basal ganglia

Summary

Summary: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 466:622-6. 2010
  2. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
  3. ncbi The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation
    Henry H Yin
    Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, TS 13, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:464-76. 2006
  4. ncbi Pathological synchronization in Parkinson's disease: networks, models and treatments
    Constance Hammond
    Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mediterranee, U29 INSERM, Université Aix Marseille II and UMR CNRS 5543, Universite Bordeaux 2, France
    Trends Neurosci 30:357-64. 2007
  5. doi Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study
    A Di Martino
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2735-47. 2008
  6. doi Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia
    Bogdan Draganski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7143-52. 2008
  7. pmc Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Laboratory, PMB 206, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19156-61. 2009
  8. doi The cortico-basal ganglia integrative network: the role of the thalamus
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA suzanne
    Brain Res Bull 78:69-74. 2009
  9. pmc Cortico-Basal Ganglia reward network: microcircuitry
    Susan R Sesack
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:27-47. 2010
  10. ncbi The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 26:317-30. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Regulation of parkinsonian motor behaviours by optogenetic control of basal ganglia circuitry
    Alexxai V Kravitz
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, 1650 Owens St, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Nature 466:622-6. 2010
    Neural circuits of the basal ganglia are critical for motor planning and action selection. Two parallel basal ganglia pathways have been described, and have been proposed to exert opposing influences on motor function...
  2. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
    ..Our results suggest partly dissociable contributions of the ventral and dorsal striatum, with the former corresponding to the critic and the latter corresponding to the actor...
  3. ncbi The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation
    Henry H Yin
    Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, TS 13, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:464-76. 2006
    ..How are goal-directed actions transformed into habitual responses? Recent work combining modern behavioural assays and neurobiological analysis of the basal ganglia has begun to yield insights into the neural basis of habit formation.
  4. ncbi Pathological synchronization in Parkinson's disease: networks, models and treatments
    Constance Hammond
    Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mediterranee, U29 INSERM, Université Aix Marseille II and UMR CNRS 5543, Universite Bordeaux 2, France
    Trends Neurosci 30:357-64. 2007
    ..Parkinson's disease has demonstrated abnormally synchronized oscillatory activity at multiple levels of the basal ganglia-cortical loop...
  5. doi Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study
    A Di Martino
    Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, NYU Child Study Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cereb Cortex 18:2735-47. 2008
    Classically regarded as motor structures, the basal ganglia subserve a wide range of functions, including motor, cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes...
  6. doi Evidence for segregated and integrative connectivity patterns in the human Basal Ganglia
    Bogdan Draganski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7143-52. 2008
    Detailed knowledge of the anatomy and connectivity pattern of cortico-basal ganglia circuits is essential to an understanding of abnormal cortical function and pathophysiology associated with a wide range of neurological and ..
  7. pmc Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits
    Dezhe Z Jin
    Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Laboratory, PMB 206, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19156-61. 2009
    ..We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys ..
  8. doi The cortico-basal ganglia integrative network: the role of the thalamus
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA suzanne
    Brain Res Bull 78:69-74. 2009
    The thalamus is a critical component of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits that mediate motivation and emotional drive, planning and cognition for the development and expression of goal-directed behaviors...
  9. pmc Cortico-Basal Ganglia reward network: microcircuitry
    Susan R Sesack
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:27-47. 2010
    ..A fuller appreciation of the circuitry interconnecting the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area should serve to advance discovery of new treatment options for these conditions...
  10. ncbi The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 26:317-30. 2003
    The basal ganglia and frontal cortex operate together to execute goal directed behaviors...
  11. pmc Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson's disease
    Peter Redgrave
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:760-72. 2010
    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease...
  12. pmc Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function
    Anatol C Kreitzer
    Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA
    Neuron 60:543-54. 2008
    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are ..
  13. doi Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor Nrf2 at the basal ganglia provides disease modifying therapy for experimental parkinsonism
    Agnieszka Jazwa
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain
    Antioxid Redox Signal 14:2347-60. 2011
    ..administration of the potent Nrf2 activator sulforaphane (SFN) increased Nrf2 protein levels in the basal ganglia and led to upregulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone ..
  14. doi Evolutionary conservation of the basal ganglia as a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection
    Marcus Stephenson-Jones
    The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Curr Biol 21:1081-91. 2011
    Although the basal ganglia are thought to play a key role in action selection in mammals, it is unknown whether this mammalian circuitry is present in lower vertebrates as a conserved selection mechanism...
