cerebral cortex

Summary

Summary: The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon and folds into gyri. It reaches its highest development in man and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The representation of object concepts in the brain
    Alex Martin
    Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1366, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 58:25-45. 2007
  2. ncbi An intrinsic mechanism of corticogenesis from embryonic stem cells
    Nicolas Gaspard
    IRIBHM Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Universite Libre de Bruxelles ULB
    Nature 455:351-7. 2008
  3. ncbi Dynamic I-V curves are reliable predictors of naturalistic pyramidal-neuron voltage traces
    Laurent Badel
    Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience, School of Computer and Communication Sciences and Brain Institute, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Neurophysiol 99:656-66. 2008
  4. ncbi Cortical midline structures and the self
    Georg Northoff
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:102-7. 2004
  5. ncbi Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain
    Tania Singer
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK
    Science 303:1157-62. 2004
  6. ncbi Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction
    A M Dale
    Massachusetts General Hosp Harvard Medical School, Building 149, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 9:179-94. 1999
  7. ncbi Thresholding of statistical maps in functional neuroimaging using the false discovery rate
    Christopher R Genovese
    Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Neuroimage 15:870-8. 2002
  8. ncbi An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest
    Rahul S Desikan
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, W701, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Neuroimage 31:968-80. 2006
  9. pmc Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex
    Patric Hagmann
    Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Biol 6:e159. 2008
  10. ncbi How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness
    A D Bud Craig
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:59-70. 2009

Detail Information

Publications255 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The representation of object concepts in the brain
    Alex Martin
    Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1366, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 58:25-45. 2007
    ..However, some property-based regions seem to show a categorical organization, thus providing evidence consistent with category-based, domain-specific formulations as well...
  2. ncbi An intrinsic mechanism of corticogenesis from embryonic stem cells
    Nicolas Gaspard
    IRIBHM Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Universite Libre de Bruxelles ULB
    Nature 455:351-7. 2008
    The cerebral cortex develops through the coordinated generation of dozens of neuronal subtypes, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear...
  3. ncbi Dynamic I-V curves are reliable predictors of naturalistic pyramidal-neuron voltage traces
    Laurent Badel
    Laboratory of Computational Neuroscience, School of Computer and Communication Sciences and Brain Institute, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Neurophysiol 99:656-66. 2008
    ..The predictions of the resulting model are in excellent agreement with experimental data and close to the intrinsic neuronal reproducibility to repeated stimuli...
  4. ncbi Cortical midline structures and the self
    Georg Northoff
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 8:102-7. 2004
    ..All of these subfunctions are related to distinct regions within the CMS. This relationship between self-referential processing and CMS might provide novel insight into the neural correlates underlying the constitution of the self...
  5. ncbi Empathy for pain involves the affective but not sensory components of pain
    Tania Singer
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, 12 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK
    Science 303:1157-62. 2004
    ..We conclude that only that part of the pain network associated with its affective qualities, but not its sensory qualities, mediates empathy...
  6. ncbi Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction
    A M Dale
    Massachusetts General Hosp Harvard Medical School, Building 149, Charlestown, Massachusetts, 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 9:179-94. 1999
    Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic two-dimensional ..
  7. ncbi Thresholding of statistical maps in functional neuroimaging using the false discovery rate
    Christopher R Genovese
    Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Neuroimage 15:870-8. 2002
    ..We demonstrate this approach using both simulations and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from two simple experiments...
  8. ncbi An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest
    Rahul S Desikan
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, W701, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Neuroimage 31:968-80. 2006
    ..the validity and reliability of an automated labeling system that we have developed for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on magnetic resonance images into gyral based regions of interest (ROIs)...
  9. pmc Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex
    Patric Hagmann
    Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Biol 6:e159. 2008
    Structurally segregated and functionally specialized regions of the human cerebral cortex are interconnected by a dense network of cortico-cortical axonal pathways...
  10. ncbi How do you feel--now? The anterior insula and human awareness
    A D Bud Craig
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:59-70. 2009
    ..New findings suggest a fundamental role for the AIC (and the von Economo neurons it contains) in awareness, and thus it needs to be considered as a potential neural correlate of consciousness...
  11. ncbi Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain mapping
    J L Lancaster
    Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78284, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 10:120-31. 2000
    ..Additional suggested applications of the TD system include interactive labeling, anatomical grouping of activation foci, lesion-deficit analysis, and neuroanatomy education...
  12. ncbi Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex
    Bruce Fischl
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, MGH MIT Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Cereb Cortex 14:11-22. 2004
    ..Examples are given from two different training sets generated using different neuroanatomical conventions, illustrating the flexibility of the algorithm. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling...
  13. ncbi A resilient, low-frequency, small-world human brain functional network with highly connected association cortical hubs
    Sophie Achard
    Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:63-72. 2006
    ..Because the major hubs of this network are critical for cognition, its slow dynamics could provide a physiological substrate for segregated and distributed information processing...
  14. pmc Cortical hubs revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity: mapping, assessment of stability, and relation to Alzheimer's disease
    Randy L Buckner
    Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Neurosci 29:1860-73. 2009
    ..To identify regions of high connectivity in the human cerebral cortex, we applied a computationally efficient approach to map the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity ..
  15. pmc The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity
    B T Thomas Yeo
    Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Neurophysiol 106:1125-65. 2011
    Information processing in the cerebral cortex involves interactions among distributed areas. Anatomical connectivity suggests that certain areas form local hierarchical relations such as within the visual system...
