- Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Science 314:130-3. 2006
..C-terminal fragments and was recovered only from affected central nervous system regions, including hippocampus, neocortex, and spinal cord. TDP-43 represents the common pathologic substrate linking these neurodegenerative disorders.
- Motor neuron degeneration in mice that express a human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation
M E Gurney
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611
Science 264:1772-5. 1994
..The mice became paralyzed in one or more limbs as a result of motor neuron loss from the spinal cord and died by 5 to 6 months of age...
- Mutations in the FUS/TLS gene on chromosome 16 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
T J Kwiatkowski
Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
Science 323:1205-8. 2009
..Neuronal cytoplasmic protein aggregation and defective RNA metabolism thus appear to be common pathogenic mechanisms involved in ALS and possibly in other neurodegenerative disorders...
- Identification of two distinct macrophage subsets with divergent effects causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord
Kristina A Kigerl
Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
J Neurosci 29:13435-44. 2009
..Here, we show that an M1 macrophage response is rapidly induced and then maintained at sites of traumatic spinal cord injury and that this response overwhelms a comparatively smaller and transient M2 macrophage response...
- Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, King s College London, Medical Research Council MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF, UK
Science 323:1208-11. 2009
..FUS is involved in the regulation of transcription and RNA splicing and transport, and it has functional homology to another ALS gene, TARDBP, which suggests that a common mechanism may underlie motor neuron degeneration...
- Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into motor neurons
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Cell 110:385-97. 2002
..ES cell-derived motor neurons can populate the embryonic spinal cord, extend axons, and form synapses with target muscles...
- Descending control of pain
Mark J Millan
Department of Psychopharmacology, Institut de Recherches Servier, 125 Chemin de Ronde, 78290 Croissy Seine, Paris, France
Prog Neurobiol 66:355-474. 2002
Upon receipt in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord, nociceptive (pain-signalling) information from the viscera, skin and other organs is subject to extensive processing by a diversity of mechanisms, certain of which enhance, and ..
- Revised diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica
D M Wingerchuk
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
Neurology 66:1485-9. 2006
..However, some patients with otherwise typical NMO have additional symptoms not attributable to optic nerve or spinal cord inflammation or have MS-like brain MRI lesions...
- Mutations in UBQLN2 cause dominant X-linked juvenile and adult-onset ALS and ALS/dementia
Han Xiang Deng
Division of Neuromuscular Medicine, Davee Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurosciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
Nature 477:211-5. 2011
..sclerosis (ALS) is a paralytic and usually fatal disorder caused by motor-neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Most cases of ALS are sporadic but about 5-10% are familial...
- IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel
Vanda A Lennon
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
J Exp Med 202:473-7. 2005
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that selectively affects optic nerves and spinal cord. It is considered a severe variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), and frequently is misdiagnosed as MS, but prognosis ..
- BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain
Jeffrey A M Coull
Division de Neurobiologie Cellulaire, Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3, Canada
Nature 438:1017-21. 2005
..that occurs after peripheral nerve injury depends on the hyperexcitability of neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Spinal microglia stimulated by ATP contribute to tactile allodynia, a highly debilitating symptom of pain ..
- Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells promotes an alternative pathway of macrophage activation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Fukui Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui, Japan
J Neurotrauma 29:1614-25. 2012
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow can potentially reduce the acute inflammatory response in spinal cord injury (SCI) and thus promote functional recovery...
- Therapeutic potential of appropriately evaluated safe-induced pluripotent stem cells for spinal cord injury
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12704-9. 2010
..show the directed neural differentiation of murine iPS cells and examine their therapeutic potential in a mouse spinal cord injury (SCI) model...
- Astrocytes as determinants of disease progression in inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0670, USA
Nat Neurosci 11:251-3. 2008
..These findings demonstrate that mutant astrocytes are viable targets for therapies for slowing the progression of non-cell autonomous killing of motor neurons in ALS...
- Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice
Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
PLoS Med 6:e1000113. 2009
Although macrophages (MPhi) are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a subject of debate...
- Proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency criteria do not predict multiple sclerosis risk or severity
Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Ann Neurol 70:51-8. 2011
..This information is particularly relevant, because uncontrolled surgical procedures are increasingly offered to MS patients to treat their venous stenoses...
