efferent pathways

Summary

Summary: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi NK1 receptor and the ventral medulla of the rat: bulbospinal and catecholaminergic neurons
    J M Makeham
    Hypertension and Stroke Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Sydney, Australia
    Neuroreport 12:3663-7. 2001
  2. ncbi Modulatory inputs on sympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat
    Antonio R Granata
    Department of Psychiatry and Physiology, New York Medical College, Basic Science Building, Room 346, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 23:665-80. 2003
  3. ncbi Facilitation and inhibition of withdrawal reflexes following repetitive stimulation: electro- and psychophysiological evidence for activation of noxious inhibitory controls in humans
    Prem Bajaj
    Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7D 3, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
    Eur J Pain 9:25-31. 2005
  4. ncbi Efferent projections of rat rostroventrolateral medulla C1 catecholamine neurons: Implications for the central control of cardiovascular regulation
    J Patrick Card
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Comp Neurol 499:840-59. 2006
  5. pmc Movement-related receptive fields of spinal motoneurones with active dendrites
    Allison Hyngstrom
    Department of Physiology and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Ave M211, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Physiol 586:1581-93. 2008
  6. ncbi Bilateral actions of the reticulospinal tract on arm and shoulder muscles in the monkey: stimulus triggered averaging
    Adam G Davidson
    Neuroscience Graduate Studies Program, The Ohio State University, 1583 Perry Street, Rm 516G, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Exp Brain Res 173:25-39. 2006
  7. ncbi Olivocochlear efferents: anatomy, physiology, function, and the measurement of efferent effects in humans
    John J Guinan
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Ear Hear 27:589-607. 2006
  8. doi Compensatory changes at the cerebral cortical level after spinal cord injury
    Yukio Nishimura
    From the Department of Developmental Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
    Neuroscientist 15:436-44. 2009
  9. doi Imaging the human motor system's beta-band synchronization during isometric contraction
    Jan Mathijs Schoffelen
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 41:437-47. 2008
  10. ncbi Primary motor cortex influences on the descending and ascending systems
    A Canedo
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Prog Neurobiol 51:287-335. 1997

Research Grants

  1. Vagal Neurons & Gastric Function by Hypocretin
    Chung Owyang; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. NEURAL CONTROL OF LARGE INTESTINAL MUCOSA
    Helen Cooke; Fiscal Year: 1993
  3. Subcortical neural basis of hearing in noise
    Ramnarayan Ramachandran; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. EMMETROPIZATION IN THE CHICK--IS THE BRAIN REQUIRED?
    Christine Wildsoet; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. FUNCTION OF THE EFFERENT VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
    Jay Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. SPECTRAL CUES FOR SOUND LOCALIZATION
    Bradford May; Fiscal Year: 2001
  7. Akt/GSK-3 Signaling Cascade and the Actions of Dopamine
    Marc G Caron; Fiscal Year: 2011
  8. Hormonal signals, genome integrity and longevity
    Jan Vijg; Fiscal Year: 2009
  9. CNS Pathways Regulating Ghrelin Effects on Body Weight
    Joel Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. Form/function of Extended Amygdala/Accumbens Shell:CRF
    DANIEL ZAHM; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications209 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi NK1 receptor and the ventral medulla of the rat: bulbospinal and catecholaminergic neurons
    J M Makeham
    Hypertension and Stroke Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Sydney, Australia
    Neuroreport 12:3663-7. 2001
    ..We also demonstrate the NK1 receptor on bulbospinal neurons of the ventral respiratory group, in a region overlapping the pre-Bötzinger Complex...
  2. ncbi Modulatory inputs on sympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat
    Antonio R Granata
    Department of Psychiatry and Physiology, New York Medical College, Basic Science Building, Room 346, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 23:665-80. 2003
    ..7. These results would indicate that neurons in the RVLM recorded in vitro and with properties similar to premotor sympathetic neurons can be modulated by catecholamines released from terminals probably making synaptic contacts...
  3. ncbi Facilitation and inhibition of withdrawal reflexes following repetitive stimulation: electro- and psychophysiological evidence for activation of noxious inhibitory controls in humans
    Prem Bajaj
    Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7D 3, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
    Eur J Pain 9:25-31. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Efferent projections of rat rostroventrolateral medulla C1 catecholamine neurons: Implications for the central control of cardiovascular regulation
    J Patrick Card
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA
    J Comp Neurol 499:840-59. 2006
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that RVLM C1 neurons modulate the activity of other central cell groups known to participate in the regulation of cardiovascular and autonomic function...
  5. pmc Movement-related receptive fields of spinal motoneurones with active dendrites
    Allison Hyngstrom
    Department of Physiology and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E Chicago Ave M211, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Physiol 586:1581-93. 2008
    ..The focused MRRF seen in the intact cord state would allow reciprocal inhibition to fulfil this role without undue interference from multijoint input from other afferent systems...
