microglia

Summary

Summary: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms
    Michelle L Block
    Neuropharmacology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:57-69. 2007
  2. ncbi Physiology of microglia
    Helmut Kettenmann
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Physiol Rev 91:461-553. 2011
  3. pmc Microglia sculpt postnatal neural circuits in an activity and complement-dependent manner
    Dorothy P Schafer
    Department of Neurology, F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 74:691-705. 2012
  4. ncbi Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 308:1314-8. 2005
  5. pmc Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages
    Florent Ginhoux
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and the Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Science 330:841-5. 2010
  6. ncbi Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Institute of Neuropathology, University of Gottingen, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 10:1387-94. 2007
  7. ncbi Microglia: scapegoat, saboteur, or something else?
    Adriano Aguzzi
    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH 8012 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 339:156-61. 2013
  8. pmc Identification of two distinct macrophage subsets with divergent effects causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13435-44. 2009
  9. ncbi Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development
    Rosa C Paolicelli
    Mouse Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Via Ramarini 32, 00015 Monterotondo, Italy
    Science 333:1456-8. 2011
  10. ncbi The role of microglia in the healthy brain
    Marie Eve Tremblay
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Neurosci 31:16064-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms
    Michelle L Block
    Neuropharmacology Section, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:57-69. 2007
    ..Recent studies show that in response to certain environmental toxins and endogenous proteins, microglia can enter an overactivated state and release reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause neurotoxicity...
  2. ncbi Physiology of microglia
    Helmut Kettenmann
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Physiol Rev 91:461-553. 2011
    ..through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia." Recent studies indicate that even in the normal brain, microglia have highly motile processes by which they ..
  3. pmc Microglia sculpt postnatal neural circuits in an activity and complement-dependent manner
    Dorothy P Schafer
    Department of Neurology, F M Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 74:691-705. 2012
    b>Microglia are the resident CNS immune cells and active surveyors of the extracellular environment...
  4. ncbi Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo
    Axel Nimmerjahn
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 308:1314-8. 2005
    ..Furthermore, blood-brain barrier disruption provoked immediate and focal activation of microglia, switching their behavior from patroling to shielding of the injured site...
  5. pmc Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages
    Florent Ginhoux
    Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and the Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Science 330:841-5. 2010
    b>Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and are associated with the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative and brain inflammatory diseases; however, the origin of adult microglia remains controversial...
  6. ncbi Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Institute of Neuropathology, University of Gottingen, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 10:1387-94. 2007
    Microglial cells constitute the resident macrophage population of the CNS. Recent in vivo studies have shown that microglia carry out active tissue scanning, which challenges the traditional notion of 'resting' microglia in the normal ..
  7. ncbi Microglia: scapegoat, saboteur, or something else?
    Adriano Aguzzi
    Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH 8012 Zurich, Switzerland
    Science 339:156-61. 2013
    b>Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain and spinal cord. These cells provide immune surveillance and are mobilized in response to disparate diseases and injuries...
  8. pmc Identification of two distinct macrophage subsets with divergent effects causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord
    Kristina A Kigerl
    Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13435-44. 2009
    ..g., proteoglycans and myelin). Together, these data suggest that polarizing the differentiation of resident microglia and infiltrating blood monocytes toward an M2 or "alternatively" activated macrophage phenotype could promote ..
  9. ncbi Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development
    Rosa C Paolicelli
    Mouse Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory EMBL, Via Ramarini 32, 00015 Monterotondo, Italy
    Science 333:1456-8. 2011
    b>Microglia are highly motile phagocytic cells that infiltrate and take up residence in the developing brain, where they are thought to provide a surveillance and scavenging function...
  10. ncbi The role of microglia in the healthy brain
    Marie Eve Tremblay
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Neurosci 31:16064-9. 2011
    b>Microglia were recently shown to play unexpected roles in normal brain development and adult physiology. This has begun to dramatically change our view of these resident "immune" cells...
  11. ncbi ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo
    Dimitrios Davalos
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:752-8. 2005
    Parenchymal microglia are the principal immune cells of the brain. Time-lapse two-photon imaging of GFP-labeled microglia demonstrates that the fine termini of microglial processes are highly dynamic in the intact mouse cortex...
  12. ncbi Microglial physiology: unique stimuli, specialized responses
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:119-45. 2009
    b>Microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma, have in the normal healthy brain a distinct phenotype induced by molecules expressed on or secreted by adjacent neurons and astrocytes, and this phenotype is maintained ..
  13. ncbi Microglial cell origin and phenotypes in health and disease
    Kaoru Saijo
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0651, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:775-87. 2011
    b>Microglia - resident myeloid-lineage cells in the brain and the spinal cord parenchyma - function in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis...
  14. pmc Wild-type microglia arrest pathology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome
    Noel C Derecki
    Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    Nature 484:105-9. 2012
    ..Here we examine the role of another form of glia, microglia, in a murine model of Rett syndrome...
  15. ncbi Resting microglia directly monitor the functional state of synapses in vivo and determine the fate of ischemic terminals
    Hiroaki Wake
    Division of Homeostatic Development, National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Neurosci 29:3974-80. 2009
    ..Resting microglia, the primary immune effector cells in the brain, dynamically extend and retract their processes as if actively ..
  16. pmc Microglia activation triggers astrocyte-mediated modulation of excitatory neurotransmission
    Olivier Pascual
    Institut de Biologie de l Ecole Normale Supérieure, F 75005 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E197-205. 2012
    ..In the adult hippocampus, microglia are the other major glial cell type...
  17. pmc Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases
    Sandra Amor
    Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Centre De Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Immunology 129:154-69. 2010
    ..Despite different triggering events, a common feature is chronic immune activation, in particular of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system...
