brain stem


Summary: The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Astrocytes control breathing through pH-dependent release of ATP
    Alexander V Gourine
    Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Science 329:571-5. 2010
  2. doi Brain stem pathology in Parkinson's disease: an evaluation of the Braak staging model
    Ann E Kingsbury
    Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, UCL, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 25:2508-15. 2010
  3. pmc Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis
    Zhengqi Lu
    Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e22766. 2011
  4. ncbi Early defects of GABAergic synapses in the brain stem of a MeCP2 mouse model of Rett syndrome
    L Medrihan
    Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Georg August University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 99:112-21. 2008
  5. doi Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem
    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen
    Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
    Neuroreport 20:170-4. 2009
  6. ncbi Evidence that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin neurons link hypothalamic leptin action to caudal brain stem nuclei controlling meal size
    James E Blevins
    VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Research Service 151 1660 S Columbian Wy, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R87-96. 2004
  7. pmc Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns
    Patrick C M Wong
    The Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 3540, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:420-2. 2007
  8. pmc Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity
    M M Heinricher
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    Brain Res Rev 60:214-25. 2009
  9. ncbi Math1 expression redefines the rhombic lip derivatives and reveals novel lineages within the brainstem and cerebellum
    Vincent Y Wang
    Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Neuron 48:31-43. 2005
  10. pmc Persistent inflammation alters the function of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment
    Stefano Pluchino
    Neuroimmunology Unit, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    Brain 131:2564-78. 2008

Detail Information

Publications351 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Astrocytes control breathing through pH-dependent release of ATP
    Alexander V Gourine
    Neuroscience, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Science 329:571-5. 2010
    ..This demonstrates a potentially crucial role for brain glial cells in mediating a fundamental physiological reflex...
  2. doi Brain stem pathology in Parkinson's disease: an evaluation of the Braak staging model
    Ann E Kingsbury
    Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, UCL, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Mov Disord 25:2508-15. 2010
    The lower brain stem of 25 pathologically-confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) cases was examined by alpha synuclein immunohistochemistry to characterize pathological accumulation of alpha synuclein (Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy, LTS) in ..
  3. pmc Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis
    Zhengqi Lu
    Department of Neurology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e22766. 2011
    b>Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS).
  4. ncbi Early defects of GABAergic synapses in the brain stem of a MeCP2 mouse model of Rett syndrome
    L Medrihan
    Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Georg August University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 99:112-21. 2008 indicate that in the MeCP2 -/y mice specific synaptic molecules and signaling pathways are impaired in the brain stem during early postnatal development...
  5. doi Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem
    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen
    Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
    Neuroreport 20:170-4. 2009
    ..Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators...
  6. ncbi Evidence that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin neurons link hypothalamic leptin action to caudal brain stem nuclei controlling meal size
    James E Blevins
    VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Research Service 151 1660 S Columbian Wy, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287:R87-96. 2004
  7. pmc Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns
    Patrick C M Wong
    The Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 3540, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:420-2. 2007
  8. pmc Descending control of nociception: Specificity, recruitment and plasticity
    M M Heinricher
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA
    Brain Res Rev 60:214-25. 2009
  9. ncbi Math1 expression redefines the rhombic lip derivatives and reveals novel lineages within the brainstem and cerebellum
    Vincent Y Wang
    Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Neuron 48:31-43. 2005
  10. pmc Persistent inflammation alters the function of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment
    Stefano Pluchino
    Neuroimmunology Unit, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    Brain 131:2564-78. 2008
    ..g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment in chronic CNS inflammatory disorders remains poorly characterized...
  11. ncbi Brain stem is a direct target for leptin's action in the central nervous system
    Toru Hosoi
    Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12, Nishi 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Endocrinology 143:3498-504. 2002
    ..that peripherally applied leptin increased STAT3 phosphorylation not only in the hypothalamus but also in the brain stem as assessed by Western blotting...
