basal ganglia

Summary

Summary: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 466:622-6. 2010
  2. ncbi Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:359-87. 2008
  3. ncbi Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia
    Bogdan Draganski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7143-52. 2008
  4. pmc Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Laboratory, PMB 206, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19156-61. 2009
  5. ncbi Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study
    A Di Martino
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2735-47. 2008
  6. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
  7. ncbi The cortico-basal ganglia integrative network: the role of the thalamus
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA suzanne
    Brain Res Bull 78:69-74. 2009
  8. ncbi The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 26:317-30. 2003
  9. pmc Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function
    Anatol C Kreitzer
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Neuron 60:543-54. 2008
  10. ncbi Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements
    O Hikosaka
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Physiol Rev 80:953-78. 2000

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications371 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 466:622-6. 2010
    Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function...
  2. ncbi Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:359-87. 2008
    ..review suggests that many of these behaviors could emerge as a result of experience-dependent plasticity in basal ganglia-based circuits that can influence not only overt behaviors but also cognitive activity...
  3. ncbi Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia
    Bogdan Draganski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7143-52. 2008
    Detailed knowledge of the anatomy and connectivity pattern of cortico-basal ganglia circuits is essential to an understanding of abnormal cortical function and pathophysiology associated with a wide range of neurological and ..
  4. pmc Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Laboratory, PMB 206, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19156-61. 2009
    ..We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys ..
  5. ncbi Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study
    A Di Martino
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2735-47. 2008
    Classically regarded as motor structures, the basal ganglia subserve a wide range of functions, including motor, cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes...
  6. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
    ..Our results suggest partly dissociable contributions of the ventral and dorsal striatum, with the former corresponding to the critic and the latter corresponding to the actor...
  7. ncbi The cortico-basal ganglia integrative network: the role of the thalamus
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA suzanne
    Brain Res Bull 78:69-74. 2009
    The thalamus is a critical component of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits that mediate motivation and emotional drive, planning and cognition for the development and expression of goal-directed behaviors...
  8. ncbi The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 26:317-30. 2003
    The basal ganglia and frontal cortex operate together to execute goal directed behaviors...
  9. pmc Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function
    Anatol C Kreitzer
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Neuron 60:543-54. 2008
    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are ..
  10. ncbi Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements
    O Hikosaka
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Physiol Rev 80:953-78. 2000
    In addition to their well-known role in skeletal movements, the basal ganglia control saccadic eye movements (saccades) by means of their connection to the superior colliculus (SC)...
  11. ncbi Pathological synchronization in Parkinson's disease: networks, models and treatments
    Constance Hammond
    Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mediterranee, U29 INSERM, Université Aix Marseille II and UMR CNRS 5543, Universite Bordeaux 2, France
    Trends Neurosci 30:357-64. 2007
    ..Parkinson's disease has demonstrated abnormally synchronized oscillatory activity at multiple levels of the basal ganglia-cortical loop...
  12. ncbi Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor Nrf2 at the basal ganglia provides disease modifying therapy for experimental parkinsonism
    Agnieszka Jazwa
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain
    Antioxid Redox Signal 14:2347-60. 2011
    ..administration of the potent Nrf2 activator sulforaphane (SFN) increased Nrf2 protein levels in the basal ganglia and led to upregulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone ..
  13. ncbi Evolutionary conservation of the basal ganglia as a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection
    Marcus Stephenson-Jones
    The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Curr Biol 21:1081-91. 2011
    Although the basal ganglia are thought to play a key role in action selection in mammals, it is unknown whether this mammalian circuitry is present in lower vertebrates as a conserved selection mechanism...
  14. pmc Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia
    J P Bolam
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford, UK
    J Anat 196:527-42. 2000
    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions...
  15. ncbi Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives
    Daphna Joel
    Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    Neural Netw 15:535-47. 2002
    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years...
  16. pmc Cortico-Basal Ganglia reward network: microcircuitry
    Susan R Sesack
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:27-47. 2010
    ..A fuller appreciation of the circuitry interconnecting the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area should serve to advance discovery of new treatment options for these conditions...
  17. ncbi Functional significance of the cortico-subthalamo-pallidal 'hyperdirect' pathway
    Atsushi Nambu
    Department of System Neuroscience, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 2 6 Musashidai, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan
    Neurosci Res 43:111-7. 2002
    How the motor-related cortical areas modulate the activity of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia is an important issue for understanding the mechanisms of motor control by the basal ganglia...
  18. ncbi A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice
    Wolfgang Enard
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Cell 137:961-71. 2009
    ..behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional ..
  19. pmc Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease
    Peter Redgrave
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:760-72. 2010
    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease...
  20. ncbi Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortical atrophy predicting slowed cognitive processing in multiple sclerosis
    Sônia Batista
    Department of Neurology, Coimbra University Hospitals, Coimbra, Portugal
    J Neurol 259:139-46. 2012
    Information-processing speed (IPS) slowing is a primary cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis (MS). Basal ganglia, thalamus and neocortex are thought to have a key role for efficient information-processing, yet the specific relative ..
  21. ncbi Oscillatory nature of human basal ganglia activity: relationship to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease
    Peter Brown
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 18:357-63. 2003
    Alterations of basal ganglia physiology in parkinsonism may consist of two elements, an increase in the firing rate of neurones and a change in the pattern of synchronisation of discharges between neurones...