  18. ncbi Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines released from microglia in neurodegenerative diseases
    Joshua A Smith
    Division of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Suite 309 CSB, P O Box 250606, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Brain Res Bull 87:10-20. 2012
    b>Microglia are activated in response to a number of different pathological states within the CNS including injury, ischemia, and infection...
  19. ncbi Microglia: new roles for the synaptic stripper
    Helmut Kettenmann
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Neuron 77:10-8. 2013
    Any pathologic event in the brain leads to the activation of microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system...
  20. ncbi Microglia/macrophage polarization dynamics reveal novel mechanism of injury expansion after focal cerebral ischemia
    Xiaoming Hu
    State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and Institute of Brain Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Stroke 43:3063-70. 2012
    ..The phenotype-specific roles of microglia/macrophages in ischemic brain injury are poorly understood...
  21. ncbi Infiltrating monocytes trigger EAE progression, but do not contribute to the resident microglia pool
    Bahareh Ajami
    University of British Columbia, Biomedical Research Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 14:1142-9. 2011
    ..autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model, two pools of morphologically indistinguishable phagocytic cells, microglia and inflammatory macrophages, accrue from proliferating resident precursors and recruitment of blood-borne ..
  22. ncbi Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Michelle L Monje
    Stanford University, Department of Neurosurgery, MSLS P309, Mail Code 5487, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305 5487, USA
    Science 302:1760-5. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi Down-regulation of the macrophage lineage through interaction with OX2 (CD200)
    R M Hoek
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 290:1768-71. 2000
    ..In mice lacking CD200, macrophage lineage cells, including brain microglia, exhibited an activated phenotype and were more numerous...
  24. ncbi Microglia emerge from erythromyeloid precursors via Pu.1- and Irf8-dependent pathways
    Katrin Kierdorf
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 16:273-80. 2013
    b>Microglia are crucial for immune responses in the brain. Although their origin from the yolk sac has been recognized for some time, their precise precursors and the transcription program that is used are not known...
  25. pmc IL-34 is a tissue-restricted ligand of CSF1R required for the development of Langerhans cells and microglia
    Yaming Wang
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Nat Immunol 13:753-60. 2012
    ..Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central nervous system (CNS) ..
  26. ncbi Microglia in neurodegenerative disease
    V Hugh Perry
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Building 62, Boldrewood Campus, Southampton SO16 7PX, UK
    Nat Rev Neurol 6:193-201. 2010
    b>Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, are exquisitely sensitive to brain injury and disease, altering their morphology and phenotype to adopt a so-called activated state in response to pathophysiological brain insults...
  27. ncbi Microglia and inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration: multiple triggers with a common mechanism
    Michelle L Block
    Neuropharmacology Section, MD F1 01, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P O Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 76:77-98. 2005
    ..b>Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in the central nervous system and produce a barrage of factors (IL-1, ..
  28. pmc A Nurr1/CoREST pathway in microglia and astrocytes protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-induced death
    Kaoru Saijo
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, California, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 137:47-59. 2009
    ..that Nurr1 unexpectedly functions to inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory neurotoxic mediators in both microglia and astrocytes...
  29. ncbi BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain
    Jeffrey A M Coull
    Division de Neurobiologie Cellulaire, Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3, Canada
    Nature 438:1017-21. 2005
    ..Spinal microglia stimulated by ATP contribute to tactile allodynia, a highly debilitating symptom of pain induced by nerve injury...
  30. ncbi Comparison of polarization properties of human adult microglia and blood-derived macrophages
    Bryce A Durafourt
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Glia 60:717-27. 2012
    Both microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the CNS parenchyma, and infiltrating blood-derived macrophages participate in inflammatory responses in the CNS...
  31. ncbi Review: activation patterns of microglia and their identification in the human brain
    D Boche
    Clinical Neurosciences, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 39:3-18. 2013
    b>Microglia in the central nervous system are usually maintained in a quiescent state. When activated, they can perform many diverse functions which may be either beneficial or harmful depending on the situation...
  32. ncbi Onset and progression in inherited ALS determined by motor neurons and microglia
    Severine Boillee
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Departments of Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 312:1389-92. 2006
    ..Diminishing the mutant levels in microglia had little effect on the early disease phase but sharply slowed later disease progression...
  33. pmc Activation of innate immunity in the CNS triggers neurodegeneration through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway
    Seija Lehnardt
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8514-9. 2003
    ..We identify microglia as the major lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive cell in the CNS...
  34. pmc Non-cell autonomous toxicity in neurodegenerative disorders: ALS and beyond
    Hristelina Ilieva
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    J Cell Biol 187:761-72. 2009
    ....
  35. pmc The fractalkine receptor but not CCR2 is present on microglia from embryonic development throughout adulthood
    Makiko Mizutani
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
    J Immunol 188:29-36. 2012
    ..and 3) CX3CR1 and CCR2 distinguished infiltrating macrophages from resident surveillant or activated microglia within tissue sections and by flow cytometric analyses...
  36. ncbi Local self-renewal can sustain CNS microglia maintenance and function throughout adult life
    Bahareh Ajami
    University of British Columbia, The Biomedical Research Centre, 2222 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 10:1538-43. 2007
    ..in this process is still controversial and the relative importance of local expansion versus recruitment of microglia progenitors from the bloodstream is unclear...
  37. pmc Microglial dysfunction and defective beta-amyloid clearance pathways in aging Alzheimer's disease mice
    Suzanne E Hickman
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, and Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129
    J Neurosci 28:8354-60. 2008
    ..However, persistent Abeta accumulation despite increasing microglial numbers suggests that the ability of microglia to clear Abeta may decrease with age and progression of AD pathology...
  38. pmc Debris clearance by microglia: an essential link between degeneration and regeneration
    H Neumann
    Neural Regeneration, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University Bonn and Hertie Foundation, Bonn, Germany
    Brain 132:288-95. 2009
    b>Microglia are cells of myeloid origin that populate the CNS during early development and form the brain's innate immune cell type...
