sclera

Summary

Summary: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
    Michael D Wagoner
    Ophthalmology 110:840-59. 2003
  2. ncbi A rabbit model for assessing the ocular barriers to the transscleral delivery of triamcinolone acetonide
    Michael R Robinson
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:479-87. 2006
  3. ncbi Acute scleral thinning after pterygium excision with intraoperative mitomycin C: a case report of scleral dellen after bare sclera technique and review of the literature
    Yi Yu Tsai
    Department of Ophthalmology, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
    Cornea 21:227-9. 2002
  4. ncbi The sclera and myopia
    Jody A Summers Rada
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, 940 Stanton L Young Boulevard, BMSB, Room 553, Oklahoma City, 73104, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:185-200. 2006
  5. pmc 'What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?'
    Mark Johnson
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, TECH E378, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:545-57. 2006
  6. ncbi Sutureless human sclera donor patch graft for Ahmed glaucoma valve
    Lucio Zeppa
    Unità Operativa di Oculistica, Presidio Ospedaliero Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino Italy
    Eur J Ophthalmol 20:546-51. 2010
  7. doi Histology of the parapapillary region in high myopia
    Jost B Jonas
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 152:1021-9. 2011
  8. pmc Laser-induced ocular hypertension in albino CD-1 mice
    Christine T Fu
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:980-90. 2010
  9. doi Regional variation in the biomechanical properties of the human sclera
    Ahmed Elsheikh
    Division of Civil Engineering, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, Tayside DD1 4HN, UK
    Exp Eye Res 90:624-33. 2010
  10. ncbi Central corneal thickness is not related to anterior scleral thickness or axial length
    Cristiano Oliveira
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, USA
    J Glaucoma 15:190-4. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications329 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
    Michael D Wagoner
    Ophthalmology 110:840-59. 2003
    ..It also attempted to determine whether there is a preferred IOL or fixation site of choice in eyes with inadequate capsular support...
  2. ncbi A rabbit model for assessing the ocular barriers to the transscleral delivery of triamcinolone acetonide
    Michael R Robinson
    National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:479-87. 2006
    ..rabbits had a 'conjunctival window' created by incising an 7 mmx7 mmx7 mm square through the conjunctiva to bare sclera in the superotemporal quadrant...
  3. ncbi Acute scleral thinning after pterygium excision with intraoperative mitomycin C: a case report of scleral dellen after bare sclera technique and review of the literature
    Yi Yu Tsai
    Department of Ophthalmology, China Medical College Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
    Cornea 21:227-9. 2002
    ..To describe a patient with scleral dellen after pterygium excision with intraoperative mitomycin C...
  4. ncbi The sclera and myopia
    Jody A Summers Rada
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, 940 Stanton L Young Boulevard, BMSB, Room 553, Oklahoma City, 73104, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:185-200. 2006
    ..High myopia is characterized by scleral thinning and localized ectasia of the posterior sclera. The sclera is a dense, fibrous, viscoelastic connective tissue that forms the outer coat of the eye and consists ..
  5. pmc 'What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?'
    Mark Johnson
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, TECH E378, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:545-57. 2006
    ....
  6. ncbi Sutureless human sclera donor patch graft for Ahmed glaucoma valve
    Lucio Zeppa
    Unità Operativa di Oculistica, Presidio Ospedaliero Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino Italy
    Eur J Ophthalmol 20:546-51. 2010
    To report the safety and effectiveness of a sutureless human sclera donor patch graft covering the subconjunctival portion of glaucoma drainage implant tube to prevent its erosion throughout the overlying conjunctiva.
  7. doi Histology of the parapapillary region in high myopia
    Jost B Jonas
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 152:1021-9. 2011
    ..To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in highly myopic eyes...
  8. pmc Laser-induced ocular hypertension in albino CD-1 mice
    Christine T Fu
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:980-90. 2010
    ..To establish a laser-induced model of ocular hypertension (LIOH) in albino CD-1 mice and to characterize the sequence of pathologic events triggered by intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation...
  9. doi Regional variation in the biomechanical properties of the human sclera
    Ahmed Elsheikh
    Division of Civil Engineering, University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, Tayside DD1 4HN, UK
    Exp Eye Res 90:624-33. 2010
    ..to determine the variation in thickness and biomechanical properties between the different regions of the human sclera. Thickness measurements were carried out along eight meridian lines extending from the posterior pole to limbus in ..
  10. ncbi Central corneal thickness is not related to anterior scleral thickness or axial length
    Cristiano Oliveira
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, USA
    J Glaucoma 15:190-4. 2006
    ..To examine the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT), scleral thickness (ST), refractive error, and axial length...