- Requirement for the homeobox gene Hb9 in the consolidation of motor neuron identity
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Neuron 23:659-74. 1999
..In embryonic chick spinal cord, the ectopic expression of MNR2 or Hb9 is sufficient to trigger MN differentiation and to repress the ..
- Trans-synaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain
Jeffrey A M Coull
Neurobiologie Cellulaire, Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3, Canada
Nature 424:938-42. 2003
Modern pain-control theory predicts that a loss of inhibition (disinhibition) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a crucial substrate for chronic pain syndromes...
- Vertebrate neurogenesis is counteracted by Sox1-3 activity
Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Karolinska Institute, Box 240, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Nat Neurosci 6:1162-8. 2003
..These data suggest that the generation of neurons from stem cells depends on the inhibition of Sox1-3 expression by proneural proteins...
- Populations of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in lamina II of the adult rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by a combined electrophysiological and anatomical approach
Neuroscience and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Pain 151:475-88. 2010
..electrophysiological and pharmacological properties for 61 lamina II neurons recorded in slices from adult rat spinal cord. Morphology was related to transmitter content, since islet cells were GABAergic, while radial and most ..
- Pattern-specific loss of aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis
Shanu F Roemer
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Brain 130:1194-205. 2007
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that typically affects optic nerves and spinal cord. Its pathogenic relationship to multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain...
- Optogenetic dissection of a behavioural module in the vertebrate spinal cord
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California in Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
Nature 461:407-10. 2009
..drive for inducing the spinal CPG can originate from either supraspinal glutamatergic inputs or from within the spinal cord. Here we identify a spinal input to the CPG that drives spontaneous locomotion using a combination of ..
- Progressive multiple sclerosis is not associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency
First Neurology Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padova, Italy
Neurology 77:844-50. 2011
..Thus, we studied CCSVI prevalence in primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) MS, to clarify whether CCSVI characterizes the progressive forms of this disease...
- Restoring voluntary control of locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury
Rubia van den Brand
Neurology Department, University of Zurich, Ch 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
Science 336:1182-5. 2012
Half of human spinal cord injuries lead to chronic paralysis. Here, we introduce an electrochemical neuroprosthesis and a robotic postural interface designed to encourage supraspinally mediated movements in rats with paralyzing lesions...
- Targeted depletion of TDP-43 expression in the spinal cord motor neurons leads to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like phenotypes in mice
Lien Szu Wu
Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11574, Taiwan
J Biol Chem 287:27335-44. 2012
..the conditional mouse gene targeting approach, we show that mice with inactivation of the Tardbp gene in the spinal cord motor neurons (HB9:Cre-Tardbp(lx/-)) exhibit progressive and male-dominant development of ALS-related ..
- Long-distance growth and connectivity of neural stem cells after severe spinal cord injury
Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Cell 150:1264-73. 2012
..GFP were embedded into fibrin matrices containing growth factor cocktails and grafted to sites of severe spinal cord injury...
- Minocycline attenuates mechanical allodynia and proinflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of pain facilitation
Department of Psychology and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
Pain 115:71-83. 2005
Activated glial cells (microglia and astroglia) in the spinal cord play a major role in mediating enhanced pain states by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and other substances thought to facilitate pain transmission...
- A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica
Claudia F Lucchinetti
Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
Brain 125:1450-61. 2002
..mechanisms that result in selective localization of inflammatory demyelinating lesions to the optic nerves and spinal cord are unknown...
- Wild-type nonneuronal cells extend survival of SOD1 mutant motor neurons in ALS mice
A M Clement
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0670, USA
Science 302:113-7. 2003
..Normal motor neurons in SOD1 mutant chimeras develop aspects of ALS pathology. Most important, nonneuronal cells that do not express mutant SOD1 delay degeneration and significantly extend survival of mutant-expressing motor neurons...
- Impaired neuropathic pain responses in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR2
Department of Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, P O Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7947-52. 2003
..Chronic pain also resulted in the appearance of activated CCR2-positive microglia in the spinal cord. Collectively, these data suggest that the recruitment and activation of macrophages and microglia peripherally ..
