Genomes and Genes
Summary: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Publications375 found, 100 shown here
- The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cellsArnold Kriegstein
The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 0525, USA
Annu Rev Neurosci 32:149-84. 2009..Identification of NSCs and IPCs is critical to understand brain development and adult neurogenesis and to develop new strategies for brain repair...
- The cell biology of neurogenesisMagdalena Gotz
Institute for Stem Cell Research, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, D 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:777-88. 2005..Here, we discuss how these features change during development from neuroepithelial to radial glial cells, and how this transition affects cell fate and neurogenesis...
- Müller cells in the healthy and diseased retinaAndreas Bringmann
Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Clinic, Medical Faculty of the University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Prog Retin Eye Res 25:397-424. 2006..detrimental effects, is essential for the development of efficient therapeutic strategies that use and stimulate the neuron-supportive/protective-and prevent the destructive-mechanisms of gliosis...
- Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous systemN Baumann
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001..There is also a remarkable plasticity of the oligodendrocyte lineage, even in the adult with a certain potentiality for myelin repair after experimental demyelination or human diseases...
- Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortexDavid V Hansen
Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Nature 464:554-561. 2010..The establishment of non-ventricular radial glia-like cells may have been a critical evolutionary advance underlying increased cortical size and complexity in the human brain...
- Pathological and protective roles of glia in chronic painErin D Milligan
Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 0001, USA
Nat Rev Neurosci 10:23-36. 2009..Given the prevalence of chronic pain and the partial efficacy of current drugs, which exclusively target neuronal mechanisms, new strategies to manipulate neuron-glia interactions in pain processing hold considerable promise...
- The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and diseaseBen A Barres
Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Neuron 60:430-40. 2008..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
- The neuropathic pain triad: neurons, immune cells and gliaJoachim Scholz
Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
Nat Neurosci 10:1361-8. 2007....
- Local generation of glia is a major astrocyte source in postnatal cortexWoo Ping Ge
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Physiology, University of California at San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
Nature 484:376-80. 2012....
- Oblique radial glial divisions in the developing mouse neocortex induce self-renewing progenitors outside the germinal zone that resemble primate outer subventricular zone progenitorsAtsunori Shitamukai
RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo Ku, Kobe 650 0047, Japan
J Neurosci 31:3683-95. 2011..We propose that mouse outer VZ progenitors, induced by oblique cleavages, provide a model to study both progenitor self-renewal and OSVZ progenitors...
- Glial activation: a driving force for pathological painL R Watkins
Dept of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at, Boulder, CO, USA
Trends Neurosci 24:450-5. 2001..Taken together, these findings suggest a new, dramatically different approach to pain control, as all clinical therapies are focused exclusively on altering neuronal, rather than glial, function...
- OSVZ progenitors of human and ferret neocortex are epithelial-like and expand by integrin signalingSimone A Fietz
Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany
Nat Neurosci 13:690-9. 2010..Our findings suggest that maintenance of this epithelial property allows integrin-mediated, repeated asymmetric divisions of OSVZ progenitors, providing a basis for neocortical expansion...
- Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortexRonald S Bultje
Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
Neuron 63:189-202. 2009..These results reveal a critical molecular pathway underlying asymmetric cell division of radial glial progenitors in the mammalian neocortex...
- Cellular signaling and factors involved in Müller cell gliosis: neuroprotective and detrimental effectsAndreas Bringmann
Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 10 14, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Prog Retin Eye Res 28:423-51. 2009....
- The bright side of the glial scar in CNS repairAsya Rolls
Asya Rolls, Ravid Shechter and Michal Schwartz are at the Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
Nat Rev Neurosci 10:235-41. 2009..However, increasing evidence suggests a beneficial role for this scar tissue as part of the endogenous local immune regulation and repair process. How can these opposing effects be reconciled? Perhaps it is all a matter of timing...
- Regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain from neurogenic radial glia-type progenitorsVolker Kroehne
Biotechnology Center and DFG Research Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universitat Dresden, Tatzberg 47 49, 01307 Dresden, Germany
Development 138:4831-41. 2011..Thus, regeneration after traumatic lesion of the adult zebrafish brain occurs efficiently from radial glia-type stem/progenitor cells...
- Myelination and support of axonal integrity by gliaKlaus Armin Nave
Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hermann Rein Strasse 3, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
Nature 468:244-52. 2010..This function may be independent of myelin itself. Myelin abnormalities cause a number of neurological diseases, and may also contribute to complex neuropsychiatric disorders...
- The transcription factor Sox10 is a key regulator of peripheral glial developmentS Britsch
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, D 13122 Berlin, Germany
Genes Dev 15:66-78. 2001..Haploinsufficiency of Sox10 can thus cause pigmentation and megacolon defects, which are also observed in Sox10(Dom)/+ mice and in patients with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease caused by heterozygous SOX10 mutations...
- Glutamate uptakeN C Danbolt
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
- hGFAP-cre transgenic mice for manipulation of glial and neuronal function in vivoL Zhuo
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 2280, USA
Genesis 31:85-94. 2001..Onset of Cre expression began in the forebrain by e13.5, suggesting that the hGFAP promoter is active in a multi-potential neural stem cell...