  11. doi The trabecular meshwork outflow pathways: structural and functional aspects
    Ernst R Tamm
    Institute of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 88:648-55. 2009
    ..The scleral spur contains axons that innervate scleral spur cells or that have the ultrastructural characteristics of mechanosensory nerve endings...
  12. ncbi Regulation of the mechanical properties of tree shrew sclera by the visual environment
    J T Siegwart
    Department of Physiological Optics, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294 4390, USA
    Vision Res 39:387-407. 1999
    ..studies in tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri) suggest that regulation of the mechanical properties of the sclera may be an important part of the mechanism that controls the axial elongation rate in this mammal...
  13. ncbi Mouse model of sustained elevation in intraocular pressure produced by episcleral vein occlusion
    Javier Ruiz-Ederra
    Department of Medicine and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0521, USA
    Exp Eye Res 82:879-84. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi Decreased proteoglycan synthesis associated with form deprivation myopia in mature primate eyes
    J A Rada
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks 58202 9037, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:2050-8. 2000
    ....
  15. ncbi Scleral structure, organisation and disease. A review
    Peter G Watson
    Biophysics Group, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Redwood Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3NB, UK
    Exp Eye Res 78:609-23. 2004
    Although disease of the sclera is unusual, when it occurs it can rapidly destroy both the eye and vision...
  16. ncbi Expression of collagen-binding integrin receptors in the mammalian sclera and their regulation during the development of myopia
    Neville A McBrien
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia 3010
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:4674-82. 2006
    The sclera has a collagen-rich extracellular matrix that undergoes significant biochemical and biomechanical remodeling during myopic eye growth...
  17. doi Visual outcomes and complications of scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses
    Andrew S McAllister
    Princess Alexandra Hospital and the Faculty of Health Sciences University of Queensland, Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane, Australia
    J Cataract Refract Surg 37:1263-9. 2011
    ..To report the long-term visual outcomes and complications after implantation of scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs)...
  18. pmc Influence of lipophilicity on drug partitioning into sclera, choroid-retinal pigment epithelium, retina, trabecular meshwork, and optic nerve
    Rajendra S Kadam
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 E 19th Ave, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332:1107-20. 2010
    ..Kt:b followed the order choroid-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) > trabecular meshwork > retina > sclera approximately optic nerve; propranolol > betaxolol > pindolol approximately timolol approximately metoprolol ..
  19. doi [Expressions of collagen , matrix metalloproteases-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the posterior sclera of newborn guinea pigs with negative lens-defocused myopia]
    Shu ran Yang
    Department of Ophthalmology, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 32:55-9. 2010
    To observe the expressions of the collagen , matrix metalloproteases-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the posterior sclera of newborn guinea pigs with negative lens-defocused myopia.
  20. doi Biaxial mechanical testing of human sclera
    Armin Eilaghi
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada
    J Biomech 43:1696-701. 2010
    ..of the optic nerve head (ONH), of interest in glaucoma, is strongly affected by the biomechanical properties of sclera. However, there is a paucity of information about the variation of scleral mechanical properties within eyes and ..
  21. pmc 3-D histomorphometry of the normal and early glaucomatous monkey optic nerve head: lamina cribrosa and peripapillary scleral position and thickness
    Hongli Yang
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4597-607. 2007
    ..three-dimensionally the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange, and peripapillary sclera, to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3-D) ..
  22. pmc Peripapillary and posterior scleral mechanics--part II: experimental and inverse finite element characterization
    Michaël J A Girard
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    J Biomech Eng 131:051012. 2009
    The posterior sclera likely plays an important role in the development of glaucoma, and accurate characterization of its mechanical properties is needed to understand its impact on the more delicate optic nerve head--the primary site of ..
  23. pmc Microstructural differences in the human posterior sclera as a function of age and race
    Dongmei Yan
    Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:821-9. 2011
    ..was to quantify the age and race-related differences in the microstructural organization of the human posterior sclera. Such differences may contribute to the predisposition of primary open-angle glaucoma in various high-risk ..
  24. pmc Experimental murine myopia induces collagen type Iα1 (COL1A1) DNA methylation and altered COL1A1 messenger RNA expression in sclera
    Xiangtian Zhou
    School of Optometry and Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China
    Mol Vis 18:1312-24. 2012
    ....
  25. ncbi Subluxation of transscleral sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (TSIOL)
    Jeehee Kim
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 6485, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 136:382-4. 2003
    ..To evaluate factors related to late-onset transscleral sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (TSIOL) subluxation...
  26. pmc Mechanical environment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma
    J Crawford Downs
    Devers Eye Institute, Legacy Health System, Portland, Oregon 97232, USA
    Optom Vis Sci 85:425-35. 2008
    ..The ONH is nourished by the short posterior ciliary arteries, which penetrate the immediate peripapillary sclera to feed capillaries contained within the laminar beams...