- Altered distributions of Gemini of coiled bodies and mitochondria in motor neurons of TDP-43 transgenic mice
Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 2196, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16325-30. 2010
..In concert, our findings indicate that TDP-43 participates in pathways critical for motor neuron physiology, including those that regulate the normal distributions of SMN-associated GEMs in the nucleus and mitochondria in the cytoplasm...
- Neuropilin is a semaphorin III receptor
A L Kolodkin
Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2185, USA
Cell 90:753-62. 1997
..We also describe the identification of neuropilin-2, a related neuropilin family member, and show that neuropilin and neuropilin-2 are expressed in overlapping, yet distinct, populations of neurons in the rat embryonic nervous system...
- Neuronal specification in the spinal cord: inductive signals and transcriptional codes
T M Jessell
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Nat Rev Genet 1:20-9. 2000
..The mechanisms that specify the identity of neural cells have been examined in many regions of the nervous system and reveal a high degree of conservation in the specification of cell fate by key signalling molecules...
- Neuronal alpha-synucleinopathy with severe movement disorder in mice expressing A53T human alpha-synuclein
Benoit I Giasson
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3600 Spruce Street, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
Neuron 34:521-33. 2002
..These mice demonstrate that A53T alpha-synuclein leads to the formation of toxic filamentous alpha-synuclein neuronal inclusions that cause neurodegeneration...
- Effect of epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord on voluntary movement, standing, and assisted stepping after motor complete paraplegia: a case study
Department of Neurological Surgery, Kentucky Spinal Cord Research Center, University of Louisville, KY, USA
Lancet 377:1938-47. 2011
Repeated periods of stimulation of the spinal cord and training increased the ability to control movement in animal models of spinal cord injury...
- Circuits controlling vertebrate locomotion: moving in a new direction
Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nat Rev Neurosci 10:507-18. 2009
..The motor circuits in the spinal cord that control locomotion, commonly referred to as central pattern generator networks, provide an experimentally ..
- Down-regulation of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 contributes to spasticity after spinal cord injury
Laboratoire Plasticité et Physio Pathologie de la Motricité UMR6196, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS and Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France
Nat Med 16:302-7. 2010
..of spinal reflexes and reduced synaptic inhibition are commonly associated with spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
- Wild-type human TDP-43 expression causes TDP-43 phosphorylation, mitochondrial aggregation, motor deficits, and early mortality in transgenic mice
Ya Fei Xu
Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA
J Neurosci 30:10851-9. 2010
..driven by the mouse prion promoter to provide a tool to analyze the role of wild-type hTDP-43 in the brain and spinal cord. Expression of hTDP-43 caused a dose-dependent downregulation of mouse TDP-43 RNA and protein...
- Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
L R Watkins
Dept of Psychology and the Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at, Boulder, CO, USA
Trends Neurosci 24:450-5. 2001
..The discovery that spinal cord glia (microglia and astrocytes) amplify pain requires a change in this view...
- p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated after a spinal nerve ligation in spinal cord microglia and dorsal root ganglion neurons and contributes to the generation of neuropathic pain
Shan Xue Jin
Neural Plasticity Research Group, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
J Neurosci 23:4017-22. 2003
The possible involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in the development of peripheral neuropathic pain has been explored...
- Opposing FGF and retinoid pathways control ventral neural pattern, neuronal differentiation, and segmentation during body axis extension
Ruth Diez del Corral
Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom
Neuron 40:65-79. 2003
..Our data demonstrate that FGF and RA pathways are mutually inhibitory and suggest that their opposing actions provide a global mechanism that controls differentiation during axis extension...
- Locomotor circuits in the mammalian spinal cord
Mammalian Locomotor Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm S17177, Sweden
Annu Rev Neurosci 29:279-306. 2006
..Molecular and genetic approaches that have the potential to elucidate the function of populations of CPG interneurons are also discussed...
- T lymphocytes potentiate endogenous neuroprotective inflammation in a mouse model of ALS
Isaac M Chiu
Department of Pathology, Immune Disease Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17913-8. 2008
..These results indicate that T cells play an endogenous neuroprotective role in ALS by modulating a beneficial inflammatory response to neuronal injury...
- Disability, atrophy and cortical reorganization following spinal cord injury
Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Brain 134:1610-22. 2011
The impact of traumatic spinal cord injury on structural integrity, cortical reorganization and ensuing disability is variable and may depend on a dynamic interaction between the severity of local damage and the capacity of the brain for ..