  15. ncbi Making working memory work: a computational model of learning in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
    Randall C O'Reilly
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Neural Comput 18:283-328. 2006
    ..These learning mechanisms are based on subcortical structures in the midbrain, basal ganglia, and amygdala, which together form an actor-critic architecture...
  16. pmc Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia
    J P Bolam
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Oxford, UK
    J Anat 196:527-42. 2000
    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions...
  17. ncbi Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives
    Daphna Joel
    Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel
    Neural Netw 15:535-47. 2002
    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years...
  18. ncbi Dissociable systems for gain- and loss-related value predictions and errors of prediction in the human brain
    Juliana Yacubian
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, NeuroImage Nord, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:9530-7. 2006
    ..Prevalence of either part might render expectations more positive or negative, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders like major depression...
  19. ncbi Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements
    O Hikosaka
    Department of Physiology, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Physiol Rev 80:953-78. 2000
    In addition to their well-known role in skeletal movements, the basal ganglia control saccadic eye movements (saccades) by means of their connection to the superior colliculus (SC)...
  20. doi A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice
    Wolfgang Enard
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Cell 137:961-71. 2009
    ..behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional ..
  21. pmc Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning
    Stephane Lehericy
    Center for Magnetic Resonance Research Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12566-71. 2005
    ..study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) at high field (3T) to track the time course of activation in the entire basal ganglia circuitry, as well as other motor-related structures, during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger ..
  22. ncbi A computational model of action selection in the basal ganglia. I. A new functional anatomy
    K Gurney
    Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TP, UK
    Biol Cybern 84:401-10. 2001
    We present a biologically plausible model of processing intrinsic to the basal ganglia based on the computational premise that action selection is a primary role of these central brain structures...
  23. doi Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement
    P Redgrave
    Neuroscience Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TP, UK
    Neuroscience 198:138-51. 2011
    ..In this review we will argue that the re-entrant looped architecture of the basal ganglia represents biological solutions to these fundamental behavioural problems of selection and reinforcement...
  24. ncbi Movement-related changes in synchronization in the human basal ganglia
    Michael Cassidy
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain 125:1235-46. 2002
    There is a wealth of data suggesting that behavioural events are reflected in the basal ganglia through phasic changes in the discharge of individual neurones...
  25. ncbi The basal ganglia: learning new tricks and loving it
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, 46 6133, Cambridge, MA, 02139 USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:638-44. 2005
    The field of basal ganglia research is exploding on every level - from discoveries at the molecular level to those based on human brain imaging...
  26. ncbi Competition between feedback loops underlies normal and pathological dynamics in the basal ganglia
    Arthur Leblois
    Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie du Système Moteur, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 8119, Universite Rene Descartes, 75270 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 26:3567-83. 2006
    Experiments performed in normal animals suggest that the basal ganglia (BG) are crucial in motor program selection. BG are also involved in movement disorders...
  27. ncbi Basal ganglia functional connectivity based on a meta-analysis of 126 positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging publications
    Ronald B Postuma
    Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University, 3801 University Street Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada
    Cereb Cortex 16:1508-21. 2006
    ..The rostrocaudal and dorsoventral patterns of corticostriatal functional connectivity are consistent with the tripartite division of the striatum into motor, associative, and limbic zones...
  28. ncbi Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory
    Fiona McNab
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, MR Centrum, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nat Neurosci 11:103-7. 2008
    ..Here we show that activity in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia preceded the filtering of irrelevant information and that activity, particularly in the globus pallidus, ..
  29. ncbi Circuits and circuit disorders of the basal ganglia
    Mahlon R Delong
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Arch Neurol 64:20-4. 2007
    Views of the anatomy and function of the basal ganglia and their role in motor and nonmotor disorders have undergone major revisions during the past decades...
  30. ncbi Temporal processing in the basal ganglia
    D L Harrington
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA
    Neuropsychology 12:3-12. 1998
    This study investigated the role of the basal ganglia in timing operations...
  31. ncbi A region of mesial prefrontal cortex tracks monetarily rewarding outcomes: characterization with rapid event-related fMRI
    Brian Knutson
    Department of Psychology, Building 420, Jordan Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2130, USA
    Neuroimage 18:263-72. 2003
    ..00 win, MPFC activity decreased, relative to outcomes with no incentive value. These findings suggest that in the context of processing monetary rewards, a region of the MPFC preferentially tracks rewarding outcomes...