  16. pmc Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity
    C J Honey
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2035-40. 2009
    In the cerebral cortex, the activity levels of neuronal populations are continuously fluctuating...
  17. pmc Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans
    Nico U F Dosenbach
    Department of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11073-8. 2007
    ..These two independent networks appear to operate on different time scales and affect downstream processing via dissociable mechanisms...
  18. pmc A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks
    Devarajan Sridharan
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:12569-74. 2008
    ..Our findings have important implications for a unified view of network mechanisms underlying both exogenous and endogenous cognitive control...
  19. ncbi Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain
    Maurizio Corbetta
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:201-15. 2002
    ..This ventral frontoparietal network works as a 'circuit breaker' for the dorsal system, directing attention to salient events. Both attentional systems interact during normal vision, and both are disrupted in unilateral spatial neglect...
  20. ncbi The cortical organization of speech processing
    Gregory Hickok
    Department of Cognitive Sciences and The Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 5100, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:393-402. 2007
    ....
  21. pmc Mapping anatomical connectivity patterns of human cerebral cortex using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging tractography
    Gaolang Gong
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, 1098 Research Transition Facility, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Cereb Cortex 19:524-36. 2009
    ..to construct a macroscale anatomical network capturing the underlying common connectivity pattern of human cerebral cortex in a large sample of subjects (80 young adults) and further quantitatively analyzed its topological ..
  22. pmc Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance
    Vikaas S Sohal
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 459:698-702. 2009
    ....
  23. ncbi How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body
    A D Craig
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:655-66. 2002
    ..This system constitutes a representation of 'the material me', and might provide a foundation for subjective feelings, emotion and self-awareness...
  24. ncbi Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia
    David A Lewis
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:312-24. 2005
    ..These findings reveal specific targets for therapeutic interventions to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia...
  25. ncbi Frequencies contributing to functional connectivity in the cerebral cortex in "resting-state" data
    D Cordes
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1300 University Ave, 1530 MSC, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:1326-33. 2001
    ..In functionally connected regions, these low frequencies are characterized by a high degree of temporal coherence...
  26. ncbi Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases
    Stephen C Noctor
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 W 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:136-44. 2004
    ..division and migration are crucial to transform the neuroepithelium of the embryonic forebrain into the adult cerebral cortex. Using time-lapse imaging of clonal cells in rat cortex over several generations, we show here that neurons ..
  27. pmc A core system for the implementation of task sets
    Nico U F Dosenbach
    Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Neuron 50:799-812. 2006
    ..Prefrontal regions commonly related to task control carried task-set signals in a smaller subset of tasks and lacked convergence across signal types...
  28. ncbi Sequence-independent segmentation of magnetic resonance images
    Bruce Fischl
    Department of Radiology, MGH, Athinoula A Martinos Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 23:S69-84. 2004
    ..This sequence has the added benefit of allowing the explicit estimation of T2* and of reducing test-retest intensity variability...
  29. ncbi Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks
    Gyorgy Buzsaki
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Science 304:1926-9. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: the HAROLD model
    Roberto Cabeza
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Psychol Aging 17:85-100. 2002
    ..They may have a cognitive or neural origin, and they may reflect regional or network mechanisms. The HAROLD model is a cognitive neuroscience model that integrates ideas and findings from psychology and neuroscience of aging...
  31. ncbi Structural insights into aberrant topological patterns of large-scale cortical networks in Alzheimer's disease
    Yong He
    McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4
    J Neurosci 28:4756-66. 2008
    ..This work has implications for our understanding of how functional deficits in patients are associated with their underlying structural (morphological) basis...
  32. pmc Identification and classification of hubs in brain networks
    Olaf Sporns
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Program in Cognitive Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e1049. 2007
    Brain regions in the mammalian cerebral cortex are linked by a complex network of fiber bundles...
  33. ncbi Neuroanatomy of autism
    David G Amaral
    The M I N D Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis, 2825 50th Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
    Trends Neurosci 31:137-45. 2008
    ..Defined phenotypes in larger samples of children and well-characterized brain tissue will be necessary for clarification of the neuroanatomy of autism...
  34. ncbi The small world of the cerebral cortex
    Olaf Sporns
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    Neuroinformatics 2:145-62. 2004
    While much information is available on the structural connectivity of the cerebral cortex, especially in the primate, the main organizational principles of the connection patterns linking brain areas, columns and individual cells have ..
  35. ncbi Circuitry and functional aspects of the insular lobe in primates including humans
    J R Augustine
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia 29208, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 22:229-44. 1996
    ..Recent studies have expanded the role of the insula as a somatosensory area, emphasizing its multifaceted, sensory role. The idea of the insula as limbic integration cortex has been affirmed and its role in Alzheimer's disease suggested...
  36. ncbi Different frequencies for different scales of cortical integration: from local gamma to long range alpha/theta synchronization
    A von Stein
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, ETH University Zurich, Winterthurerstr 190, CH 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
    Int J Psychophysiol 38:301-13. 2000
    ..e. for top-down processing. We propose that large scale integration is performed by synchronization among neurons and neuronal assemblies evolving in different frequency ranges...
  37. ncbi Neurophysiological architecture of functional magnetic resonance images of human brain
    Raymond Salvador
    Brain Mapping Unit and Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK
    Cereb Cortex 15:1332-42. 2005
    ....
  38. ncbi Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London UCL Autonomic Unit, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 493:154-66. 2005
    ..Generation of visceral autonomic correlates of control reinforce experiential engagement in simulatory models and underpin concepts such as somatic markers to bridge the dualistic divide...