- Autophagy in spinal cord motor neurons in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Department of Neurology, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:349-59. 2011
..Thus, autophagy seems to be activated and upregulated in the cytoplasm of motor neurons and may be involved in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration of motor neurons in sporadic ALS...
- Presynaptic inhibition in the vertebrate spinal cord revisited
Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Apartado Postal 14 740, Mexico DF 07000, Mexico
Exp Brain Res 129:1-37. 1999
..the existence of central mechanisms able to modulate the synaptic effectiveness of sensory fibers ending in the spinal cord of vertebrates...
- Blood-brain barrier disruption and enhanced vascular permeability in the multiple sclerosis model EAE
University of British Columbia, Biomedical Research Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
J Neuroimmunol 229:180-91. 2010
- Muscle synergies encoded within the spinal cord: evidence from focal intraspinal NMDA iontophoresis in the frog
Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
J Neurophysiol 85:605-19. 2001
..To search for a common set of synergies encoded for by the spinal cord whose combinations would account for a large range of electromyographic (EMG) patterns, we chose, rather than ..
- Role of the spinal cord NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the development of neuropathic pain
Xiao Xiu Qu
Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Peking University, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Beijing 100191, PR China
Exp Neurol 215:298-307. 2009
..electrophysiological recording in L5 spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) neuropathic rats, we investigate the roles of spinal cord NMDA-2B receptors in the development of neuropathic pain. Our study showed that intrathecal (i.t...
- Cytokine mechanisms of central sensitization: distinct and overlapping role of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in regulating synaptic and neuronal activity in the superficial spinal cord
Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Neurosci 28:5189-94. 2008
Central sensitization, increased sensitivity in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons after injuries, plays an essential role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain...
- Anterior-posterior guidance of commissural axons by Wnt-frizzled signaling
Anna I Lyuksyutova
Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Science 302:1984-8. 2003
Commissural neurons in the mammalian dorsal spinal cord send axons ventrally toward the floor plate, where they cross the midline and turn anteriorly toward the brain; a gradient of chemoattractant(s) inside the spinal cord controls this ..
- Impaired nociception and pain sensation in mice lacking the capsaicin receptor
M J Caterina
Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0450, USA
Science 288:306-13. 2000
..Thus, VR1 is essential for selective modalities of pain sensation and for tissue injury-induced thermal hyperalgesia...
- Individual premotor drive pulses, not time-varying synergies, are the units of adjustment for limb trajectories constructed in spinal cord
William J Kargo
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
J Neurosci 28:2409-25. 2008
..Our studies support individual premotor drive pulses or bursts as execution primitives in spinal cord. Alternatively, the fundamental execution primitives at the segmental level could be time-varying synergies...
- Acupuncture-mediated inhibition of inflammation facilitates significant functional recovery after spinal cord injury
Doo C Choi
Age Related and Brain Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
Neurobiol Dis 39:272-82. 2010
- Central mechanisms of pathological pain
Pharmacology Institute, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, 366 Heidelberg, Germany
Nat Med 16:1258-66. 2010
..This review focuses on the molecular determinants of network plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS) and discusses their relevance to the development of new therapeutic approaches...
- Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
Axonal Growth and Regeneration Group, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
Science 331:928-31. 2011
Hypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics...
- Systemic gene delivery in large species for targeting spinal cord, brain, and peripheral tissues for pediatric disorders
Adam K Bevan
Center for Gene Therapy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA
Mol Ther 19:1971-80. 2011
..primarily in glial cells throughout the brain, dorsal root ganglia neurons and motor neurons within the spinal cord, providing confidence for translation to SMA patients...
- Emergence of patterned activity in the developing zebrafish spinal cord
Helen Wills Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Curr Biol 22:93-102. 2012
..In the spinal cord, it is poorly understood how correlated activity is acquired and how its emergence relates to the formation of ..
- TRPV1 in GABAergic interneurons mediates neuropathic mechanical allodynia and disinhibition of the nociceptive circuitry in the spinal cord
Yong Ho Kim
National Research Laboratory for Pain, Dental Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 749, Republic of Korea
Neuron 74:640-7. 2012
..resulting from long-term depression (LTD) of GABAergic interneurons as a consequence of TRPV1 activation in the spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of TRPV1 agonists led to mechanical allodynia that was not dependent on peripheral ..