  6. ncbi Bilateral actions of the reticulospinal tract on arm and shoulder muscles in the monkey: stimulus triggered averaging
    Adam G Davidson
    Neuroscience Graduate Studies Program, The Ohio State University, 1583 Perry Street, Rm 516G, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Exp Brain Res 173:25-39. 2006
    ..Overall, the results indicate the monkey PMRF has the capacity to support bilateral coordination of limb movements using reciprocal actions within a limb and between sides...
  7. ncbi Olivocochlear efferents: anatomy, physiology, function, and the measurement of efferent effects in humans
    John J Guinan
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Ear Hear 27:589-607. 2006
    ..Monitoring MOC effects in humans using OAEs should continue to provide valuable insights into the role of MOC efferents and may also provide clinical benefits...
  8. doi Compensatory changes at the cerebral cortical level after spinal cord injury
    Yukio Nishimura
    From the Department of Developmental Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
    Neuroscientist 15:436-44. 2009
    ..These changes in the activation pattern of motor-related areas represent an adaptive strategy for functional compensation after spinal cord injury...
  9. doi Imaging the human motor system's beta-band synchronization during isometric contraction
    Jan Mathijs Schoffelen
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 41:437-47. 2008
    ..We conclude that during an isometric muscle contraction, several distributed brain regions form a brain-wide beta-band network for motor control...
  10. ncbi Primary motor cortex influences on the descending and ascending systems
    A Canedo
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Prog Neurobiol 51:287-335. 1997
    ..The motor cortex may function to co-operatively select a unique motor command by selectively filter sensory information and by co-ordinating the activities of the descending systems related to the control of distal and proximal muscles...
  11. ncbi Biphasic modulation of spinal visceral nociceptive transmission from the rostroventral medial medulla in the rat
    M Zhuo
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:2225-36. 2002
    ....
  12. doi Efferent pathways modulate hyperactivity in inferior colliculus
    Wilhelmina Henrica A M Mulders
    The Auditory Laboratory, Discipline of Physiology, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular, and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
    J Neurosci 30:9578-87. 2010
    ..More research is needed to investigate whether these central effects of olivocochlear efferent stimulation are due to central intrinsic circuitry or to coactivation of central efferent collaterals to the cochlear nucleus...
  13. ncbi Descending supraspinal pathways in amphibians. I. A dextran amine tracing study of their cells of origin
    C Sanchez-Camacho
    Departamento de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    J Comp Neurol 434:186-208. 2001
    ..Our data are discussed in an evolutionary perspective...
  14. pmc Central efferent pathways for cold-defensive and febrile shivering
    Kazuhiro Nakamura
    Career Path Promotion Unit for Young Life Scientists, Kyoto University, Yoshida konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Physiol 589:3641-58. 2011
    ..These results provide the interesting notion that, under the demand for increasing levels of heat production, parallel central efferent pathways control the somatic and sympathetic motor systems to drive thermogenesis.
  15. pmc Direct and indirect connections with upper limb motoneurons from the primate reticulospinal tract
    C Nicholas Riddle
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:4993-9. 2009
    ..Reticulospinal neurons are therefore in a position to influence upper limb muscle activity after damage to the corticospinal system as may occur in stroke or spinal cord injury, and may be a target site for therapeutic interventions...
  16. ncbi Organization of direct hippocampal efferent projections to the cerebral cortex of the rhesus monkey: projections from CA1, prosubiculum, and subiculum to the temporal lobe
    G J Blatt
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Comp Neurol 392:92-114. 1998
    ..Thus, in the monkey, CA1 is not a single uniform entity and may have a unique role as a source of direct hippocampal projections to the cerebral cortex...
  17. ncbi A novel pressor area at the medullo-cervical junction that is not dependent on the RVLM: efferent pathways and chemical mediators
    Maryam Seyedabadi
    Kolling Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney, School of Medical Sciences Physiology, Sydney 2065, Australia
    J Neurosci 26:5420-7. 2006
    ....
  18. ncbi Multi-segmental innervation of single pontine reticulospinal axons in the cervico-thoracic region of the cat: anterograde PHA-L tracing study
    K Matsuyama
    National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 377:234-50. 1997
    ..Both ipsilateral and bilateral projections terminated mainly in laminae VII or VIII although the branching patterns varied from axon to axon. Individual stem axons, in general, showed similar termination patterns at each level...
  19. pmc Manipulation of peripheral neural feedback loops alters human corticomuscular coherence
    C Nicholas Riddle
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Physiol 566:625-39. 2005
    ..coherence phase increased linearly with frequency, as expected if oscillations were propagated along efferent pathways from cortex to muscle...
  20. ncbi The HVC microcircuit: the synaptic basis for interactions between song motor and vocal plasticity pathways
    Richard Mooney
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 25:1952-64. 2005
    ..In these two regards, the synaptic architecture of HVC resembles that described in some pattern-generating networks, underscoring features likely to be important to singing and song learning...
  21. pmc Medial olivocochlear efferent reflex in humans: otoacoustic emission (OAE) measurement issues and the advantages of stimulus frequency OAEs
    John J Guinan
    Eaton Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 4:521-40. 2003
    ....