  27. pmc Changes in protein profiles of guinea pig sclera during development of form deprivation myopia and recovery
    Xiangtian Zhou
    School of Optometry and Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China
    Mol Vis 16:2163-74. 2010
    To investigate changes in protein profiles of posterior sclera in guinea pigs during development of form deprivation myopia and recovery.
  28. ncbi Late dislocation of scleral-sutured posterior chamber intraocular lenses
    Marianne O Price
    Cornea Research Foundation of America, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1320-6. 2005
    ..To examine a recent series of late scleral-sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) dislocations to identify possible causes and preventive measures...
  29. pmc Inhibition of human scleral fibroblast cell attachment to collagen type I by TGFBIp
    Lilian Shelton
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3542-52. 2009
    ..The sclera synthesizes and secretes TGFBIp, which may function to facilitate scleral ECM remodeling events associated with ..
  30. pmc Modulation of glycosaminoglycan levels in tree shrew sclera during lens-induced myopia development and recovery
    Anisha G Moring
    Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:2947-56. 2007
    ..During negative lens compensation, the scleral extracellular matrix is remodeled. A biomechanical property of the sclera, creep rate, increases; during recovery from induced myopia, the creep rate decreases below normal levels...
  31. ncbi Surgical management of scleral defects
    Altan A Ozcan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
    Cornea 24:308-11. 2005
    To evaluate the results of surgical management of scleral defects using fascia lata, cornea, and sclera as graft materials.
  32. doi High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye
    Bao Gui Wang
    Lasermicroscopy Research Unit, Institute of Microscopic Anatomy Anatomy II, Medical Faculty, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Teichgraben 7, 07743 Jena, Germany
    Lasers Surg Med 40:247-56. 2008
    ....
  33. ncbi Structural and functional outcome of scleral patch graft
    V S Sangwan
    LV Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
    Eye (Lond) 21:930-5. 2007
    ..To evaluate the visual and structural outcomes of scleral patch grafting in cases of scleral defect...
  34. ncbi Melatonin receptors in chick ocular tissues: implications for a role of melatonin in ocular growth regulation
    Jody A Summers Rada
    Department of Cell Biology, Universoty of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:25-33. 2006
    ....
  35. ncbi Human sclera: thickness and surface area
    T W Olsen
    Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 125:237-41. 1998
    To assess the mean thickness and surface area of human sclera.
  36. doi Biomechanics of the optic nerve head
    Ian A Sigal
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
    Exp Eye Res 88:799-807. 2009
    ..Further modeling, suitably informed by experiments, is needed to better understand lamina cribrosa biomechanics and how they may be involved in glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
  37. ncbi Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics
    Ian A Sigal
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4189-99. 2005
    ..This was a systematic analysis in which finite element methods were used to determine which anatomic and biomechanical factors most influenced the biomechanical response of the ONH to acute changes in IOP...
  38. ncbi Induced myopia associated with increased scleral creep in chick and tree shrew eyes
    J R Phillips
    Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:2028-34. 2000
    ..To investigate the role of scleral creep in the axial elongation of chick and tree shrew eyes with induced myopia...
  39. pmc A new insight into the cellular regulation of aqueous outflow: how trabecular meshwork endothelial cells drive a mechanism that regulates the permeability of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells
    J A Alvarado
    University of California San Francisco, Department of Ophthalmology 10 Koret Way San Francisco, CA 94143 0730, USA
    Br J Ophthalmol 89:1500-5. 2005
    ..To test the hypothesis that trabecular meshwork endothelial cells (TMEs) increase the permeability of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (SCEs) by actively releasing ligands that modulate the barrier properties of SCEs...
  40. ncbi Role of the sclera in the development and pathological complications of myopia
    Neville A McBrien
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Prog Retin Eye Res 22:307-38. 2003
    ..from the excessive axial elongation of the eye which, by necessity, must involve the outer coat of the eye, the sclera. Consequently, high myopia is reported as a leading cause of registered blindness and partial sight...
  41. doi Toward understanding the development of scleral ossicles in the chicken, Gallus gallus
    Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
    Biology Department, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Dev Dyn 237:3240-51. 2008
    ..In addition, a nonfluctuating asymmetry with respect to the number of ossicles per eye was found. This study provides significant insight into understanding the development of the neural crest derived dermal bones...
  42. ncbi Needle elevation of the scleral flap for failing filtration blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C
    D S Greenfield
    Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 122:195-204. 1996
    ..To report the incidence of failing filtration blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and to report the outcome of needling procedures for failing filtration blebs in these eyes...
  43. ncbi Outflow mechanisms after deep sclerectomy with two different designs of collagen implant in an animal model
    Christophe Nguyen
    Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 244:1659-67. 2006
    ..The ability to promote drainage vessels, outflow mechanisms, success rates, and biodegradability, were studied prospectively in an animal model...