  39. pmc A resource of Cre driver lines for genetic targeting of GABAergic neurons in cerebral cortex
    Hiroki Taniguchi
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
    Neuron 71:995-1013. 2011
    A key obstacle to understanding neural circuits in the cerebral cortex is that of unraveling the diversity of GABAergic interneurons...
  40. ncbi Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep
    Marcello Massimini
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 6001 Research Park Boulevard, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Science 309:2228-32. 2005
    ..Thus, the fading of consciousness during certain stages of sleep may be related to a breakdown in cortical effective connectivity...
  41. ncbi Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:359-87. 2008
    ..Culturally based rituals may reflect privileged interactions between the basal ganglia and cortically based circuits that influence social, emotional, and action functions of the brain...
  42. pmc Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex
    Giorgio A Ascoli
    Molecular Neuroscience Department and Center for Neural Informatics, Structures, and Plasticity, Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, MS2A1, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:557-68. 2008
    ..of terms to describe the anatomical, physiological and molecular features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. The resulting terminology might provide a stepping stone towards a future classification of these complex ..
  43. ncbi Two systems of resting state connectivity between the insula and cingulate cortex
    Keri S Taylor
    Division of Brain, Imaging and Behavior Systems Neuroscience, Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:2731-45. 2009
    ....
  44. ncbi Automated manifold surgery: constructing geometrically accurate and topologically correct models of the human cerebral cortex
    B Fischl
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown 02129, USA
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 20:70-80. 2001
    Highly accurate surface models of the cerebral cortex are becoming increasingly important as tools in the investigation of the functional organization of the human brain...
  45. ncbi Reliability of MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortical thickness: the effects of field strength, scanner upgrade and manufacturer
    Xiao Han
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Neuroimage 32:180-94. 2006
    In vivo MRI-derived measurements of human cerebral cortex thickness are providing novel insights into normal and abnormal neuroanatomy, but little is known about their reliability...
  46. pmc The neural code between neocortical pyramidal neurons depends on neurotransmitter release probability
    M V Tsodyks
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:719-23. 1997
    ..We conclude that by setting the rate of synaptic depression, release probability is an important factor in determining the neural code...
  47. ncbi The neural bases of momentary lapses in attention
    D H Weissman
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:971-8. 2006
    ..Our findings provide a new, system-wide understanding of the patterns of brain activity that are associated with brief attentional lapses, which informs both theoretical and clinical models of goal-directed behavior...
  48. ncbi A Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas of human cerebral cortex
    David C Van Essen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, Box 8108, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Neuroimage 28:635-62. 2005
    This report describes a new electronic atlas of human cerebral cortex that provides a substrate for a wide variety of brain-mapping analyses...
  49. ncbi From sensation to cognition
    M M Mesulam
    Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago 60611, USA
    Brain 121:1013-52. 1998
    ..the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (..
  50. ncbi Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body
    A D Craig
    Atkinson Pain Research Laboratory, Division of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:500-5. 2003
    ....
  51. ncbi Mapping cortical change across the human life span
    Elizabeth R Sowell
    University of California at Los Angeles, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:309-15. 2003
    ..Our findings also indicate that the posterior temporal cortices, primarily in the left hemisphere, which typically support language functions, have a more protracted course of maturation than any other cortical region...
  52. ncbi Self-referential processing in our brain--a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self
    Georg Northoff
    Department of Neurology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Neuroimage 31:440-57. 2006
    ..We conclude that self-referential processing in CMS constitutes the core of our self and is critical for elaborating experiential feelings of self, uniting several distinct concepts evident in current neuroscience...
  53. ncbi The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review
    R Naatanen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2544-90. 2007
    ..In addition, the MMN enables one to establish the brain processes underlying the initiation of attention switch to, conscious perception of, sound change in an unattended stimulus stream...
  54. pmc Microglia regulate the number of neural precursor cells in the developing cerebral cortex
    Christopher L Cunningham
    Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California 95817, USA
    J Neurosci 33:4216-33. 2013
    ..must be properly regulated to ensure that cell production does not exceed the requirements of the growing cerebral cortex, yet our understanding of mechanisms that restrain neuron production remains incomplete...
  55. ncbi Effects of neuromodulation in a cortical network model of object working memory dominated by recurrent inhibition
    N Brunel
    LPS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Comput Neurosci 11:63-85. 2001
    ..The present study therefore points to several mechanisms that enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in working memory states. These mechanisms could be implemented in the prefrontal cortex by dopaminergic projections from the midbrain...
  56. pmc Rich club organization of macaque cerebral cortex and its role in network communication
    Logan Harriger
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e46497. 2012
    ..in the cat and human brain, this report presents evidence for the existence of rich club organization in the cerebral cortex of a non-human primate, the macaque monkey, based on a connectivity data set representing a collation of ..
  57. ncbi Doublecortin is a microtubule-associated protein and is expressed widely by migrating neurons
    J G Gleeson
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 23:257-71. 1999
    Doublecortin (DCX) is required for normal migration of neurons into the cerebral cortex, since mutations in the human gene cause a disruption of cortical neuronal migration...
  58. ncbi A common role of insula in feelings, empathy and uncertainty
    Tania Singer
    Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Trends Cogn Sci 13:334-40. 2009
    ..Such mechanisms could facilitate affective learning and regulation of body homeostasis, and could also guide decision making in complex and uncertain environments...