  22. ncbi Whiskers, barrels, and cortical efferent pathways in gap crossing by rats
    E W Jenkinson
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 84:1781-9. 2000
    ..These results suggest that the cerebellum must receive whisker information from the barrel fields for whisker-guided jumps...
  23. pmc Slow build-up of cochlear suppression during sustained contralateral noise: central modulation of olivocochlear efferents?
    Erik Larsen
    Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Hear Res 256:1-10. 2009
    ..Results suggest that conventional tests of OC reflex strength may underestimate its magnitude in noisy environments...
  24. ncbi Neural mechanisms of vocal sequence generation in the songbird
    Michale S Fee
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1016:153-70. 2004
    ..We incorporate this observation into a working hypothesis for the generation of vocal sequences in the songbird, and examine some implications for song learning...
  25. pmc The effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions
    Wei Zhao
    Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 11:53-67. 2010
    ..In addition to clinically available measures of the MEM reflex, we have incorporated a sensitive laboratory technique to monitor the MEM reflex in our subjects, allowing us to interpret the results with greater confidence...
  26. ncbi Renal injury caused by intrarenal injection of phenol increases afferent and efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity
    Shaohua Ye
    Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA
    Am J Hypertens 15:717-24. 2002
    ..Because NO and IL-1beta modulate SNS activity, the stimulatory action of phenol on the SNS could be mediated by downregulation of nNOS and IL-1beta in the brain...
  27. ncbi Homeodomain transcription factors in the development of subsets of hindbrain reticulospinal neurons
    Ana C Cepeda-Nieto
    Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Queretaro 76230, Mexico
    Mol Cell Neurosci 28:30-41. 2005
    ..Furthermore, our studies reveal novel gene interactions between the transcription factors analyzed that may determine the final patterns of reticulospinal axon projection...
  28. ncbi Encoding and decoding of reticulospinal commands
    Tatiana G Deliagina
    Department of Neuroscience, The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 40:166-77. 2002
    ..Since most neurons have asymmetrical projections we suggest that, for rectilinear swimming, RS neurons with opposite asymmetrical effects are co-activated...
  29. ncbi alx, a zebrafish homolog of Chx10, marks ipsilateral descending excitatory interneurons that participate in the regulation of spinal locomotor circuits
    Yukiko Kimura
    National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, Myodaiji Okazaki, Aichi 444 8787, Japan
    J Neurosci 26:5684-97. 2006
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate that alx marks ipsilateral descending neurons that are involved in the regulation of motoneuron activity during forms of locomotion, such as escape and swimming...
  30. doi [Interventional renal sympathetic denervation - a new approach for patients with resistant hypertension]
    F Mahfoud
    Klinik fur Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg Saar
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 135:2422-5. 2010
    ..The randomised controlled Symplicity-HTN-2 trial (results reported at AHA 2010, Nov 13-17) provides important information to determine the role of this new method for the treatment of drug resistant hypertension...
  31. ncbi A novel cholinergic "slow effect" of efferent stimulation on cochlear potentials in the guinea pig
    T S Sridhar
    Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston 02114 3096, USA
    J Neurosci 15:3667-78. 1995
    ..The long time constant of the slow effect compared to the fast effect suggests that it may arise from a distinct intracellular mechanism, possibly mediated by second-messenger systems...
  32. pmc Locomotor rhythm maintenance: electrical coupling among premotor excitatory interneurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of young Xenopus tadpoles
    Wen Chang Li
    School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Bute Medical Building, Fife KY16 9TS, Scotland, UK
    J Physiol 587:1677-93. 2009
    ....
  33. ncbi A novel effect of cochlear efferents: in vivo response enhancement does not require alpha9 cholinergic receptors
    Stephane F Maison
    Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 3096, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:3269-78. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi Organization of noradrenergic efferents to arousal-related basal forebrain structures
    Rodrigo A Espana
    Psychology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706, USA
    J Comp Neurol 496:668-83. 2006
    ..Combined, these observations indicate coordinated actions of locus coeruleus neurons across these basal forebrain regions implicated in the regulation of behavioral state and/or state-dependent processes...
  35. ncbi Defining classes of spinal interneuron and their axonal projections in hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpoles
    W C Li
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 441:248-65. 2001
    ..The possible functional roles of the four interneuron classes are discussed...
  36. ncbi Origin and development of descending catecholaminergic pathways to the spinal cord in amphibians
    C Sanchez-Camacho
    Departamento de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Brain Res Bull 57:325-30. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate a temporal sequence in the appearance of the CA cell groups projecting to the anuran spinal cord, organized along a rostrocaudal gradient...
  37. ncbi Supplementary motor area provides an efferent signal for sensory suppression
    Patrick Haggard
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, WC1N3AR, London, UK
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 19:52-8. 2004
    ..We suggest the SMA may provide an efferent signal which is used by other brain areas to modulate somatosensory activity during self-generated movement...