  44. pmc Genetic deletion of the adenosine A2A receptor confers postnatal development of relative myopia in mice
    Xiangtian Zhou
    School of Optometry and Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:4362-70. 2010
    ..To critically evaluate whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) plays a role in postnatal refractive development in mice...
  45. ncbi Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma
    Anthony J Bellezza
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:623-37. 2003
    ....
  46. ncbi Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye
    Shu Wen Teng
    Microscopic Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Teipei
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:1216-24. 2006
    ..combined imaging modality of multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in obtaining spectrally resolved morphologic features of the cornea, limbus, conjunctiva, and sclera in whole, ex vivo porcine eyes.
  47. doi Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea
    Florent Aptel
    Laboratoire d Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:2459-65. 2010
    ....
  48. pmc Opposite effects of glucagon and insulin on compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks
    Xiaoying Zhu
    Department of Biology, City College, CUNY, New York, New York 10031, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:24-36. 2009
    ..Glucagon may signal the sign of defocus. Do insulin (or IGF-1) and glucagon act oppositely in controlling eye growth, as they do in metabolic pathways and in control of retinal neurogenesis?..
  49. ncbi Small leucine rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRPs) in the human sclera: identification of abundant levels of PRELP
    Janell Mae Johnson
    Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    Mol Vis 12:1057-66. 2006
    ..In order to better characterize the composition of the scleral extracellular matrix, gene and protein expression of several members of the SLRP family were evaluated in the human sclera from donors aged 2-93 years of age.
  50. doi Barrier analysis of periocular drug delivery to the posterior segment
    Veli Pekka Ranta
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland
    J Control Release 148:42-8. 2010
    ..Permeation of FITC-dextrans and oligonucleotides in the bovine sclera was assessed with and without Pluronic gel in the donor compartment...
  51. ncbi [Injector implantation of a scleral-fixated intraocular lens]
    P Szurman
    Universitäts Augenklinik Tübingen, Schleichstrasse 12, 72076 Tubingen
    Ophthalmologe 103:1020-6. 2006
    ..In this pilot study, a new injector technique for small-incision implantation of scleral-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) was evaluated for IOL stability and visual rehabilitation...
  52. ncbi Long-term results of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant
    Tarek Shaarawy
    Hopital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1225-31. 2004
    ..To study prospectively the success rate and complications of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant (DSCI)...
  53. ncbi Trans-scleral diffusion of triamcinolone acetonide
    Paolo Mora
    Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, Ocular Immunology, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Curr Eye Res 30:355-61. 2005
    ..To assess ex vivo human scleral permeability to triamcinolone acetonide (TA)...
  54. doi Cross-sectional anatomic configurations of peripapillary atrophy evaluated with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography
    Kelvin Yoon Chiang Lee
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:666-71. 2010
    ..To evaluate the cross-sectional configurations of peripapillary atrophy (PPA)-alpha and -beta in ophthalmologically normal subjects using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
  55. ncbi Dimensional growth of the rabbit eye
    A Barathi
    Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore Eye Research Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore
    Cells Tissues Organs 171:276-85. 2002
    ..rabbit globe from birth to young adult status focusing in particular on the fibrous outer tunic of the globe, the sclera. Eyes of both sexes of New Zealand White rabbits were examined on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56...
  56. ncbi Predictors for success of needle revision of failing filtration blebs
    Anjali S Hawkins
    Department of Ophthalmology, Rush Medical College of Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Ophthalmology 109:781-5. 2002
    ..To assess the factors that can predict the success of external needle revision of failing blebs...
  57. pmc Alterations in protein expression in tree shrew sclera during development of lens-induced myopia and recovery
    Michael R Frost
    Department of Vision Sciences, School of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 4390, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:322-36. 2012
    ..there is regulated remodeling of the scleral extracellular matrix (ECM) that controls the extensibility of the sclera. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) was used to identify and categorize proteins whose levels are altered in ..
  58. ncbi A comparison of hang-back with conventional recession surgery for exotropia
    Anton Orlin
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J AAPOS 11:597-600. 2007
    ..Previous reports suggest that the hang-back technique for lateral rectus recession for exotropia results in poorer surgical success and may require a different surgical dosage...
  59. doi Contact transcleral photodynamic cyclo-suppression in human eyes: a feasibility study
    Spyridon K Charisis
    University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Ophthalmology, Crete, Greece
    Can J Ophthalmol 46:196-8. 2011
    ..To evaluate the safety and efficacy of contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic treatment (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in human eyes...
