Genomes and Genes
Summary: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Publications236 found, 100 shown here
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated enhancement of purinergic neuron/glia communication by the algogenic factor bradykinin in mouse trigeminal ganglia from wild-type and R192Q Cav2.1 Knock-in mice: implications for basic mechanisms of migraine painStefania Ceruti
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
J Neurosci 31:3638-49. 2011Within the trigeminal ganglion, crosstalk between neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) contributes to neuronal sensitization and transduction of painful stimuli, including migraine pain, at least partly through activation of ..
- Potassium channels as a potential therapeutic target for trigeminal neuropathic and inflammatory painMamoru Takeda
Department of Physiology, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Nippon Dental University, 1 9 20 Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo, Japan
Mol Pain 7:5. 2011..pain animal models, particularly the relationship between changes in Kv channels and the excitability of trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons...
- TRPM3 is a nociceptor channel involved in the detection of noxious heatJoris Vriens
Laboratory of Ion Channel Research and TRP Research Platform Leuven TRPLe, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Neuron 70:482-94. 2011..These experiments reveal an unanticipated role for TRPM3 as a thermosensitive nociceptor channel implicated in the detection of noxious heat...
- A5-positive primary sensory neurons are nonpermissive for productive infection with herpes simplex virus 1 in vitroAndrea S Bertke
Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, Medical Sciences Building, s 310, 513 Parnassus Ave, Box 0412, San Francisco, CA 94143 0412, USA
J Virol 85:6669-77. 2011..the establishment of HSV latency in specific subtypes of neurons, cultured dissociated adult murine trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons were assessed for relative permissiveness for productive infection...
- Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1Sven Eric Jordt
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 2140, USA
Nature 427:260-5. 2004..These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors...
- Vertebrate cranial placodes I. Embryonic inductionC V Baker
Division of Biology 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA
Dev Biol 232:1-61. 2001....
- Immunohistochemical colocalization of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK with TRP channels in the trigeminal ganglion cellsYoshio Yamamoto
Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Ueda 3 18 8, Morioka, Iwate 020 8550, Japan
Neurosci Lett 454:129-33. 2009..Mean sizes of TREK-1, TREK-2 and TRAAK immunoreactive trigeminal ganglion neurons were 447+/-185, 445+/-23 and 492+/-12 mm2, respectively...
- Spontaneous molecular reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency in miceLawrence T Feldman
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:978-83. 2002..In the absence of detectable infectious virus in these ganglia, we propose the term "spontaneous molecular reactivation" to describe this ongoing process...
- Neuron-interacting satellite glial cells in human trigeminal ganglia have an APC phenotypeMonique van Velzen
Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Immunol 183:2456-61. 2009....
- Multisensory integration in the dorsal cochlear nucleus: unit responses to acoustic and trigeminal ganglion stimulationS E Shore
Kresge Hearing Research Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan, 1301 East Ann Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Eur J Neurosci 21:3334-48. 2005..We investigated trigeminal system influences on guinea pig DCN cells by stimulating the trigeminal ganglion while recording spontaneous and sound-driven activity from DCN neurons...
- Dural afferents express acid-sensing ion channels: a role for decreased meningeal pH in migraine headacheJin Yan
University of Arizona School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Pain 152:106-13. 2011..These data provide a cellular mechanism by which decreased pH in the meninges following ischemic or inflammatory events directly excites afferent pain-sensing neurons potentially contributing to migraine headache...
- TRPA1 receptors mediate environmental irritant-induced meningeal vasodilatationPhillip Edward Kunkler
The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Pain 152:38-44. 2011..We suggest that these events contribute to headache associated with environmental irritants...
- Tooth pulp inflammation increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rodent trigeminal ganglion neuronsL Tarsa
Department of Integrative Biosciences, Oregon Health and Science University School of Dentistry, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Neuroscience 167:1205-15. 2010Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible for a number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular ..
- Differential Changes in TRPV1 expression after trigeminal sensory nerve injuryHyun Yeong Kim
Department of Physiology and Program in Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
J Pain 9:280-8. 2008..In these animals, we found that neuronal loss of trigeminal ganglion (TG) was not correlated with pain hypersensitivity...
- Partial infraorbital nerve ligation as a model of trigeminal nerve injury in the mouse: behavioral, neural, and glial reactionsMei Xu
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7280, USA
J Pain 9:1036-48. 2008..Nerve injury marker ATF3 was markedly increased in ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion neurons at 8 days after pIONL...