- Distinct behaviors of neural stem and progenitor cells underlie cortical neurogenesisStephen C Noctor
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
J Comp Neurol 508:28-44. 2008..We propose a model for predicting daughter cell fate that considers precursor cell type, stage of development, and the planar segregation of fate determinants...
- Tbr2 directs conversion of radial glia into basal precursors and guides neuronal amplification by indirect neurogenesis in the developing neocortexAlessandro Sessa
Molecular Neuropathology Laboratory, SCRI, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
Neuron 60:56-69. 2008..Together, these findings identify Tbr2 as a critical factor for the specification of IPCs during corticogenesis...
- Mosaic organization of neural stem cells in the adult brainFlorian T Merkle
Department of Neurosurgery and Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0525, USA
Science 317:381-4. 2007..This suggests that rather than being plastic and homogeneous, neural stem cells are a restricted and diverse population of progenitors...
- Morphology and dynamics of perisynaptic gliaAndreas Reichenbach
Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Universitat Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine, D 04109 Leipzig, Germany
Brain Res Rev 63:11-25. 2010..This review will summarize our current knowledge and highlight some open questions...
- Chemokines, neuronal-glial interactions, and central processing of neuropathic painYong Jing Gao
Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States
Pharmacol Ther 126:56-68. 2010..Insights into the role of chemokines in neuronal-glial interactions after nerve injury will identify new targets for therapeutic intervention of neuropathic pain...
- Sonic hedgehog regulates the growth and patterning of the cerebellumN Dahmane
The Skirball Institute, Developmental Genetics Program and Department of Cell Biology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Development 126:3089-100. 1999..In addition, they provide a cellular context for medulloblastomas, childhood cancers of the cerebellum...
- New insights into neuron-glia communicationR Douglas Fields
Neurocytology and Physiology Section, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 298:556-62. 2002..By releasing neurotransmitters and other extracellular signaling molecules, glia can affect neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission and perhaps coordinate activity across networks of neurons...
- CD36 is involved in astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formationYi Bao
Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York, USA
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32:1567-77. 2012..These findings identify CD36 as a novel mediator for injury-induced astrogliosis and scar formation. Targeting CD36 may serve as a potential strategy to reduce glial scar formation in stroke...
- Toll-like receptors in neurodegenerationEitan Okun
Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Brain Res Rev 59:278-92. 2009....
- Glial reactivity and impaired glutamate metabolism in short-term experimental diabetic retinopathy. Penn State Retina Research GroupE Lieth
Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, 17033, USA
Diabetes 47:815-20. 1998..These findings suggest a novel understanding of the mechanism of neural degeneration in the retina during diabetes, involving early and possibly persistent glutamate excitotoxicity...
- Tumor necrosis factor inhibits neurite outgrowth and branching of hippocampal neurons by a rho-dependent mechanismHarald Neumann
Departments of Neuroimmunology and Neurobiochemistry, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
J Neurosci 22:854-62. 2002..These results suggest that glia-derived TNF, as part of an injury or inflammatory process, can inhibit neurite elongation and branching during development and regeneration...
- Complete Freunds adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation evokes glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the CNSVasudeva Raghavendra
Department of Anaesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
Eur J Neurosci 20:467-73. 2004..These findings further support a unifying theory that glial activation and enhanced cytokine expression at the CNS have a role in eliciting behavioral hypersensitivity...
- NG2 cells: Properties, progeny and originJacqueline Trotter
Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany
Brain Res Rev 63:72-82. 2010..The origin, heterogeneity and function of NG2 cells as modulators of the neuronal network are important incompletely resolved questions...
- Glial cells in adult neurogenesisJoachim Morrens
Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium
Glia 60:159-74. 2012..In any case, however, "neurogenesis" appears to be an essentially glial achievement...
- Synaptic scaling mediated by glial TNF-alphaDavid Stellwagen
Nancy Pritzker Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304 5485, USA
Nature 440:1054-9. 2006..We suggest that by modulating TNF-alpha levels, glia actively participate in the homeostatic activity-dependent regulation of synaptic connectivity...
- Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transportersJ D Rothstein
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 7519
Neuron 13:713-25. 1994..GLT-1 is distributed in astrocytes throughout the brain and spinal cord. GLAST is most abundant in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar molecular layer brain, but is also present in the cortex, hippocampus, and deep cerebellar nuclei...
- Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitroJ Sanchez-Ramos
Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA
Exp Neurol 164:247-56. 2000..When labeled human or mouse BMSC were cultured with rat fetal mesencephalic or striatal cells, a small proportion of BMSC-derived cells differentiated into neuron-like cells expressing NeuN and glial cells expressing GFAP...
- Neuronal and glial cell abnormality as predictors of progression of diabetic retinopathyErica L Fletcher
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Melbourne, Grattan St Parkville 3010 Victoria, Australia
Curr Pharm Des 13:2699-712. 2007..This review will examine the evidence that neurons and glia are altered during diabetes and the relationship these changes have with vascular compromise...
- Conversion of embryonic stem cells into neuroectodermal precursors in adherent monocultureQi Long Ying
Institute for Stem Cell Research, University of Edinburgh, King s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JQ, United Kingdom
Nat Biotechnol 21:183-6. 2003..This system provides a platform for defining the molecular machinery of neural commitment and optimizing the efficiency of neuronal and glial cell production from pluripotent mammalian stem cells...