  12. pmc Cytokine immunopathogenesis of enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis
    Shih Min Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70428, Taiwan
    Clin Dev Immunol 2012:876241. 2012
    ..It can also cause severe complications of the central nervous system (CNS). Brain stem encephalitis with pulmonary edema is the severe complication that can lead to death...
  13. ncbi Brain stem mechanisms underlying acupuncture modality-related modulation of cardiovascular responses in rats
    Wei Yi Syuu Zhou
    Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Univ of California, Irvine, CA 92697 4075, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:851-60. 2005
    The present study was designed to investigate brain stem responses to manual acupuncture (MA) and electroacupuncture (EA) at different frequencies at pericardial P (5-6) acupoints located over the median nerve...
  14. ncbi Acoustic environment determines phosphorylation state of the Kv3.1 potassium channel in auditory neurons
    Ping Song
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1335-42. 2005
    ..1 current, facilitating high-frequency spiking. Our results indicate that the intrinsic electrical properties of auditory neurons are rapidly modified to adjust to the ambient acoustic environment...
  15. pmc Plasticity in the adult human auditory brainstem following short-term linguistic training
    Judy H Song
    Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 20:1892-902. 2008
  16. ncbi Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis and echovirus meningitis infections of varying severity
    S M Wang
    Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
    Clin Microbiol Infect 13:677-82. 2007
    ..quantitative relationship between specific cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the severity of EV71 brain stem encephalitis (BE), and investigated whether the CSF cytokine response differed from that to uncomplicated ..
  17. ncbi Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet
    H Suzuki
    National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Mech Ageing Dev 101:119-28. 1998
    ..of 12 month feeding of 5% palm oil or sardine oil diet on the maze-learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in mice was studied...
  18. ncbi Enzymatic degradation of prion protein in brain stem from infected cattle and sheep
    Jan P M Langeveld
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Food Chain Quality, Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 188:1782-9. 2003
    ..This enzymatic process could lead to the development of a method for the decontamination of medical and laboratory equipment. The ultimate effectiveness of this method of prion inactivation has to be tested in mouse bioassays...
  19. ncbi Stimulation of the parapyramidal region of the neonatal rat brain stem produces locomotor-like activity involving spinal 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors
    Jun Liu
    Department of Physiology, Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Canada
    J Neurophysiol 94:1392-404. 2005
    ..Here we show for the first time that activation of a discrete population of 5-HT neurons in the rodent brain stem produces locomotion and that the evoked locomotion requires 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors...
  20. pmc The thalamus and brainstem act as key hubs in alterations of human brain network connectivity induced by mild propofol sedation
    Tommaso Gili
    Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 33:4024-31. 2013
  21. ncbi MRI of Wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD)
    P Galluzzi
    Department of Neuroradiology, Policlinico Le Scotte, Azienda Ospedaliera Senese, Viale M Bracci, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Neuroradiology 41:729-31. 1999
    ..lobe of the pituitary, shrinkage of optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, atrophy of the hypothalamic region, brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex...
  22. ncbi Selective attention affects human brain stem frequency-following response
    Gary C Galbraith
    Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Mental Retardation Research Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Research Group at Lanterman Developmental Center, P O Box 100 R, Pomona, CA 91769, USA
    Neuroreport 14:735-8. 2003
    ..However, there is controversy concerning the effects of selective attention on short-latency brain stem evoked potentials...
  23. ncbi A comparison of visceral and somatic pain processing in the human brainstem using functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Paul Dunckley
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 25:7333-41. 2005
    ..05, Pearson's r, two-tailed) but not somatic stimulation. We propose that the differences in NCF and right PAG activation observed may represent a greater nocifensive response and greater emotive salience of visceral over somatic pain...
  24. ncbi Insulin-like growth factor I modifies electrophysiological properties of rat brain stem neurons
    Angel Nunez
    Departamento de Morfologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad, Autonoma de Madrid, 28029, Spain
    J Neurophysiol 89:3008-17. 2003
    ..factor I (IGF-I) elicits a prolonged increase in the excitability of dorsal column nuclei (DCN) cells in the brain stem as well as other target neurons within the brain...