  32. doi Contributions of the basal ganglia and functionally related brain structures to motor learning
    Julien Doyon
    Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal Geriatric Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Behav Brain Res 199:61-75. 2009
    ..These results are then put into a plausible neurobiological model of motor skill learning, which proposes an integrated view of the brain plasticity mediating this form of memory at different stages of the acquisition process...
  33. ncbi Dynamic dopamine modulation in the basal ganglia: a neurocomputational account of cognitive deficits in medicated and nonmedicated Parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 17:51-72. 2005
    Dopamine (DA) depletion in the basal ganglia (BG) of Parkinson's patients gives rise to both frontal-like and implicit learning impairments...
  34. pmc The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum
    Andreea C Bostan
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Systems Neuroscience Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8452-6. 2010
    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex...
  35. ncbi The neural representation of time
    Richard B Ivry
    3210 Tolman Hall, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 1650 USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:225-32. 2004
    ..Emphasis has also been placed on the basal ganglia as a specialized timing system, particularly for longer intervals...
  36. ncbi Oscillatory nature of human basal ganglia activity: relationship to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease
    Peter Brown
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 18:357-63. 2003
    Alterations of basal ganglia physiology in parkinsonism may consist of two elements, an increase in the firing rate of neurones and a change in the pattern of synchronisation of discharges between neurones...
  37. ncbi Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:567-84. 2006
    ..Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward...
  38. ncbi Thalamic neuronal activity in dopamine-depleted primates: evidence for a loss of functional segregation within basal ganglia circuits
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Laboratoire de neurologie et thérapeutique expérimentale, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 679, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75651 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 25:1523-31. 2005
    ..firing rate and bursty firing pattern, and assumes that dopamine depletion results in a hyperactivity of basal ganglia (BG) output structures...
  39. pmc Stimulation of subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus reveals its role in the integration of the emotional and motor aspects of behavior
    Luc Mallet
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale AVENIR Group, Behavior, Emotion, and Basal Ganglia, 75013 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10661-6. 2007
    ....
  40. doi Basal ganglia, dopamine and temporal processing: performance on three timing tasks on and off medication in Parkinson's disease
    Catherine R G Jones
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain Cogn 68:30-41. 2008
    ..in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine...
  41. doi The ventral basal ganglia, a selection mechanism at the crossroads of space, strategy, and reward
    Mark D Humphries
    Adaptive Behaviour Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
    Prog Neurobiol 90:385-417. 2010
    The basal ganglia are often conceptualised as three parallel domains that include all the constituent nuclei...
  42. ncbi Activity patterns in a model for the subthalamopallidal network of the basal ganglia
    D Terman
    Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Neurosci 22:2963-76. 2002
    ..of the subthalamic nucleus and the external segment of the globus pallidus in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Computer simulations and analysis of this model illuminate the roles of the coupling architecture of the ..
  43. doi Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction
    Mahlon Delong
    Department Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 15:S237-40. 2009
    Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time...
  44. pmc Basal ganglia contributions to motor control: a vigorous tutor
    Robert S Turner
    Department of Neurobiology, Systems Neuroscience Institute and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:704-16. 2010
    The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically disturbed...
  45. doi Abnormal oscillatory synchronisation in the motor system leads to impaired movement
    P Brown
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 17:656-64. 2007
    Converging data suggest that abnormal synchronised oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia may contribute to bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. This synchrony preferentially occurs over 10-30 Hz, the so-called beta band...
  46. ncbi A physiologically plausible model of action selection and oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia
    Mark D Humphries
    Adaptive Behaviour Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TP, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:12921-42. 2006
    The basal ganglia (BG) have long been implicated in both motor function and dysfunction...
  47. pmc A basal ganglia-forebrain circuit in the songbird biases motor output to avoid vocal errors
    Aaron S Andalman
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12518-23. 2009
    In songbirds, as in mammals, basal ganglia-forebrain circuits are necessary for the learning and production of complex motor behaviors; however, the precise role of these circuits remains unknown...
  48. ncbi Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits
    Richard Levy
    Fédération de Neurologie and INSERM U610, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris, France
    Cereb Cortex 16:916-28. 2006
    The clinical signs grouped under the concept of apathy are a common feature of prefrontal and basal ganglia lesions or dysfunctions and can therefore help to improve our understanding of the functional anatomy of the prefrontal-basal ..