  38. ncbi Origins of descending projections to the medulla oblongata and rostral medulla spinalis in the urodele Salamandra salamandra (amphibia)
    C Naujoks-Manteuffel
    AG Verhaltensphysiologie, Universitat Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Comp Neurol 273:187-206. 1988
    ..The results indicate that salamander brains display elaborate descending connections which are similar to those in other vertebrates despite their scarcely differentiated neuronal cytoarchitecture...
  39. ncbi Descending command systems for the initiation of locomotion in mammals
    Larry M Jordan
    Department of Physiology, Spinal Cord Research Centre, The University of Manitoba, 730 William Avenue, BMSB 425, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3J7
    Brain Res Rev 57:183-91. 2008
    ..We conclude that the PPR is the source of a descending 5-HT command pathway that activates the CPG via 5-HT(7) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. Further experiments are necessary to define the putative glutamatergic, DA, and NA command pathways...
  40. pmc Disruption of lateral efferent pathways: functional changes in auditory evoked responses
    Colleen G Le Prell
    Department of Otolaryngology, Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0506, USA
    J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 4:276-90. 2003
    ..They also confirm the suggestion that changes in single-unit auditory nerve activity after cutting the olivocochlear bundle are probably a consequence of disrupting the more lateral of the two olivocochlear efferent pathways.
  41. ncbi Reorganization of descending motor tracts in the rat spinal cord
    Olivier Raineteau
    Brain Research Institute, University and ETH Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 16:1761-71. 2002
    ....
  42. pmc Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue
    Kazuhiro Nakamura
    Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 NW 185th Ave, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R127-36. 2007
    ..These results implicate the POA, DMH, and rRPa in the central efferent pathways for thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiac responses to skin cooling, and suggest that these pathways can be ..
  43. ncbi The spinal cord connections of the myofascial trigger spots
    Ta Shen Kuan
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC
    Eur J Pain 11:624-34. 2007
    ..However, the sensory (afferent) and the motor (efferent) connections between an MTrP and the spinal cord still has never been fully studied...
  44. ncbi Coherence between motor unit discharges in response to shared neural inputs
    Madeleine M Lowery
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    J Neurosci Methods 163:384-91. 2007
    ..The results suggest that caution should be taken when interpreting differences in coherence observed between motor units with significantly different firing properties or when comparing data with coherence in different frequency ranges...
  45. ncbi High-frequency conditioning electrical stimulation evokes supraspinal independent long-term depression but not long-term potentiation of the spinal withdrawal reflex in rats
    Hao Jun You
    Center for Sensory Motor Interaction SMI, Laboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7 D 3, DK 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
    Brain Res 1090:116-22. 2006
    ..We conclude that, in contrast to LTP in spinal sensory systems to brief tetanic C-fiber cES, high-frequency cES seems only to elicit LTD of motor systems of the spinal cord...
  46. ncbi Ischaemia-induced sympathoexcitation in spinalyzed rats
    Valdir A Braga
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Neurosci Lett 415:73-6. 2007
    ..We propose that neural mechanisms within the cervical-thoracic segments can make a substantial contribution to the sympathoexcitatory response during systemic ischaemia...
  47. ncbi Electrophysiological and pharmacological characterisation of ascending anterolateral axons in the in vitro mouse spinal cord
    J Martinez-Gomez
    Departamento de Fisiologia, Edificio de Medicina, Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci Methods 146:84-90. 2005
    ..In contrast both motor and sensory pathways were inhibited by sevoflurane. We believe that the procedures developed here may be of great interest to assess spinal nociceptive and antinociceptive mechanisms in vitro...
  48. ncbi The three-neuron corneal reflex circuit and modulation of second-order corneal responsive neurons
    Victor M Henriquez
    Laryngeal and Speech Section, Medical Neurology Branch, NINDS, Bethesda, MD 20892 1416, USA
    Exp Brain Res 179:691-702. 2007
    ..The Vc/C1 suppression of Vi/Vc neurons suggests that the Vc/C1 region provides an "internal model" of the intended blink...
  49. ncbi Spinal cord injury in neonates alters respiratory motor output via supraspinal mechanisms
    M Beth Zimmer
    Wayne State University, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Exp Neurol 206:137-45. 2007
    ..These data show that supraspinal plasticity in the respiratory system occurs after SCI in neonate rats. The mechanisms remain unknown, but may involve alterations in receptor proteins involved in neurotransmission...
  50. ncbi Spinal pathways mediating coeruleospinal antinociception in the rat
    Masayoshi Tsuruoka
    Department of Physiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1 5 8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa ku, Tokyo 142 8555, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 362:236-9. 2004
    ....
  51. ncbi Short-term plasticity of descending synaptic input to phrenic motoneurons in rats
    F Hayashi
    Department of Physiology and Institute for Neuroscience, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611 3008, USA
    J Appl Physiol 94:1421-30. 2003
    ....
  52. ncbi Synaptic origin of the respiratory-modulated activity of laryngeal motoneurons
    K Ono
    Department of Otolaryngology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba shi, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
    Neuroscience 140:1079-88. 2006
    ..We conclude that various synaptic inputs from respiratory neurons contribute to shaping the respiratory-related trajectory of membrane potential of laryngeal motoneurons...