  25. pmc Spinal and supraspinal postural networks
    T G Deliagina
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, SE 17177, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Rev 57:212-21. 2008
    ..The postural capacity of spinal networks was evaluated in animals with lesions to the spinal cord. Relative contribution of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms to the stabilization of trunk orientation is discussed...
  26. ncbi Brain stem and cortical mechanisms underlying the binaural masking level difference in humans: an auditory steady-state response study
    Winnie Y S Wong
    School of Audiology and Speech Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B C, Canada
    Ear Hear 25:57-67. 2004
    The behavioral binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is believed to reflect brain stem processing...
  27. ncbi From brainstem to cortex: computational models of saccade generation circuitry
    B Girard
    Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l Action, UMR 7152, CNRS College de France, Paris, France
    Prog Neurobiol 77:215-51. 2005
    ..Moreover, beyond the multiple research topics remaining to be solved locally, questions regarding the operation of the whole structure can now be addressed by building on the existing models...
  28. ncbi Quantitative analysis of calcium-dependent vesicle recruitment and its functional role at the calyx of Held synapse
    Nobutake Hosoi
    Department of Membrane Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:14286-98. 2007
    ..We could also demonstrate an approximate sixfold increase in release probability (facilitation) during the initial 5-15 AP-like stimuli of such trains in our experimental condition, regardless of EPSC depression...
  29. pmc A low-affinity antagonist reveals saturation and desensitization in mature synapses in the auditory brain stem
    Soham Chanda
    Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
    J Neurophysiol 103:1915-26. 2010
    ..Dynamic-clamp experiments indicated that desensitization can reduce BC spike probability and increase latency and jitter. Thus desensitization may affect sound processing in the mature auditory system...
  30. pmc Transsynaptic EphB/Ephrin-B signaling regulates growth of presynaptic boutons required for classical conditioning
    Wei Li
    Neuroscience Group, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069, USA
    J Neurosci 31:8441-9. 2011
    ..They also reveal a functional interaction between BDNF/TrkB and the Eph/ephrin signaling systems in the coordination of presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications during conditioning...
  31. ncbi Engrailed genes control developmental fate of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons in mid- and hindbrain in a gene dose-dependent manner
    Horst H Simon
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 28:96-105. 2005
    ..An almost identical phenotype is found in mutant mice null for Wnt1, indicating that the engrailed genes provide essential positional information for the development of the two nuclei during early embryogenesis...
  32. pmc Sumoylation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α ameliorates failure of brain stem cardiovascular regulation in experimental brain death
    Julie Y H Chan
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 6:e17375. 2011
    ..It follows that sumoylation of HIF-1α in RVLM in response to hypoxia may play a modulatory role on brain stem cardiovascular regulation during experimental brain death.
  33. pmc Fatal breathing dysfunction in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome
    Albert Quintana
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:2359-68. 2012
    ..Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense bilateral lesions in the dorsal brain stem vestibular nucleus (VN) and cerebellum of severely affected mice...
  34. pmc Central TNF inhibition results in attenuated neurohumoral excitation in heart failure: a role for superoxide and nitric oxide
    Anuradha Guggilam
    Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 1909 Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 106:273-86. 2011
    ..These results indicate that elevated TNF in these autonomic regulatory regions of the brain alter the production of superoxide and nitric oxide, contributing to fluid imbalance and sympathoexcitation in CHF...
  35. ncbi Modulation of the kv3.1b potassium channel isoform adjusts the fidelity of the firing pattern of auditory neurons
    Carolyn M Macica
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Neurosci 23:1133-41. 2003
    ..Our results suggest that modulation of Kv3.1 by phosphorylation allows auditory neurons to tune their responses to different patterns of sensory stimulation...
  36. pmc Mapping the face in the somatosensory brainstem
    Reha S Erzurumlu
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, 21201 Maryland, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:252-63. 2010
    ..Such position-dependent information is fundamental in transforming the early spatial layout of sensory receptors into a topographic connectivity map that is conferred to higher brain levels...