  49. ncbi Preference for immediate over delayed rewards is associated with magnitude of ventral striatal activity
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Neurosci 26:13213-7. 2006
    ..They also highlight a specific neurocognitive mechanism that may contribute to increased risk for addiction...
  50. doi Ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation correlates with impulsivity in alcoholics
    Anne Beck
    Department of Psychiatry, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 66:734-42. 2009
    ..We explored whether functional brain activation during anticipation of incentive stimuli is associated with impulsiveness in detoxified alcoholics and healthy control subjects...
  51. doi Mesolimbic functional magnetic resonance imaging activations during reward anticipation correlate with reward-related ventral striatal dopamine release
    Björn H Schott
    Department of Behavioral Neurology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 28:14311-9. 2008
    ..Moreover, the combined neurochemical and hemodynamic imaging approach used here opens up new perspectives for the investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying human cognition...
  52. pmc How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 316:904-6. 2007
    ..Our findings thus reveal this region as a key node in brain circuitry that enables expected rewards to energize behavior, without the need for the subjects;awareness...
  53. ncbi A review of differences between basal ganglia and cerebellar control of movements as revealed by functional imaging studies
    M Jueptner
    Department of Psychiatry, University Clinics, Essen, Germany
    Brain 121:1437-49. 1998
    The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in the control of movements is unclear. We summarize results from three groups of PET studies of regional CBF...
  54. doi The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: neuropsychological studies
    Jessica A Grahn
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Res 199:53-60. 2009
    In recent years, a common approach to understanding how the basal ganglia contribute to learning and memory in humans has been to study the deficits that occur in patients with basal ganglia pathology, such as Parkinson's disease and ..
  55. pmc Basal ganglia morphometry and repetitive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder
    Annette Estes
    University of Washington Autism Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Autism Res 4:212-20. 2011
    We investigated repetitive and stereotyped behavior (RSB) and its relationship to morphometric measures of the basal ganglia and thalami in 3- to 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 77) and developmental delay ..
  56. doi Event-related potential activity in the basal ganglia differentiates rewards from nonrewards: temporospatial principal components analysis and source localization of the feedback negativity
    Dan Foti
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:2207-16. 2011
    ..increased striatal activation in response to favorable outcomes that is reduced or absent for unfavorable outcomes, thereby providing unique information about the timing and nature of basal ganglia activity related to reward processing.
  57. ncbi Neural circuits and topographic organization of the basal ganglia and related regions
    K Nakano
    Department of Anatomy, Mie University Faculty of Medicine, Tsu, 514 8507, Mie, Japan
    Brain Dev 22:S5-16. 2000
    The present review was attempted to analyze the multiple channels of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connections, and the connections of their related nuclei...
  58. pmc Molecular microcircuitry underlies functional specification in a basal ganglia circuit dedicated to vocal learning
    Austin T Hilliard
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Neuron 73:537-52. 2012
    ..vocal communication--a complex phenotype probably supported by ensembles of interacting genes in cortico-basal ganglia pathways of both species. To date, only FoxP2 has been identified as critical to both speech and birdsong...
  59. ncbi Information processing, dimensionality reduction and reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia
    Izhar Bar-Gad
    Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Prog Neurobiol 71:439-73. 2003
    Modeling of the basal ganglia has played a major role in our understanding of this elusive group of nuclei...
  60. pmc The basal ganglia and cerebellum interact in the expression of dystonic movement
    Vladimir K Neychev
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Brain 131:2499-509. 2008
    ..Traditional views place responsibility for dystonia with dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits, yet recent evidence has pointed towards cerebellar circuits as well...
  61. ncbi Activity of striatal neurons reflects dynamic encoding and recoding of procedural memories
    Terra D Barnes
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 43 Vassar Street, 46 6133, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 437:1158-61. 2005
    ..such learning dynamics, we made long-term recordings from multiple neurons in the sensorimotor striatum, a basal ganglia structure implicated in habit formation, in rats successively trained on a reward-based procedural task, given ..
  62. pmc Adenosine A2A receptors and basal ganglia physiology
    S N Schiffmann
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, CP601, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    Prog Neurobiol 83:277-92. 2007
    Adenosine A2A receptors are highly enriched in the basal ganglia system...