  53. ncbi Dissociation between pain and the nociceptive blink reflex during psychological arousal
    Chee Wan Koh
    School of Psychology, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:851-4. 2006
    ..To investigate the effect of psychological arousal on pain ratings and the R2 component of the electrically evoked blink reflex to a 'pure' noiciceptive stimulus...
  54. ncbi Tonic differential supraspinal modulation of PAD and PAH of segmental and ascending intraspinal collaterals of single group I muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord
    P Rudomin
    Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences del IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, DF 07300, Mexico
    Exp Brain Res 159:239-50. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials: a method to assess vestibulo-spinal conduction in multiple sclerosis patients
    F Sartucci
    Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, Pisa University Medical School, Pisa, Italy
    Brain Res Bull 59:59-63. 2002
    ..We hypothesise that these changes might be the result of a conduction impairment in vestibulo-spinal fibres, producing a morphologic alteration of the myogenic responses...
  56. ncbi Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus
    R Boyle
    BioVIS Technology Center and Vestibular Research Facility, Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA 94035 1000, USA
    Arch Ital Biol 142:133-53. 2004
    ..Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied...
  57. ncbi Facial nerve injury induces facilitation of responses in both trigeminal and facial nuclei of rat
    Zsolt Kis
    Department of Comparative Physiology, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, H 6726 Szeged, Hungary
    Neurosci Lett 358:223-5. 2004
    ..The disconnection (opening) of this loop results in enhanced responsiveness of the neurons in both Pr5 and 7...
  58. ncbi Projections from the nucleus reticularis magnocellularis to the rat cervical cord using electrical stimulation and iontophoretic injection methods
    Shigeo Watanabe
    Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    Anat Sci Int 78:42-52. 2003
    ....
  59. ncbi Effects of combined cortical and acoustic stimuli on muscle activity
    R J Fisher
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, 8 11 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK
    Exp Brain Res 157:1-9. 2004
    ..Effects were similar with TMS over premotor and primary motor cortex...
  60. pmc Uncrossed actions of feline corticospinal tract neurones on hindlimb motoneurones evoked via ipsilaterally descending pathways
    K Stecina
    Department of Physiology, Medicinaregatan 11, Box 432, 40530 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Physiol 580:119-32. 2007
    ....
  61. ncbi Key mechanisms for setting the input-output gain across the motoneuron pool
    Hans Hultborn
    Department of Medical Physiology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK 2200, Denmark
    Prog Brain Res 143:77-95. 2004
    ....
  62. ncbi Phenotypic identification of rat rostroventrolateral medullary presympathetic vasomotor neurons inhibited by exogenous cholecystokinin
    Daniela M Sartor
    Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Unit, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg 3084, Victoria, Australia
    J Comp Neurol 465:467-79. 2003
    ..CCK-induced inhibition of a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons may be implicated in postprandial hyperemia and postprandial hypotension...
  63. ncbi Functional topography of corticothalamic feedback enhances thalamic spatial response tuning in the somatosensory whisker/barrel system
    Simona Temereanca
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Neuron 41:639-51. 2004
    ..Our findings demonstrate that somatosensory cortex can selectively regulate thalamic spatial response tuning by engaging topographically specific excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms in the thalamus...
  64. ncbi Descending modulation of pain
    G F Gebhart
    Department of Pharmacology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, 2 471 Bowen Science Building, Iowa City, IA 52242 1109, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:729-37. 2004
    ..Accumulating evidence suggests that descending facilitatory influences may contribute to the development and maintenance of hyperalgesia and thus contribute to chronic pain states...
  65. ncbi [Compound EPSPs and action potential of mauthner cell evoked by skin stimulation in crucian carp]
    K Feng
    Department of Physiology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100052, China
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 23:509-14. 2001
    ....
  66. ncbi Facilitation of the soleus stretch reflex induced by electrical excitation of plantar cutaneous afferents located around the heel
    Dimitry G Sayenko
    Department of Rehabilitation for Movement Functions, Research Institute of National Rehabilitation Center for Persons with Disabilities, 4 1 Namiki, Tokorozawa 359 8555, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 415:294-8. 2007
    ..The observed effect implies a potential functional role of cutaneous afferents in balance control conditions where the ankle is naturally disturbed, e.g., during step reactions to external perturbations...
  67. ncbi Adrenaline contributes to prenatal respiratory maturation in rat medulla-spinal cord preparation
    Morimitsu Fujii
    Laboratory for Memory and Learning, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2 1 Hirosawa, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Brain Res 1090:45-50. 2006
    ..These results suggest that central adrenergic modulation is involved in fetal respiratory development and maintenance of stable respiration...
  68. ncbi Synaptic targets of commissural interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of neonatal rats
    András Birinyi
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, H 4012 Hungary
    J Comp Neurol 461:429-40. 2003
    ..Our findings also indicate that direct reciprocal connections between commissural interneurons on the two sides of the spinal cord may also exist...