  37. ncbi Effects of CXCR3 signaling on development of fatal encephalitis and corneal and periocular skin disease in HSV-infected mice are mouse-strain dependent
    Patric Lundberg
    Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:4162-70. 2007
    ..The role of CXCR3 chemokine signaling in HSV-induced central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and corneal disease was evaluated, and responses in genetically susceptible and resistant strains of mice were contrasted...
  38. pmc The immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in susceptible mice is a major cause of central nervous system pathology resulting in fatal encephalitis
    Patric Lundberg
    Division of Virology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    J Virol 82:7078-88. 2008
    ..Susceptible 129S6 (129) but not resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice developed intense focal inflammatory brain stem lesions of primarily F4/80(+) macrophages and Gr-1(+) neutrophils detectable by magnetic resonance imaging as ..
  39. pmc Spatial and functional architecture of the mammalian brain stem respiratory network: a hierarchy of three oscillatory mechanisms
    J C Smith
    Cellular and Systems Neurobiology Section, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Neurophysiol 98:3370-87. 2007
    ..Network architectures that enable these features are not well understood. Here we studied organization of the brain stem respiratory CPG...
  40. pmc Task2 potassium channels set central respiratory CO2 and O2 sensitivity
    Christian Gestreau
    Department of Neurovegetative Physiology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Paul Cezanne, 13397 Marseille, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2325-30. 2010
    ..These data identify Task2 as a determinant of central O(2) chemoreception and demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the activity of a small number of neurons located at the ventral medullary surface...
  41. ncbi Neural pathways underlying vocal control
    Uwe Jürgens
    German Primate Centre, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:235-58. 2002
    ..And it needs an input from the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area which give rise to the motor commands executed by the motor cortex...
  42. ncbi Short-term plasticity at the calyx of Held
    Henrique von Gersdorff
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97201 3098, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:53-64. 2002
    ..The calyx of Held has also provided fresh insights into the strategies used by synapses to extend their dynamic range of operation and preserve the timing of sensory stimuli...
  43. pmc Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI
    Thomas Jubault
    Unité de Neuroimagerie Fonctionelle, Institut Universitaire de Geriatrie de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e8247. 2009
    ..However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease...
  44. pmc The changing balance of brainstem-spinal cord modulation of pain processing over the first weeks of rat postnatal life
    G J Hathway
    Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Physiol 587:2927-35. 2009
    ..These data demonstrate, for the first time, the changing postnatal influence of the RVM in spinal nociception and highlight the central role of descending brainstem control in the maturation of pain processing...
  45. doi Identifying brain activity specifically related to the maintenance and perceptual consequence of central sensitization in humans
    Michael C Lee
    Department of Clinical Neurology, Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:11642-9. 2008
  46. ncbi Projections of the paratrigeminal nucleus to the ambiguus, rostroventrolateral and lateral reticular nuclei, and the solitary tract
    H de Sousa Buck
    Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, , Brazil
    Auton Neurosci 87:187-200. 2001
  47. pmc Modules in the brain stem and spinal cord underlying motor behaviors
    Jinsook Roh
    McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Neurophysiol 106:1363-78. 2011
    ..We address whether the brain stem and spinal cord are involved in expressing muscle synergies used for executing a range of natural movements...
  48. ncbi Muscimol infusions in the brain stem reticular formation reversibly block ingestion in the awake rat
    Z Chen
    College of Dentistry, Section of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, 305 W. at 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43218, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 280:R1085-94. 2001
    ..In contrast, midline infusions of muscimol did not affect licking or rejection responses. We postulate that the lateral medullary RF is an essential final common path for ingestive consummatory responses...
  49. doi Upper airway dysfunction of Tau-P301L mice correlates with tauopathy in midbrain and ponto-medullary brainstem nuclei
    Mathias Dutschmann
    Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:1810-21. 2010
    ..Because patients with tauopathy suffer from upper airway dysfunction, the Tau-P301L mice can serve as an experimental model to study disease-specific synaptic dysfunction in well defined functional neural circuits...