- Late-stage neuronal progenitors in the retina are radial Müller glia that function as retinal stem cellsRebecca L Bernardos
Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1048, USA
J Neurosci 27:7028-40. 2007..We conclude that zebrafish Müller glia function as multipotent retinal stem cells that generate retinal neurons by homeostatic and regenerative developmental mechanisms...
- Current hypotheses for the underlying biology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosisJeffrey D Rothstein
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Ann Neurol 65:S3-9. 2009..Convergence of these pathways is likely to mediate disease onset and progression...
- Preclinical differences of intravascular AAV9 delivery to neurons and glia: a comparative study of adult mice and nonhuman primatesSteven J Gray
Gene Therapy Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Mol Ther 19:1058-69. 2011..Our results indicate that high peripheral tropism, limited neuronal transduction in NHPs, and pre-existing NAbs represent significant barriers to human translation of intravascular AAV9 delivery...
- Drosophila ebony activity is required in glia for the circadian regulation of locomotor activityJoowon Suh
Department of Neuroscience, Tufts Center for Neuroscience Research and Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Neuron 55:435-47. 2007..We thus suggest a model for ebony function wherein Ebony glia participate in the clock control of dopaminergic function and the orchestration of circadian activity rhythms...
- Communication between neurons and astrocytes: relevance to the modulation of synaptic and network activityTommaso Fellin
Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy
J Neurochem 108:533-44. 2009..This review discusses the importance of astrocyte-to-neuron signaling in different aspects of neuronal function from the activity of single synapses to that of neuronal networks...
- Conditional knock-out of Kir4.1 leads to glial membrane depolarization, inhibition of potassium and glutamate uptake, and enhanced short-term synaptic potentiationBiljana Djukic
Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
J Neurosci 27:11354-65. 2007..1 cKO hippocampus. Our findings implicate a role for glial Kir4.1 channel subunit in the modulation of synaptic strength...
- Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growthDiane L Sherman
Centre for Neuroscience Research, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
Nat Rev Neurosci 6:683-90. 2005....
- Reduced glial cell density and neuronal size in the anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorderD Cotter
Department of Psychological Medicine and Neuropathology, Institute of Psychiatry, DeCrespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, England
Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:545-53. 2001..In this investigation, we have simultaneously assessed glial cell density and neuronal density and size in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder...
- Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate enteric gliogenesis by modulating ErbB3 signalingALCMENE CHALAZONITIS
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Dev Biol 350:64-79. 2011..These observations support the hypotheses that BMPs are required for enteric gliogenesis and act by promoting responsiveness of ENCDC to ErbB3 ligands such as GGF2...
- The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nervesKristjan R Jessen
Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nat Rev Neurosci 6:671-82. 2005..Embryonic nerves therefore offer a particular opportunity to analyse the early steps of gliogenesis from transient multipotent stem cells, and to understand how this process is integrated with organogenesis of peripheral nerves...
- Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matterJennifer L Ziskin
Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N Wolfe St, WBSB 813, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nat Neurosci 10:321-30. 2007..This activity-dependent secretion of glutamate was prevalent in the developing and mature mouse corpus callosum, indicating that axons within white matter both conduct action potentials and engage in rapid neuron-glia communication...
- Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brainMichael C Oldham
Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Nat Neurosci 11:1271-82. 2008..Our findings provide a new foundation for neurogenetic inquiries by revealing a robust and previously unrecognized organization to the human brain transcriptome...
- A new subtype of progenitor cell in the mouse embryonic neocortexXiaoqun Wang
Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
Nat Neurosci 14:555-61. 2011..Our finding of oRG cells in the developing rodent brain fills a gap in our understanding of neocortical expansion...
- In vitro characterization of a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line (MIO-M1)G Astrid Limb
Division of Cell Biology, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:864-9. 2002..To characterize a spontaneously immortalized human Müller cell line and to determine whether it retains the characteristics of primary isolated cells without undergoing differentiation in vitro...
- Heterogeneity in progenitor cell subtypes in the ventricular zone of the zebrafish adult telencephalonMartin März
Institute for Toxicology and Genetics, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the Helmholtz Association, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
Glia 58:870-88. 2010..On the basis of the marker gene expression and distinct cell morphologies, we propose a classification for the dividing cell states at the zebrafish adult telencephalic VZ...
- Neural crest stem cells persist in the adult gut but undergo changes in self-renewal, neuronal subtype potential, and factor responsivenessGenevieve M Kruger
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Neuron 35:657-69. 2002..The persistence of NCSCs in the adult PNS opens up new possibilities for regeneration after injury or disease...
- Role of retinal glial cells in neurotransmitter uptake and metabolismAndreas Bringmann
Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, Germany
Neurochem Int 54:143-60. 2009....
- Distribution of the immune inhibitory molecules CD200 and CD200R in the normal central nervous system and multiple sclerosis lesions suggests neuron-glia and glia-glia interactionsNathalie Koning
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands corrected
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:159-67. 2009....
- Neuroglia in neurodegenerationMichael T Heneka
Klinische Neurowissenschaften, Klinik und Poliklinik fur Neurologie, 53127 Bonn, Germany
Brain Res Rev 63:189-211. 2010..The complex of recently acquired knowledge allows us to regard the neurodegenerative diseases as primarily gliodegenerative processes, in which glial cells determine the progression and outcome of neuropathological process...