  69. ncbi Somatosensory graviception inhibits soleus H-reflex during erect posture in humans as revealed by parabolic flight experiment
    Tasuku Miyoshi
    Department of Motor Dysfunction, Research Institute of National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, 4 1 Namiki, Sairama 359 8555, Tokorozawa, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 150:109-13. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the somatosensory systems detecting a load at the lower limbs and/or vertebral column might play a role in reducing the excitability of the SOL motoneuron pool to Ia afferent inputs by presynaptic inhibition...
  70. ncbi A place principle for vertigo
    Richard R Gacek
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Auris Nasus Larynx 35:1-10. 2008
    ..To provide a road map of the vestibular labyrinth and its innervation leading to a place principle for different forms of vertigo...
  71. ncbi Identification of neural pathways involved in genital reflexes in the female: a combined anterograde and retrograde tracing study
    L Marson
    UNC at Chapel Hill, Department of Surgery, Urology Division, 103 Mason Farm Road, 2330 MBRB, CB 7052 UNC at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuroscience 127:723-36. 2004
    ....
  72. ncbi Forelimb locomotor generators and quadrupedal locomotion in the neonatal rat
    B Ballion
    , , , 33405 Talence Cedex, France
    Eur J Neurosci 14:1727-38. 2001
    ..In conclusion, C7-T1 spinal levels display a strong motor rhythmogenic ability; with the lumbar generators, they contribute to coordinated rhythmic activity along the entire spinal cord of a quadrupedal locomoting mammal...
  73. ncbi Partial reconstruction of muscle activity from a pruned network of diverse motor cortex neurons
    Marc H Schieber
    Department of Neurology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:70-82. 2007
    ....
  74. ncbi Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on the neuronal firing rate of bulbar reticular neurons
    M Barresi
    University of Catania, Department of Physiological Sciences, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania
    Arch Ital Biol 143:13-27. 2005
    ..Both 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors mediate these effects, but the involvement of other receptors appears probable...
  75. ncbi Properties and interconnections of trigeminal interneurons of the lateral pontine reticular formation in the rat
    M J Bourque
    , , , Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 86:2583-96. 2001
    ..The organization of the network allows for rapid distribution of this rhythmic input across premotoneuron groups...
  76. ncbi Dynamic modulation of mossy fiber system throughput by inferior olive synchrony: a multielectrode study of cerebellar cortex activated by motor cortex
    C Schwarz
    , , 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 86:2489-504. 2001
    ..The data indicate that the climbing fiber system controls the temporal dynamics of SS firing in populations of PCs by using synchrony to engage intracerebellar circuitry and modulate mossy fiber system throughput...
  77. ncbi Transient inhibition of the human motor cortex by capsaicin-induced pain. A study with transcranial magnetic stimulation
    S Farina
    Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e della Visione, Sezione di Neurologia Riabilitativa, , Verona, Italy
    Neurosci Lett 314:97-101. 2001
    ..This inhibition may be due to the activation of the C fibres which mediate 'slow' nociception and might be important to alert subject to possible phasic nociceptive events that may occur close to the painful area...
  78. doi Electrophysiological actions of the rubrospinal tract in the anaesthetised rat
    Sarah Al-Izki
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Exp Neurol 212:118-31. 2008
    ..Direct synaptic actions on motoneurones are likely to be weak. Stimulation parameters appropriate for specific activation of the RST in future studies are suggested...
  79. ncbi Postsynaptic dorsal column and cuneate neurons in raccoon: comparison of response properties and cross-correlation analysis
    S H Dick
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, B3H 4H7, Halifax, Canada
    Brain Res 914:134-48. 2001
    ..However, the similar response latencies of the two groups of neurons makes it unlikely that PSDC neurons could contribute to the rapid initial processing of cutaneous information by the cuneate nucleus...
  80. ncbi Stimulus time-locked responses of motoneurons during forelimb fictive locomotion evoked by repetitive stimulation of the lateral funiculus
    M Kinoshita
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Tsukuba University, Ibaraki 305-0004, Tsukuba, Japan
    Brain Res 904:31-42. 2001
    ..Stimulus time-locked PSPs observed in this study may at least in part be evoked by last-order interneurons of the central pattern generator, which may be reciprocally organized...
  81. ncbi Spinal dorsal horn neuron response to mechanical stimuli is decreased by electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex
    Arun K Senapati
    Department of Psychology, P O Box 19528, University of Texas at Arlington, 501 S Nedderman Drive, Arlington, TX 76019 0528, USA
    Brain Res 1036:173-9. 2005
    ....
  82. ncbi Properties of Barrington's neurones in cats: units that fire inversely with micturition contraction
    Mitsuyoshi Sasaki
    Department of Physiology, Tokyo Medical University, 6 1 1 Shinjuku, Tokyo 160, Japan
    Brain Res 1033:41-50. 2005
    ..One possible role of the inverse neurone is to regulate firing activities of direct neurones in Barrington's nucleus...