  50. ncbi Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis: clinical features of 62 cases and a subgroup associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Masaaki Odaka
    Department of Neurology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, Japan
    Brain 126:2279-90. 2003
    ..A considerable number of BBE patients have associated axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome, indicative that the two disorders are closely related and form a continuous spectrum...
  51. ncbi Encoding of pitch in the human brainstem is sensitive to language experience
    Ananthanarayan Krishnan
    Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2038, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 25:161-8. 2005
    ..Rather, these results support the possibility of neural plasticity at the brainstem level that is induced by language experience that may be enhancing or priming linguistically relevant features of the speech input...
  52. ncbi A PET study exploring the laterality of brainstem activation in migraine using glyceryl trinitrate
    S K Afridi
    Headache Group, Institute of Neurology and The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
    Brain 128:932-9. 2005
    ..Consistent with previous work, the activation persisted after pain was controlled by sumatriptan. These results suggest that lateralization of pain in migraine is due to lateralized brain dysfunction...
  53. ncbi Plasticity of the auditory brainstem: effects of cochlear ablation on GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the rat
    R B Illing
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 382:116-38. 1997
    ..Given the functional significance attributed to GAP-43, we conclude that the sudden loss of spiral ganglion cells leads to a reactive synaptogenesis in complex patterns across several auditory brainstem nuclei...
  54. ncbi Differential intrinsic response dynamics determine synaptic signal processing in frog vestibular neurons
    Mathieu Beraneck
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie des Reseaux Sensorimoteurs, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7060, Universite Paris Descartes, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France
    J Neurosci 27:4283-96. 2007
  55. ncbi The role of timing in the brain stem auditory nuclei of vertebrates
    D Oertel
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 61:497-519. 1999
    ..The monaural nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, whose roles are not understood (although they are ubiquitous in higher vertebrates), receive input from multiple pathways that encode timing with precision, some through calyceal endings...
  56. ncbi Neurokinin 1 receptor expression by neurons in laminae I, III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn that project to the brainstem
    A J Todd
    Spinal Cord Group, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ UK
    Eur J Neurosci 12:689-700. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that dorsal horn neurons which express the neurokinin 1 receptor contribute to several ascending pathways that are thought to be important in pain mechanisms...
  57. ncbi Optimizing synaptic architecture and efficiency for high-frequency transmission
    Holger Taschenberger
    The Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97201, USA
    Neuron 36:1127-43. 2002
    ..A greater multiplicity of small AZs with few docked vesicles, a larger pool of releasable vesicles, and a higher efficiency of release thus promote prolonged high-frequency firing in mature synapses...
  58. ncbi Staggered development of GABAergic and glycinergic transmission in the MNTB
    Gautam B Awatramani
    Oregon Hearing Research Center Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    J Neurophysiol 93:819-28. 2005
    Maturation of some brain stem and spinal inhibitory systems is characterized by a shift from GABAergic to glycinergic transmission...
  59. pmc Differential expression of apoptosis-related genes in the cochlea of noise-exposed rats
    B H Hu
    Center for Hearing and Deafness, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Neuroscience 161:915-25. 2009
    ..These constitutively expressed genes, together with the inducible genes, may participate in the induction of cochlear apoptotic activity...
  60. ncbi Development of spontaneous mouth/tongue movement and related neural activity, and their repression in fetal mice lacking glutamate decarboxylase 67
    Naoko Tsunekawa
    Obata Research Unit, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Hirosawa 2 1, Wako Shi, Saitama 351 0198, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 21:173-8. 2005
  61. pmc Context-dependent encoding in the human auditory brainstem relates to hearing speech in noise: implications for developmental dyslexia
    Bharath Chandrasekaran
    Roxelyn and Richard Pepper Department of Communication Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Neuron 64:311-9. 2009
    ..The disruption of this mechanism contributes to a critical deficit in noise-exclusion, a hallmark symptom in developmental dyslexia...