  63. doi Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice for simultaneous visualization of medium spiny neurons in the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia
    Jessica A Shuen
    Center for Translational Neuroscience, Division of Neurology, Neurotransgenic Core Facility, and Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Neurosci 28:2681-5. 2008
  64. ncbi Complementary roles of basal ganglia and cerebellum in learning and motor control
    K Doya
    Information Sciences Division, ATR International and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 2 2 2 Hikaridai, Seika, Soraku, 619 0288, Kyoto, Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:732-9. 2000
    The classical notion that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are dedicated to motor control has been challenged by the accumulation of evidence revealing their involvement in non-motor, cognitive functions...
  65. doi What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective
    V S Chakravarthy
    Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, India
    Biol Cybern 103:237-53. 2010
    b>Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc...
  66. pmc Habenula: crossroad between the basal ganglia and the limbic system
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11825-9. 2008
    ..Further, dysfunctions of the LHb have also been implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, and drug-induced psychosis...
  67. pmc Cortical and basal ganglia contributions to habit learning and automaticity
    F Gregory Ashby
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 14:208-15. 2010
    ..At the same time, other recent reports indicate that automatic behaviors are striatum- and dopamine-independent, and might be mediated entirely within cortex. Resolving this apparent conflict should be a major goal of future research...
  68. doi The integrative function of the basal ganglia in instrumental conditioning
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
    Behav Brain Res 199:43-52. 2009
    ..As the entry point for the basal ganglia, cortical circuits involving the dorsal striatum are clearly in a position to control a variety of motor ..
  69. doi Disconnecting force from money: effects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation
    Liane Schmidt
    Laboratoire INSERM U610, Institut Fédératif de Recherches en Neurosciences, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Site Pitié Salpêtrière, F 75013 Paris, France
    Brain 131:1303-10. 2008
    Bilateral basal ganglia lesions have been reported to induce a particular form of apathy, termed auto-activation deficit (AAD), principally defined as a loss of self-driven behaviour that is reversible with external stimulation...
  70. pmc Vocal experimentation in the juvenile songbird requires a basal ganglia circuit
    Bence P Olveczky
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e153. 2005
    ..Our results establish that, in the juvenile songbird, the exploratory motor behavior required to learn a complex motor sequence is dependent on a dedicated neural circuit homologous to cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mammals.
  71. ncbi Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards
    Samuel M McClure
    Department of Psychology and Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 306:503-7. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the relative engagement of the two systems is directly associated with subjects' choices, with greater relative fronto-parietal activity when subjects choose longer term options...
  72. doi Parallel and interactive learning processes within the basal ganglia: relevance for the understanding of addiction
    David Belin
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EB Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Res 199:89-102. 2009
    ..parallel cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical loops involved in motor or emotional functions, the basal ganglia, and especially the striatum, are key mediators of the modulation of behavioural responses, under the control ..
  73. doi The basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease: current concepts and unexplained observations
    Jose A Obeso
    Departments of Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neurosurgery, Clinica Universitaria and Medical School, Neuroscience Centre, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
    Ann Neurol 64:S30-46. 2008
    ..disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG)...
  74. ncbi Functional significance of the cortico-subthalamo-pallidal 'hyperdirect' pathway
    Atsushi Nambu
    Department of System Neuroscience, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 2 6 Musashidai, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan
    Neurosci Res 43:111-7. 2002
    How the motor-related cortical areas modulate the activity of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia is an important issue for understanding the mechanisms of motor control by the basal ganglia...
  75. ncbi Processing of temporal information and the basal ganglia: new evidence from fMRI
    Igor Nenadic
    Department of Psychiatry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Philosophenweg 3, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 148:238-46. 2003
    ..Psychopharmacological and patient studies suggest a crucial role of the basal ganglia in time estimation...
  76. doi Multiple representations and algorithms for reinforcement learning in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit
    Makoto Ito
    Neural Computation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904 0412, Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:368-73. 2011
    Accumulating evidence shows that the neural network of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia is critically involved in reinforcement learning...
  77. doi The prefrontal-limbic network in depression: Modulation by hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain
    M R Bennett
    Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
    Prog Neurobiol 93:468-87. 2011
    ..Modulation of this prefrontal-limbic network (PLN) is principally through the hypothalamus, basal ganglia and midbrain...
  78. ncbi Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 318:1309-12. 2007
    ..These findings implicate independent mechanisms leading to impulsivity in treated Parkinson's patients and were predicted by a single neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia.