- Glial cells generate neurons: the role of the transcription factor Pax6Nico Heins
Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18a, 82152, Planegg Martinsreid, Munich, Germany
Nat Neurosci 5:308-15. 2002..These results demonstrated an important role of Pax6 as intrinsic fate determinant of the neurogenic potential of glial cells...
- Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosisTakeshi Awasaki
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1 1 1 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan
Curr Biol 14:668-77. 2004..Previous studies have revealed intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms that trigger this pruning process, but how pruning is accomplished remains essentially unknown...
- Non-cell autonomous influence of MeCP2-deficient glia on neuronal dendritic morphologyNurit Ballas
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
Nat Neurosci 12:311-7. 2009..Our studies suggest that astrocytes in the RTT brain carrying MeCP2 mutations have a non-cell autonomous effect on neuronal properties, probably as a result of aberrant secretion of soluble factor(s)...
- Neuroglia and pioneer neurons express UNC-6 to provide global and local netrin cues for guiding migrations in C. elegansW G Wadsworth
Department of Pathology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Neuron 16:35-46. 1996..UNC-6 is expressed in 12 types of neuroglia and neurons, creating a hierarchy of netrin cues in the developing nervous system...
- Ascl1a/Dkk/beta-catenin signaling pathway is necessary and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta inhibition is sufficient for zebrafish retina regenerationRajesh Ramachandran
Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute and Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15858-63. 2011..Importantly, Ascl1a expression was found to contribute to the multipotential character of these progenitors. Our data suggest that Wnt signaling and GSK-3β inhibition, in particular, are crucial for successful retina regeneration...
- Characterization of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system: physiopathological implicationsAdriana Bajetto
Service of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy
J Neurochem 82:1311-29. 2002....
- Two modes of radial migration in early development of the cerebral cortexB Nadarajah
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
Nat Neurosci 4:143-50. 2001..The existence of two modes of radial migration may account for the differential effects of certain genetic mutations on cortical development...
- Modes of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortexBagirathy Nadarajah
Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:423-32. 2002..They migrate tangentially into the cortex, then seek the ventricular zone before moving radially to take up their positions in the cortical anlage...
- The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of epilepsyAnnamaria Vezzani
Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Department of Neuroscience, Via G La Masa, 19 Milano, Italy
Brain Behav Immun 22:797-803. 2008..These findings point out at novel glio-neuronal communications in diseased conditions and highlight potential new targets for therapeutic intervention...
- Glial progenitors in adult white matter are driven to form malignant gliomas by platelet-derived growth factor-expressing retrovirusesMarcela Assanah
Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Neurosci 26:6781-90. 2006....
- Expression of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor, CX3CR1, during acute and chronic inflammation in the rodent CNSPaula Marie Hughes
Nurin Ltd, CNS Inflammation Group, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
Glia 37:314-27. 2002..The expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 by glial cells during inflammation in the CNS may be influenced by the surrounding cytokine milieu, which has been shown to differ in acute and chronic neuroinflammation...
- Glial-cytokine-neuronal interactions underlying the mechanisms of persistent painWei Guo
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Program in Neuroscience, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
J Neurosci 27:6006-18. 2007..These findings provide evidence of astroglial activation by tissue injury, concomitant IL-1beta induction, and the coupling of NMDA receptor phosphorylation through IL-1 receptor signaling...
- Dynamic contribution of nestin-expressing stem cells to adult neurogenesisDiane C Lagace
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9070, USA
J Neurosci 27:12623-9. 2007....
- Glia: a novel drug discovery target for clinical painLinda R Watkins
Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 0345, USA
Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:973-85. 2003
- Immune and inflammatory mechanisms in neuropathic painGila Moalem
School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Brain Res Rev 51:240-64. 2006....
- Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in the human central nervous systemMalika Bsibsi
Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:1013-21. 2002..Together, our data reveal broad and regulated expression of TLRs both in vitro and in vivo by human glia cells...
- Developmental genetics of vertebrate glial-cell specificationDavid H Rowitch
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Nature 468:214-22. 2010..Gaining insight into the developmental genetics of macroglia has great potential to improve our understanding of a variety of neurological disorders in humans...
- Glial reactivity, an early feature of diabetic retinopathyE Rungger-Brandle
Cell Biology Laboratory, University Eye Clinic, Geneva, Switzerland
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1971-80. 2000..To characterize early structural gliotic reactions in retinal Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglia in experimentally induced diabetes...
- NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zoneMila Komitova
Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3156, USA
J Comp Neurol 512:702-16. 2009..Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
- Regeneration of axons in the visual systemMartin Berry
Molecular Neuroscience Group, School of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Restor Neurol Neurosci 26:147-74. 2008....
- A role for the polyol pathway in the early neuroretinal apoptosis and glial changes induced by diabetes in the ratVeronica Asnaghi
Schepens Eye Research Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Diabetes 52:506-11. 2003..These findings have implications for how to evaluate the role of the polyol pathway in diabetic retinopathy...