  39. ncbi Repertoire of microglial and macrophage responses after spinal cord injury
    Samuel David
    The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1A4
    Nat Rev Neurosci 12:388-99. 2011
    Macrophages from the peripheral circulation and those derived from resident microglia are among the main effector cells of the inflammatory response that follows spinal cord trauma...
  40. pmc CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer
    Cameron R Stewart
    Lipid Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:155-61. 2010
    ....
  41. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001
    ..because of the recognition that most neurological disorders involve activation and, possibly, dysregulation of microglia, the intrinsic macrophages of the CNS...
  42. ncbi Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor
    Astrid E Cardona
    Neuroinflammation Research Center and Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:917-24. 2006
    b>Microglia, the resident inflammatory cells of the CNS, are the only CNS cells that express the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1)...
  43. ncbi Temporal and spatial dynamics of cerebral immune cell accumulation in stroke
    Mathias Gelderblom
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Stroke 40:1849-57. 2009
    ..The objectives of this study were to define the temporal and spatial infiltration of immune cell populations and their activation patterns in a murine cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model...
  44. ncbi Microglia as a source and target of cytokines
    Uwe Karsten Hanisch
    Department of Cellular Neurosciences, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Buch, Germany
    Glia 40:140-55. 2002
    ..constitute a significant portion of the immuno- and neuromodulatory messengers that can be released by activated microglia. By virtue of potent effects on resident and invading cells, microglial cyto- and chemokines regulate innate ..
  45. ncbi RAGE and amyloid-beta peptide neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease
    S D Yan
    Department of Pathology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 382:685-91. 1996
    ..Alzheimer's disease, because it is neurotoxic--directly by inducing oxidant stress, and indirectly by activating microglia. A specific cell-surface acceptor site that could focus its effects on target cells has been postulated but not ..
  46. ncbi Changing face of microglia
    Manuel B Graeber
    Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
    Science 330:783-8. 2010
    b>Microglia are resident brain cells that sense pathological tissue alterations. They can develop into brain macrophages and perform immunological functions...
  47. ncbi Aggregated alpha-synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease
    Wei Zhang
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    FASEB J 19:533-42. 2005
    ..evidence indicates that an inflammatory process in the substantia nigra, characterized by activation of resident microglia, likely either initiates or aggravates nigral neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  48. ncbi Microglia in the adult brain arise from Ly-6ChiCCR2+ monocytes only under defined host conditions
    Alexander Mildner
    Institute of Neuropathology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 10:1544-53. 2007
    b>Microglia are crucially important myeloid cells in the CNS and constitute the first immunological barrier against pathogens and environmental insults...
  49. ncbi Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
    M Kaul
    Center for Neuroscience and Aging Research, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:988-94. 2001
    ..HIV-1 infects macrophages and microglia, but not neurons, although neurons are injured and die by apoptosis...
  50. pmc Astrocytes as determinants of disease progression in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Koji Yamanaka
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0670, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:251-3. 2008
    ..These findings demonstrate that mutant astrocytes are viable targets for therapies for slowing the progression of non-cell autonomous killing of motor neurons in ALS...
  51. pmc Galectin-1 deactivates classically activated microglia and protects from inflammation-induced neurodegeneration
    Sarah C Starossom
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunity 37:249-63. 2012
    ..Classically activated (M1) microglia are key players mediating this process...
  52. ncbi The myeloid cells of the central nervous system parenchyma
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Mail Code NC30, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 468:253-62. 2010
    ..As such, microglia face a challenging task...
  53. ncbi Caspase signalling controls microglia activation and neurotoxicity
    Miguel A Burguillos
    Department of Oncology Pathology, Cancer Centrum Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nature 472:319-24. 2011
    Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are suggested to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia release pro-inflammatory factors that may be neurotoxic...
  54. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    b>Microglia are the resident macrophage-like population in the CNS. Microglia remain quiescent until injury or infection activates the cells to perform effector inflammatory and APC functions...
  55. ncbi Distinct and non-redundant roles of microglia and myeloid subsets in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease
    Alexander Mildner
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 31:11159-71. 2011
    ..phagocytes are important modulators of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the specific functions of resident microglia, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, and perivascular macrophages have not been resolved...
  56. ncbi Identification of a microglia phenotype supportive of remyelination
    Marta Olah
    Department of Neuroscience, Section Medical Physiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Glia 60:306-21. 2012
    ..b>Microglia are known to play a central role in neuroinflammatory processes...
  57. ncbi Microglia and neuroprotection: from in vitro studies to therapeutic applications
    Elisabetta Polazzi
    Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Italy
    Prog Neurobiol 92:293-315. 2010
    b>Microglia are the main immune cells in the brain, playing a role in both physiological and pathological conditions...
  58. pmc Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
    Liya Qin
    Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    Glia 55:453-62. 2007
    ..Systemic TNFalpha and LPS administration activated microglia and increased expression of brain pro-inflammatory factors (i.e...
  59. pmc Microglial interactions with synapses are modulated by visual experience
    Marie Eve Tremblay
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy and Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000527. 2010
    b>Microglia are the immune cells of the brain. In the absence of pathological insult, their highly motile processes continually survey the brain parenchyma and transiently contact synaptic elements...
  60. ncbi Microglia activated by IL-4 or IFN-gamma differentially induce neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis from adult stem/progenitor cells
    Oleg Butovsky
    Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    Mol Cell Neurosci 31:149-60. 2006
    ..of adult neural progenitor cells in mice are blocked by inflammation-associated (endotoxin-activated) microglia, but induced by microglia activated by cytokines (IL-4 or low level of IFN-gamma) associated with T-helper cells...