  83. ncbi Spinal cord plasticity in response to unilateral inhibition of the rat motor cortex during development: changes to gene expression, muscle afferents and the ipsilateral corticospinal projection
    G J Clowry
    Neural Development, Plasticity and Repair Group, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2555-66. 2004
    ..Unexpectedly, unilateral inhibition of the motor cortical input did not lead to an expanded muscle afferent input. Instead, this was reduced coincident with development of a bilateral corticospinal innervation...
  84. ncbi Facilitation and attenuation of a visceral nociceptive reflex from the rostroventral medulla in the rat
    Min Zhuo
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Gastroenterology 122:1007-19. 2002
    ..In the present study, we investigated descending facilitatory and inhibitory influences from the RVM on a visceral nociceptive reflex...
  85. ncbi Inspiratory neurons with decrementing firing pattern in raphe nuclei of feline medulla
    Masae Hosogai
    Second Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
    Auton Neurosci 99:13-7. 2002
    ..The present results suggest that cat I-decrementing neurons in the medullary raphe nuclei receive inputs from the central respiratory rhythm generator and may modify the respiratory activity of supraspinal neural structures...
  86. ncbi Linear summation of cat motor cortex outputs
    Christian Ethier
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1J 2G3, Canada
    J Neurosci 26:5574-81. 2006
    ..An additional implication is that not all possible movements need be explicitly represented in the motor cortex; a large number of different movements may be synthesized from a smaller repertoire...
  87. ncbi Short-term effects of functional electrical stimulation on spinal excitatory and inhibitory reflexes in ankle extensor and flexor muscles
    Aiko K Thompson
    Centre for Neuroscience and Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, 513 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2, Canada
    Exp Brain Res 170:216-26. 2006
    ..Thus, we suggest that a short-term application of FES increases the excitability of the cortex or its connections to the spinal cord more effectively than that of spinal pathways...
  88. ncbi Pharmacological evidence for an anticonvulsant relay in the rat ventromedial medulla
    Safa Shehab
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 17666, Al Ain, UAE
    Eur J Neurosci 26:2585-94. 2007
    ..Together these data establish the final functional link connecting brainstem anticonvulsant circuitry with reticulospinal systems controlling hindlimb musculature...
  89. ncbi Closed-loop neuronal computations: focus on vibrissa somatosensation in rat
    Ehud Ahissar
    Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Cereb Cortex 13:53-62. 2003
    ..These loops are likely to be components within a greater closed-loop vibrissa sensorimotor system, which optimizes sensory processing...
  90. ncbi Ascending and descending projections of the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat
    Timea Bacskai
    Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Hungary
    Acta Biol Hung 53:7-21. 2002
    ..It was concluded that the fiber projection in the rostral direction was primarily aimed at sensory-motor centers; in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord, fibers projected onto structures subserving various motor functions...
  91. ncbi Bicuculline attenuates the MLR-induced suppression of dorsal horn neurons receiving group III afferent input
    Alexandr M Degtyarenko
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Human Physiology, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Brain Res 935:109-13. 2002
    ..Our findings raise the possibility that GABA release onto dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord may play an important role in the attenuation of the exercise pressor reflex by central command during exercise...
  92. ncbi Respiratory rhythm: an emergent network property?
    Christopher A Del Negro
    Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, University of California Los Angeles, Box 95 1763, 90095, USA
    Neuron 34:821-30. 2002
    ..05) does not affect respiratory rhythm. These results suggest that voltage-dependent bursting in pacemaker neurons is not essential for respiratory rhythmogenesis, which may instead be an emergent network property...
  93. ncbi Noradrenergic receptors and in vitro respiratory rhythm: possible interspecies differences between mouse and rat neonates
    Viemari Jean-Charles
    Groupe d Etudes des Réseaux Moteurs, Biology of Rhythms and Development, GERM, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, 280 Boulevard de Sainte Marguerite, 13009 Marseille, France
    Neurosci Lett 324:149-53. 2002
    ..Thus, interspecies differences seem to exist in the noradrenergic regulations of the rat and mouse medullary respiratory networks...
  94. pmc Differential activation of nerve fibers with magnetic stimulation in humans
    Eric C Tuday
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    BMC Neurosci 7:58. 2006
    ..Electromyographic (EMG) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) recordings were then made from a total of 20 subjects during stimulation with the magnetic coil...
  95. ncbi A monosynaptic connection between baroinhibited neurons in the RVLM and IML in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Naoki Oshima
    Department of Physiology and Neurosurgery, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Brain Res 1089:153-61. 2006
    ..When AP was decreased using a caval snare, a correlation was demonstrated in a further pair. A possible potentiation of synaptic strength during hypotensive stimuli is discussed...
  96. ncbi Effect of neonatal spinal transection and dorsal rhizotomy on hindlimb muscles
    A S Chatzisotiriou
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 157:113-23. 2005
    ..The combined procedure affected both muscles, indicating that adequate synaptic input is essential for motoneuron survival...
  97. pmc Tuning and playing a motor rhythm: how metabotropic glutamate receptors orchestrate generation of motor patterns in the mammalian central nervous system
    Andrea Nistri
    Neurobiology Sector, CNR INFM DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    J Physiol 572:323-34. 2006
    ..Activation of mGluRs is therefore a powerful strategy to trigger and recruit patterned discharges of motoneurons...