  22. ncbi Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement
    P Redgrave
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TP, UK
    Neuroscience 198:138-51. 2011
    ..In this review we will argue that the re-entrant looped architecture of the basal ganglia represents biological solutions to these fundamental behavioural problems of selection and reinforcement...
  23. ncbi Movement-related changes in synchronization in the human basal ganglia
    Michael Cassidy
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain 125:1235-46. 2002
    There is a wealth of data suggesting that behavioural events are reflected in the basal ganglia through phasic changes in the discharge of individual neurones...
  24. ncbi The basal ganglia: learning new tricks and loving it
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, 46 6133, Cambridge, MA, 02139 USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:638-44. 2005
    The field of basal ganglia research is exploding on every level - from discoveries at the molecular level to those based on human brain imaging...
  25. ncbi Circuits and circuit disorders of the basal ganglia
    Mahlon R Delong
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Arch Neurol 64:20-4. 2007
    Views of the anatomy and function of the basal ganglia and their role in motor and nonmotor disorders have undergone major revisions during the past decades...
  26. ncbi Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory
    Fiona McNab
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, MR Centrum, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Neurosci 11:103-7. 2008
    ..Here we show that activity in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia preceded the filtering of irrelevant information and that activity, particularly in the globus pallidus, ..
  27. ncbi Temporal processing in the basal ganglia
    D L Harrington
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Neuropsychology 12:3-12. 1998
    This study investigated the role of the basal ganglia in timing operations...
  28. ncbi Basal ganglia functional connectivity based on a meta-analysis of 126 positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging publications
    Ronald B Postuma
    Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, 3801 University Street Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada
    Cereb Cortex 16:1508-21. 2006
    ..The rostrocaudal and dorsoventral patterns of corticostriatal functional connectivity are consistent with the tripartite division of the striatum into motor, associative, and limbic zones...
  29. pmc Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning
    Stephane Lehericy
    Center for Magnetic Resonance Research Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12566-71. 2005
    ..study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at high field (3T) to track the time course of activation in the entire basal ganglia circuitry, as well as other motor-related structures, during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger ..
  30. pmc Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia
    Andreea C Bostan
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Systems Neuroscience Institute and Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 17:241-54. 2013
    ..Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network...
  31. ncbi Dynamic dopamine modulation in the basal ganglia: a neurocomputational account of cognitive deficits in medicated and nonmedicated Parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 17:51-72. 2005
    Dopamine (DA) depletion in the basal ganglia (BG) of Parkinson's patients gives rise to both frontal-like and implicit learning impairments...
  32. pmc The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum
    Andreea C Bostan
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8452-6. 2010
    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex...
  33. ncbi Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:567-84. 2006
    ..Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward...
  34. pmc Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior
    Luc Mallet
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale AVENIR Group, Behavior, Emotion, and Basal Ganglia, 75013 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10661-6. 2007
    ....
  35. ncbi The neural representation of time
    Richard B Ivry
    3210 Tolman Hall, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 1650 USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:225-32. 2004
    ..Emphasis has also been placed on the basal ganglia as a specialized timing system, particularly for longer intervals...
  36. ncbi Basal ganglia, dopamine and temporal processing: performance on three timing tasks on and off medication in Parkinson's disease
    Catherine R G Jones
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain Cogn 68:30-41. 2008
    ..in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine...
  37. ncbi Thalamic neuronal activity in dopamine-depleted primates: evidence for a loss of functional segregation within basal ganglia circuits
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Laboratoire de neurologie et thérapeutique expérimentale, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 679, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75651 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 25:1523-31. 2005
    ..firing rate and bursty firing pattern, and assumes that dopamine depletion results in a hyperactivity of basal ganglia (BG) output structures...
  38. ncbi Contributions of the basal ganglia and functionally related brain structures to motor learning
    Julien Doyon
    Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal Geriatric Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Behav Brain Res 199:61-75. 2009
    ..These results are then put into a plausible neurobiological model of motor skill learning, which proposes an integrated view of the brain plasticity mediating this form of memory at different stages of the acquisition process...
  39. pmc Vocal experimentation in the juvenile songbird requires a basal ganglia circuit
    Bence P Olveczky
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e153. 2005
    ..Our results establish that, in the juvenile songbird, the exploratory motor behavior required to learn a complex motor sequence is dependent on a dedicated neural circuit homologous to cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mammals.
  40. ncbi A region of mesial prefrontal cortex tracks monetarily rewarding outcomes: characterization with rapid event-related fMRI
    Brian Knutson
    Department of Psychology, Building 420, Jordan Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2130, USA
    Neuroimage 18:263-72. 2003
    ..00 win, MPFC activity decreased, relative to outcomes with no incentive value. These findings suggest that in the context of processing monetary rewards, a region of the MPFC preferentially tracks rewarding outcomes...
  41. ncbi Dissociable systems for gain- and loss-related value predictions and errors of prediction in the human brain
    Juliana Yacubian
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, NeuroImage Nord, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:9530-7. 2006
    ..Prevalence of either part might render expectations more positive or negative, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders like major depression...
  42. ncbi Competition between feedback loops underlies normal and pathological dynamics in the basal ganglia
    Arthur Leblois
    Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie du Système Moteur, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 8119, Universite Rene Descartes, 75270 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 26:3567-83. 2006
    Experiments performed in normal animals suggest that the basal ganglia (BG) are crucial in motor program selection. BG are also involved in movement disorders...