  61. ncbi Bone marrow-derived microglia play a critical role in restricting senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease
    Alain R Simard
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 Laurier Boul, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada
    Neuron 49:489-502. 2006
    b>Microglia are the immune cells of the brain. Here we show a massive infiltration of highly ramified and elongated microglia within the core of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  62. ncbi Microglia: biology and pathology
    Manuel B Graeber
    Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Neurosciences Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Acta Neuropathol 119:89-105. 2010
    The past 20 years have seen a gain in knowledge on microglia biology and microglia functions in disease that exceeds the expectations formulated when the microglia "immune network" was introduced...
  63. ncbi Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease
    D C Wu
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Neurosci 22:1763-71. 2002
    ..In addition, we show that minocycline not only prevents MPTP-induced activation of microglia but also the formation of mature interleukin-1beta and the activation of NADPH-oxidase and inducible nitric ..
  64. pmc Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brain
    Christine T Ekdahl
    Laboratory of Neurogenesis and Cell Therapy, Section of Restorative Neurology, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Biomedical Center A 11, Lund, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13632-7. 2003
    ..Here, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, which gives rise to microglia activation in the area where the new neurons are born, strongly impairs basal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats...
  65. pmc Transformation from a neuroprotective to a neurotoxic microglial phenotype in a mouse model of ALS
    Bing Liao
    Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China
    Exp Neurol 237:147-52. 2012
    ..sclerosis (ALS), as well as in transgenic mouse models of inherited ALS, and is characterized by activated microglia. Earlier studies showed that activated microglia play important roles in both motoneuron protection and injury...
  66. ncbi Stroma-derived interleukin-34 controls the development and maintenance of langerhans cells and the maintenance of microglia
    Melanie Greter
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, Neuroimmunology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Immunity 37:1050-60. 2012
    ..The development of both Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia is highly dependent on Csf-1 receptor signaling but independent of Csf-1...
  67. pmc Role of microglia in neurotrauma
    David J Loane
    Department of Anesthesiology and Center for Shock, Trauma and Anesthesiology Research STAR, National Study Center for Trauma and EMS, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 7:366-77. 2010
    b>Microglia are the primary mediators of the immune defense system of the CNS and are integral to the subsequent inflammatory response...
  68. ncbi Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain
    Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Neurosci 27:2596-605. 2007
    ..CD11b promoter and ganciclovir treatment as a tool, we selectively ablated proliferating (Mac-2 positive) microglia after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
  69. ncbi Selective transfer of exosomes from oligodendrocytes to microglia by macropinocytosis
    Dirk Fitzner
    Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Str, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Cell Sci 124:447-58. 2011
    ..secrete small membrane vesicles called exosomes, which are specifically and efficiently taken up by microglia both in vitro and in vivo...
  70. ncbi Microglia in ALS: the good, the bad, and the resting
    Jenny S Henkel
    Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, The Methodist Hospital, 6560 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:389-98. 2009
    ..The microglial and T cell activation states influence the rate of disease progression. Initially, microglia and T cells can slow disease progression, while they may later contribute to the acceleration of disease...
  71. pmc Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain
    Carol A Colton
    Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, 27710 NC, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:399-418. 2009
    ..b>Microglia, like other tissue macrophages, participate in repair and resolution processes after infection or injury to ..
  72. pmc Immune activation in brain aging and neurodegeneration: too much or too little?
    Kurt M Lucin
    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 64:110-22. 2009
    ..We try to explore here the consequences of gain versus loss of function with an emphasis on microglia as sensors and effectors of immune function in the brain, and we discuss the potential role of the peripheral ..
  73. ncbi Synapse loss and microglial activation precede tangles in a P301S tauopathy mouse model
    Yasumasa Yoshiyama
    The Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuron 53:337-51. 2007
    ..Thus, hippocampal synaptic pathology and microgliosis may be the earliest manifestations of neurodegenerative tauopathies, and abrogation of tau-induced microglial activation could retard progression of these disorders...
  74. pmc Rapid appearance and local toxicity of amyloid-beta plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    Melanie Meyer-Luehmann
    Alzheimer s Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 451:720-4. 2008
    ..The role of microglia in accelerating or retarding these processes has been uncertain...
  75. ncbi Regulation of innate immune responses in the brain
    Serge Rivest
    Laboratory of Endocrinology and Genomics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec Research Center, and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 Laurier Boulevard, Quebec, G1V 4G2, Canada
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:429-39. 2009
    ..This Review discusses the molecular details underlying the innate immune response in the brain during infection, injury and disease...
  76. ncbi Microglia in the CNS: immigrants from another world
    Marco Prinz
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Glia 59:177-87. 2011
    b>Microglia are immunocompetent cells of the brain that continuously survey their environment with highly motile extensions. Although first described almost a century ago, the developmental origin of microglia is still debated...
  77. pmc CD14 and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar A{beta}-stimulated microglial activation
    Erin G Reed-Geaghan
    Department of Neurosciences, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11982-92. 2009
    b>Microglia are the brain's tissue macrophages and are found in an activated state surrounding beta-amyloid plaques in the Alzheimer's disease brain...
  78. pmc Clearance of apoptotic neurons without inflammation by microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2
    Kazuya Takahashi
    Neuroimmunology Unit, European Neuroscience Institute Göttingen, Germany
    J Exp Med 201:647-57. 2005
    ..Here, we show expression of TREM2 in microglia. TREM2 stimulation induced DAP12 phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and ..
  79. ncbi Innate immunity and neuroinflammation in the CNS: the role of microglia in Toll-like receptor-mediated neuronal injury
    Seija Lehnardt
    Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Neurology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Philippstrasse 12, Berlin, Germany
    Glia 58:253-63. 2010
    b>Microglia are key players of the immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) and, being the resident innate immune cells, they are responsible for the early control of infections and for the recruitment of cells of the adaptive ..