  60. doi ρ1 GABAC receptors are expressed in fibrous and cartilaginous layers of chick sclera and located on sclera fibroblasts and chondrocytes
    Zhen ying Cheng
    Myopia Center, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China
    J Neurochem 118:281-7. 2011
    rho(1) GABA(C) receptor antagonists inhibit myopia in chick but the site of this effect is not known. The sclera ultimately determines the shape and size of the globe and thus an untested possibility is that GABA agents have a scleral ..
  61. pmc Sclera-choroid-RPE transport of eight β-blockers in human, bovine, porcine, rabbit, and rat models
    Rajendra S Kadam
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:5387-99. 2011
    ..To determine the influence of drug lipophilicity, ocular pigmentation, and species differences on transscleral solute transport...
  62. doi Preparation and use of human sclera grafts in ophthalmic surgery
    M Töteberg-Harms
    Eye Clinic, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Dev Ophthalmol 43:105-8. 2009
    Human sclera grafts are widely used in ophthalmic surgery. Mainly they are used for coating orbital implants after enucleation.
  63. ncbi Five-year results of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant
    T Shaarawy
    Hopital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1770-8. 2001
    ..To study prospectively the success rate and complications of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant (DSCI), a nonpenetrating filtration procedure...
  64. ncbi Increased human scleral permeability with prostaglandin exposure
    J W Kim
    Glaucoma Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0946, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:1514-21. 2001
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of prostaglandins (PGs) on the permeability of human sclera in vitro. METHODS: Twenty-three pairs of human eye bank eyes were studied. Circular pieces of sclera were cultured in low-serum DMEM/F-12 media...
  65. ncbi Long-term safety and functional outcome of combined pars plana vitrectomy and scleral-fixated sutured posterior chamber lens implantation
    Gundula Bading
    University Eye Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 144:371-377. 2007
    ..To investigate the complication profile and the long-term functional outcome of combined pars plana vitrectomy and scleral-fixated sutured posterior chamber lens (PC IOL) implantation...
  66. ncbi Differential expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta actin and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) in postnatal rabbit sclera
    T K Moe
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
    Curr Eye Res 23:44-50. 2001
    ..METHODS: GAPDH, beta-actin, HPRT, and 18S rRNA gene expression were analyzed in the rabbit sclera from 1 day to 8 weeks postnatally by real-time, comparative PCR...
  67. ncbi Long-term results after bare sclera pterygium resection with excimer smoothing and local application of mitomycin C
    Tony Walkow
    Department of Ophthalmology, Centro Klinik, Oberhausen, Germany
    Cornea 24:378-81. 2005
    To evaluate the long-term results and complications after bare sclera pterygium excision with local application of mitomycin C and consecutive smoothing of the wound area with an excimer laser (PTK).
  68. doi Ultrasound biomicroscopy comparison of ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses
    Ahmed M Kamal
    Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    J Cataract Refract Surg 35:881-4. 2009
    ..To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to determine the centration of IOL optic and the position of the haptics in relation to the sulcus...
  69. doi Scleral thickness following fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert)
    Mehran Taban
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 18:305-13. 2010
    ..To evaluate whether intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implantation (Retisert) leads to scleral thinning...
  70. doi Peripapillary and posterior scleral mechanics--part I: development of an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model
    Michaël J A Girard
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    J Biomech Eng 131:051011. 2009
    The sclera is the white outer shell and principal load-bearing tissue of the eye as it sustains the intraocular pressure...
  71. ncbi Scheimpflug imaging of bilateral foldable in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation assisted by a scleral-sutured capsular tension ring in Marfan's syndrome
    Thomas Kohnen
    Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Ophthalmology, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Cataract Refract Surg 29:598-602. 2003
    ..High myopia and subluxated lenses may be treatable long-term with a scleral-fixated CTR and foldable IOL implantation; further evaluation of PCO is necessary...
  72. doi Correlation between corneal and scleral thickness in glaucoma
    Jelinar Mohamed-Noor
    Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary and University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    J Glaucoma 18:32-6. 2009
    ..To assess the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior scleral thickness (ST) in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG), and ocular hypertension (OHT)...
  73. pmc Scleral biomechanics in the aging monkey eye
    Michaël J A Girard
    Ocular Biomechanics Laboratory, Devers Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon 97232, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:5226-37. 2009
    To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 +/- 5.3 years) and young (1.5 +/- 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys.
  74. doi Central corneal thickness, lamina cribrosa and peripapillary scleral histomorphometry in non-glaucomatous Chinese eyes
    Ruojin Ren
    Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100005, Beiing, China
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 248:1579-85. 2010
    To examine a potential correlation between a thin cornea, a thin lamina cribrosa and a thin peripapillary sclera in normal eyes of Chinese, as surrogate for a presumed association between a thin cornea and an increased glaucoma ..