- Downregulation of selective microRNAs in trigeminal ganglion neurons following inflammatory muscle painGuang Bai
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Program in Neuroscience, University Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD, USA
Mol Pain 3:15. 2007..unilaterally into the rat masseter muscle and quantified changes in neuron-specific mature miRNAs in the trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
- Level of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency correlates with severity of corneal scarring and exhaustion of CD8+ T cells in trigeminal ganglia of latently infected miceKevin R Mott
Center for Neurobiology and Vaccine Development, Ophthalmology Research Laboratories, CSMC Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
J Virol 83:2246-54. 2009....
- Localization of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors in rat trigeminal ganglion neuronsV Staikopoulos
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia
Neuroscience 144:208-16. 2007..examine the distribution of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors in primary afferent cell bodies in the rat trigeminal ganglion, including those innervating the dura...
- Differential regulation of P2X(3) mRNA expression by peripheral nerve injury in intact and injured neurons in the rat sensory gangliaK Tsuzuki
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1 1 Mukogawa cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
Pain 91:351-60. 2001..peroneal nerves and the transection of the infraorbital nerve, and observed dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion neurons, respectively...
- Trigeminal injury causes kappa opioid-dependent allodynic, glial and immune cell responses in miceMegumi Aita
Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7280, USA
Mol Pain 6:8. 2010..BrdU) as a mitotic marker, we assessed cell proliferation in three different areas of the trigeminal afferent pathway: trigeminal nucleus principalis (Vp), trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ), and trigeminal ganglion (TG).
- Purinoceptor-mediated calcium signaling in primary neuron-glia trigeminal culturesStefania Ceruti
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology of Purinergic Transmission, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan, Italy
Cell Calcium 43:576-90. 2008..At this exposure time, P2Y receptors responses in satellite glia were instead upregulated, suggesting a complex modulation of P2 receptors in pain signaling...
- Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion from trigeminal nerve cells by botulinum toxin type A: implications for migraine therapyPaul L Durham
Department of Biology, Southwest Missouri State University, MO, USA
Headache 44:35-42; discussion 42-3. 2004..To determine the effect of botulinum toxin type A on calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion from cultured trigeminal ganglia neurons...
- Neutralization of nerve growth factor induces plasticity of ATP-sensitive P2X3 receptors of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neuronsRashid Giniatullin
Neurobiology Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, 34014 Trieste, Italy
J Neurosci 27:8190-201. 2007..is proposed as a novel analgesic approach, its consequences on nociceptive purinergic P2X receptors of trigeminal ganglion neurons remain unknown...
- Botulinum toxin type a (150 kDa) decreases exaggerated neurotransmitter release from trigeminal ganglion neurons and relieves neuropathy behaviors induced by infraorbital nerve constrictionY Kitamura
Department of Oral Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
Neuroscience 159:1422-9. 2009..Thus, we monitored the secretory activity of acutely dissociated trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons from naïve and IoNC rats by measuring the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-uptake ..
- Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript expression protects trigeminal ganglion neurons from apoptosisFrancisco J Branco
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Virol 79:9019-25. 2005..Furthermore, no HSV strain 17-infected trigeminal ganglion neurons were apoptotic, but 0.087% of 17deltaSty and 0.98% of 17 N/H-infected neurons were apoptotic...
- Can satellite glial cells be therapeutic targets for pain control?Luc Jasmin
Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0452, USA
Neuron Glia Biol 6:63-71. 2010..Taken together these data suggest that SGCs may play a role in the genesis or maintenance of pain and open a range of new possibilities for curing neuropathic pain...
- TRPA1 acts as a cold sensor in vitro and in vivoYuji Karashima
Laboratory of Ion Channel Research, Division of Physiology, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Campus Gasthuisberg O and N1, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49 bus 802, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1273-8. 2009..Second, we identify and characterize a specific subset of cold-sensitive trigeminal ganglion neurons that is absent in TRPA1-deficient mice...
- Direct activation of transient receptor potential V1 by nickel ionsMatthias Luebbert
Lehrstuhl fur Zellphysiologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Universitatsstr 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
Pflugers Arch 459:737-50. 2010..are able to induce non-specific cation currents in a capsaicin-sensitive population of cultured mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons...
- Behavioral changes and trigeminal ganglion sodium channel regulation in an orofacial neuropathic pain modelJonas Eriksson
Center for Oral Biology, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, P O Box 4064, S 141 04 Huddinge, Sweden
Pain 119:82-94. 2005..Investigations of gene expression changes in injured trigeminal ganglion neurons of animals with behavioral signs of neuropathic pain demonstrated that the sodium channel alpha-..
- A central role for Islet1 in sensory neuron development linking sensory and spinal gene regulatory programsYunfu Sun
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 93093, USA
Nat Neurosci 11:1283-93. 2008..Together these results establish a central role for Islet1 in the transition from sensory neurogenesis to subtype specification...