  80. ncbi In vivo imaging of microglial activation with [11C](R)-PK11195 PET in idiopathic Parkinson's disease
    Alexander Gerhard
    MRC Clinical Sciences Centre and Division of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Neurobiol Dis 21:404-12. 2006
    ..the characteristic Lewy body pathology targets pigmented and other brainstem nuclei at post-mortem, activated microglia are found in both subcortical and cortical areas...
  81. ncbi Ccr2 deficiency impairs microglial accumulation and accelerates progression of Alzheimer-like disease
    Joseph El Khoury
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nat Med 13:432-8. 2007
    b>Microglia are the principal immune cells of the brain. In Alzheimer disease, these brain mononuclear phagocytes are recruited from the blood and accumulate in senile plaques...
  82. ncbi Minocycline attenuates mechanical allodynia and proinflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of pain facilitation
    Annemarie Ledeboer
    Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Pain 115:71-83. 2005
    Activated glial cells (microglia and astroglia) in the spinal cord play a major role in mediating enhanced pain states by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and other substances thought to facilitate pain transmission...
  83. ncbi The neuropathogenesis of AIDS
    Francisco González-Scarano
    Department of Neurology, 3 West Gates, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104 4283, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 5:69-81. 2005
    ..Brain macrophages and microglia are the key cell types that are infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system, and they are likely to mediate ..
  84. ncbi Relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis: pathology of the newly forming lesion
    Michael H Barnett
    Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Australia
    Ann Neurol 55:458-68. 2004
    ....
  85. pmc MicroRNA-124 promotes microglia quiescence and suppresses EAE by deactivating macrophages via the C/EBP-α-PU.1 pathway
    Eugene D Ponomarev
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 17:64-70. 2011
    ..We found that brain-specific miR-124 is expressed in microglia but not in peripheral monocytes or macrophages...
  86. ncbi Rett syndrome microglia damage dendrites and synapses by the elevated release of glutamate
    Izumi Maezawa
    Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    J Neurosci 30:5346-56. 2010
    ..Here we report a potent neurotoxic activity in the conditioned medium (CM) obtained from Mecp2-null microglia. Hippocampal neurons treated with CM from Mecp2-null microglia showed an abnormal stunted and beaded dendritic ..
  87. pmc CX3CR1-dependent subretinal microglia cell accumulation is associated with cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration
    Christophe Combadiere
    INSERM U543, Laboratoire d Immunologie Cellulaire, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 117:2920-8. 2007
    ..These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel pathogenic process with important implications for the development of new therapies for AMD...
  88. ncbi Microglia instruct subventricular zone neurogenesis
    Noah M Walton
    Department of Neuroscience, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Glia 54:815-25. 2006
    b>Microglia are increasingly implicated as a source of non-neural regulation of postnatal neurogenesis and neuronal development...
  89. pmc Amyloid-beta protein oligomer at low nanomolar concentrations activates microglia and induces microglial neurotoxicity
    Izumi Maezawa
    Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Institute, University of California, Davis, California 95618, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:3693-706. 2011
    Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  90. pmc Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease: its role in neuronal death and implications for therapeutic intervention
    MALU G TANSEY
    Department of Physiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta, GA 30324, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:510-8. 2010
    ..The potential causes of PD remain uncertain, but recent studies suggest neuroinflammation and microglia activation play important roles in PD pathogenesis...
  91. ncbi NADPH oxidase mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity and proinflammatory gene expression in activated microglia
    Liya Qin
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, NIEHS, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:1415-21. 2004
    ..degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is mediated by the release of proinflammatory factors from activated microglia. Here, we report the pivotal role of NADPH oxidase in inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity, where the LPS-induced ..
  92. pmc Inflammation, microglia, and Alzheimer's disease
    Brent Cameron
    Alzheimer Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:503-9. 2010
    b>Microglia are the brain's tissue macrophage and representative of the innate immune system. These cells normally provide tissue maintenance and immune surveillance of the brain...
  93. pmc Exaggerated inflammation, impaired host defense, and neuropathology in progranulin-deficient mice
    Fangfang Yin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 207:117-28. 2010
    ..PGRN-deficient macrophages and microglia were cytotoxic to hippocampal cells in vitro, and PGRN-deficient hippocampal slices were hypersusceptible to ..
  94. pmc Wild-type microglia extend survival in PU.1 knockout mice with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    David R Beers
    Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16021-6. 2006
    ..To determine whether the expression of mutant SOD1 (mSOD1(G93A)) in CNS microglia contributes to motoneuron injury, PU...
  95. ncbi p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated after a spinal nerve ligation in spinal cord microglia and dorsal root ganglion neurons and contributes to the generation of neuropathic pain
    Shan Xue Jin
    Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 23:4017-22. 2003
    ..The activated p38 in the spinal cord is restricted entirely to microglia; phospho-p38 colocalizes only with the microglial marker OX-42 and not with either the neuronal marker neuronal-..
  96. ncbi Role of microglia in inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms and strategies for therapeutic intervention
    Bin Liu
    Neuropharmacology Section, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304:1-7. 2003
    Evidence from postmortem analysis implicates the involvement of microglia in the neurodegenerative process of several degenerative neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
  97. ncbi Systemic inflammatory cells fight off neurodegenerative disease
    Michal Schwartz
    Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl Street, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
    Nat Rev Neurol 6:405-10. 2010
    ..Thus, we propose that an appreciation of the distinctive temporal and spatial contributions of resident and systemic leukocytes to disease progression is essential for the development of effective therapeutic regimens...
  98. ncbi Proinflammatory mediators released by activated microglia induces neuronal death in Japanese encephalitis
    Ayan Ghoshal
    National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, Haryana, India
    Glia 55:483-96. 2007
    While a number of studies have documented the importance of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) response to injury, infection and disease, little is known regarding its role in viral encephalitis...