  59. ncbi Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia
    Bogdan Draganski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7143-52. 2008
    ..We believe that this method can be used to examine pathophysiological concepts in a number of basal ganglia-related disorders...
  60. pmc A comparison between voxel-based cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in normal aging
    Chloe Hutton
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuroimage 48:371-80. 2009
    ..We therefore propose that used together, these techniques can separate the underlying grey matter changes, highlighting the utility of combining these complementary methods...
  61. ncbi Limbic-cortical dysregulation: a proposed model of depression
    H S Mayberg
    Department of Medicine Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284 6240, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 9:471-81. 1997
    ....
  62. pmc Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation
    P Shaw
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Room 3N202, Building 10, Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19649-54. 2007
    ..Neuroanatomic documentation of a delay in regional cortical maturation in ADHD has not been previously reported...
  63. ncbi Probabilistic decision making by slow reverberation in cortical circuits
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA
    Neuron 36:955-68. 2002
    ....
  64. ncbi Three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical cranio-cerebral correlation via the international 10-20 system oriented for transcranial functional brain mapping
    Masako Okamoto
    National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba 305 8642, Japan
    Neuroimage 21:99-111. 2004
    ..This study provided an initial step toward establishing a three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical platform that enables intra- and intermodal comparisons of NIRS and TMS brain imaging data...
  65. ncbi An insular view of anxiety
    Martin P Paulus
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:383-7. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents
    P Shaw
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20182, USA
    Nature 440:676-9. 2006
    ..Here we demonstrate that the trajectory of change in the thickness of the cerebral cortex, rather than cortical thickness itself, is most closely related to level of intelligence...
  67. pmc Origin and progeny of reactive gliosis: A source of multipotent cells in the injured brain
    Annalisa Buffo
    Institute for Stem Cell Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstadter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3581-6. 2008
    ..Conversely, progenitors present in the adult mouse cerebral cortex labeled by NG2 or the receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRalpha) did not form neurospheres ..
  68. ncbi Uniquely human social cognition
    Rebecca Saxe
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 46 4019, 43 Vassar St, Cambridge MA, 02138, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:235-9. 2006
    ....
  69. pmc The dynamic brain: from spiking neurons to neural masses and cortical fields
    Gustavo Deco
    Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats ICREA, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Department of Technology, Computational Neuroscience, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS Comput Biol 4:e1000092. 2008
    ..We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the physical sciences...
  70. ncbi Regional and progressive thinning of the cortical ribbon in Huntington's disease
    H D Rosas
    Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 02129 4404, USA
    Neurology 58:695-701. 2002
    ....
  71. pmc Conditional loss of Dicer disrupts cellular and tissue morphogenesis in the cortex and hippocampus
    Tigwa H Davis
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0730, USA
    J Neurosci 28:4322-30. 2008
    ....
  72. ncbi Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation
    Micaela Zonta
    Istituto CNR di Neuroscienze and Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali, Universita di Padova, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121 Padova, Italy
    Nat Neurosci 6:43-50. 2003
    ..Taken together, our findings show that neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is a key mechanism in functional hyperemia...
  73. ncbi Human insula activation reflects risk prediction errors as well as risk
    Kerstin Preuschoff
    Computation and Neural Systems Program and Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2745-52. 2008
    ..As such, our findings indicate that our understanding of the neural basis of reward anticipation under uncertainty needs to be expanded to include risk prediction...
  74. ncbi Geometrically accurate topology-correction of cortical surfaces using nonseparating loops
    Florent Segonne
    CERTIS Laboratory, ENPC, 19 rue Nobel Cité Descartes, Champs sur Marne 77455, France
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 26:518-29. 2007
    ..Applied to real data, our method provides topological corrections similar to those made by a trained operator...
  75. pmc Spontaneous cortical activity in awake monkeys composed of neuronal avalanches
    Thomas Petermann
    Section on Critical Brain Dynamics, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:15921-6. 2009
    Spontaneous neuronal activity is an important property of the cerebral cortex but its spatiotemporal organization and dynamical framework remain poorly understood...
  76. ncbi A link between the systems: functional differentiation and integration within the human insula revealed by meta-analysis
    Florian Kurth
    C and O Vogt Institute of Brain Research, University Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Brain Struct Funct 214:519-34. 2010
    ....
  77. ncbi Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex
    Philip Shaw
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3586-94. 2008
    Understanding the organization of the cerebral cortex remains a central focus of neuroscience. Cortical maps have relied almost exclusively on the examination of postmortem tissue to construct structural, architectonic maps...
  78. pmc An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex
    D C Van Essen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Am Med Inform Assoc 8:443-59. 2001
    ..describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations)..
  79. ncbi Dynamic statistical parametric mapping: combining fMRI and MEG for high-resolution imaging of cortical activity
    A M Dale
    Massachusetts General Hospital Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, Charlestown 02129, USA
    Neuron 26:55-67. 2000
    ..Repetition effects were observed in many of the same areas following this initial wave of activation, providing evidence for the involvement of feedback mechanisms in repetition priming...
  80. ncbi What does the retrosplenial cortex do?
    Seralynne D Vann
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:792-802. 2009
    ....
  81. pmc Defined types of cortical interneurone structure space and spike timing in the hippocampus
    Peter Somogyi
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    J Physiol 562:9-26. 2005
    The cerebral cortex encodes, stores and combines information about the internal and external environment in rhythmic activity of multiple frequency ranges...
  82. pmc Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood
    Nitin Gogtay
    Child Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8174-9. 2004
    ..Direct comparison with normal cortical development may help understanding of some neurodevelopmental disorders such as childhood-onset schizophrenia or autism...