- A role for alpha1 tubulin-expressing Müller glia in regeneration of the injured zebrafish retinaBlake V Fausett
The Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
J Neurosci 26:6303-13. 2006..These data strongly suggest alpha1T-expressing Müller glia dedifferentiate and mediate regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina...
- Wnt signaling regulates neuronal differentiation of cortical intermediate progenitorsRoeben N Munji
Program in Developmental Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
J Neurosci 31:1676-87. 2011..Moreover, our findings suggest that dysregulation of Wnt signaling can lead to developmental defects similar to human cortical malformation disorders...
- Microglia-Müller glia cell interactions control neurotrophic factor production during light-induced retinal degenerationTakayuki Harada
Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502
J Neurosci 22:9228-36. 2002..These observations suggest that microglia regulate the microglia-Müller glia-photoreceptor network that serves as a trophic factor-controlling system during retinal degeneration...
- CD44 expression identifies astrocyte-restricted precursor cellsYing Liu
Laboratory of Neurosciences, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Dev Biol 276:31-46. 2004..Misexpression of CD44 in culture inhibits oligodendrocytes and arrests cells at the precursor state. In summary, our data provide strong evidence for the existence of a CD44+ ARP in the developing nervous system...
- Deletion of aquaporin-4 changes the perivascular glial protein scaffold without disrupting the brain endothelial barrierMartine Eilert-Olsen
Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway
Glia 60:432-40. 2012..Our data also indicate that AQP4 and α-syntrophin are mutually dependent upon each other for proper perivascular expression...
- Neurodegeneration in the Niemann-Pick C mouse: glial involvementD C German
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9070, USA
Neuroscience 109:437-50. 2002..The activation of astrocytes in regions that undergo neurodegeneration is also consistent with a role for these glial cells in the neurodegenerative process...
- GFAP transgenic zebrafishRebecca L Bernardos
Neuroscience Graduate Program, 4402 Kresge III, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0520, USA
Gene Expr Patterns 6:1007-13. 2006..GFP expression in glia co-localized with anti-GFAP antibodies, but did not co-localize with the neuronal antibodies HuC/D or calretinin in mature neurons...
- Current challenges in glia-pain biologyStephen B McMahon
Wolfson CARD, Hodgkin Building, King s College London, London Bridge, London SE1 1UL, UK
Neuron 64:46-54. 2009..This idea has taken root, resulting in an explosion of research interest, and here we look critically at what has been reported in order to assess where knowledge is missing or uncertain...
- Subtypes of glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord as related to lineage and gene expressionRuth M Beckervordersandforth
Institute of Genetics, University of Mainz, Saarstrasse 21, D 55122 Mainz, Germany
Mech Dev 125:542-57. 2008..We demonstrate this by the analysis of a castor loss of function mutation, which affects the number and migration of specific glial cells...
- Turning Müller glia into neural progenitors in the retinaAndy J Fischer
Department of Neuroscience, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 3020 Graves Hall, 333 West 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 1239, USA
Mol Neurobiol 42:199-209. 2010..We review findings regarding the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase and notch signaling in the proliferation and generation of Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors...
- Glial inhibition of CNS axon regenerationGlenn Yiu
Division of Neuroscience, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Rev Neurosci 7:617-27. 2006..Greater insight into glial inhibition is crucial for developing therapies to promote functional recovery after neural injury...
- The role of spinal neuroimmune activation in morphine tolerance/hyperalgesia in neuropathic and sham-operated ratsVasudeva Raghavendra
Department of Anesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
J Neurosci 22:9980-9. 2002..Targeting central cytokine production and glial activation may improve the effectiveness of morphine and reduce the incidence of morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia in neuropathic pain conditions...
- Characterization of Wnt signaling during photoreceptor degenerationHyun Yi
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5733-41. 2007..In this study, the authors investigated the role of Wnt signaling in retinal degeneration...
- Molecular mechanisms controlling cortical gliogenesisClaire M Sauvageot
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:244-9. 2002..In the developing neural tube, combinatorial interactions between the proneural transcription factor Ngn2 and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 specify the formation of motor neurons or oligodendrocytes...
- Heterogeneity in ventricular zone neural precursors contributes to neuronal fate diversity in the postnatal neocortexElizabeth K Stancik
Center for Neuroscience Research, Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA
J Neurosci 30:7028-36. 2010....
- Glia and muscle sculpt neuromuscular arbors by engulfing destabilized synaptic boutons and shed presynaptic debrisYuly Fuentes-Medel
Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
PLoS Biol 7:e1000184. 2009....
- Glial ephrin-A3 regulates hippocampal dendritic spine morphology and glutamate transportMaria A Carmona
Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12524-9. 2009..Our results suggest that the interaction between neuronal EphA4 and glial ephrin-A3 bidirectionally controls synapse morphology and glial glutamate transport, ultimately regulating hippocampal function...
- In vivo development of outer retinal synapses in the absence of glial contactPhilip R Williams
Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
J Neurosci 30:11951-61. 2010..Thus, in contrast to other CNS circuits, contact from glia is not necessary for the formation or immediate stabilization of outer retinal synapses...
- Control of Müller glial cell proliferation and activation following retinal injuryM A Dyer
Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Neurosci 3:873-80. 2000..We conclude that p27Kip1 regulates Müller glial cell proliferation during reactive gliosis...