  99. pmc Stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow decrease neuronal death in global ischemia by modulation of inflammatory/immune responses
    Hirokazu Ohtaki
    Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14638-43. 2008
    ..hMSCs also up-regulated three mouse genes, including the neuroprotective gene Ym1 that is expressed by activated microglia/macrophages...
  100. ncbi Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity by inhibiting activation and proliferation of microglia
    T Tikka
    A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland
    J Neurosci 21:2580-8. 2001
    ..Treatment with these excitotoxins induced a dose-dependent proliferation of microglia that was associated with increased release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and was followed by increased lactate ..
  101. ncbi TLR signaling tailors innate immune responses in human microglia and astrocytes
    Carolyn S Jack
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Immunol 175:4320-30. 2005
    The specific signals mediating the activation of microglia and astrocytes as a prelude to, or consequence of, CNS inflammation continue to be defined...

Research Grants73

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Title: A Pilot Study for the Evaluation of Minocycline as a Microglia Inhibitor in the Treatment of Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Number: 11-EI-0264 Background: - Central retinal ..
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Title: A Pilot Study for the Evaluation of Minocycline as a Microglia Inhibitor in the Treatment of Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Number: 11-EI-0264 Background: - Central retinal ..
  3. Statin modulation of immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease
    Jun Tan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain, as well as by slowing the maturation of the microglia into the pro-inflammatory antigen presenting phenotype...
  4. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN IRA FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AIF release from neuronal mitochondria;it also more recently has been shown to be a critical activator of microglia. Inhibition of PARP-1 after TBI strongly attenuates both caspase dependent and independent forms of PCD, as well ..
  5. Enzymatic Regulation of S-Glutathionylation : Role in Apoptosis and Disease
    John J Mieyal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cell death and how it and co-administered agents may inhibit pro-inflammatory responses from neighboring microglia cells and stimulate anti-oxidant responses in astroglial cells new insights regarding therapy will be realized...
  6. Cre, Dre Dual Lineage Model for Calcium Imaging and Optogenetic Manipulations
    Petr Tvrdik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Microglia are involved in the initiation and progression of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, ..
  7. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the contribution of resident cells (including astrocytes and microglia) versus infiltrating leukocyte populations within the nervous system or the organized lymphoid tissue (i.e...
  8. Tumor Microenvironment Interactions in Brain Tumors
    Eric C Holland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gene list contains candidate mediators of BBB breakdown and tumor cell interaction with brain parenchyma and microglia for invasion, colonization and inflammation...
  9. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gliosis (activation of microglia and astrocytes) is a hallmark of neuroinflammation...
  10. Regulation of Astrocyte TIMP-1 in HIV-Associated Dementia
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The disease is characterized by an accumulation of activated and infected macrophages/microglia in the central nervous system, which secrete cytokines, infectious virions and viral proteins that activate ..
  11. Neuroprotection by IFN-beta in AIDS
    Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suggests that neurodegeneration occurs as a consequence of HIV-1 infection and neurotoxic immune stimulation of microglia and macrophages (M?) in the brain and impairment of neurogenesis...
  12. Role of Potent Trophic Factors on Glia and Motor Neurons in ALS
    Brian K Kaspar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies have surprisingly demonstrated that astrocytes and microglia expressing a mutation in the enzyme superoxide dismutase can exacerbate motor neuron death, supporting earlier ..
  13. Deregulated lipid metabolism in stroke
    Robert J Dempsey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Inhibiting the cell cycle after stroke will provide benefit by attenuating neuronal death and proliferation of microglia/macrophages...
  14. Pathogenesis of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction
    Zhongcong Xie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Neuroinflammation includes microglia activation and increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[unreadable], ..
  15. Enhance Production of Functional Recombinant Human Protein C Variant In Mammalian
    Nienwen Chow; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that 5A-APC crosses the BSCB and transcriptionally downregulates SOD1 in motor neurons and microglia in SOD1G93A mice...
  16. Prostaglandin signaling following seizures
    Jianxiong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also demonstrated that EP2 receptors regulate expression of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes in microglia likely via cAMP/Epac signaling...
  17. Genomic adaptation to HIV infection of the CNS in opioid-abusers
    Rajnish S Dave; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..miRNA microarray analyses to characterize miRNA expression profiles in human fetal brain derived cultures of microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, and neurons infected with HIV and/or treated with morphine...
  18. Mechanism of CREB dysregulation in Alzheimer brain
    Subbiah Pugazhenthi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, play a protective role by reducing A[unreadable] load...
  19. Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDS
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for improved ART delivery to mononuclear phagocytes (MP: monocytes, perivascular and tissue macrophages and microglia) to bring drugs to tissue viral reservoirs...
  20. Group B. Streptococci and Toll-like Receptors
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..TLR2 furthermore mediates apoptosis of microglia and neurons in response to GBS which likely contributes to the substantial neurological sequelae of GBS ..
  21. Regulation of HIV-1 by Rad51 in CNS cells
    Kamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..recent observations (shown here) point to the ability of Tat in the induction of Rad51 expression in primary microglia and astrocytes, the two cell types that play an important role in neuropathogenesis of AIDS...
  22. Interactions Between Depression, Neuroinflammation and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..GSK3 inhibitors reduce by >90% the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in astrocytes and microglia. We also found that GSK3 inhibitors promote tolerance to inflammation, down-regulating inflammatory responses to ..
  23. White matter changes in HIV models
    Pamela E Knapp; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..are directly neurotoxic, and may also modulate indirect toxicity by causing functional changes in astroglia and microglia (ex: chemo/cytokine secretion, [Ca2+]i destabilization)...