- Fluoxetine inhibits matrix metalloprotease activation and prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury
Jee Y Lee
Age Related and Brain Diseases Research Centre, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130 701, Korea
Brain 135:2375-89. 2012
After spinal cord injury, the disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by activation of matrix metalloprotease is a critical event leading to infiltration of blood cells, inflammatory responses and neuronal cell death, contributing to ..
- Recruitment of beneficial M2 macrophages to injured spinal cord is orchestrated by remote brain choroid plexus
Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Immunity 38:555-69. 2013
Monocyte-derived macrophages are essential for recovery after spinal cord injury, but their homing mechanism is poorly understood...
- Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: clinical correlates from a multicentre study
Department of Public Health and Neurosciences, IRCCS C, Mondino National Institute of Neurology Foundation, University of Pavia, Italy
BMC Neurol 11:132. 2011
..However, its actual prevalence, possible association with specific MS phenotypes, and potential pathophysiological role are debated...
- Endogenous regulatory T lymphocytes ameliorate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice and correlate with disease progression in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
David R Beers
Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Suite ST 802, 6560 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Brain 134:1293-314. 2011
- The human centromeric survival motor neuron gene (SMN2) rescues embryonic lethality in Smn(-/-) mice and results in a mouse with spinal muscular atrophy
U R Monani
Departments of Neurology, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Hum Mol Genet 9:333-9. 2000
..These results show that SMA is caused by insufficient SMN production by the SMN2 gene and that increased expression of the SMN2 gene may provide a strategy for treating SMA patients...
- Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured mice
Brian J Cummings
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Reeve Irvine Research Center, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14069-74. 2005
..migrate, and express differentiation markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes after long-term engraftment in spinal cord-injured NOD-scid mice...
- JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain
Yong Jing Gao
Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Neurosci 29:4096-108. 2009
..Spinal injection of TNF-alpha produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the ..
- NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration
Shin H Kang
The Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Neuron 68:668-81. 2010
..In regions of neurodegeneration in the spinal cord of ALS mice, NG2+ cells exhibited enhanced proliferation and accelerated differentiation into oligodendrocytes ..
- CCL2 released from neuronal synaptic vesicles in the spinal cord is a major mediator of local inflammation and pain after peripheral nerve injury
Juliette Van Steenwinckel
PAIN Group, Centre de Recherche de l Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epiniere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Inserm Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé 975, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7225, 75013 Paris, France
J Neurosci 31:5865-75. 2011
..tested the hypothesis that injury to peripheral nerves triggers CCL2 release from afferents in the dorsal horn spinal cord (DHSC), leading to pronociceptive effects, involving the production of proinflammatory factors, in particular...
- Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing
Camilla I Svensson
Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
J Neurochem 86:1534-44. 2003
..in models of nociception and correlated this effect with localization and expression levels of p38 MAPK in spinal cord. There was a rapid increase in phosphorylated p38 MAPK in spinal cord following intrathecal administration of ..
- Transcriptional mechanisms controlling motor neuron diversity and connectivity
Simon A Dalla Torre di Sanguinetto
Biozentrum, Department of Cell Biology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:36-43. 2008
..MN differentiation and connectivity, defining a sophisticated roadmap of motor circuit assembly in the spinal cord. Similar principles using modular interaction of transcriptional programs to control neuronal diversification ..
- A pericyte origin of spinal cord scar tissue
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Science 333:238-42. 2011
..specific pericyte subtype gives rise to scar-forming stromal cells, which outnumber astrocytes, in the injured spinal cord. Blocking the generation of progeny by this pericyte subtype results in failure to seal the injured tissue...
- Dynamic sensorimotor interactions in locomotion
Department of Physiology, Centre for Research in Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, PO Box 6128, Station Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7
Physiol Rev 86:89-154. 2006
..Together these mechanisms contribute to the continuous dynamic adjustment of sensorimotor interactions, ensuring that the central program and feedback mechanisms are congruous during locomotion...
- Loss of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord and elevated itch in Bhlhb5 mutant mice
Sarah E Ross
Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Neuron 65:886-98. 2010
..the atonal-related transcription factor Bhlhb5 is transiently expressed in the dorsal horn of the developing spinal cord and appears to play a role in the formation and regulation of pruritic (itch) circuits...
- Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO: a study on antibody titre
Department of Neurology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1 1 Seiryomachi, Aobaku, Sendai 980 8574, Japan
Brain 130:1235-43. 2007
..The lengths of spinal cord lesions on MRI were positively correlated with the titres of anti-AQP4 antibody at the nadir of exacerbations...
- Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury
Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Glial Disease and Therapeutics, Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12489-93. 2009
Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time...
- Focal loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in a transgenic rat model of SOD1 mutant-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
David S Howland
Department of Molecular Genetics, Wyeth Research, CN8000, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:1604-9. 2002
..rats depended on high levels of mutant SOD1 expression, increasing from 8-fold over endogenous SOD1 in the spinal cord of young presymptomatic rats to 16-fold in end-stage animals...
- Pathological TDP-43 distinguishes sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with SOD1 mutations
Ian R A Mackenzie
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Ann Neurol 61:427-34. 2007
..We recently identified TDP-43 as the major pathological protein in sporadic ALS. In this study, we investigated TDP-43 in a larger series of ALS cases (n = 111), including familial cases with and without SOD1 mutations...
- Spinal inhibitory interneuron pathology follows motor neuron degeneration independent of glial mutant superoxide dismutase 1 expression in SOD1-ALS mice
Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:662-77. 2011
..The degeneration of spinal inhibitory interneurons may in turn facilitate degeneration of motor neurons and contribute to disease progression...
- Brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica
Sean J Pittock
Department of Neurology, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Radiology, and Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn, USA
Arch Neurol 63:390-6. 2006
..a severe demyelinating disease defined principally by its tendency to selectively affect optic nerves and the spinal cord causing recurrent attacks of blindness and paralysis...
- Hox repertoires for motor neuron diversity and connectivity gated by a single accessory factor, FoxP1
Jeremy S Dasen
Smilow Neuroscience Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
Cell 134:304-16. 2008
..Our findings show that FoxP1 is a crucial determinant of motor neuron diversification and connectivity, and clarify how this Hox regulatory network controls the formation of a topographic neural map...
- Blocking EphB1 receptor forward signaling in spinal cord relieves bone cancer pain and rescues analgesic effect of morphine treatment in rodents
Department of Neurobiology, Parker University Research Institute, Dallas, Texas 75229, USA
Cancer Res 71:4392-402. 2011
..Here, we report that EphB1 receptor forward signaling in the spinal cord is critical to the development of bone cancer pain and morphine tolerance in treating bone cancer pain...
- The blood-spinal cord barrier: morphology and clinical implications
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Ann Neurol 70:194-206. 2011
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is the functional equivalent of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the sense of providing a specialized microenvironment for the cellular constituents of the spinal cord...
- VGLUT2-dependent glutamate release from nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch
Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Neuron 68:543-56. 2010
..Our studies suggest that synaptic glutamate release from a group of peripheral nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch. Elimination of VGLUT2 in these nociceptors creates a mouse model of chronic neurogenic itch...
- Retrograde viral delivery of IGF-1 prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model
Brian K Kaspar
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Science 301:839-42. 2003
..that adeno-associated virus can be retrogradely transported efficiently from muscle to motor neurons of the spinal cord. We report that insulin-like growth factor 1 prolongs life and delays disease progression, even when delivered ..
- MicroRNAs are essential for the developmental switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord
College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310036, China
J Neurosci 30:8245-50. 2010
..By contrast, the early patterning and development of motor neurons were not affected in the mutant spinal cord tissue.
- A neural basis for motor primitives in the spinal cord
Corey B Hart
Neurobiology and Anatomy, College of Medicine and School of Bioengineering and Health Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
J Neurosci 30:1322-36. 2010
..To investigate this, we recorded 302 neurons, making multielectrode recordings in the spinal cord gray of spinalized frogs, at 400, 800, and 1200 mum depth, at the L2/L3 segment border...
- Neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a crucial role in peripheral nerve projection in mice
Division of Biological Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Japan
Neuron 19:995-1005. 1997
..Our results indicate that neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a major role in guidance of PNS efferents...
- Proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells throughout the intact adult rat spinal cord
P J Horner
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Laboratory of Genetics, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Neurosci 20:2218-28. 2000
..To extend this knowledge to the adult spinal cord we have examined the proliferation, distribution, and phenotypic fate of dividing cells in the adult rat spinal ..
- Locomotor activity in spinal cord-injured persons
Spinal Chord Injury Center, University Hospital Balgrist, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
J Appl Physiol (1985) 96:1954-60. 2004
After a spinal cord injury (SCI) of the cat or rat, neuronal centers below the level of lesion exhibit plasticity that can be exploited by specific training paradigms...
- Early motor neuron pool identity and muscle nerve trajectory defined by postmitotic restrictions in Nkx6.1 activity
Natalia V De Marco Garcia
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
Neuron 57:217-31. 2008
..Our findings provide genetic evidence that neurons within motor pools possess an early transcriptional identity that controls target muscle specificity...
- Neurog2 is a direct downstream target of the Ptf1a-Rbpj transcription complex in dorsal spinal cord
R Michael Henke
Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Development 136:2945-54. 2009
..and glutamatergic interneurons in multiple regions of the nervous system, including the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the cerebellum...
- IL-10 promotes neuronal survival following spinal cord injury
Department of Neurology, University of Michigan and Ann Arbor VA Healthcare System, 5027 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Exp Neurol 220:183-90. 2009
..that the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 induces a number of signaling cascades through the IL-10 receptor in spinal cord neurons in vitro to activate NF-kappaB transcription Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) and that, after exposure to glutamate ..
- Two-photon laser scanning microscopy imaging of intact spinal cord and cerebral cortex reveals requirement for CXCR6 and neuroinflammation in immune cell infiltration of cortical injury sites
Jiyun V Kim
Helen L and Martin S Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine of the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Immunol Methods 352:89-100. 2010
The mouse spinal cord is an important site for autoimmune and injury models. Skull thinning surgery provides a minimally invasive window for microscopy of the mouse cerebral cortex, but there are no parallel methods for the spinal cord...
- Evidence that intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide may cause pain enhancement via toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 and interleukin-1beta
S S Lewis
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA
Neuroscience 165:569-83. 2010
..a novel mechanism for M3G-mediated pain enhancement, as (a) TLR4 is predominantly expressed by microglia in spinal cord and (b) TLR4 activation releases pain-enhancing substances, including interleukin-1 (IL-1)...
- Spinal cord mechanisms of pain
Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Br J Anaesth 101:8-16. 2008
The spinal cord is the first relay site in the transmission of nociceptive information from the periphery to the brain...
- Decreased glutamate transport by the brain and spinal cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
J D Rothstein
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205
N Engl J Med 326:1464-8. 1992
..chronic degenerative neurologic disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord. Recent studies have suggested that the metabolism of glutamate, a potentially neurotoxic amino acid, is ..
- Spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management for neuropathic pain: a multicentre randomised controlled trial in patients with failed back surgery syndrome
Department of Neurosurgery, Regina General Hospital, 1440 14th Avenue, Regina, Sask, Canada
Pain 132:179-88. 2007
..We hypothesised that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective therapy in addition to conventional medical management (CMM) in this patient ..
- Coordinated actions of the forkhead protein Foxp1 and Hox proteins in the columnar organization of spinal motor neurons
David L Rousso
Department of Neurobiology, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Neuron 59:226-40. 2008
..of Foxp1 act in accordance with the rostrocaudal pattern provided by Hox proteins along the length of the spinal cord, suggesting a model by which motor neuron diversity is achieved through the coordinated actions of Foxp1 and ..
- Pax6 controls progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in response to graded Shh signaling
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
Cell 90:169-80. 1997
..2. Pax6 establishes distinct ventral progenitor cell populations and controls the identity of motor neurons and ventral interneurons, mediating graded Shh signaling in the ventral spinal cord and hindbrain.
- A requirement for retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional activation in ventral neural patterning and motor neuron specification
Bennett G Novitch
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
Neuron 40:81-95. 2003
The specification of neuronal fates in the ventral spinal cord depends on the regulation of homeodomain (HD) and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins by Sonic hedgehog (Shh)...
- In vivo imaging of axonal degeneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Nat Med 11:572-7. 2005
The poor response of central axons to transection underlies the bleak prognosis following spinal cord injury...