- Trigeminal ganglion neuron subtype-specific alterations of Ca(V)2.1 calcium current and excitability in a Cacna1a mouse model of migraineB Fioretti
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova and CNR Institute of Neuroscience, 35121 Padova, Italy
J Physiol 589:5879-95. 2011..Here we studied the calcium currents and excitability properties of two subpopulations of small-diameter trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from adult wild-type (WT) and R192Q FHM1 knockin (KI) mice: capsaicin-sensitive neurons ..
- Trigeminal ganglion innervates the auditory brainstemS E Shore
Kresge Hearing Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0506, USA
J Comp Neurol 419:271-85. 2000A neural connection between the trigeminal ganglion and the auditory brainstem was investigated by using retrograde and anterograde tract tracing methods: iontophoretic injections of biocytin or biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) were made ..
- Selectively targeting pain in the trigeminal systemHyun Yeong Kim
National Research Laboratory for Pain, Dental Research Institute and Department of Physiology School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 749, Republic of Korea
Pain 150:29-40. 2010..QX-314 alone failed to block voltage-gated sodium channel currents (I(Na)) and action potentials (APs) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
- Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are endogenous regulators of vasoactive neuropeptide release from trigeminal ganglion neuronsJeffrey J Iliff
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 3098, USA
J Neurochem 115:1530-42. 2010..We previously described the expression of cytochrome P450-2J epoxygenase in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and that EETs signaling is involved in cerebrovascular dilation resulting from perivascular nerve ..
- Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleusGiovanni Villa
Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan, Italy
Mol Pain 6:89. 2010....
- Tumor necrosis factor-α induces sensitization of meningeal nociceptors mediated via local COX and p38 MAP kinase actionsXi Chun Zhang
Department of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Pain 152:140-9. 2011....
- The 'headache tree' via umbellulone and TRPA1 activates the trigeminovascular systemRomina Nassini
Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology and Headache Centre, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
Brain 135:376-90. 2012..selectively stimulated transient receptor potential ankyrin 1-expressing HEK293 cells and rat trigeminal ganglion neurons, but not untransfected cells or neurons in the presence of the selective transient receptor ..
- Changes in vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) expression following lingual nerve injuryJames E Biggs
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 2TA, UK
Eur J Pain 11:192-201. 2007..tracer, fluorogold, was injected into the damaged nerve to identify associated cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion. Three further ferrets, receiving only tracer injection, served as uninjured controls...
- Effect of lipid raft disruption on TRPV1 receptor activation of trigeminal sensory neurons and transfected cell lineEva Szoke
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary
Eur J Pharmacol 628:67-74. 2010..Evidence for a supporting role of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and gangliosides were obtained both in native and TRPV1-transfected cells. Differential modulation of responses to capsaicin and RTX was often observed...
- Sensory neurons and their supporting cells located in the trigeminal, thoracic and lumbar ganglia differentially express markers of injury following intravenous administration of paclitaxel in the ratJuan Miguel Jimenez-Andrade
Neurosystems Center, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States
Neurosci Lett 405:62-7. 2006..To begin to define the type and location of sensory neurons most impacted by paclitaxel, we examined rat trigeminal ganglion, thoracic and lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) 10 days following intravenous infusion of clinically ..
- Muscle inflammation induces a rapid increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNA that temporally relates to CGRP immunoreactivity and nociceptive behaviorR Ambalavanar
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, 666 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Neuroscience 143:875-84. 2006..A rapid and significant increase in CGRP mRNA occurred in the mandibular division (V3) of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion at 30 minutes, 4 and 24 h after the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant as an inflammatory agent into ..
- Peripheral targeting of the trigeminal ganglion via the infraorbital foramen as a therapeutic strategyJohn K Neubert
Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, 1600 S W Archer Road, P O Box 100444, Gainesville, FL 32610 0444, USA
Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 15:119-26. 2005..The current paper describes a percutaneous approach for injecting the trigeminal ganglion with an electrical-stimulation needle inserted through the infraorbital foramen, infraorbital canal and ..
- Primary sensory neuron addition in the adult rat trigeminal ganglion: evidence for neural crest glio-neuronal precursor maturationAlfonso Lagares
Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Neuroscience, Autonoma University of Madrid, Medical School, 28029 Madrid, Spain
J Neurosci 27:7939-53. 2007..Similar studies are lacking in the trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
- Estrogen and inflammation increase the excitability of rat temporomandibular joint afferent neuronsNatasha M Flake
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, 666 W Baltimore St, Rm 5 A 12, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
J Neurophysiol 93:1585-97. 2005....