  43. ncbi A computational model of action selection in the basal ganglia. I. A new functional anatomy
    K Gurney
    Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TP, UK
    Biol Cybern 84:401-10. 2001
    We present a biologically plausible model of processing intrinsic to the basal ganglia based on the computational premise that action selection is a primary role of these central brain structures...
  44. ncbi The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation
    Henry H Yin
    Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, TS 13, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:464-76. 2006
    ..How are goal-directed actions transformed into habitual responses? Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation.
  45. ncbi Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction
    Mahlon Delong
    Department Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:S237-40. 2009
    Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time...
  46. ncbi Preference for immediate over delayed rewards is associated with magnitude of ventral striatal activity
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13213-7. 2006
    ..They also highlight a specific neurocognitive mechanism that may contribute to increased risk for addiction...
  47. ncbi Abnormal oscillatory synchronisation in the motor system leads to impaired movement
    P Brown
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 17:656-64. 2007
    Converging data suggest that abnormal synchronised oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia may contribute to bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. This synchrony preferentially occurs over 10-30 Hz, the so-called beta band...
  48. ncbi The ventral basal ganglia, a selection mechanism at the crossroads of space, strategy, and reward
    Mark D Humphries
    Adaptive Behaviour Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
    Prog Neurobiol 90:385-417. 2010
    The basal ganglia are often conceptualised as three parallel domains that include all the constituent nuclei...
  49. pmc How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 316:904-6. 2007
    ..Our findings thus reveal this region as a key node in brain circuitry that enables expected rewards to energize behavior, without the need for the subjects;awareness...
  50. ncbi A computational model of inhibitory control in frontal cortex and basal ganglia
    Thomas V Wiecki
    Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, RI 02912 1821, USA
    Psychol Rev 120:329-55. 2013
    ..This model extends a well-established model of action selection in the basal ganglia by including a frontal executive control network that integrates information about sensory input and task ..
  51. ncbi Making working memory work: a computational model of learning in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
    Randall C O'Reilly
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neural Comput 18:283-328. 2006
    ..These learning mechanisms are based on subcortical structures in the midbrain, basal ganglia, and amygdala, which together form an actor-critic architecture...
  52. ncbi Activity patterns in a model for the subthalamopallidal network of the basal ganglia
    D Terman
    Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 22:2963-76. 2002
    ..of the subthalamic nucleus and the external segment of the globus pallidus in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Computer simulations and analysis of this model illuminate the roles of the coupling architecture of the ..
  53. ncbi A physiologically plausible model of action selection and oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia
    Mark D Humphries
    Adaptive Behaviour Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:12921-42. 2006
    The basal ganglia (BG) have long been implicated in both motor function and dysfunction...
  54. pmc Habenula: crossroad between the basal ganglia and the limbic system
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11825-9. 2008
    ..Further, dysfunctions of the LHb have also been implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and drug-induced psychosis...
  55. pmc Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit
    Jonathan D Charlesworth
    W M Keck Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Nature 486:251-5. 2012
    ..Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; ..
  56. ncbi BOLD responses reflecting dopaminergic signals in the human ventral tegmental area
    Kimberlee D'Ardenne
    Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 319:1264-7. 2008
    ..When monetary gains and losses were used, VTA BOLD responses reflected positive reward prediction errors modulated by the probability of winning. We detected no significant VTA BOLD response to nonrewarding events...
  57. pmc Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin
    Steven J Shabel
    Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, Division of Biology, Department of Neurosciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuron 74:475-81. 2012
    ..However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood...
  58. pmc Dopamine release in the basal ganglia
    M E Rice
    Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Neuroscience 198:112-37. 2011
    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine...
  59. pmc Basal ganglia morphometry and repetitive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder
    Annette Estes
    University of Washington Autism Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Autism Res 4:212-20. 2011
    We investigated repetitive and stereotyped behavior (RSB) and its relationship to morphometric measures of the basal ganglia and thalami in 3- to 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 77) and developmental delay ..
  60. pmc Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning
    Austin T Hilliard
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Neuron 73:537-52. 2012
    ..vocal communication--a complex phenotype probably supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong...
  61. ncbi Neural circuits and topographic organization of the basal ganglia and related regions
    K Nakano
    Department of Anatomy, Mie University Faculty of Medicine, Tsu, 514 8507, Mie, Japan
    Brain Dev 22:S5-16. 2000
    The present review was attempted to analyze the multiple channels of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections, and the connections of their related nuclei...
  62. ncbi A review of differences between basal ganglia and cerebellar control of movements as revealed by functional imaging studies
    M Jueptner
    Department of Psychiatry, University Clinics, Essen, Germany
    Brain 121:1437-49. 1998
    The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in the control of movements is unclear. We summarize results from three groups of PET studies of regional CBF...
  63. ncbi The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: neuropsychological studies
    Jessica A Grahn
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Res 199:53-60. 2009
    In recent years, a common approach to understanding how the basal ganglia contribute to learning and memory in humans has been to study the deficits that occur in patients with basal ganglia pathology, such as Parkinson's disease and ..
  64. ncbi Event-related potential activity in the basal ganglia differentiates rewards from nonrewards: temporospatial principal components analysis and source localization of the feedback negativity
    Dan Foti
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:2207-16. 2011
    ..increased striatal activation in response to favorable outcomes that is reduced or absent for unfavorable outcomes, thereby providing unique information about the timing and nature of basal ganglia activity related to reward processing.
  65. ncbi Activity of striatal neurons reflects dynamic encoding and recoding of procedural memories
    Terra D Barnes
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, 46 6133, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 437:1158-61. 2005
    ..such learning dynamics, we made long-term recordings from multiple neurons in the sensorimotor striatum, a basal ganglia structure implicated in habit formation, in rats successively trained on a reward-based procedural task, given ..