  83. ncbi Grouping of brain rhythms in corticothalamic systems
    M Steriade
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Laval University, Faculty of Medicine, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4
    Neuroscience 137:1087-106. 2006
    ....
  84. ncbi Cortical excitatory neurons and glia, but not GABAergic neurons, are produced in the Emx1-expressing lineage
    Jessica A Gorski
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
    J Neurosci 22:6309-14. 2002
    ..Structures that are located near the basal ganglia (e.g., the amygdala and endopiriform nuclei) are not uniformly derived from Emx1-expressing cells...
  85. ncbi Reeler/Disabled-like disruption of neuronal migration in knockout mice lacking the VLDL receptor and ApoE receptor 2
    M Trommsdorff
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235 9046, USA
    Cell 97:689-701. 1999
    Layering of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum requires Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein, and mammalian Disabled (mDab1), a cytosolic protein that activates tyrosine kinases...
  86. ncbi Meningeal B-cell follicles in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis associate with early onset of disease and severe cortical pathology
    Roberta Magliozzi
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Brain 130:1089-104. 2007
    ..disability and death and more pronounced demyelination, microglia activation and loss of neurites in the cerebral cortex. Cortical demyelination in these SPMS cases was also more severe than in PPMS cases...
  87. ncbi Consciousness and complexity
    G Tononi
    Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John J Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Science 282:1846-51. 1998
    ..Applying measures of neural integration and complexity, together with an analysis of extensive neurological data, leads to a testable proposal-the dynamic core hypothesis-about the properties of the neural substrate of consciousness...
  88. ncbi The sleep slow oscillation as a traveling wave
    Marcello Massimini
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Neurosci 24:6862-70. 2004
    ..The orderly propagation of correlated activity along connected pathways may play a role in spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity during sleep...
  89. pmc In vivo light-induced activation of neural circuitry in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2
    Benjamin R Arenkiel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neuron 54:205-18. 2007
    ..Using focal illumination of the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, we demonstrate a highly reproducible, light-dependent activation of neurons and precise ..
  90. ncbi Reelin and brain development
    Fadel Tissir
    Developmental Genetics Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, UCL 7382, 73 Avenue E Mounier, B1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:496-505. 2003
  91. ncbi Cortical networks for working memory and executive functions sustain the conscious resting state in man
    B Mazoyer
    Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, UMR6095, CNRS, LEA, , , Paris, France
    Brain Res Bull 54:287-98. 2001
    ....
  92. ncbi The neuroscience of tinnitus
    Jos J Eggermont
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
    Trends Neurosci 27:676-82. 2004
    ..Downregulation of intracortical inhibition induced by damage to the cochlea or to auditory projection pathways highlights neural processes that underlie the sensation of phantom sound...
  93. ncbi Caspase-12 mediates endoplasmic-reticulum-specific apoptosis and cytotoxicity by amyloid-beta
    T Nakagawa
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 403:98-103. 2000
    ..Thus, caspase-12 mediates an ER-specific apoptosis pathway and may contribute to amyloid-beta neurotoxicity...
  94. ncbi Analysis of functional image analysis contest (FIAC) data with brainvoyager QX: From single-subject to cortically aligned group general linear model analysis and self-organizing group independent component analysis
    Rainer Goebel
    Brain Innovation, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Hum Brain Mapp 27:392-401. 2006
    ..Using spatially and temporally unsmoothed data, this cortex-based analysis revealed comparable results but with a set of spatially more confined group clusters and more differential group region of interest time courses...
  95. ncbi Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition
    M Jeannerod
    Institut des Sciences Cognitives, 67 Boulevard Pinel, Bron, 69675, France
    Neuroimage 14:S103-9. 2001
    ..The function of this process of simulation would be not only to shape the motor system in anticipation to execution, but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility and the meaning of potential actions...
  96. pmc A theory of cortical responses
    Karl Friston
    The Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360:815-36. 2005
    ..The final focus of this article is on perceptual learning as measured with the MMN and the implications for empirical studies of coupling among cortical areas using evoked sensory responses...
  97. ncbi Neural activity in the human brain relating to uncertainty and arousal during anticipation
    H D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, 12 Queen Square, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 29:537-45. 2001
    ..Our findings highlight distinct contributions of cognitive uncertainty and autonomic arousal to anticipatory neural activity in prefrontal cortex...
  98. ncbi Theoretical neuroanatomy: relating anatomical and functional connectivity in graphs and cortical connection matrices
    O Sporns
    The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Cereb Cortex 10:127-41. 2000
    Neuroanatomy places critical constraints on the functional connectivity of the cerebral cortex. To analyze these constraints we have examined the relationship between structural features of networks (expressed as graphs) and the patterns ..
  99. ncbi Mapping directed influence over the brain using Granger causality and fMRI
    Alard Roebroeck
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 25:230-42. 2005
    ..The presented exploratory approach of mapping influences between a region of interest and the rest of the brain can form a useful complement to existing models of effective connectivity...
  100. ncbi GABAergic depolarization of the axon initial segment in cortical principal neurons is caused by the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1
    Stanislav Khirug
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    J Neurosci 28:4635-9. 2008
    ..Our findings demonstrate that spatially distinct interneuronal inputs can induce postsynaptic voltage responses with different amplitudes and polarities as governed by the subcellular distributions of plasmalemmal chloride transporters...