  79. pmc Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation in basal ganglia nuclei relates to specific symptoms in de novo Parkinson's disease
    Janey Prodoehl
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Mov Disord 25:2035-43. 2010
    ..modifying therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a strong need to identify noninvasive measures of basal ganglia (BG) function that are sensitive to disease severity...
  80. ncbi Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?
    Juan Mena-Segovia
    MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TH, UK
    Trends Neurosci 27:585-8. 2004
    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN...
  81. ncbi Basal ganglia macrocircuits
    J M Tepper
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    Prog Brain Res 160:3-7. 2007
    ..authors covering the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry/pharmacology and behavioral aspects of GABA in the basal ganglia. In this chapter the various nuclei of the basal ganglia are defined and their cellular structure, connections ..
  82. pmc Conditional routing of information to the cortex: a model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination
    Andrea Stocco
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Psychol Rev 117:541-74. 2010
    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning...
  83. ncbi Effects of treadmill exercise on dopaminergic transmission in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury
    Giselle M Petzinger
    Department of Neurology, The George and MaryLou Boone Center for Parkinson s Disease Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5291-300. 2007
    ....
  84. ncbi Neuroprotective strategies for basal ganglia degeneration: Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases
    T Alexi
    Research Centre for Developmental Medicine and Biology, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Prog Neurobiol 60:409-70. 2000
    ..Most of these approaches hold promise as potential therapies in the treatment of these disorders...
  85. pmc Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children
    Laura Chaddock
    Department of Psychology, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Dev Neurosci 32:249-56. 2010
    The present investigation is the first to explore the association between childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia structure and function...
  86. ncbi Variations in the human pain stress experience mediated by ventral and dorsal basal ganglia dopamine activity
    David J Scott
    Department of Psychiatry and Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0720, USA
    J Neurosci 26:10789-95. 2006
    ..addition to its involvement in motor control and in encoding reward value, increasing evidence also implicates basal ganglia dopaminergic mechanisms in responses to stress and aversive stimuli...
  87. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi The connections of the primate subthalamic nucleus: indirect pathways and the open-interconnected scheme of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry
    D Joel
    Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 23:62-78. 1997
    The current view of basal ganglia organization holds that functionally corresponding subregions of the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus form several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits...
  89. ncbi Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: a computational model
    M J Frank
    University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 1:137-60. 2001
    The frontal cortex and the basal ganglia interact via a relatively well understood and elaborate system of interconnections...
  90. ncbi Basal ganglia and supplementary motor area subtend duration perception: an fMRI study
    A M Ferrandez
    Unité de Neurosciences Cognitives et Imagerie Cérébrale, CNRS UPR 640, LENA, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
    Neuroimage 19:1532-44. 2003
    ..the frontal and mesiofrontal cortex (supplementary motor area, SMA), parietal cortex, and subcortical areas (basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum)...
  91. ncbi Exercise-induced behavioral recovery and neuroplasticity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse basal ganglia
    Beth E Fisher
    Department of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    J Neurosci Res 77:378-90. 2004
    Physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in lesions affecting the basal ganglia. Using a treadmill exercise paradigm, we investigated the effect of exercise on neurorestoration...
  92. doi Seven problems on the basal ganglia
    Atsushi Nambu
    Division of System Neurophysiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 18:595-604. 2008
    Our knowledge on the functions of the basal ganglia has increased enormously during the last two decades. However, we still do not completely understand the primary function of the basal ganglia...
  93. ncbi Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations
    M S Brainard
    Keck Center for Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, 94143 0444, USA
    Nature 404:762-6. 2000
    ..that normally follow deafening can be prevented by a second insult to the nervous system--the lesion of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit...
  94. pmc Interaction of stimulus-driven reorienting and expectation in ventral and dorsal frontoparietal and basal ganglia-cortical networks
    Gordon L Shulman
    Department of Neurology, Washington University, 4525 Scott Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:4392-407. 2009
    ..Nevertheless, IFG was activated only by unexpected shifts of attention, dissociating its function from TPJ. Basal ganglia and frontal/insula regions also were activated only when reorienting was unexpected but showed strong rs-fcMRI ..
  95. doi Striatal and extrastriatal dopamine in the basal ganglia: an overview of its anatomical organization in normal and Parkinsonian brains
    Yoland Smith
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Mov Disord 23:S534-47. 2008
    ..Dopamine has long been recognized to be a key neuromodulator of basal ganglia function, essential for normal motor activity...