  66. ncbi Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia
    Izhar Bar-Gad
    Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Prog Neurobiol 71:439-73. 2003
    Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei...
  67. doi Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice for simultaneous visualization of medium spiny neurons in the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia
    Jessica A Shuen
    Center for Translational Neuroscience, Division of Neurology, Neurotransgenic Core Facility, and Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2681-5. 2008
  68. ncbi Complementary roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in learning and motor control
    K Doya
    Information Sciences Division, ATR International and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2 2 2 Hikaridai, Seika, Soraku, 619 0288, Kyoto, Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:732-9. 2000
    The classical notion that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are dedicated to motor control has been challenged by the accumulation of evidence revealing their involvement in non-motor, cognitive functions...
  69. pmc Adenosine A2A receptors and basal ganglia physiology
    S N Schiffmann
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, CP601, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    Prog Neurobiol 83:277-92. 2007
    Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system...
  70. ncbi The integrative function of the basal ganglia in instrumental conditioning
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
    Behav Brain Res 199:43-52. 2009
    ..As the entry point for the basal ganglia, cortical circuits involving the dorsal striatum are clearly in a position to control a variety of motor ..
  71. ncbi What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective
    V S Chakravarthy
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, India
    Biol Cybern 103:237-53. 2010
    b>Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc...
  72. ncbi Disconnecting force from money: effects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation
    Liane Schmidt
    Laboratoire INSERM U610, Institut Fédératif de Recherches en Neurosciences, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Site Pitié Salpêtrière, F 75013 Paris, France
    Brain 131:1303-10. 2008
    Bilateral basal ganglia lesions have been reported to induce a particular form of apathy, termed auto-activation deficit (AAD), principally defined as a loss of self-driven behaviour that is reversible with external stimulation...
  73. ncbi Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards
    Samuel M McClure
    Department of Psychology and Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 306:503-7. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the relative engagement of the two systems is directly associated with subjects' choices, with greater relative fronto-parietal activity when subjects choose longer term options...
  74. ncbi Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release
    Björn H Schott
    Department of Behavioral Neurology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:14311-9. 2008
    ..Moreover, the combined neurochemical and hemodynamic imaging approach used here opens up new perspectives for the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying human cognition...
  75. ncbi Role of basal ganglia-brainstem pathways in the control of motor behaviors
    K Takakusaki
    Department of Physiology, Asahikawa Medical College, Midorigaoka Higashi 2 1, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    Neurosci Res 50:137-51. 2004
    Here we review a role of a basal ganglia-brainstem (BG-BS) system throughout the mesopontine tegmentum in the control of various types of behavioral expression...
  76. pmc Altered parvalbumin-positive neuron distribution in basal ganglia of individuals with Tourette syndrome
    Paul S A Kalanithi
    Child Study Center and Department of Neurobiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13307-12. 2005
    ..To investigate possible alterations in cell populations, postmortem basal ganglia tissue from individuals with TS and normal controls was analyzed by using unbiased stereological techniques...
  77. ncbi Reduced orbitofrontal-striatal activity on a reversal learning task in obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Peter L Remijnse
    Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Graduate School of Neurosciences, and Outpatient Academic Clinic for Anxiety Disorders, GGZ Buitenamstel, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1225-36. 2006
    ..However, the engagement of this neural loop in OCD has not been tested directly in a cognitive activation imaging paradigm so far...
  78. ncbi Ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation correlates with impulsivity in alcoholics
    Anne Beck
    Department of Psychiatry, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 66:734-42. 2009
    ..We explored whether functional brain activation during anticipation of incentive stimuli is associated with impulsiveness in detoxified alcoholics and healthy control subjects...
  79. ncbi The basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease: current concepts and unexplained observations
    Jose A Obeso
    Departments of Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neurosurgery, Clinica Universitaria and Medical School, Neuroscience Centre, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
    Ann Neurol 64:S30-46. 2008
    ..disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG)...
  80. ncbi Processing of temporal information and the basal ganglia: new evidence from fMRI
    Igor Nenadic
    Department of Psychiatry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Philosophenweg 3, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 148:238-46. 2003
    ..Psychopharmacological and patient studies suggest a crucial role of the basal ganglia in time estimation...
  81. ncbi Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits
    Richard Levy
    Fédération de Neurologie and INSERM U610, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Cereb Cortex 16:916-28. 2006
    The clinical signs grouped under the concept of apathy are a common feature of prefrontal and basal ganglia lesions or dysfunctions and can therefore help to improve our understanding of the functional anatomy of the prefrontal-basal ..
  82. ncbi High levels of dopamine activity in the basal ganglia of cigarette smokers
    R K Salokangas
    Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Central Hospital, Finland
    Am J Psychiatry 157:632-4. 2000
    ..The authors' goal was to study presynaptic dopamine activity in smoking and nonsmoking human subjects in vivo...
  83. ncbi Fatigue and basal ganglia
    A Chaudhuri
    Department of Neurology, University of Glasgow, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, G51 4TF, Scotland, Glasgow, UK
    J Neurol Sci 179:34-42. 2000
    ..with supportive neuropathological data, that central fatigue may occur due to a failure in the integration of the limbic input and the motor functions within the basal ganglia affecting the striatal-thalamic-frontal cortical system.