  101. ncbi Increased activation in the right insula during risk-taking decision making is related to harm avoidance and neuroticism
    Martin P Paulus
    Laboratory of Biological Dynamics and Theoretical Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
    Neuroimage 19:1439-48. 2003
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that insula activation serves as a critical neural substrate to instantiate aversive somatic markers that guide risk-taking decision-making behavior...

Research Grants70

  1. Cortical connections with the limbic territory of the basal ganglia
    Michelle Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We and others have argued that abnormal activity in BG loops with the cerebral cortex could lead not only to motor disorders, but also to non-motor symptoms like those associated with Obsessive-..
  2. Inhibitory Interneurons in Tourette Syndrome
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The cerebral cortex-basal ganglia circuitry regulates motor habits and goal-directed behavior...
  3. NEURAL GENE EXPRESSION IN SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND RECOVERY
    Thomas S Kilduff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..During the previous funding period, we identified a population of cells in the cerebral cortex that express the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNos) within which the transcription factor Fos is expressed ..
  4. REGULATION IN MAMMALIAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS
    Qiang Lu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the growth and maintenance, differentiation, and migration of neural progenitor cells in the mammalian cerebral cortex. During development, neurons of the cerebral cortex arise from neural progenitor cells in the neuroepithelium,..
  5. Functional Neuroimaging of Individual Differences in Affect and Motivation
    BRIAN JAMES MICKEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For his thesis project, he employed electrophysiology and computational techniques to study activity in the cerebral cortex that underlies sound perception, and in a related study, he investigated auditory processing in schizophrenia...
  6. INTERACTION OF THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR WITH DNA
    ANN NARDULLI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in the cerebral cortex of C57BL/6 mice, (2) define whether estrogens and/or progestins alter the expression of oxidative stress ..
  7. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..throughout the complex circuitry of the mouse brain, to make detailed measurements of "mini" gap junctions in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of both mouse and human brain, and to identify the neuronal subtypes linked by "mini" gap ..
  8. Derivation of cerebral cortical GABAergic interneurons from human iPS cells
    Lorenz P Studer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Dysfunction of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex has been implicated in a variety of major neuropsychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, autism, ..
  9. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
    Yongmei Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Middle cerebral arteries from 5 autopsies and surgically resected cerebral cortex from 10 epilepsy patients will be used as control...
  10. Function and Structure Adaptations in Forebrain Development
    PAT R LEVITT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1 will determine the impact of direct elimination of Met signaling in the cerebral cortex using mice in which Emx1Cre conditionally deletes Met from the dorsal pallium...
  11. Epigenome Mapping in Cortical Interneurons
    Schahram Akbarian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..landscape in selected subpopulations of cortical GABAergic interneurons and other cells residing in mouse cerebral cortex;and 2) To gain first insights into chromatin remodeling mechanisms of GABAergic neurons during the transition ..
  12. Basal Forebrain Cellular Mechanisms of Cortical Activation
    Robert W McCarley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of cortical activation and gamma oscillations by the basal forebrain (BF) neuronal projections to the cerebral cortex, since, in a recent study, extensive lesions of the BF region revealed dramatic reductions in cortical ..
  13. Reducing Care-Resistant Behaviors During Oral Hygiene in Persons with Dementia
    Rita A Jablonski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with dementia have heightened threat perception as a result of neurobiological changes that affect the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdale...
  14. Structural determinants of DTI observations in developing cortex and white matter
    Christopher D Kroenke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on preliminary observations of changes in both WM and cerebral cortex FA in neonatally enucleated ferrets, we hypothesize that changes in WM FA arise from abnormalities of myelin/..
  15. Molecular and cellular mechanism of Microcephaly
    Arnold Kriegstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..but also to advance our understanding and potential treatment of a variety of other neurodevelopmental disorders caused through defects in cerebral cortex development including mental retardation, epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia.
  16. Udall Parkinson's Disease Center at Emory University: Circuitry to Therapy
    THOMAS N WICHMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease (PD) Is Involved In transmitting Parkinsonian activity patterns generated In the basal ganglia to the cerebral cortex. We will use simultaneous electrophysiological recordings from basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex In ..
  17. Effects of Alcohol on Stem Cells in the Adult Brain
    Michael W Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., neuron or glia) of their progeny. In the adolescent and adult, this production is largely restricted to cerebral cortex, and particularly, the dentate gyrus...
  18. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON CELL PROLIFERATION
    Michael W Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Cerebral cortex is composed of two types of neurons: excitatory projection neurons (PNs) and inhibitory local circuit neurons ..
  19. Human iPS/ES Cell-Based Models for Predictive Neural Toxicity and Teratogenicity
    JAMES ALEXANDER THOMSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..human pluripotent stem cells to early precursors of the major neural, glial, and vascular components of the cerebral cortex separately, cryopreserve the precursors, and subsequently combine them in 3D hydrogel assemblies to allow ..
  20. Role of Cyclins in Brain Construction and Interneuron Genesis
    KRISTIN GIAMANCO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will advance our understanding of precisely how these D-type cyclins regulate proliferation within the cerebral cortex and the MGE, illuminating how interneuron subtypes are generated in the MGE...
  21. Morphogenesis and function of the cerebral cortex
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal investigates how growth factors of the FGF family establish the primary structure of the cerebral cortex by controlling the genesis of cortical projection neurons from SVZ precursors...
  22. Mechanisms of Alcohol Withdrawal
    Dwayne W Godwin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abnormal thalamic rhythms precede the generalization of abnormal rhythms in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. The overall goal of this proposal is to determine cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying alterations ..