  98. ncbi Positive feedback in a brainstem tactile sensorimotor loop
    Quoc Thang Nguyen
    Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    Neuron 45:447-57. 2005
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose that the trigeminal loop provides an enhancement of vibrissa muscle tone upon contact during active touch...
  99. ncbi Prevention of ventricular fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction (myocardial necrosis), heart failure, and mortality by bretylium: is ischemic heart disease primarily adrenergic cardiovascular disease?
    Marvin Bacaner
    Department of Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA
    Am J Ther 11:366-411. 2004
    ..Adrenergic activity causing ischemia signals cardiac pain to pain centers via sympathetic efferent pathways and tend to induce arrhythmogenic and necrotizing ischemic actions on the cardiovascular system...
  100. ncbi Lymphocyte targeting of the central nervous system: a review of afferent and efferent CNS-immune pathways
    R O Weller
    Department of Pathology Neuropathology, Southampton University School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, UK
    Brain Pathol 6:275-88. 1996
    ..In this review, we examine evidence for afferent and efferent pathways of communication between the CNS and the immune system, the pivotal role of regional lymph nodes in T-cell ..
  101. ncbi Brainstem and basal ganglia lesions in xeroderma pigmentosum group A
    Masaharu Hayashi
    Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, 2 6 Musashi dai, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8526, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63:1048-57. 2004
    ..reduced, the immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase reflecting the dopaminergic afferent and efferent pathways was severely affected, and the expression of 3 calcium binding proteins (i.e...

Research Grants70

  1. Vagal Neurons & Gastric Function by Hypocretin
    Chung Owyang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..sensitivity of gastric responses to HCRT will also be examined to determine the nature of the vagal efferent pathways involved...
  2. NEURAL CONTROL OF LARGE INTESTINAL MUCOSA
    Helen Cooke; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The first aim addresses the efferent pathways in the submucous plexus that mediate histamine-evoked cyclical secretion in normal animals...
  3. Subcortical neural basis of hearing in noise
    Ramnarayan Ramachandran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Detection in noise depends on auditory efferent pathways that are fully functional only in awake and behaving organisms...
  4. EMMETROPIZATION IN THE CHICK--IS THE BRAIN REQUIRED?
    Christine Wildsoet; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..does play a role, I will try to identify the pathways involved using selective lesioning of the most likely efferent pathways. In relation to interocular yoking in eye growth, this proposal seeks to clarify the conditions under which ..
  5. FUNCTION OF THE EFFERENT VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
    Jay Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..There is a need to update results by taking into account recent findings on the organization on afferent and efferent pathways, as a recent suggestions that EVS stimulation may have more heterogeneous influence on afferent gain than ..
  6. SPECTRAL CUES FOR SOUND LOCALIZATION
    Bradford May; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..in sound localization tasks is influenced by manipulations such as blocking one ear, lesioning afferent or efferent pathways, and introducing background noise...
  7. Akt/GSK-3 Signaling Cascade and the Actions of Dopamine
    Marc G Caron; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of DA by selectively manipulating them in postsynaptic D1R- and D2R-expressing neurons of the striatal efferent pathways. Aim 2: We will determine the contribution of ?-arrestin 2 by selectively inactivating and rescuing its ..
  8. Hormonal signals, genome integrity and longevity
    Jan Vijg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This will provide basic insight into genome deterioration in somatic cells and its possible contribution to the efferent pathways by which insulin signaling accelerates aging.
  9. CNS Pathways Regulating Ghrelin Effects on Body Weight
    Joel Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..area and the paraventricular nucleus, which are likely to play a distinct role in activating the efferent pathways activated by ghrelin...
  10. Form/function of Extended Amygdala/Accumbens Shell:CRF
    DANIEL ZAHM; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to extended amygdala and caudal shell (retrograde tracer combined with in situ hybridization), and c) the efferent pathways of extended amygdala and caudal shell cells containing CRF1 versus CRF2a receptors (retrograde tracer ..
  11. Vagal Neurons & Gastric Function by Hypocretin
    HYLAN MOISES; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..sensitivity of gastric responses to HCRT will also be examined to determine the nature of the vagal efferent pathways involved...
  12. NEUROTENSIN AND METHAMPHETAMINE EFFECTS
    KRISTEN KEEFE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..high doses of METH preferentially influence the indirect (striatal-pallidal) and direct (striatal-nigral) efferent pathways to the basal ganglia output nuclei, respectively...
  13. PROTEIN KINASE C IN CENTRAL AUDITORY PLASTICITY
    Meredith Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..in neurotransmitter systems, or by changes in synaptic arrangement, via reorganization of afferent and efferent pathways. A better understanding of the neurochemical mediators of auditory plasticity may lead to the development of ..
  14. NEUROTENSIN AND METHAMPHETAMINE EFFECTS
    Glen Hanson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..high doses of METH preferentially influence the indirect (striatal-pallidal) and direct (striatal-nigral) efferent pathways to the basal ganglia output nuclei, respectively...