- Chronic electrostimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in trigeminal neuropathy: current state and future prospectsJ H Mehrkens
Neurochirurgische Klinik, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munich, Germany
Acta Neurochir Suppl 97:91-7. 2007Over two decades ago, the electrostimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (TGES) was established as a treatment option for patients with trigeminopathic pain due to a (iatrogenic) lesion of the trigeminal nerve, on whom the other ..
- Distinct expression of TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1 mRNAs in rat primary afferent neurons with adelta/c-fibers and colocalization with trk receptorsKimiko Kobayashi
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
J Comp Neurol 493:596-606. 2005..the precise distribution of TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1 mRNAs in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
- Effect of anti-CXCL10 monoclonal antibody on herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis and retinal infectionDaniel J J Carr
Department of Ophthalmology, Dean A McGee Eye Institute, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 608 Stanton L Young Boulevard, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
J Virol 77:10037-46. 2003..Treatment of HSV-1-infected mice with antibody to CXCL10 significantly reduced CXCL10 levels in the eye and trigeminal ganglion and reduced mononuclear cell infiltration into the corneal stroma...
- Calcium homeostasis in trigeminal ganglion cell bodiesTony D Gover
The Neuroscience Program, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 1559, United States
Cell Calcium 41:389-96. 2007..Little is known about Ca2+ homeostasis in trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs)...
- Comparative analysis of the chemical neuroanatomy of the mammalian trigeminal ganglion and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleusNikolai E Lazarov
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Thracian University, 11 Armejska Street, BG 6003 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Prog Neurobiol 66:19-59. 2002..Most of their cell bodies are located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) but part of them lie in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN)...
- During herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rabbits, the ability to express the latency-associated transcript increases latent-phase transcription of lytic genesNicole V Giordani
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 100266, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 0266, USA
J Virol 82:6056-60. 2008..These results suggest that, for efficient reactivation from latency in rabbits, the LAT is important for increased transcription of lytic genes during latency...
- Gamma interferon can prevent herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation from latency in sensory neuronsT Liu
Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-2588, USA
J Virol 75:11178-84. 2001..that CD8(+) T cells could block herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation from latency in ex vivo trigeminal ganglion (TG) cultures without destroying the infected neurons...
- Contribution of activated interleukin receptors in trigeminal ganglion neurons to hyperalgesia via satellite glial interleukin-1beta paracrine mechanismMamoru Takeda
Department of Physiology, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Nippon Dental University, 1 9 20, Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
Brain Behav Immun 22:1016-23. 2008..investigated whether under in vivo conditions, inflammation alters the excitability of nociceptive Adelta-trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons innervating the facial skin via a cytokine paracrine mechanism...
- TRPV1 in migraine pathophysiologyJannis E Meents
Department of Neurology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Trends Mol Med 16:153-9. 2010..We argue that antagonising TRPV1 sensitisation is a promising approach and should receive more attention in future research as well as in the development of anti-migraine drugs...
- Immunization with different viral antigens alters the pattern of T cell exhaustion and latency in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected miceSariah J Allen
Center for Neurobiology and Vaccine Development, Ophthalmology Research Laboratories, Department of Surgery, CSMC Burns and Allen Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
J Virol 84:12315-24. 2010..In this study, we have shown for the first time that both PD-1 and Tim-3 contribute to T cell exhaustion and an increase of latency in the TG of latently infected mice...
- The TRPM8 ion channel comprises direct Gq protein-activating capacityKatharina Klasen
Lehrstuhl fur Zellphysiologie, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
Pflugers Arch 463:779-97. 2012..Our observations lead to a view that extends the operational range of the TRPM8 receptor from its function as a pure ion channel to a molecular switch with additional metabotropic capacity...
- Expression of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the rat trigeminal sensory afferents and spinal dorsal hornYun Sook Kim
Department of Oral Anatomy and Neurobiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
J Comp Neurol 518:687-98. 2010..To address this issue, we characterized the TRPA1-positive (+) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and investigated the distribution of TRPA1(+) afferent fibers and their synaptic connectivity within ..
- Tumor necrosis factor-α increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons in an activity-dependent mannerE Bałkowiec-Iskra
Department of Integrative Biosciences, Oregon Health and Science University School of Dentistry, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Neuroscience 180:322-33. 2011..as migraine or temporo-mandibular disorders, are associated with inflammation within peripheral endings of trigeminal ganglion (TG) sensory neurons...
- Hypotonicity modulates tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current in trigeminal ganglion neuronsLin Li
Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China
Mol Pain 7:27. 2011..tested the effect of hypotonicity on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (TTX-S current) in cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Our data show that after hypotonic treatment, TTX-S current was increased...
- Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in ratsAyano Katagiri
Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan
Mol Pain 8:23. 2012..stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC) to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual ..
- Peripheral inflammation upregulates P2X receptor expression in satellite glial cells of mouse trigeminal ganglia: a calcium imaging studyRaya Kushnir
Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Neuropharmacology 61:739-46. 2011..A similar observation was made in the intact trigeminal ganglion after infra-orbital nerve axotomy...
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and migrainePaul L Durham
Department of Biology, Missouri State University, 231 Temple Hall, Springfield, MO 65897, USA
Headache 46:S3-8. 2006....
- Relationship between physiological response type (RA and SA) and vibrissal receptive field of neurons within the rat trigeminal ganglionSteven C Leiser
Department Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University, School of Biomedical Engineering, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Neurophysiol 95:3129-45. 2006Cells within the trigeminal ganglion (Vg) encode all the information necessary for the rat to differentiate tactile stimuli, yet it is the least-studied component in the rodent trigeminal somatosensory system...
- Temporomandibular joint inflammation decreases the voltage-gated K+ channel subtype 1.4-immunoreactivity of trigeminal ganglion neurons in ratsMamoru Takeda
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, 1 9 20, Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
Eur J Pain 12:189-95. 2008..4 (Kv1.4) of trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons innervating TMJ relating allodynia (pain caused by normally innoxious stimulation), by using ..
- Robo2-Slit1 dependent cell-cell interactions mediate assembly of the trigeminal ganglionCelia E Shiau
Division of Biology 139 74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
Nat Neurosci 11:269-76. 2008..Here, we show that proper formation of the trigeminal ganglion, the largest of the cranial ganglia, relies on reciprocal interactions between placode and neural crest ..
- Compression of the trigeminal ganglion produces prolonged nociceptive behavior in ratsDong K Ahn
Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
Eur J Pain 13:568-75. 2009..first demonstration of prolonged nociceptive behavior in the trigeminal region following compression of the trigeminal ganglion in rats...
- Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript gene promotes neuronal survivalR L Thompson
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0524, USA
J Virol 75:6660-75. 2001..The number of latent sites established in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons was determined using a single-cell quantitative PCR assay for the viral genome on purified TG ..
- Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distributionJochen K Lennerz
Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
J Comp Neurol 507:1277-99. 2008..In the trigeminal ganglion, besides Schwann and satellite cells, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was found in subpopulations of CGRP-ir neurons ..
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in a latency-associated transcript-independent manner in neuronal cellsRobert J Danaher
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Dentistry and College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0297, USA
J Neurovirol 11:306-17. 2005..e., recrudescence)...
- Fine-grained fate maps for the ophthalmic and maxillomandibular trigeminal placodes in the chick embryoHong Xu
University of Cambridge, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Anatomy Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
Dev Biol 317:174-86. 2008..placodes, which give rise to cutaneous sensory neurons in the ophthalmic and maxillomandibular lobes of the trigeminal ganglion. We used focal DiI and DiO labelling to produce eight detailed fate-maps of chick embryonic head ectoderm ..
- Neuron-glia signaling in trigeminal ganglion: implications for migraine pathologySrikanth Thalakoti
Department of Biology, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897, USA
Headache 47:1008-23; discussion 24-5. 2007..The goal of this study was to investigate neuronal-glial cell signaling in trigeminal ganglia under basal and inflammatory conditions using an in vivo model of trigeminal nerve activation...
- Proinflammatory-activated trigeminal satellite cells promote neuronal sensitization: relevance for migraine pathologyAlessandro Capuano
Institute of Pharmacology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy
Mol Pain 5:43. 2009..Thus, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that IL-1beta and NO induce trigeminal satellite cell activation, and that once activated these cells can influence neuronal responses...
- NGF mRNA expression in developing cutaneous epithelium related to innervation densityS Harper
Department of Anatomy, St George s Hospital Medical School, Tooting, London, UK
Development 110:515-9. 1990..the concentration of NGF mRNA in the epithelia of the maxillary, mandibular and ophthalmic territories of trigeminal ganglion in the embryonic mouse...
- Delaying the expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B (gB) to a true late gene alters neurovirulence and inhibits the gB-CD8+ T-cell response in the trigeminal ganglionSrividya Ramachandran
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
J Virol 84:8811-20. 2010..These data have implications for designing better immunogens for vaccines to prevent HSV-1 reactivation...
- p75-deficient trigeminal sensory neurons have an altered response to NGF but not to other neurotrophinsA M Davies
School of Biological and Medical Sciences, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland
Neuron 11:565-74. 1993..These findings indicate that p75 enhances the sensitivity of NGF-dependent cutaneous sensory neurons to NGF and may explain, at least in part, the cutaneous sensory abnormalities of mice homozygous for the p75 mutation...