  23. Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Formation of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
    KENNETH J CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, the cerebral cortex controls these processes via the basal ganglia, which refine and select appropriate cortical programs for the ..
  24. MicroRNA-Mediated Translation Initiation Arrest In Ischemic Brain
    Julie Anne Saugstad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of ischemia on (a) induced expression of candidate miRNAs and suppression of eIF2B and eIF4E protein in cerebral cortex, (b) the regional and cellular distribution of candidate miRNAs and eIF2B and eIF4E mRNA and protein in brain,..
  25. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON CELL PROLIFERATION
    Frank A Middleton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Cerebral cortex is composed of two types of neurons: excitatory projection neurons (PNs) and inhibitory local circuit neurons ..
  26. Astroglial Cells in Perinatal Brain Injury
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by asking whether reactive astroglial cells give rise to new cortical neurons and oligodendrocytes in the cerebral cortex after chronic perinatal hypoxia, what types of neurons arise from these cells in the normal and injured ..
  27. A kinase pathway required for cortical neuron polarization
    Franck Polleux; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We identified a gene (LKB1) that underlies the formation of axons in the cerebral cortex and we propose to study what regulate the function of this gene during development...
  28. Synaptic basis of perceptual learning in primary auditory cortex
    ROBERT CROOKS FROEMKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the entire nervous system is highly labile during development, the cerebral cortex remains plastic throughout life...
  29. DEFECTIVE FOREBRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN MUTANT MICE
    SAMUEL JEREMY PLEASURE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Understanding the mechanisms governing the development of the cerebral cortex is one of the central goals of developmental neurobiology and it is abundantly clear that there are a host of ..
  30. Environmental Enrichment and Neuronal Turnover in the Brain
    Flora M Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Other regions, like the cerebral cortex, can generate new neurons in infant and juvenile animals, but not in adulthood...
  31. Regulation Of Cortical Neurogenesis By Apical Complex Proteins
    Seonhee Kim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Normal development of the cerebral cortex depends upon the successful control of proliferation and differentiation of cortical progenitor cells, which is tightly orchestrated by cellular and ..
  32. Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Stillbirgh (PASS) Network
    Kimberly A Dukes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..brain development with ultrasonography, and neurotransmitter and synaptic maturation in the brainstem and cerebral cortex in autopsy studies of the fetus and infant...
  33. NEUROGENETIC PROCESSES IN THE FETAL BRAIN
    Pasko Rakic; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..principle goal of this grant continues to be elucidation of the early developmental events in the embryonic cerebral cortex that precede formation of synaptic connections...
  34. Sp1, kappa-B enhancers and transcriptions in neurons
    STEVEN BARGER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..this proposal indicate that glutamate does not activate NF-kappa-B DNA-binding in neurons cultured from the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the only factors constitutively binding NF-kappa-B target sites are Sp1 and related proteins, ..
  35. Remote effects of focal hippocampal seizures on neocortical function
    Hal Blumenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Impaired function of the cerebral cortex and cognitive deficits have a large impact on quality of life in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
  36. Immune cell dynamics during central nervous system viral infection
    Juan C de la Torre; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..staining for different molecular species to follow the local immune cell dynamics in the LCMV-infected mouse cerebral cortex and meningeal space...
  37. Role of Presenilins in the Synapse
    Jie Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the adult cerebral cortex, presenilins play a central role in memory, synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival...
  38. Origin of Cortical Species-specific Distinctions
    Pasko Rakic; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Abnormal genesis and initial patterning of the human cerebral cortex can give rise to uniquely human neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, developmental ..
  39. Role of Inflammation in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
    Igor J Koralnik; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..1H-MRS, Magnetization Transfer, Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging 3) Explore whether JCV-infected neurons in cerebral cortex and granule cell layer of the cerebellum can be recognized by the immune system, determine their prevalence ..
  40. CENTRAL THALAMIC DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION MODELS
    Nicholas D Schiff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These neurons link the brain stem centers that control arousal with the cerebral cortex, and play a crucial role in integrating cortex, striatum and thalamus...
  41. Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope
    Jaime Grutzendler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These investigators are conducting studies of cerebral cortex development and connectivity, synaptic plasticity, stem cell biology, cellular mechanisms of dementia, ..
  42. AFFERENT REGULATION OF CHOLINERGIC FOREBRAIN NEURONS
    Laszlo Zaborszky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which are widely distributed in the basal forebrain BF), provide the majority of acetylcholine found in the cerebral cortex. This highly complex brain region has been implicated in a range of behaviors, including cortical activation, ..
  43. EXPERIMENTAL FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
    Sandra M Mooney; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data and the work of others on developing cerebral cortex show that exposure to ethanol during the period of naturally occurring neuronal death causes a dramatic and ..
  44. Small RNA regulation of BDNF expression in schizophrenia
    Schahram Akbarian; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..expressed at robust levels in PFC pyramidal neurons, which comprise the primary cellular source of BDNF in cerebral cortex, (ii) are dynamically regulated during the extended course of PFC maturation and (iii) potentially ..
  45. CRCNS: Path Intergration by the Grid Cell Network
    Kechen Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in subcortical regions store memory representations using a "phase code," and will examine how the cerebral cortex interacts with subcortical oscillators to read out these memory representations...
  46. Cortical Control of Hindlimb Muscles in Primates
    PAUL DAVID CHENEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Damage to the cerebral cortex and corticospinal neurons associated with stroke, ALS, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury produce ..