  75. ncbi Measurement of scleral thickness in uveal effusion syndrome
    Andrew Lam
    Retina Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 140:329-31. 2005
    ..To measure scleral thickness in patients with and without uveal effusion syndrome using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  76. ncbi 10-year follow-up study of secondary transscleral ciliary sulcus fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses
    Tatsuya Mimura
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Am J Ophthalmol 136:931-3. 2003
    ..To study the outcome of transscleral ciliary sulcus fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses (transscleral fixation of PC IOLs) at 10 years after surgery...
  77. doi Central corneal thickness and anterior scleral thickness in Korean patients With Open-angle glaucoma: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography study
    Chungkwon Yoo
    Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Glaucoma 20:95-9. 2011
    ..To assess the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior scleral thickness (AST) in Korean patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)...
  78. ncbi Tilt and decentration after primary and secondary transsclerally sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation
    A Durak
    , Department of Ophthalmology, I;-1qzmir, Turkey
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:227-32. 2001
    ..834, P =.659). CONCLUSIONS: Clinically significant IOL tilt or decentration was rare after transscleral implantation. There were no differences in tilt or decentration between primary and secondary implantation...
  79. ncbi A new technique for suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses that eliminates intraocular knots
    Ruben Grigorian
    Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Newark, NJ 10703 2499, USA
    Ophthalmology 110:1349-56. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to describe a new technique for transscleral suturing of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOLs) without intraocular knots...
  80. ncbi Therapeutic and ocular surface indications for scleral contact lenses
    Ken Pullum
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK
    Ocul Surf 5:40-8. 2007
    ..Actually, while some cases are challenging, many are straightforward. This review summarizes indications for therapeutic use of ScCLs and describes techniques and considerations that contribute to their clinical success...
  81. ncbi Nitric oxide synthase-containing cells in the retina, pigmented epithelium, choroid, and sclera of the chick eye
    A J Fischer
    Lions Sight Centre and Department of Anatomy, The University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, Alberta, Canada
    J Comp Neurol 405:1-14. 1999
    ....
  82. ncbi Long-term results of Erbium YAG-laser-assisted deep sclerectomy
    T Klink
    Department of Ophthalmology, Julius Maximilians University, Wuerzburg, Germany
    Eye (Lond) 22:370-4. 2008
    ..To evaluate the long-term results of Erbium YAG-laser-assisted deep sclerectomy (DS). In this procedure, the delicate dissection of a deep corneoscleral lamella is greatly simplified by using the Erbium YAG-laser...
  83. ncbi Viscoelastic material properties of the peripapillary sclera in normal and early-glaucoma monkey eyes
    J Crawford Downs
    LSU Eye Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:540-6. 2005
    To test the hypothesis that changes in the viscoelastic material properties of peripapillary sclera are present within monkey eyes at the onset of early experimental glaucoma detected by confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT).
  84. ncbi Clinical and anatomical reversal of long-term hypotony maculopathy
    John O Oyakhire
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 137:953-5. 2004
    ..To report a case of clinical and anatomical reversal of long-term hypotony maculopathy after filtration surgery...
  85. ncbi Boston scleral lens prosthetic device for treatment of severe dry eye in chronic graft-versus-host disease
    Deborah S Jacobs
    Boston Foundation for Sight, Needham, MA 02494, USA
    Cornea 26:1195-9. 2007
    ..To determine if the Boston Scleral Lens Prosthetic Device (BSLPD) reduces symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with severe dry eye from chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD)...
  86. ncbi Computational modeling of mechanical anisotropy in the cornea and sclera
    Peter M Pinsky
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 4040, USA
    J Cataract Refract Surg 31:136-45. 2005
    ..To determine the biomechanical deformation of the cornea resulting from tissue cutting and removal by use of a new computational model and to investigate the effect of mechanical anisotrophy resulting from the fibrillar architecture...
  87. ncbi Erbium:YAG laser deep sclerectomy: an alternative approach to glaucoma surgery
    Ioannis G Pallikaris
    Department of Ophthalmology, Division of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Crete, Crete, Greece
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 34:375-80. 2003
    ..To study and evaluate, prospectively, the effectiveness and the safety of deep sclerectomy when it is performed with the assistance of the erbium:YAG laser in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma...
  88. doi Lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera histomorphometry in normal and advanced glaucomatous Chinese eyes with various axial length
    Ruojin Ren
    Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing TongRen Hospital Eye Center, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2175-84. 2009
    ..To measure laminar and peripapillary scleral architecture in normal and glaucomatous Chinese eyes with normal and those with elongated axial length...
  89. doi Effect of induced myopia on scleral myofibroblasts and in vivo ocular biomechanical compliance in the guinea pig
    Simon Backhouse
    Department of Optometry and Vision Science, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:6162-71. 2010
    ..To examine the effect of induced myopia on scleral myofibroblast populations and in vivo ocular biomechanical compliance...
