restorations: a retrospective 3-year clinical study
    Antonio Rocci
    Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 5:29-36. 2003
    ..Immediate loading of dental implants shortens the treatment time and makes it possible to give the patient an esthetic appearance during the whole treatment period...

Research Grants67

  1. Molecular Mechanisms in Bone Resorption
    STEVEN LIETMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the model of cherubism, a rare disorder characterized by giant-cell bone resorptive tumors of the mandible and maxilla, to explore novel pathways that regulate osteoclast development and function...
  2. Molecular Mechanisms in Bone Resorption
    Steven A Lietman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the model of cherubism, a rare disorder characterized by giant-cell bone resorptive tumors of the mandible and maxilla, to explore novel pathways that regulate osteoclast development and function...
  3. Bmp-signaling in craniofacial development
    JAMES FRANCIS MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Tooth organogenesis initiates at stereotypical sites within the mandible and maxilla. Moreover, the rodent incisor tooth contains a stem cell niche in the incisor, called the cervical loop, that is ..
  4. A Novel Implant-based Approach for Treating Retrognathic Hyperdivergent Patients
    Peter Buschang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..be measured radiographically after superimposing on naturally stable reference structures in the mandible and maxilla. Tipping will be measured directly from dental models and 3D ICAT images...
  5. A 3-D Interactive Atlas of the Maxilla, Mandible & TMJ
    William Brown; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The first Aim is to define the anatomy, vascularity, innervation, muscle, and bone of the maxilla, mandible, TMJ and surrounding tissue. We will use data collection methods perfected during the Phase I grant...
  6. Analysis of the Role of Sprouty Genes in Tooth Development
    Ophir Klein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Embryos that are null for Spry4 and heterozygous for Spry2 have supernumerary incisors in the maxilla and remarkable tusk-like incisors in the mandible...
  7. BAG-75: UNIQUE MARKER OF PRIMARY BONE FORMATION
    JEFFREY GORSKI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..remnants in the primary spongiosa, while all or parts of the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, maxilla, and mandible bones of the craniofacial system form and remain as primary bone...
  8. Treatment of Osteoradionecrosis with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
    SUNDAY AKINTOYE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..aim to investigate site-specific distinctive osteogenic properties and radiosensitivity of human BMSC of the maxilla and mandible (neural crest origin) and ilium (mesodermal origin)...
  9. Dental Radiographic Predictors of Osteoporotic Fracture
    STUART WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have found such changes in the maxilla and mandible of osteoporotic patients...
  10. Shox2 and temporomandibular joint formation
    YiPing Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The homeobox gene Shox2 is expressed specifically in the mesenchymal cells of the maxilla-mandibular junction and later in the immatured chondrocytes of the condyle of the TMJ...
  11. Multiphasic Calcium Sulfate Bone Repair Material
    Harold Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..There is a ready market for a new material to fill extraction sites, enhance maxilla and mandibular bone to accept dental implants, and to speed up the osseointegration of dental implants.
  12. Mineral and Mechanical Properties of Bone
    Sarandeep Huja; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Future interventional studies will examine the mechanisms for the initial and the long-term adaptive response in material properties of bone. ..
  13. IMPROVING TREATMENT OUTCOMES FOR PATIENTS WITH FACIAL DEFORMITY USING 3D IMAGING
    Lucia Cevidanes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Involvement in these studies will enhance the candidate's prior training in cranio-maxillofacial problems and 3D imaging, while equipping her with tools to perform meaningful studies centered around patient oriented clinical research. ..