- Developmental changes in the expression of Shaker- and Shab-related K(+) channels in neurons of the rat trigeminal ganglionG Seifert
Experimental Neurobiology, Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, 53105, Bonn, Germany
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 74:55-68. 1999We have investigated properties of voltage-gated K(+) channels in neurons of the pre- and postnatal rat trigeminal ganglion (TG)...
- Differential distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor components in the human trigeminal ganglionS Eftekhari
Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Experimental Vascular Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Neuroscience 169:683-96. 2010..calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1 in the human trigeminal ganglion using immunohistochemistry and compare with that of rat...
- Alternation of gene expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons following complete Freund's adjuvant or capsaicin injection into the rat faceMasayo Okumura
Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780, Hiro oka, Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399 0781, Japan
J Mol Neurosci 42:200-9. 2010The hyperexcitability of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following inflammation or C-fiber stimulation is known to be involved in a variety of changes in gene expression in TG neurons, resulting in pain abnormalities in orofacial ..
- Effects of alpha-dendrotoxin on K+ currents and action potentials in tetrodotoxin-resistant adult rat trigeminal ganglion neuronsShinki Yoshida
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Dentistry at Tokyo, 1 9 20 Fujimi, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 314:437-45. 2005..transient current (I(D))] contributes to the modification of neuronal function in small-diameter adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons insensitive to 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX), we performed two different types of experiments...
- Higher resistance of porcine trigeminal ganglion neurons towards pseudorabies virus-induced cell death compared with other porcine cell types in vitroKristin Geenen
Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
J Gen Virol 86:1251-60. 2005b>Trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons are important target cells for many alphaherpesviruses, constituting major sites for latency/reactivation events...
- Repression of stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion by topiramatePaul L Durham
Department of Biology, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA
Headache 46:1291-5. 2006..The goal of the proposed research was to determine the effect of topiramate on basal and stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal ganglia neurons...
- GDNF family ligand receptor components Ret and GFRalpha-1 in the human trigeminal ganglion and sensory nucleiMarina Quartu
Department of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
Brain Res Bull 69:393-403. 2006..Receptor-labeled neurons occur in both trigeminal ganglion and mesencephalic nucleus...
- X-knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion to treat trigeminal neuralgia: a preliminary studyM J Chen
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
Minim Invasive Neurosurg 53:223-8. 2010..The purpose of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of and complications associated with X-knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) for TN.
- Multiple types of sensory neurons respond to irritating volatile organic compounds (VOCs): calcium fluorimetry of trigeminal ganglion neuronsTakashi Inoue
Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Pain 117:193-203. 2005..We measured intracellular calcium in cultured trigeminal ganglion neurons to characterize the cellular mechanisms and chemical structural determinants underlying sensitivity ..
- Ascending multisynaptic pathways from the trigeminal ganglion to the anterior cingulate cortexKoichi Iwata
Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1 8 13 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo, 101 8310, Japan
Exp Neurol 227:69-78. 2011By means of retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus, ascending multisynaptic pathways from the trigeminal ganglion (TG) to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were identified in the rat...
- The functional difference between transient and sustained K+ currents on the action potentials in tetrodotoxin-resistant adult rat trigeminal ganglion neuronsShinki Yoshida
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Brain Res 1152:64-74. 2007..I(A)) and a sustained K(+) current (I(K)) regarding the neuronal function in small-diameter adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, which were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), we performed two different types of ..
- Triptan-induced enhancement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion dural afferents underlies increased responsiveness to potential migraine triggersMilena De Felice
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Brain 133:2475-88. 2010..repeated or sustained triptan administration for several days can elicit persistent neural adaptations in trigeminal ganglion cells innervating the dura, prominently characterized by increased labelling of neuronal profiles for ..
- Immunohistochemical co-expression of carbonic anhydrase II with Kv1.4 and TRPV1 in rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neuronsTakeshi Tanimoto
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Dentistry at Tokyo, 1 9 20 Fujimi, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
Brain Res 1044:262-5. 2005..4 (Kv1.4) or the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) was examined in adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons by using the immunofluorescence method. The small-diameter Kv.1...
- A comparison of propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia for percutaneous trigeminal ganglion compressionF Bilotta
Eur J Anaesthesiol 22:233-5. 2005
- Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during cultureInger Jansen-Olesen
Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 97:355-63. 2005..It may act as a cellular signalling molecule that is expressed after cell activation...