  24. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of IL-17 Signaling
    Xiaoxia Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Importantly, Act1 deficiency in endothelial cells or in macrophages/microglia did not substantially impact the development of EAE...
  25. ROLE OF OPIATES IN ALCOHOL-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
    DIPAK KUMAR SARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that ethanol's neurotoxic action on beta-endorphin neurons is caused by oxidative stress leading to microglia-mediated inflammation...
  26. ROLE OF OPIATES IN ALCOHOL-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY
    DIPAK SARKAR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that ethanol's neurotoxic action on beta-endorphin neurons is caused by oxidative stress leading to microglia-mediated inflammation...
  27. Astrocytes Play a Critical Role in the Pathology of EAE
    JOHN ROLAND BETHEA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..indicating the contribution of various cell populations within the central nervous system (CNS), such as microglia and astrocytes, to the development and progression of the disease...
  28. White Matter Protection in Cerebral Ischemia
    Guodong Cao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to be tested is that NAMPT protects against WMI via enhancing oligodendrocytic protection/ regeneration and microglia-mediated myelin phagocytosis...
  29. Targeted investigation of tissue specific oxidative stress in the etiology of ALS
    Holly Van Remmen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Through targeted expression of Cre recombinase to specific tissues (e.g., motor neurons, skeletal muscle, microglia and astrocytes) in the Gpx4flfl conditional knockout ALS mutant mice, we will generate tissue-specific deletion ..
  30. PROTEIN CARBONYLATION AND AXONAL DAMAGE IN EAE
    Oscar A Bizzozero; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released by activated macrophages/microglia or are endogenously generated by dysfunctional mitochondria in the nerve cells...
  31. NFkB in the Astrocyte Swelling/Brain Edema with Acute Liver Failure
    MICHAEL DAVID NORENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Aim #2 will examine the potential contribution of microglia, the major cell in brain mediating inflammation, to the mechanism of astrocytic NF-kB activation and cell ..
  32. Role of microRNAs in Coronavirus-induced lethal encephalitis
    Sonia Navas-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that CoVs inducing different CNS disease outcome promote distinct miRNAs expression profiles in macrophages and microglia, and that virus specific changes in miRNAs expression contribute to the differences in encephalitis outcome by ..
  33. Age-dependent microglial responses in hypoxia-ischemia
    PETER A FERRAZZANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the microglia-mediated inflammatory response to ischemia in the developing brain is not well understood...
  34. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Photoreceptor Mitochondrial DNA Damage
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The TLR4 upregulation was also found to associate primarily with the retinal microglia. Based on these preliminary findings, the following specific aims are proposed: 1...
  35. Freeze-Dried Blueberries: Prevention and Rehabilitation Strategies in MS
    Susan O McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..NFkB activation mediates inflammatory activation in microglia and astrocytes;this aim will allow us to determine NFkB involvement in blueberry neuroprotection...
  36. Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    ROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In addition, marked depletion of dopaminergic neurons, activated microglia, reactive astrocytes, and oxidative damage within this brain region are salient features of HAD...
  37. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..WU along with mice deficient in type I IFN receptor expression, specifically in macrophage/microglia, neuroectodermal cells or neurons;2) Investigate the effectiveness of the OAS-RNaseL pathway in limiting MHV ..
  38. The effects of dexamethasone on tumor and microglial cells in glioma
    TERREIA SUTTON JONES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that Dex inhibits tumor cell proliferation either in a direct cell autonomous manner or indirectly through microglia;and because of its anti-proliferative effect, it may compromise the effectiveness of standard cytotoxic therapy...
  39. GSK3: immunoregulator in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)
    Patrizia De Sarno; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other cell types involved in the disease are dendritic cells, macrophages, and microglia. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a critical regulator of a variety of cellular functions, and we ..
  40. Air pollution and the brain: gender as an important determinant of susceptibility
    Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Indicators of oxidative stress, cell death, and microglia activation/neuroinflammation will be measured in brain regions and in peripheral tissues;furthermore the ..
  41. Interactions Between Depression, Neuroinflammation and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Eleonore Beurel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GSK3 inhibitors reduce by >90% the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in astrocytes and microglia. We also found that GSK3 inhibitors promote tolerance to inflammation, down-regulating inflammatory responses to ..
  42. Serotonergic Immunomodulation in Neuroinflammatory Disease
    CATHERINE ELIZABETH HAGAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Microglia are the immune system of the brain and are critically involved in responses to injury and various diseases...
  43. Innate Regulation and CD4+Th1/17 Immunity in TMEV-Induced Demyelination
    Stephen D Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demyelination with accompanying mononuclear cell infiltrates dominated by CD4+ T cells and activated APCs (microglia/macrophages/DCs)...
  44. Biobehavioral Role of Brain Kynurenine Metabolism in Mental Illness
    JASON C O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Microglia produce the free radical forming metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid en route to ..
  45. Pleiotropic Transcription Factors As Target For Intracerebral Hemorrhage Treatmen
    Jaroslaw A Aronowski; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..gene deletion has the opposite effect;(2) Hematoma resolution: Activators of Nrf2 promote phagocytosis by brain microglia/macrophages and accelerate hematoma resolution in mice after ICH...
  46. Cell Cycle Pathways and Spinal Cord Injury
    ALAN IRA FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..neuronal cell death combined with astroglial proliferation and inflammation associated with activation of microglia. Upregulation of cell cycle proteins occurs after central nervous system (CMS) trauma, and appears to contribute ..
  47. Chronic imaging of cellular dynamics after cortical microhemorrhage
    Chris B Schaffer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent work has revealed that microglia play an active role in surveillance and pruning of synapses in development and adulthood...
  48. Manganese Enhanced Multi-MRI for Murine HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
    Yutong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The pathological correlate of HAD is HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). The presence of activated microglia and brain macrophages with lower levels of virus is a central pathological feature of disease...