  84. ncbi Motor control in basal ganglia circuits using fMRI and brain atlas approaches
    Stephane Lehericy
    CMRR University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Cereb Cortex 16:149-61. 2006
    In this study, we examined how the motor, premotor and associative basal ganglia territories process movement parameters such as the complexity and the frequency of movement...
  85. pmc A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds
    Jesse H Goldberg
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Neurosci 15:620-7. 2012
    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia to the cortex and is critical for motor initiation and learning...
  86. ncbi How preparation changes the need for top-down control of the basal ganglia when inhibiting premature actions
    Sara Jahfari
    Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science Center Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 32:10870-8. 2012
    Goal-oriented signals from the prefrontal cortex gate the selection of appropriate actions in the basal ganglia. Key nodes within this fronto-basal ganglia action regulation network are increasingly engaged when one anticipates the need ..
  87. ncbi Functional organization of the basal ganglia: therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease
    Jose A Obeso
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Clinica Universitaria and Medical School and Neuroscience Centre, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
    Mov Disord 23:S548-59. 2008
    The basal ganglia (BG) are a highly organized network, where different parts are activated for specific functions and circumstances...
  88. ncbi Basal ganglia involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Peter Bede
    From the Biomedical Sciences Institute P B, M E, S B, A V, O H, and Smurfit Institute of Genetics R L M, K K, D G B, Trinity College Dublin and Department of Neuropsychology N P, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Neurology 81:2107-15. 2013
    To characterize the nature and extent of basal ganglia involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genotypes in vivo.
  89. pmc The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement
    Vladimir K Neychev
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Brain 131:2499-509. 2008
    ..Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well...
  90. pmc Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia
    Nasim Maleki
    Department of Radiology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Pain 7:71. 2011
    ....
  91. pmc Contextual novelty changes reward representations in the striatum
    Marc Guitart-Masip
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:1721-6. 2010
    ..These findings support a view that contextual novelty enhances neural responses underlying reward representation in the striatum and concur with the effects of novelty processing as predicted by the model of Lisman and Grace (2005)...
  92. pmc Action selection and refinement in subcortical loops through basal ganglia and cerebellum
    J C Houk
    Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60208, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:1573-83. 2007
    Subcortical loops through the basal ganglia and the cerebellum form computationally powerful distributed processing modules (DPMs)...
  93. ncbi The prefrontal-limbic network in depression: Modulation by hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain
    M R Bennett
    Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
    Prog Neurobiol 93:468-87. 2011
    ..Modulation of this prefrontal-limbic network (PLN) is principally through the hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain...
  94. ncbi Multiple representations and algorithms for reinforcement learning in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit
    Makoto Ito
    Neural Computation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904 0412, Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:368-73. 2011
    Accumulating evidence shows that the neural network of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia is critically involved in reinforcement learning...
  95. ncbi Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?
    Juan Mena-Segovia
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Trends Neurosci 27:585-8. 2004
    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN...
  96. ncbi Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 318:1309-12. 2007
    ..These findings implicate independent mechanisms leading to impulsivity in treated Parkinson's patients and were predicted by a single neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia.
  97. pmc Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation in basal ganglia nuclei relates to specific symptoms in de novo Parkinson's disease
    Janey Prodoehl
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Mov Disord 25:2035-43. 2010
    ..modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify noninvasive measures of basal ganglia (BG) function that are sensitive to disease severity...
  98. ncbi Neuroprotective strategies for basal ganglia degeneration: Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
    T Alexi
    Research Centre for Developmental Medicine and Biology, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Prog Neurobiol 60:409-70. 2000
    ..Most of these approaches hold promise as potential therapies in the treatment of these disorders...
  99. ncbi Effects of treadmill exercise on dopaminergic transmission in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury
    Giselle M Petzinger
    Department of Neurology, The George and MaryLou Boone Center for Parkinson s Disease Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5291-300. 2007
    ....
  100. ncbi Basal ganglia macrocircuits
    J M Tepper
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Prog Brain Res 160:3-7. 2007
    ..authors covering the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry/pharmacology and behavioral aspects of GABA in the basal ganglia. In this chapter the various nuclei of the basal ganglia are defined and their cellular structure, connections ..
  101. pmc Conditional routing of information to the cortex: a model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination
    Andrea Stocco
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychol Rev 117:541-74. 2010
    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning...

Research Grants76

  1. Cortical connections with the limbic territory of the basal ganglia
    Michelle Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia (BG) participate in multiple segregated "loops" with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, prefrontal, posterior ..
  2. Cortical contributions to basal ganglia disorders
    PETER STRICK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia participate in multiple 'loops' with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, premotor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, cingulated, posterior parietal and ..
  3. NEURAL CONTROL OF HUMAN VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
    Jerome Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    This project investigates the role of the basal ganglia in integrating somatic sensory information and motor commands for executing purposeful movements...
  4. MOTOR ACTIONS OF CANNABINOIDS IN A PARKINSONS MODEL
    CLARA SANUDO PENA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The hallmark of Parkinson s disease is a dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  5. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    ERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Repairing the pathway in vocal learners, when damaged, would have profound impact for correcting neurological disorders of speech. ..
  6. Genetics and Haloperidol Response
    Robert J Hitzemann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..work will contribute directly and indirectly to our understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia and the extent of genetic variation in this organization...
  7. Protection of Brain Injury from Cyanide Poisoning by Carnosic Acid
    Stuart A Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CT and MRI examinations of these patients have consistently revealed lesions in the basal ganglia, including the globus pallidus and putamen. Damage in the human brain has been confirmed via autopsy...