- Contribution of astrocytes to hippocampal long-term potentiation through release of D-serineYunlei Yang
Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15194-9. 2003..By providing extracellular D-serine that facilitates activation of NMDA receptors, astrocytes thus play a key role in long-term synaptic plasticity...
- Functional recovery of paraplegic rats and motor axon regeneration in their spinal cords by olfactory ensheathing gliaA Ramon-Cueto
Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa CSIC UAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Spain
Neuron 25:425-35. 2000..Therefore, OEG transplantation provides a useful repair strategy in adult mammals with traumatic spinal cord injuries. Our results with these cells could lead to new therapies for the treatment of spinal cord lesions in humans...
- Genetic evidence for shared mechanisms of epimorphic regeneration in zebrafishZhao Qin
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 830 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9310-5. 2009..Comparison of gene expression profiles from regenerating zebrafish retina, caudal fin, and heart muscle revealed additional candidate genes potentially implicated in injury-induced epimorphic regeneration in diverse zebrafish tissues...
- Electrochemical tools to measure local cerebral blood flow and metabolismROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013..We will make chemical measurements of O2 and 5-HT and electrophysiological measurements of GABAergic neurons in this region with the same electrode during ICSS. ..
- A fully validated assay to identify activators of ERSR in human glioma cells: ideMaurizio Grimaldi; Fiscal Year: 2012..abstract_text> ..
- The Role of Astrocytes in Cortical Interneuron DevelopmentKAREN MULLER SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013..The ultimate goal of this research is to identify mechanisms that contribute to interneuron maturation and survival, possibly leading to novel therapies aimed at preventing or reversing interneuron disruption in psychiatric illnesses. ..
- Role of Potent Trophic Factors on Glia and Motor Neurons in ALSBrian K Kaspar; Fiscal Year: 2013..We will subsequently test the optimal combination of these factors using gene delivery in a rodent model of this devastating disease in order to define an optimal therapy for this debilitating disorder. ..
- Ephrin-A3 in Neuron-Glia CommunicationElena B Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2011..Strategies to manipulate ephrin function in glial cells could help treatment of neurological disorders involving aberrant neuron-glia interactions in the hippocampus and other regions of the nervous system. ..
- Mechanisms of Astrocyte DevelopmentTeri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-modelsMarcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011..One will also investigate possible ways to restore normal mitochondrial function as a therapy for ALS. ..
- Optimization of EphA4 antagonists for CNS disordersELENA B contact PASQUALE; Fiscal Year: 2010..The optimized antagonists will be useful to further study the physiological and pathological functions of EphA4 and may serve as starting points for drug development to treat disorders of the nervous system. ..
- Implantation of physiologically functional bioengineered innervated IAS constructKhalil N Bitar; Fiscal Year: 2010..This has potential to provide enhanced quality of life to persons with fecal incontinence. Furthermore it would have positive implication for people suffering from urinary incontinence. ..
- Human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial and endothelial cellsDavid C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our studies will provide a better picture of how HCMV gains entry into biologically relevant epithelial and endothelial cells to facilitate the design of better anti-HCMV drugs and vaccines. ..
- Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral pSulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013..Thus, the proposed studies have high clinical relevance and will contribute significantly to the understanding and treatment of neurological complications associated with substance abuse, HIV infection, and AIDS. ..
- Role of lipoxygenase pathway in early microvascular dysfunction during diabetic rMOHAMED AL SAYED AL-SHABRAWEY; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain TumorsAnne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010..Finally, as part of this proposal, we will identify metabolic biomarkers for those tumors that might respond to dietary therapy. ..
- Role of microRNAs in Coronavirus-induced lethal encephalitisSonia Navas-Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012..Overall, there is significant translational potential in the proposed investigations since they will facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches to prevent and/or treat neuro-inflammatory diseases of viral etiology. ..
- HIV/NeuroAIDS Patient Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsRodney J Nash; Fiscal Year: 2012..Successful completion of this work will support a Phase II application, with the goals of including a larger cohort for iPS cell development, toxicology screening and the product leading to FDA 510(k) approval. ..
- Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon responseSusan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013..Moreover, understanding type I IFN signaling in the CNS may aid in developing or refining therapeutic applications for type I IFNs, which are currently used in treatment of MS and hepatitis C. ..
- Role of FUS in ALSHaining Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013..The findings are expected to provide critical insights into the mechanisms by which FUS mutations perturb the RNA processing pathways and ultimately lead to the disease. ..
- Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV NeuropathogenesisROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012....
- ROLE OF NITRIC OXIDE IN INTERSTITIAL CYSTITISLori A Birder; Fiscal Year: 2013..Understanding the mechanisms contributing to and maintaining these types of changes may provide important insight for the identification of novel targets for the future clinical management of bladder diseases such as PBS/IC. ..
- Molecular and cellular mechanism of MicrocephalyArnold Kriegstein; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Stress Proteins in Brain Cell InjuryRona G Giffard; Fiscal Year: 2013..Overall this proposal exams a novel hypothesis: that miRNAs act as master regulators of chaperones and BCL2 family members influencing Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondria-ER crosstalk, and outcome after cerebral ischemia. ..