  47. Mutant human a-synuclein toxicity in mice
    Deborah E Cabin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2006). PD affects a wide range of brain regions, from brainstem to cerebral cortex, though the diagnostic motor symptoms arise from loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra...
  48. Basal Ganglia and Higher Cortical Function
    Peter L Strick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We and others have argued that abnormal activity in BG loops with the cerebral cortex could lead not only to motor disorders, but also to the behavioral symptoms associated with neuropsychiatric ..
  49. Roles of microRNAs during vertebrate brain morphogenesis
    Carter M Takacs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Genetic malformations of the cerebral cortex cause severe mental health impediments, including retardation and epilepsy...
  50. CELL IDENTITY DETERMINATION IN CEREBRAL CORTEX
    Christopher A Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proper development of the cerebral cortex is essential for normal cognitive function, and requires the precise completion of a series of developmental ..
  51. Translation of smart contrast agents for brain tumor characterization by MR
    Garry E Kiefer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BIRDS with high speed 2D CSI at 11.7T allows spatial resolution of ~10 <L or better in rat's cerebral cortex with TmDOTP5- (phosphonic acid, high charge) and TmDOTMA- (carboxylic acid, low charge), respectively...
  52. Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy
    Christopher DeGiorgio; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..brain structures known to play a role in seizure inhibition and initiation (locus coeruleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex)...
  53. Human Epilepsy Genetics - Neuronal Migration Disorders
    Christopher A Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..palsy, and abnormalities of brain volume can be attributed in many cases to pathological malformations of the cerebral cortex. Although these consequences, such as epilepsy and mental retardation, may appear broadly in the population ..
  54. Asymmetric cell division of CNS progenitor cells
    Sally Temple; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Knowledge of Stau2 function in the cerebral cortex will increase our understanding of RNA binding proteins and asymmetric cell division mechanisms in NSCs and ..
  55. Glial Proliferation and Death in Depression and Alcoholism
    Jose Javier Miguel Hidalgo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will provide information on immediate causes for lower numbers of glial cells observed in the prefrontal cerebral cortex of depressives and alcoholics...
  56. Katanin p80: A Role for Regulation of Microtubule Severing in Cortical Developmen
    WEN FAN HU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this protein i regulating neuronal progenitor mitosis and cell cycle progression in the developing mammalian cerebral cortex. Specific Aim 1 will characterize the novel mutation using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to assay for ..
  57. Design Optimization of Combined Magnetoencephalography and Susceptometry
    Solomon Gilbert Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NIRS overcomes the rate limitation of fMRI but is only sensitive to the outer regions of the cerebral cortex. Subject exclusion is a concern with MRI, which is unsafe for individuals with certain metal implants and is ..
  58. Glutamate Receptors in Hypoxic-ischemic Injury to Developing Oligodendrocytes
    Wenbin Deng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In term infants, hypoxia-ischemia predominantly affects cerebral cortex with characteristic neuronal loss...
  59. Organization of the Cortical Projection to the Basal Ganglia
    ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE This study will clarify which neurons of cerebral cortex communicate with each of the two circuits of the basal ganglia, one of which facilitates desired movements ..
  60. Mechanisms Underlying Specification of Neuronal Projection Identity in the Cortex
    Karpagam Srinivasan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The cerebral cortex is the most evolved and expanded brain structure in humans that underlies our highest intellectual abilities...
  61. Impact of Blood Viscosity on Oxygen Delivery in humans with Sickle Cell Anemia
    THOMAS DUANE COATES; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..changes in HbS and hematocrit that improve arterial flow may be detrimental in low shear flow areas like the cerebral cortex and heart...
  62. Sleep Regulation - The Involvement of GHRH
    James Krueger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We also extend our work to the cerebral cortex to determine if GHRH and its receptors are involved in the regulation of neuronal assembly functional state...
  63. Development of Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex
    Michael J Friedlander; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Synapses in the cerebral cortex undergo dynamic alterations in their efficiency throughout life...
  64. TorsinA influences GABA neuron migration and dopamine neuron development: Implic
    Pradeep G Bhide; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..torsinA plays critical roles in GABA neuron migration and the development of the dopaminergic system in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of the developing brain...
  65. Visual Sonics Vevo 2100 Imaging System
    Karen H Martin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of embryonic mice using the image-guided injection technology to study the function and development of the cerebral cortex and the genetic mechanisms that regulate embryonic neural development...
  66. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF K+ CHANNEL GENES IN BRAIN
    Bernardo Rudy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GABAergic interneurons are key components of the cerebral cortex and have essential roles in information processing, plasticity, the generation of cortical rhythms, and in ..
  67. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR CEREBRAL CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT
    Flora Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The size of the cerebral cortex increases during mammalian evolution, underlying an increased complexity of cognitive operations and specialization of functions...
  68. FUNCTIONAL AND NEURAL MECHANISMS OF INTERVAL TIMING
    WARREN MECK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Adapted from applicant's abstract): The neural circuits that link the bas ganglia with the cerebral cortex are critically involved in the generation and control of temporal sequences of responses that are guided by an internal timing ..
  69. CORTICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CONTROL OF EYE MOVEMENTS
    Mark Segraves; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The long-term goal of this laboratory is to understand the contributions made by the primate's cerebral cortex to voluntary motor behavior...
  70. VISUAL RELAYS IN THE PULVINAR
    RAINER GUILLERY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: Almost all of the information that reaches the cerebral cortex from the outside world or from lower brain centers has to pass through the thalamus...