- Opioidergic modulation of excitability of rat trigeminal root ganglion neuron projections to the superficial layer of cervical dorsal hornM Takeda
Department of Physiology, School of Dentistry at Tokyo, Nippon Dental University, 1 9 20, Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo, 102 8159 Japan
Neuroscience 125:995-1008. 2004....
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide and nitric oxide in the trigeminal ganglion: cerebral vasodilatation from trigeminal nerve stimulation involves mainly calcitonin gene-related peptideL Edvinsson
Department of Internal Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Sweden
J Auton Nerv Syst 70:15-22. 1998..In the trigeminal ganglion of the cat, a moderate number of NOS immunoreactive nerve cell bodies was seen, of which the major part ..
- Effects of trigeminal ganglion stimulation on unit activity of ventral cochlear nucleus neuronsS E Shore
Kresge Hearing Research Institute, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Michigan, 1301 East Ann Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Neuroscience 119:1085-101. 2003The trigeminal ganglion sends a projection to the granule and magnocellular regions of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN; [J Comp Neurol 419 (2000) 271]), as well as to the cochlea ([Neuroscience 79 (1997) 605; Neuroscience 84 (1998a) ..
- Classification of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in trigeminal ganglion neurons from neonatal ratsMizuho Ikeda
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Dentistry at Tokyo, 1 9 20, Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
Life Sci 73:1175-87. 2003We examined the subtypes and characteristics of the Ca(2+) channel in small (diameter < 30 microm) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from neonatal rats by means of whole cell patch clamp techniques...
- Changes in osmolality modulate voltage-gated calcium channels in trigeminal ganglion neuronsLei Chen
Department of Physiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China
Brain Res 1208:56-66. 2008..For this reason by using whole-cell patch clamp techniques in rat and mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons we tested the effects of hypo- and hypertonicity on VGCCs...
- High prevalence of co-infections with bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 found in cattle in southern BrazilF S Campos
Microbiology Department, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul RS, Brazil
Vet Microbiol 139:67-73. 2009..1% with BoHV-5 and 75.9% with both BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This is the first time that such a high frequency of co-infection of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in bovines has been demonstrated...
- Osmolality-induced tuning of action potentials in trigeminal ganglion neuronsLei Chen
Department of Physiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China
Neurosci Lett 452:79-83. 2009The present study explored the effect of anisotonicity on action potential (AP) in cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We demonstrate that the number of evoked APs was increased by both hypo- and hypertonic treatment...
- Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor acutely modulates the excitability of rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating facial skinMamoru Takeda
Department of Physiology, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Nippon Dental University, 1 9 20, Fujimi cho, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102 8159, Japan
Brain Behav Immun 24:72-82. 2010..aim of the present study was to investigate whether GDNF acutely modulates the excitability of adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons that innervate the facial skin by using perforated-patch clamping, retrograde-labeling and ..
- The roles of I(D), I(A) and I(K) in the electrophysiological functions of small diameter rat trigeminal ganglion neuronsShigeji Matsumoto
Department of Physiology, Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Curr Mol Pharmacol 3:30-6. 2010..inactivating transient K+ current (I(A)) and dominant sustained K+ current (I(K)), in small-diameter rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
- The modulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by anisotonicity in trigeminal ganglion neuronsL Chen
Department of Physiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan, PR China
Neuroscience 154:482-95. 2008..patch clamp techniques, we explore how hypo- and hypertonicity modulate VGPCs in cultured rat and mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons...
- Neonatal anandamide treatment results in prolonged mitochondrial damage in the vanilloid receptor type 1-immunoreactive B-type neurons of the rat trigeminal ganglionE Szoke
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Pecs, Hungary
Neuroscience 115:805-14. 2002..The results suggest that anandamide, at pharmacologically relevant doses, acts on the VR1 receptor and causes prolonged and selective mitochondrial damage of B-type sensory neurons, as has previously been described for capsaicin...
- Capsaicin receptor immunoreactivity in the human trigeminal ganglionMingyan Hou
Department of Internal Medicine, Lund University Hospital, S 221 85 Lund, Sweden
Neurosci Lett 330:223-6. 2002..that are VR1 receptor immunoreactive (ir) (171 versus 1038 or 16% of all neuronal cell bodies) in the human trigeminal ganglion (TG). In addition, RT-PCR confirmed the presence of VR1 mRNA in the human TG...
- CHEMICAL RESPONSES OF ORAL TRIGEMINAL NERVESSIDNEY SIMON; Fiscal Year: 1999..single unit recordings from rat lingual and chorda tympani nerves, and patch-clamp recordings from rat trigeminal ganglion neurons in response to chemical irritants...
- Neuronal Plasticity Related to TMD and FibromyalgiaDean Dessem; Fiscal Year: 2006..Two hypotheses are proposed: Hypothesis 1) Masticatory muscle inflammation increases the number of trigeminal ganglion (TG) muscle afferent neurons that express: substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), ..