  8. Phenotyping Major Depression with Increased Inflammation
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..kynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which has been shown to reduce dopamine release in the basal ganglia. These neurobiologic changes in turn have been associated with IFN-alpha-induced increases in peripheral blood ..
  9. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in the postmortem tissue samples from different brain regions {raphe nuclei, hypothalamus, hippocampus, basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus), substantia nigra, amygdala and fronto-cortical regions (cingulate ..
  10. Dopamine D1 Receptor in mouse models of primary dystonia
    Laurie J Ozelius; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Abundant evidence supports dysfunction of the basal ganglia in dystonia, although other regions, e.g. cerebellum and cortex, are also involved...
  11. Role of G-gamma-7 in striatal cannabinoid and D2 dopamine
    Dana E Selley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..behaviors by the endocannabinoid system is thought to be largely mediated by CB1 receptors in the striatum/basal ganglia (striatum/BG)...
  12. Therapeutic Strategies for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
    RAYMOND CHARLES KOEHLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..asphyxia, will render both unique mechanistic insights into the cause of rapid neurodegeneration in immature basal ganglia and therapies that can be readily translated for treatment of neonatal HI encephalopathy...
  13. Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Cytokine-Induced Behavioral Change
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..One possibility includes cytokine effects on dopamine (DA) metabolism in the basal ganglia. Basal ganglia DA plays a pivotal role in regulating multiple behaviors including mood, motivation/reward, ..
  14. Genetic and Optogenetic Models to Dissect the Role of the Serotonin 1B Receptor
    Katherine M Nautiyal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..release in axon terminals of serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons localized broadly in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum and raphe...
  15. Udall Parkinson's Disease Center at Emory University: Circuitry to Therapy
    THOMAS N WICHMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The Center draws upon the proven ability of the basal ganglia research community at Emory to conduct translational research...
  16. Behavior Therapy for Adults with Tourette Syndrome
    Lawrence Scahill; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A substantial body of evidence implicates dysfunction of cortical-subcortical pathways involving the thalamus, basal ganglia and the frontal cortex...
  17. Mechanisms of regulation of ethanol intake by lateral habenula
    Jiang Hong Ye; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The LHb receives inputs primarily from the basal ganglia and sends outputs mainly to dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic neurons...
  18. Scheduled and Responsive Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Tourette Syndrome
    Michael S Okun; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although DBS has been utilized for addressing basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, these diseases differ fundamentally from ..
  19. Role of Parkin in Regulating Manganese Toxicity
    JEROME ALLAN ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The CNS injury caused by Mn manifests in a diverse set of symptoms indicative of the fact that the basal ganglia is one of the most complex areas of the brain...
  20. Structural consequences of TSC gene mutations in brain
    Peter B Crino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subtle structural alterations distinct from tubers in post-mortem TSC brain specimens in the cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum which may contribute to neurocognitive abnormalites in TSC using neuronal and astrocytic ..
  21. Cytokine Effects on Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release using PET Neuroimaging
    Jennifer C Felger; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and research training in translational neuroimaging to assess the impact of innate immune cytokines on basal ganglia dopamine (DA)...
  22. MR SPECTROSCOPY TO REVEAL CNS MECHANISMS OF CYTOKINE-INDUCED BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
    Ebrahim Haroon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of glial activation, excitotoxicity and neuronal dysfunction in relevant brain regions including the basal ganglia will be measured by single voxel proton MRS and correlated with blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of ..
  23. CRCNS: Propagation of beta oscillations in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop
    Michelle M McCarthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The search for alternative therapies has begun to focus on the interactions of networks within the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop...
  24. Effect of Manganese Exposure on GABA and Glutamate in Human Brains by MRS
    Ulrike Dydak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on rodents have linked increased Mn concentrations with alterations in the content of neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia brain region, however the dose-dependency of such alterations is controversial...
  25. Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Formation of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
    KENNETH J CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The basal ganglia comprise a collection of nuclei that are primarily involved in controlling purposeful movements and appropriate behavior...
  26. Genetics and biology of a viable mutant mouse with dystonic movements
    Kathleen J Sweadner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent work points to roles for the basal ganglia, thalami, cortex and cerebellum in dystonia, but there are different theories about the underlying mechanisms ..
  27. Role of inflammation in manganese neurotoxicity: molecular mechanisms
    Nikolay M Filipov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) results in basal ganglia pathology and enhanced production of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, nitric oxide, prostaglandins) by activated glia in vitro...
  28. Neuromorphometry of Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder
    Daniel Mamah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..scans from 40 PBD and 40 NPBD subjects and generate volume and shape metrics for the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia, and measures of corpus callosum integrity, 2) compare these measures between PBD, NPBD, SCZ and controls, and ..
  29. Ethanol modulation of nicotinic receptors
    John McDaid; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Brainstem tegmental projections to limbic areas, basal ganglia and the thalamus contribute to many behaviors including reward, arousal, motor control and sensitization to ..
  30. Characterization of Striatal Nitric Oxide Signaling
    Anthony West; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are critically involved in the expression of PD motor complications and may underlie adaptive changes in basal ganglia circuits observed following prolonged treatment with levodopa (L-DOPA)...
  31. Rapid-onset Dystonia Parkinsonism (DYT12 Dystonia): Pathophysiology &Atp1a3 Mice
    Yuqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..hypothesize that behaviorally penetrant mutant mice will have neural circuitry dysfunction especially in the basal ganglia, dopaminergic modulation, and in the cortex and striatum may have altered synaptic transmission and plasticity,..