- Free Radicals and Methamphetamine AbuseMaria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes; Fiscal Year: 2010..These will lead to the development of important therapeutic tools for rehabilitating individuals, especially patients presenting co-morbid factors, such as HIV infection. ..
- Glypican-1 in gliomagenesisAndreas Friedl; Fiscal Year: 2013..The GPC1 signaling pathway may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention by targeting either GPC1 itself or downstream mediators. ..
- Disruption of Extracellular Matrix-Glial Interactions in SchizophreniaSabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Alcohol, Glial Gene Expression and the Heat Shock PathwayNeil L Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2010..Microglia are the immune component of the brain and eliminate foreign invaders. Alcohol may alter the activity of all three types of glial cell by changing gene expression, and in doing so may harm nerve cells. ..
- LEUKOTRIENES AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHYRose A Gubitosi-Klug; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Cell Communication of the Vertebrate RetinaROBERT FRANCIS MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012....
- Unconventional Synaptic Modulation at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular JunctionClark A Lindgren; Fiscal Year: 2010..It will also provide basic knowledge that may better inform our understanding of muscular dystrophy and numerous other diseases that are caused by the dysfunction of glial cells or the peptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). ..
- Cell Models for Alzheimer's disease (AD): Lipids and Related Signaling PathwaysGrace Y Sun; Fiscal Year: 2012..These collaborative studies should identify novel strategies to control chronic inflammation and neurodegeneration in AD. ..
- Nogo Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in a Model of Multiple SclerosisBENJAMIN MATTHEW SEGAL; Fiscal Year: 2013..If successful, NgR antagonists will represent the first class of agents used to treat MS that have both anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective/ neurorestorative properties. ..
- Sox10 Alleles for Functional Analysis of Glial LineagesE Michelle Southard-Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- Employing Familial AD Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study NeurodegenerationSuman Jayadev; Fiscal Year: 2013..B) Assess neuronal susceptibility to neurotoxicity in the presence of wildtype or PS2 fAD microglia. ..
- AIDS, Immune Activation and Mental HealthRobert Dantzer; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis in the rhesus monkeyMARIO TOMAS PHILIPP; Fiscal Year: 2013..burgdorferi, causes Lyme neuroborreliosis by killing neurons and oligodendrocytes. This research could lead to a new way of treating Lyme neuroborreliosis. ..
- Astrocyte Function and Temporal Lobe EpilepsyJAY ROBERT VARGAS; Fiscal Year: 2010..It is anticipated that this work will reveal new potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of epilepsy. ..
- Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-modelsMarcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2013..abstract_text> ..
- Stimuli promoting the survival of spiral ganglion neuronsSteven H Green; Fiscal Year: 2011..Our research focuses on improving the survival and function of surviving neurons in order to improve the long-term efficacy of cochlear implants, currently used by over 40,000 Americans. ..
- Satellite Glial CellsLuc Jasmin; Fiscal Year: 2013..A better understanding of this glia-induced hyper-excitability is likely to open the door to new therapies for nerve-injured patients. ..
- Neuroimmune Factors and Co-Morbid Fear, Depression and Alcohol ConsumptionMichael S Fanselow; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will also determine if pharmacologically interfering with these neuroimmune pathways mitigate the symptoms of PTSD. ..
- Role of Cyclins in Brain Construction and Interneuron GenesisKRISTIN GIAMANCO; Fiscal Year: 2013..These studies will contribute to the ultimate goal to devise more effective therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
- Alcohol Abuse and HIV-1: Mechanisms of Combined CNS Injury and InterventionsYuri Persidsky; Fiscal Year: 2012..Current proposal aims to understand mechanisms of combined effects of HIV-1 and alcohol abuse in the brain and to propose neuroprotective therapies. ..
- The control of retinal vascular development by Norrin and Frizzled4Jeremy Nathans; Fiscal Year: 2013..1 ..
- Morphogenesis and function of the cerebral cortexFlora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2013..Both aspects may offer promising leads to correct or reverse the excitatory and inhibitory neuron imbalances that are present in the cerebral cortex of neuropsychiatric and impulse control disorders. ..
- Extracellular Zinc Buffering and A-beta OligomerizationGUIDO FAAS; Fiscal Year: 2012..With the acquired insight it should be possible to design drugs that specifically target pathological Zn2+ signals that may cause AD while minimally disturbing the Zn2+ signals necessary for normal brain functioning. ..
- Novel transgenic reporter/deleter allele for Type I taste cellsSue Kinnamon; Fiscal Year: 2013..In summary, these experiments will allow us define the Type I cell population and provide a new tool to dissect the functions of this most common taste cell type. ..
- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CORONAVIRUS INDUCED DEMYELINATIONSusan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013..Such studies will be applicable to understanding the pathogenesis of virus-induced CNS disease and, in the long term, contribute to vaccine design. ..
- Regulation of gastrointestinal neuromuscular function by NIBP/NFkB signalingWenhui Hu; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our studies will highlight the importance of ENS NFkB signaling and provide a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of neurogastrointestinal disorders. ..
- Interleukin-6 and Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration in GlaucomaRebecca M Sappington; Fiscal Year: 2013..We propose a series of studies to examine the potential of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target to rescue RGCs in glaucoma. ..