- ESTROGEN MODULATION OF HUMAN NOCICEPTORSKenneth M Hargreaves; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Temporomandibular joint syndrome in femalesNancy Berman; Fiscal Year: 2005..In Specific Aim 3, we will examine the effects of ovarian steroids on TMJ and trigeminal responses to TMJ inflammation. These experiments will provide an innovative approach to the mechanism of hormonal regulation of facial pain. ..
- MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUSNigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will continue our investigation of herpes simplex virus latency and reactivation and further our understanding of the mechanism of latency in the peripheral nervous system. ..
- VESTIBULO-CEREBELLAR CIRCUITSCAREY DAVID BALABAN; Fiscal Year: 2010..ganglion cells have marker phenotypes that parallel findings in small to medium sized dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion cells...
- TOOTH MECHANORECEPTORS AND JAW MOVEMENTDean Dessem; Fiscal Year: 2001..Three hypotheses are proposed: 1) Sensory feedback from trigeminal ganglion masticatory muscle afferents reaches trigeminal motoneurons via disynaptic and trisynaptic neuronal ..
- Developmental Regulation of Corneal InnervationTHOMAS FRANK LINSENMAYER; Fiscal Year: 2010..Corneal nerves originate chiefly from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion (TGG) and are largely sensory, responding to noxious mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli by ..
- DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENSE OF TASTECharlotte Mistretta; Fiscal Year: 2007..Yet such studies are essential for a full understanding of the sense of taste, which motivates our food choices and thereby mediates healthy or unhealthy diet patterns. ..
- Growth Factor-Induced Peripheral GliogenesisDonald Pizzo; Fiscal Year: 2007..Furthermore, the development of a quantitative tumor model allows for the assessment of small molecule therapeutics in a pre-clinical setting. ..
- The Role of Tooth Mechanoreceptors in Jaw MovementDean Dessem; Fiscal Year: 2006..Three hypotheses are proposed: 1) Trigeminal ganglion jaw muscle and joint primary afferent neurons comprise two general categories with brainstem axonal ..
- Regulation of opioid receptor function in trigeminal ganglionWilliam Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2009..and DOR systems to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity and neuropeptide release in primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons and in behavioral models of peripheral analgesia...
- Gene Expression in HSV-1 Latency After Corneal InfectionPaul R Kinchington; Fiscal Year: 2010..The work has important implications in vaccine design aimed to prevent the triggering infections. ..
- NEURONAL CONTROL OF CGRP GENE EXPRESSIONANDREW RUSSO; Fiscal Year: 2009..peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in craniofacial pain and headache by virtue of its expression in the trigeminal ganglion and roles in neurogenic inflammation and nociception...
- Satellite Glial CellsLuc Jasmin; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our preliminary experiments utilizing RNAi-mediated gene silencing at the trigeminal ganglion, where SGCs surround the cell bodies of primary sensory neurons innervating the face, show that this ..
- Satellite Glial CellsLuc Jasmin; Fiscal Year: 2011..Our preliminary experiments utilizing RNAi-mediated gene silencing at the trigeminal ganglion, where SGCs surround the cell bodies of primary sensory neurons innervating the face, show that this ..
- Estrogen regulation of inflammatory mediator signalingWilliam P Clarke; Fiscal Year: 2010..Specific Aim 1: Characterize rapid effects of estradiol (17_-E2) on BK and PGE2 signaling in trigeminal ganglion. We will determine the concentration- and time- and ligand-dependence of 17_-E2 action and identify the ..
- Cochlear Type II Afferents and Nociception in the Inner*Jaime Garcia Anoveros; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Therapeutic Ocular HSV Vaccine in HLA Transgenic RabbitsLbachir BenMohamed; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Sex Steroids, and TMJ PainLarry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2009..pain sensitivity have been characterized and the gene(s) modulated by these hormonal effects in the joint and trigeminal ganglion identified, targets for pharmaceutical intervention of pain in the TMJ can be pursued.
- Sex Steroids, and TMJ PainLarry Bellinger; Fiscal Year: 2007..pain sensitivity have been characterized and the gene(s) modulated by these hormonal effects in the joint and trigeminal ganglion identified, targets for pharmaceutical intervention of pain in the TMJ can be pursued.
- Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain MechanismsMichael Henry; Fiscal Year: 2006..the light and electron microscopic levels in normal rat trigeminal primary afferents (infraorbital nerve, trigeminal ganglion/root entry zone and trigeminal sensory nucleus) and in intrinsic neurons in the trigeminal sensory nucleus...