  32. Serotonin Therapy for Parkinson's Disease and Neurodegenerative Disorders
    William A Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..funding cycle we demonstrated that a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist reduced glutamatergic activity in the basal ganglia. Pre-clinical evidence supports a role for glutamate in exacerbating DA neuron degeneration...
  33. Profiling direct/indirect basal ganglia cells in restricted repetitive behavior
    AMBER M VAN MATRE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..model of restricted repetitive behavior indicates that specific pathways in the brain that make up cortico-basal ganglia circuitry are disregulated...
  34. The Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Frontal-Subcortical Emotional Processing
    Joseph S Neimat; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The basal ganglia have long been known to play an important role in movement disorders...
  35. Neuroimaging for Early Diagnosis of Manganese Toxicity in Humans and Rodents
    Ulrike Dydak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mn exposure with alterations in the content of the neurotransmitter 3-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the basal ganglia brain region, similar to those found in movement disorders...
  36. Neural Encoding of Internal Motivational States and Goal-Directed Actions
    ALAINA CATHERINE CASE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..while performing experiments to determine how internal motivational states are encoded in cortical-basal ganglia circuits...
  37. Quantitative MR Imaging &Proton Spectroscopy in MS.
    Yulin Ge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..deficits and fatigue experienced by MS patients are consequences of oxidative injury by iron accretion in the basal ganglia and thalamus...
  38. Synaptic regulation of single substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons
    STEVEN WILLIAM JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..its excitatory influence on the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR), a major output structure of the basal ganglia. In Parkinson's disease, increased bursting activity in the subthalamonigral pathway is thought to ..
  39. A role for ephrins-A2, -A3, &-A5 in excitatory synaptic development and function
    Rachel Wurzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of MSNs are distinguished by dopamine receptor D1 or D2 expression and these form the "direct" and "indirect" basal ganglia pathways, respectively...
  40. The role of CCR5 in HIV-1 Tat and morphine-mediated neurodegeneration.
    Elizabeth M Podhaizer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..successful in reducing HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which predominates in areas of the basal ganglia, such as the striatum, as well as the hippocampus and areas of the frontal cortex...
  41. Chronic nicotine: cell-specific receptor and circuit alterations in basal ganglia
    Henry A Lester; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whether chronic exposure to nicotine up-regulates functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the basal ganglia, changing cell and circuit function...
  42. Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Excitotoxicity on Aged Dopaminergic Neruons
    Heather A Boger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..GDNF) in the substantia nigra, increased oxidative stress, and an increase in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry (including increase dopamine D2 receptor expression, increased nigral glutamate release from ..
  43. ROLE OF DOPAMINE RECEPTORS IN PRIMARY FOCAL DYSTONIAS
    Morvarid Karimi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..My long term goal is to achieve a better understanding of the basal ganglia network and its role in the pathophysiology of movement disorders with the use of neuroimaging techniques...
  44. Oxidative Stress and Glutamate Excitotoxicity on Aged Dopaminergic Neruons
    Heather A Boger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..GDNF) in the substantia nigra, increased oxidative stress, and an increase in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuitry (including increase dopamine D2 receptor expression, increased nigral glutamate release from ..
  45. Beta-catenin modulates dopamine dependent signal transduction and behavior.
    JOSHUA CLAIR SNYDER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The basal ganglia is a critical regulator of a myriad of processes in the brain including motor control and behavior...
  46. Regulation of basal ganglia output neurons
    Fu Ming Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder that primarily impairs the basal ganglia motor control circuit...
  47. Effects of Psychopathology on Prefrontal Cortical Functioning During Goal-Directe
    Sharon L Thompson Schill; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal (OBC) cortices, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and basal ganglia are hypothesized to underlie the brain circuit pathophysiology linked to the disorder...
  48. Pursuing purine pathways to clinical trials for Parkinson's disease
    Michael A Schwarzschild; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Study Group (PSG) as well as a leading international investigator and educator on adenosine receptors in basal ganglia pathophysiology...
  49. Mechanisms of Manganese Neurotoxicity
    ANUMANTHA GOUNDER KANTHASAMY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Manganese predominantly accumulates in the basal ganglia structures and causes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis...
  50. Non-invasive Markers of Neurodegeneration in Movement Disorders
    David E Vaillancourt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to identify mechanisms for basal ganglia dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson's disease...
  51. Pontine motor circuits
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although traditional accounts emphasize the role of reduced dopamine (DA) transmission in the basal ganglia (secondary to loss of midbrain A9 dopamine neurons) in the motoric defects of these disorders, more recent ..
  52. Basal Ganglia-Thalamic Interactions in Behaving Songbirds During Learning
    JESSE HEYMANN GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The basal ganglia (BG) circuit is a clinically relevant group of deep brain structures that appear to play similar functions in humans and birds-motor sequence learning...
  53. Basal Ganglia and Higher Cortical Function
    Peter L Strick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia (BG) participate in multiple segregated "loops" with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, prefrontal, posterior parietal and inferotemporal cortex...
  54. Basal Ganglia-Thalamic Interactions in Behaving Songbirds During Learning
    JESSE HEYMANN GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The basal ganglia (BG) circuit is a clinically relevant group of deep brain structures that appear to play similar functions in humans and birds-motor sequence learning...