  90. ncbi Conjunctival oculosporidiosis with scleral thinning and staphyloma formation
    Sheeja Susan John
    The Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India
    Indian J Ophthalmol 53:272-4. 2005
  91. ncbi Surgical results of bleb revision with scleral patch graft for late-onset bleb complications
    Ioannis Halkiadakis
    Department of Glaucoma, General Hospital of Athens, Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 36:14-23. 2005
    ..To describe the results of bleb revision with scleral patch graft for late-onset bleb-related complications...
  92. ncbi The role of visual information in the control of scleral matrix biology in myopia
    N A McBrien
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Eye Res 23:313-9. 2001
    ..These visually-driven changes in scleral biochemistry are placed in the context of both the emmetropisation process and the abnormal enlargement of the eye that is characteristic of human high myopia...
  93. pmc Temporal properties of compensation for positive and negative spectacle lenses in chicks
    Xiaoying Zhu
    Department of Biology, The City College of the City University of New York, New York 10031, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:37-46. 2009
    ..The time constants of these signals were measured indirectly by measuring the magnitude of lens compensation in refractive error and ocular dimensions as a function of the duration of episodes and the intervals between the episodes...
  94. pmc Bone morphogenetic protein-2: a potential regulator in scleral remodeling
    Jianmin Hu
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, P R China
    Mol Vis 14:2373-80. 2008
    ..We examined BMP-2 expression in human scleral fibroblasts (HSF) and assessed the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on HSF proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)...
  95. doi Finite element modeling of the human sclera: influence on optic nerve head biomechanics and connections with glaucoma
    Richard E Norman
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King s College Rd, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada
    Exp Eye Res 93:4-12. 2011
    ..Large differences in the dimensions of the sclera, the principal load-bearing tissue of the eye, have been observed between individuals...
  96. ncbi Repair of scleromalacia using preserved scleral graft with amniotic membrane transplantation
    Jung Hwan Oh
    Department of Ophthalmology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    Cornea 22:288-93. 2003
    ..To evaluate the use of preserved scleral graft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the surgical repair of scleromalacia...
  97. ncbi Scleral contact lenses may help where other modalities fail
    Ori Segal
    Department of Opthalmology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel
    Cornea 22:308-10. 2003
    ..To describe the vision-correcting and therapeutic benefits of gas-permeable scleral contact lenses (GP-ScCL) in the management of irregular corneal surface disorders and ocular surface diseases...
  98. ncbi Form deprivation myopia in mature common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
    D Troilo
    Department of Biological Science and Disease, New England College of Optometry, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:2043-9. 2000
    ..The effects of such manipulations have generally been examined in neonatal or juvenile animals. Whether adolescent common marmosets (a new world primate) are susceptible to form deprivation myopia was studied...
  99. ncbi Scleral contact lenses: the expanding role
    Kenneth W Pullum
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Cornea 24:269-77. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe the current indications for scleral contact lens (ScCL) management at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London...
  100. pmc Patterns of mRNA and protein expression during minus-lens compensation and recovery in tree shrew sclera
    Hong Gao
    Department of Vision Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 4390, USA
    Mol Vis 17:903-19. 2011
    To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative "go" signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when ..
  101. doi Dimensions of the human sclera: Thickness measurement and regional changes with axial length
    Richard E Norman
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Exp Eye Res 90:277-84. 2010
    ..Thickness over the whole sclera was 670 +/- 80 microm (mean +/- SD; range: 564 microm-832 microm) over the 11 eyes...

Research Grants81

  1. Transscleral Transport & Polymeric Delivery of Antibody & Steroids for Macular Ed
    Ashim K Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..iii) nanoparticles suspended in the thermosensitive gel, using in vitro (ARPE-19 cell line) and ex vivo (isolated sclera and RPE-choroid-sclera) models (2) to synthesize ester-peptide (Valine-, Valine-Valine-, Glycine-Valine-, and ..
  2. Transscleral Transport & Polymeric Delivery of Antibody & Steroids for Macular Ed
    Ashim Mitra; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..iii) nanoparticles suspended in the thermosensitive gel, using in vitro (ARPE-19 cell line) and ex vivo (isolated sclera and RPE-choroid-sclera) models (2) to synthesize ester-peptide (Valine-, Valine-Valine-, Glycine-Valine-, and ..
  3. Advanced Engineering Development of a Chronic Retinal Implant
    JOHN L contact WYATT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The implant will be driven wirelessly, with almost the entire bulk of the implant attached to the outer wall (sclera) of the eye...
  4. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that originates in the retina, travels through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and reaches the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye); and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to the signaling cascade by ..
  5. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that originates in the retina, travels through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and reaches the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye); and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to the signaling cascade by ..
  6. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that originates in the retina, travels through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and reaches the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye);and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to the signaling cascade by ..