  96. ncbi Neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia and movement disorders: evidence from whole animal and human recordings
    William D Hutchison
    Division of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T 2S8
    J Neurosci 24:9240-3. 2004
  97. pmc Neurocomputational models of basal ganglia function in learning, memory and choice
    Michael X Cohen
    Department of Psychology, Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, 1503 E University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States
    Behav Brain Res 199:141-56. 2009
    The basal ganglia (BG) are critical for the coordination of several motor, cognitive, and emotional functions and become dysfunctional in several pathological states ranging from Parkinson's disease to Schizophrenia...
  98. pmc Testing basal ganglia motor functions through reversible inactivations in the posterior internal globus pallidus
    M Desmurget
    Department of Neurobiology, Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Neurophysiol 99:1057-76. 2008
    To test current hypotheses on the contribution of the basal ganglia (BG) to motor control, we examined the effects of muscimol-induced inactivations in the skeletomotor region of the internal globus pallidus (sGPi) on visually directed ..
  99. pmc Phase relationships support a role for coordinated activity in the indirect pathway in organizing slow oscillations in basal ganglia output after loss of dopamine
    J R Walters
    Neurophysiological Pharmacology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3702, USA
    Neuroscience 144:762-76. 2007
    ..of the present study was to determine the phase relationships of the slow oscillatory activity that emerges in basal ganglia nuclei in anesthetized rats after dopamine cell lesion in order to gain insight into the passage of this ..
  100. ncbi Immunohistochemical study on the distribution of six members of the Kv1 channel subunits in the rat basal ganglia
    Y H Chung
    Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon Dong, Chongno Gu, Seoul 110 799, South Korea
    Brain Res 875:164-70. 2000
    ..here is the first in which the expression of six Kv1 channel subunits have been directly compared in the rat basal ganglia. In the present study, we have found that staining patterns of the six Kv1 channel subunits overlap in some ..
  101. pmc An ultra-short dopamine pathway regulates basal ganglia output
    Fu Wen Zhou
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    J Neurosci 29:10424-35. 2009
    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a key basal ganglia output nucleus critical for movement control. Its GABA-containing projection neurons intermingle with nigral dopamine (DA) neuron dendrites...

Research Grants90

  1. Basal Ganglia and Higher Cortical Function
    Peter L Strick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia (BG) participate in multiple segregated "loops" with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, prefrontal, posterior parietal and inferotemporal cortex...
  2. Inhibitory Interneurons in Tourette Syndrome
    Flora Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The cerebral cortex-basal ganglia circuitry regulates motor habits and goal-directed behavior...
  3. Synaptic processing in the basal ganglia
    David J Perkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pathway needed for learning song involves the basal ganglia, a set of brain regions known in mammals to be important for motor control, motor learning and a variety of ..
  4. Thalamostriatal System in Parkinsonism
    THOMAS N WICHMANN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The centromedian and parafascicular nuclei (CM/PF) of the thalamus receive inputs from the basal ganglia, and send a massive and topographically organized projection back to the striatum...
  5. CONTINUITY OF LIMBIC CIRCUIT THROUGH THE BASAL GANGLIA
    Suzanne Haber; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, and drug addiction are linked to pathology in the cortico-basal ganglia (BG), reward circuit...
  6. Basal Ganglia and Higher Cortical Function
    PETER STRICK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia (BG) participate in multiple segregated "loops" with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, prefrontal, posterior parietal and inferotemporal cortex...
  7. Cortical connections with the limbic territory of the basal ganglia
    Michelle Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia (BG) participate in multiple segregated "loops" with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, prefrontal, posterior parietal and inferotemporal cortex...
  8. Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Formation of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
    KENNETH J CAMPBELL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The basal ganglia comprise a collection of nuclei that are primarily involved in controlling purposeful movements and appropriate behavior...
  9. Cortical and basal ganglia local field potentials in human movement disorders
    Philip A Starr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..goal of this project is to advance the understanding of movement disorders pathophysiology through studies of basal ganglia and cortical local field potentials (LFPs) in humans...
  10. Cortical contributions to basal ganglia disorders
    PETER STRICK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    There is growing evidence that the basal ganglia participate in multiple 'loops' with a wide variety of cortical areas including regions of motor, premotor, prefrontal, orbitofrontal, cingulated, posterior parietal and inferotemporal ..