- Glial Interactions in Premyelinating Oligodendrocyte DestructionJianrong Li; Fiscal Year: 2010..Such fundamental insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neonatal white matter injury will provide new avenues for developing novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of this devastating disorder. ..
- Neuron-Dervied S1P and Endothelial Function in StrokeChristian Waeber; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project will study a novel system that can provide long-lasting improvement in EC function following stroke and serve as a target for stroke therapy. ..
- Role of axoglial CAMs in the organization of myelinated axonsElior Peles; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our studies on the generation of functional myelinated nerves may lead to new routes to the restoration of function of demyelinated nerves. ..
- Exosome-induced innate and antigen-specific immune responses in Type 1 DiabetesYang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2013..We will use EXO as a vehicle for activating DC and delivering antigens. We anticipate that EXO can upregulate Slc11a1 function in DC and thus promote induction of the disease-causing Th1 cells. ..
- CNS Delivery of Activated Antiviral Drugs with Reduced Neurotoxicity (Nano-NRTIs)Serguei V Vinogradov; Fiscal Year: 2013..We develop a pNRTI-based HAART design (Nano-HAART), which enables the delivery of brain-targeted and oral activated drug formulations with reduced neurotoxicity into the CNS. ..
- NG2 cell dynamics in the normal and injured adult central nervous systemEthan Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2012....
- Glial Cell Regulation of Circadian BehaviorF Rob Jackson; Fiscal Year: 2013..Our proposed studies have significance for understanding the roles of glia and neuron-glia communication in health and many different neurological diseases. ..
- Astrocyte Control of Toxin-Mediated Neuron Death: Role of the Gamma-Glutamyl PathGeorge I Henderson; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will determine how the toxins damage it (to prevent this from happening), and how this system is normally controlled. ..
- Elimination of Carcinogen-Induced Tumor Stem Cells by ATF5 Loss of Function.JAMES ANGELASTRO; Fiscal Year: 2009..In a glioblastoma brain tumor cell model system, we found that interference with ATF5 function causes death of the tumor cells. Thus, ATF5 may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention and a possible treatment for brain cancer. ..
- STUDY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHYTimothy S Kern; Fiscal Year: 2013..We also test a possible therapeutic option to stop white blood cells from interacting with endothelial cells as an option to inhibit the retinopathy. ..
- STEM CELLS IN PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENTSean J Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2013..By better understanding these mechanisms we will gain new insights into how the PNS forms and what goes wrong in the context of disease. ..
- Extracellular anomalies in Schizophrenia: from molecules to symptomsSabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013..Biopsy donors will be tested for olfactory functions and on psychiatric rating scales. BD subjects will be included to test whether CSPG abnormalities are specific to SZ or represent a shared feature among major psychoses. ..
- Astroglial Cells in Perinatal Brain InjuryFlora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2012..Importantly, the regenerative processes investigated in this proposal could be mimicked in adult and aged individuals, in which unfortunately cortical neuron loss is not recovered. ..
- Mechanisms underlying sexually differentiated brain remodeling during adolescenceCheryl L Sisk; Fiscal Year: 2013....
- MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FGF 1Ing Ming Chiu; Fiscal Year: 2000..B will be generated through targeted gene replacement. Information obtained through this study will have important implications in understanding the proliferation of glial cells and progression of tumorigenesis. ..
- Cell Volume Regulation in Neurons and GliaFRANCISCO ALVAREZ LEEFMANS; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Molecular Biology: Viral Glial Gene Interaction in BrainKamel Khalili; Fiscal Year: 2009..This program project brings together basic scientists and physicians with expertise in neurovirology, molecular retrovirology, CNS cell biology, and pathology to perform the studies. ..
- Dendritic Repulsion by the EphA4 ReceptorElena Pasquale; Fiscal Year: 2006..Furthermore, it may clarify the neurological aspects of diseases characterized by abnormal dendritic spine structure, such as mental retardation, William's syndrome, Down's syndrome, and autism. ..
- Matrix Control of Glial/Axonal Interactions in Developing NervesBruce Patton; Fiscal Year: 2009..This project will study how the growth of peripheral nerve glial cells, called Schwann cells, is regulated by dominant signaling components concentrated in the extracellular matrix of the developing nerve. ..
- CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASIS OF BRAIN VOLUME REGULATIONKevin Strange; Fiscal Year: 1999..Studies outlined in this grant provide a central foundation for the comprehensive understanding of brain volume homeostasis. Such an understanding is essential for treating a variety of disease status. ..
- RETINAL CELLS: TISSUE CULTURE AND CELL BIOLOGYRobert Frank; Fiscal Year: 1993..cells; and a substance present in aqueous extracts of bovine retina that promotes morphologic differentiation of neuroglia. The interaction of disease states (diabetes and galactosemia, simulated by elevated levels of glucose and ..
- Role of Nitric Oxide in Feline Interstitial Cystitis.Lori Birder; Fiscal Year: 2009..Understanding the mechanisms involved in these types of changes may provide important insights for development of novel targets for the clinical management of PBS/IC. ..
- HIV GP120 INDUCTION OF ICAM-1--INVOLVEMENT IN ADCETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 1999..These studies will help delineate potential avenues of therapeutic intervention during HIV-1 infection of the brain. ..