  49. Role of complement in alpha-synuclein based models of Parkinson disease
    HEATHER ELIZABETH ALLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will measure changes in mRNA and protein expression of complement components expressed by microglia, changes in surface complement receptors by flow cytometry, changes in phagocytosis by commercially available ..
  50. Alcohol, Glial Gene Expression and the Heat Shock Pathway
    Neil L Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the release of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) from astrocytes and may have similar effects in microglia (MCG), as well as decreasing the synthesis of myelin by oligodendrocytes (OLGs)...
  51. Free Radicals and Methamphetamine Abuse
    Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Initially, we will focus on the effect of meth on various human and mouse macrophage (THP1, RAW264.7), microglia (MG5, EOC 2), astrocyte (C8-D1A, CCF-STTG1), and neuronal (SH-SY5Y, SK- N-MC) cell lines, regarding the ..
  52. Innate immunity in Rett pathology and repair
    Jonathan Kipnis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Microglia were also recently suggested to play a role in Rett pathophysiology;Mecp2-null microglia were reported to be ..
  53. Allergic Condition Susceptibility Polymorphisms and Glioma Risk
    Judith Schwartzbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..inflammation by inducing regulatory T cell production by astrocytes (brain cells) and by causing the death of microglia (major inflammatory cells of the central nervous system)...
  54. RNA-Seq studies of Gene Expression in Cells and Networks in FI and ACC in Autism
    Barbara J Wold; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This network is centers on IL6 and includes ATF3, SOCS3, and GADD45B, which are selectively expressed in VENs. Microglia, the immune cells of the nervous system, are numerous and are in the activated state in autism-A, making a ..
  55. The microglial potassium channels Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 as therapeutic targets for neu
    Heike Wulff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a delayed neuroinflammatory response that is characterized by lymphocyte infiltration, hyperthermia and robust microglia activation...
  56. Small Animal Model of HIV Neuropathogenesis in the HAART Era
    Pietro P Sanna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the effects of concomitant low level expression of multiple HIV-1 products in disease-relevant cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage...
  57. Employing Familial AD Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Neurodegeneration
    Suman Jayadev; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demonstrated that presenilin 2 (PSEN2) deficiency is associated with an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response in microglia and that the fAD associated PSEN2 N141I mutation leads to decreased gamma- secretase activity in microglia...
  58. Cellular Mechanisms of Hypothalamic Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity
    Joshua P Thaler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data has uncovered a potential interaction between microglia, the immune cells of the brain, and neurons, the regulators of energy balance...
  59. Nogo Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis
    BENJAMIN MATTHEW SEGAL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that prime encephalitogenic T cells, as well as suppress the activities of monocytes, macrophages and activated microglia that accumulate in CNS lesions during autoimmune demyelination...
  60. Mechanisms of blood-brain barrier disruption by an encephalitic virus
    Katherine R Spindler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in brain endothelial cells and increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in brains, astrocytes and microglia. Established assays for BBB permeability, MMP activity, and transendothelial resistance will be used to test the ..
  61. Neuroprotection Against Parkinsonian Cell Death
    Jun Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, the neurotoxic activation of microglia may also contribute to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD...
  62. Disease-Modifying Effects of Filgastrim in a Mouse Model of AD
    Juan R Sanchez-Ramos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..expressing (GFP+) bone marrow cells will be generated to determine the extent to which peripherally derived microglia and other bone marrow-derived cells contribute to amyloid reduction and/or neurogenesis...
  63. SUBSTANCE P, NO & MICROGLIA IN CNS INFLAMMATION
    Barnett Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    In the next 5 years I plan to study in vitro and in vivo the interactions of microglia, macrophages, substance P and nitric oxide as well as the effect of these substances on mitochondrial function...
  64. Mechanisms of Microglial Activation and Phagocytosis in*
    Gary Landreth; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Paradoxically, despite their activated phenotype, the microglia fail to mount a phagocytic response to the deposited AB in the intact brain...
  65. PATHOGENESIS OF CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    Sunhee Lee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The hypothesis to be tested in this proposal is that microglia and astrocytes can function as effector cells in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and that modulation of their ..
  66. GLIAL B-AMYLOID PEPTIDE RECEPTORS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Kurt Brunden; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These plaques seem to be different from ordinary amyloid plaques in that they have microglia and astrocytes within and around the condensed core of the plaque...
  67. Domoic Acid and Neonatal Microglia Activation
    Alejandro Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Recent studies however have shown that glial tissue, namely astrocytes and microglia appear to play a role in DOM's toxicity to the nervous system...
  68. HIV GP120 INDUCTION OF ICAM-1--INVOLVEMENT IN ADC
    ETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Astrocytes and microglia are important cellular participants in mediating neurologic dysfunction associated with ADC, and HIV components ..
  69. Chemokines and Macrophages in HIV Neuronal Apoptosis
    Stuart Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>Microglia, astrocytes and neurons express co-receptors for HIV-1, namely the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4...
  70. Chemokine Receptor Signaling in HIV Neuropathology
    Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The HIV-1 envelope protein gpl20 binds to macrophages, microglia and T-cells via the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, which serve besides CD4 as co-receptors for the virus...
  71. Chemokines, Microglia and Alzheimer's Disease
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is composed of beta amyloid fibrils (fAbeta), activated microglia and astrocytes, and degenerating neurons...
  72. Chemokines and microglia in Alzheimer's disease
    Joseph El Khoury; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is composed of beta amyloid fibrils (fAbeta), activated microglia, astrocytes and degenerating neurons...
  73. Role of Microglia in Chronic Visceral Pain
    Elie D Al Chaer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a novel host immune response, characterized by activation of macrophage-like cells in the spinal cord called microglia. Inhibiting microglial activation by systemic administration of minocycline or by intrathecal application of TNP-..