  11. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function
    James M Tepper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The basal ganglia is an essential component of the central circuitry controlling voluntary movement as well as sensorimotor integration, motor and non-motor learning, and a number of higher cognitive functions...
  12. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Function
    James M Tepper; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The basal ganglia is an essential component of the central circuitry controlling voluntary movement as well as sensorimotor integration, motor and non-motor learning, and a number of higher cognitive functions...
  13. GABA RECEPTORS IN THE THALAMUS
    Yoland Smith; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The basal ganglia and thalamus are interconnected through a series of loops that process and convey basal ganglia outflow to either frontal cortical regions via the ventral motor nuclei or back to the striatum via the caudal intralaminar ..
  14. Inhibitory Interneurons in Tourette Syndrome
    Flora Vaccarino; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The cerebral cortex-basal ganglia circuitry regulates motor habits and goal-directed behavior...
  15. PALLIDAL PHYSIOLOGY IN HUMAN AND PRIMATE DYSTONIA
    PHILIP STARR; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..been made to understand movement disorders in terms of alterations in a loop circuit involving the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus...
  16. DOPAMINERGIC TOXICITY OF ATRAZINE--INFLUENCE OF AGE
    NIKOLAY FILIPOV; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..during adolescence will potentiate the age-related DA loss, as well as potentiate the toxicity of a typical basal ganglia neurotoxicant such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and (iii) that a sub-chronic or ..
  17. Synaptic processing in the basal ganglia
    David Perkel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The pathway needed for learning song involves the basal ganglia, a set of brain regions known in mammals to be important for motor control, motor learning and a variety of ..
  18. Organization of the Cortical Projection to the Basal Ganglia
    ANTON J REINER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we also do now know if our findings for rats are true for primates, and thus clinically relevant to the human basal ganglia. In Aim 1 of the current proposal, we will use in vivo intracellular methods in rats to record from individual ..
  19. Organization of the Cortical Projection to the Basal Ganglia
    Anton Reiner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..we also do now know if our findings for rats are true for primates, and thus clinically relevant to the human basal ganglia. In Aim 1 of the current proposal, we will use in vivo intracellular methods in rats to record from individual ..
  20. NEURAL CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
    Jerome Sanes; Fiscal Year: 1993
    This project investigates the role of the basal ganglia in integrating somatic sensory information and motor commands for executing purposeful movements...
  21. NEURAL CONTROL OF HUMAN VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
    Jerome Sanes; Fiscal Year: 2001
    This project investigates the role of the basal ganglia in integrating somatic sensory information and motor commands for executing purposeful movements...
  22. Influence of the Basal Ganglia on Cerebellar Action
    Alan Gibson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Diseases affecting the basal ganglia produce a variety of movement deficits, and these deficits are often totally disabling. Parkinson's disease, which affects about 1...
  23. Generation of a mouse model of L-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD)
    ELLEN HESS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Despite a strong clinico-pathological correlation between the basal ganglia and dystonia, there is little understanding of the underlying neuronal dysfunction...
  24. Pontine motor circuits
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although traditional accounts emphasize the role of reduced dopamine (DA) transmission in the basal ganglia (secondary to loss of midbrain A9 dopamine neurons) in the motoric defects of these disorders, more recent ..
  25. High Force Resistance Training and Dopamine Replacement Effects on Hypokinesia in
    LELAND DIBBLE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) is the model movement disorder to explore the motor function of the basal ganglia. (Morris ME, 2005) Alterations in the output of the basal ganglia lead to reductions in muscle force output and ..
  26. MOTOR ACTIONS OF CANNABINOIDS IN A PARKINSONS MODEL
    CLARA SANUDO PENA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The hallmark of Parkinson s disease is a dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta...
  27. Influence of the Basal Ganglia on Cerebellar Action
    Alan Gibson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..to be a surprisingly effective approach for the control of movement disorders associated with diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Parkinson's disease...
  28. Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, and Higher Cortical Function
    PETER STRICK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The classical view is that the outputs from the basal ganglia and cerebellum project to a region of the ventrolateral thalamus that ultimately influences a single cortical area, the primary motor cortex...
  29. Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, and Higher Cortical Function
    PETER STRICK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The classical view is that the outputs from the basal ganglia and cerebellum project to a region of the ventrolateral thalamus that ultimately influences a single cortical area, the primary motor cortex...