  7. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    Thomas T Norton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that originates in the retina, travels through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and reaches the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye);and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to the signaling cascade by ..
  8. In Vivo Imaging of Leukocyte-Endothelial Dynamics
    William Mathers; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..quantitate leukocyte rolling and arrest in 4 different human vascular beds: the limbus, conjuctiva, episclera, and sclera. With these three specific aims: Aim one, we propose to image rolling and sticking of leukocytes in four different ..
  9. METALLOPROTEINASES IN NORMAL & KERATOCONUS CORNEAS
    MARIA KENNEY; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..biochemical, immunohistochemical and molecular methods to: (1) examine and compare all MP activities in cornea and sclera organ cultures; (2) determine if different proteolytic activities are a modification of the same enzyme or ..
  10. FIBROBLAST DIFFERENTIATION DURING EYE DEVELOPMENT
    GARY CONRAD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..keratocytes, non-myelinating and myelinating Schwann cells, connective tissues of limbus, conjunctiva, choroid, sclera, eyelids, iris, lacrimal and other glands, and in birds, scleral ossicles...
  11. FIBROBLAST DIFFERENTIATION DURING EYE DEVELOPMENT
    GARY CONRAD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..keratocytes, non-myelinating and myelinating Schwann cells, connective tissues of limbus, conjunctiva, choroid, sclera, eyelids, iris, lacrimal and other glands, and in birds, scleral ossicles...
  12. FIBROBLAST DIFFERENTIATION DURING EYE DEVELOPMENT
    GARY CONRAD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..keratocytes, non-myelinating and myelinating Schwann cells, connective tissues of limbus, conjunctiva, choroid, sclera, eyelids, iris, lacrimal and other glands, and in birds, scleral ossicles...
  13. Pulsed Electron Avalanche Knife: Intraocular Microsurg.
    Daniel Palanker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3) The instrument did not dissect more fibrotic tissue such as sclera and cornea. (4) Pointed microelectrodes were not able to coagulate tissue...
  14. Transcleral Therapeutics in Diabetic Retinopathy
    Uday B Kompella; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will assess transscleral permeability for a series of prodrugs of celecoxib across various barriers including sclera-choroid-RPE...
  15. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cues); 2) a signaling cascade from the retina, through the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, to the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye); and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to retinal signals by ..
  16. Treatment of Retinal Vascular Leakage Using Angiostatin
    Gennadiy Moiseyev; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..1) To determine if trans-sclera deliveries of angiostatin can reduce retinal vascular leakage in diabetic rats...
  17. Customized Contact Lenses
    Geunyoung Yoon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim1.4 is to develop customized scleral lenses that sit stably on the sclera rather than cornea. Aim 1...
  18. MECHANISMS OF OCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    THOMAS NORTON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..retina, which detects the amount of defocus, 2) a signaling cascade from the retina, through the choroid to the sclera (the fibrous outer coat of the eye), and 3) fibroblasts in the sclera which respond to retinal signals by ..
  19. Ultrasound-Enhanced Delivery of Medications to the Eye
    Ronald Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Because the outer shell of the eye (the sclera) is relatively impermeable to high molecular weight drugs, intraocular injection is the most widely used means to ..
  20. PROCESSING STREAMS IN EARLY VISION
    Patrick Cavanagh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In this last study we will stimulate the retina through the sclera and address the question of how the perceived location of object is corrected for the direction of gaze...
  21. Intraocular Pressure-Mediated .Damage to the Optic Nerve
    Eric Nauman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Elevated pressure increases the mechanical stress in the sclera and the support structures surrounding the optic nerve head including the lamina cribrosa...
  22. Transcleral Delivery of Drugs from a Collagen System
    Dale DeVore; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The sclera of the eye has been found to be permeable to a wide variety of compounds and may be a possible route for local ..
  23. Genetic Basis of Nanophthalmos
    Olof Sundin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Another characteristic of the disease is massive thickening of the choroid and sclera, which may be associated with a tendency of the eye to develop exudative retinal detachment, especially as a ..
  24. Regulation of Scleral Growth and Remodelling in Myopia
    JODY RADA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..While it is clear that changes in the shape of the sclera produce myopia, the basis for this shape change is largely unknown...
  25. Enhanced Drug Access to Eye Tissues
    John Tomich; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Over the next year, we will measure transport of fluorescently-labeled antibiotics across isolated cornea and sclera-conjuntiva in the presence and absence of our highest potency peptide, NC-1059, as well as several control ..
  26. Cell Biology of Astrocytes in the Optic Nerve Head
    TATJANA CLAUDIA JAKOBS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to the axons that would cause this geometry is the portion of the optic nerve head that lies directly behind the sclera, because there the axons are organized into bundles with a topographic relationship to the retina...