  55. Limbic-Basal Ganglia Circuitry in PTSD
    Ludise Malkova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  56. Cortical and basal ganglia local field potentials in human movement disorders
    Philip A Starr; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..goal of this project is to advance the understanding of movement disorders pathophysiology through studies of basal ganglia and cortical local field potentials (LFPs) in humans...
  57. The Role of Mu-opioid Receptor Splice Variants in the HIV Disease
    SETH MICHAEL DEVER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in uninfected verses HIV infected human brain tissue from frontal cortex, frontal lobe white matter, and basal ganglia as well as in HIV-1 infected verses control primary CNS cell types using the real-time polymerase chain ..
  58. Organization and Function of Striatal Microcircuits in Health and Disease
    ARYN HILARY GITTIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary/Abstract The basal ganglia are a series of inter-connected brain nuclei that control voluntary movement through the coordination of two parallel neural circuits, the 'direct pathway'that facilitates movement ..
  59. Organization and Function of Striatal Microcircuits in Health and Disease
    ARYN HILARY GITTIS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Project Summary/Abstract The basal ganglia are a series of inter-connected brain nuclei that control voluntary movement through the coordination of two parallel neural circuits, the 'direct pathway'that facilitates movement ..
  60. Synaptic processing in the basal ganglia
    David J Perkel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The pathway needed for learning song involves the basal ganglia, a set of brain regions known in mammals to be important for motor control, motor learning and a variety of ..
  61. Organization of the Cortical Projection to the Basal Ganglia
    ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..we also do now know if our findings for rats are true for primates, and thus clinically relevant to the human basal ganglia. In Aim 1 of the current proposal, we will use in vivo intracellular methods in rats to record from individual ..
  62. Glial versus Neuronal Caspase-3 in Opioid-HIV gp120 Neurotoxicity
    KIMBERLY LYNNE SAMANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Broadly, HAND syndromes are characterized by cognitive, motor and behavior dysfunctions;indicative of basal ganglia dysfunction [7,34,42,75]...
  63. Predictors and Targets of Response to Cytokine Antagonism in Depression
    Andrew H Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on previous studies of the impact of cytokines on the brain and behavior, we hypothesize that basal ganglia function, sleep, KYN pathway activation and HPA axis activity will be relevant pathophysiologic domains that ..
  64. Deep Brain Stimulation in the Parkinsonian Monkey
    Jerrold L Vitek; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..GPi in monkeys performing a reaching task, while simultaneously recording from multiple nodal points in the basal ganglia thalamocortical network...
  65. RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY MRI IN MANGANESE EXPOSED WELDERS
    Susan Criswell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hypotheses: 1) welding with manganese exposure will cause abnormal functional connections on rs-fcMRI between basal ganglia and cognitive control networks;2) welders with clinical manganese neurotoxicity will have greater ..
  66. Multimodal MRI markers of nigrostriatal pathology in Parkinson's disease
    Xuemei Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease (PD) is marked pathologically by dopamine neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN) of the basal ganglia (BG) and the presence of Lewy bodies...
  67. Neuroinflammation and developmental vulnerability to manganese toxicity
    Ronald B Tjalkens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is now recognized as a central feature in the progression of manganism and other neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. It is the central hypothesis of this proposal that Mn exposure during development stimulates NF-kB-dependent ..
  68. BASAL GANGLIA CONTROL OF POSTURE AND MOVEMENT
    Jonathan Mink; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The basal ganglia comprise several nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and midbrain that are thought to play a significant role in the control of posture and movement...
  69. PALLIDAL PHYSIOLOGY IN HUMAN AND PRIMATE DYSTONIA
    PHILIP STARR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..been made to understand movement disorders in terms of alterations in a loop circuit involving the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus...
  70. NEURONAL PATHWAYS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA
    Hitoshi Kita; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION: The ultimate goal of the study is to contribute to the understanding of the function of the basal ganglia in movement control...
  71. Neural Mechanisms of Reinforcement Learning in the Basal Ganglia
    Kareem Zaghloul; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neural Mechanisms of Reinforcement Learning in the Basal Ganglia The brain's sensitivity to unexpected outcomes plays a fundamental role in an organism's ability to adapt and to learn new ..
  72. Influence of the Basal Ganglia on Cerebellar Action
    Alan Gibson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diseases affecting the basal ganglia produce a variety of movement deficits, and these deficits are often totally disabling. Parkinson's disease, which affects about 1...
  73. High Force Resistance Training and Dopamine Replacement Effects on Hypokinesia in
    LELAND DIBBLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) is the model movement disorder to explore the motor function of the basal ganglia. (Morris ME, 2005) Alterations in the output of the basal ganglia lead to reductions in muscle force output ..
  74. PLASTICITY--GAD GENE EXPRESSION IN BASAL GANGLIA
    Marie Francoise Chesselet; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Functionally, the basal ganglia consists of the striatum, the pallidum and the substantia nigra...
  75. MOTOR FUNCTIONS AND FIBER CONNECTIONS OF PALLIDUM
    SAMUEL LILES; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..and physiological data indicate that the globus pallidus represents the final integration center for basal ganglia influences on the limbs and trunk...
  76. DOPAMINE & ENKEPHALIN/TACHYKININ IN BASAL GANGLION
    SUBBIAH SIVAM; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..g. Met5-enkephalin) and tachykinin (TAK, e.g. substance P) containing peptidergic neurons of the basal ganglia. For example, DA receptor blockade or lesion of nigrostriatal DA neurons leads to enhance ENK and decreased ..