  62. ncbi Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates--an overview
    Sten Grillner
    The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Rev 57:2-12. 2008
  63. ncbi Brain stem circuits mediating prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex
    M Fendt
    Tierphysiologie, Universitat Tubingen, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:216-24. 2001
    ..Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex occurs when brief, non-startling tactile, acoustic or visual stimuli are presented 20-500 ms before the startling stimulus...
  64. ncbi Alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Disease Research Center, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 249:180-2. 1998
    ..These findings indicate that alpha-synuclein is also a major component of GCIs and NCIs in MSA and strongly suggest that alpha-synuclein aggregation is a common process in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and MSA...
  65. ncbi Extracellular domains of alpha-neurexins participate in regulating synaptic transmission by selectively affecting N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels
    Weiqi Zhang
    Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Georg August University, D 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 25:4330-42. 2005
  66. ncbi A working heart-brainstem preparation of the mouse
    J F Paton
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    J Neurosci Methods 65:63-8. 1996
    ..The WH-BP may provide an advantaged environment for analysis of both synaptic and cellular mechanisms within the medulla that regulate cardio-respiratory activity...
  67. ncbi The calyx of Held
    Ralf Schneggenburger
    Laboratory of Synaptic Mechanisms, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, Brain Mind Institute, Bâtiment AAB, Station 15, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Cell Tissue Res 326:311-37. 2006
    ..Together, these studies convey the panopoly of presynaptic regulatory processes underlying the regulation of transmitter release, its modulatory control and short-term plasticity within one identified synaptic terminal...
  68. pmc Neuropathic pain is maintained by brainstem neurons co-expressing opioid and cholecystokinin receptors
    Wenjun Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Brain 132:778-87. 2009
    ..These data support our hypothesis and identify CCK2-MOR co-expressing neurons in the RVM as potential therapeutic targets for neuropathic pain...
  69. ncbi Magnetic resonance imaging reveals neuronal degeneration in the brainstem of the superoxide dismutase 1 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Da Wei Zang
    Howard Florey Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Eur J Neurosci 20:1745-51. 2004
    ..This atrophy was confirmed by fresh brain weight data. The extensive global degeneration involving multiple structures suggests a multisystem disease that is similar to human ALS...
  70. doi Fenestration of the calyx of Held occurs sequentially along the tonotopic axis, is influenced by afferent activity, and facilitates glutamate clearance
    Marc C Ford
    Division of Neurobiology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Martinsried, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 514:92-106. 2009
  71. ncbi Auditory efferent feedback system deficits precede age-related hearing loss: contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions in mice
    Xiaoxia Zhu
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642 8629, USA
    J Comp Neurol 503:593-604. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the C57 mouse has MOC function at 6 weeks, but it declines quickly, preceding the progression of peripheral age-related sensitivity deficits and hearing loss in this mouse strain...
  72. ncbi Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: possible routes by which vulnerable neuronal types may be subject to neuroinvasion by an unknown pathogen
    H Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neural Transm 110:517-36. 2003
    ..In the lower brain stem, the process begins in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and advances from there essentially upwards ..
  73. ncbi Differences in transductional tropism of adenoviral and lentiviral vectors in the rat brainstem
    Hanad Duale
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Exp Physiol 90:71-8. 2005
    ..Thus, the present study provides compelling evidence that VSVG-coated LVVs significantly shift transgene expression towards neurones while transduction with AVVs favours glia...
  74. ncbi Comparison of c-fos-like immunoreactivity in the brainstem following intraoral and intragastric infusions of chemical solutions in rats
    T Yamamoto
    Department of Behavioral Physiology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka University, 1 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565 0871, Osaka, Japan
    Brain Res 866:144-51. 2000
    ..These results indicate that c-fos induction in brainstem neurons during ingestion reflects gustatory inputs and postingestional factors depending on the kind of food ingested...
  75. pmc Neural correlates of consonance, dissonance, and the hierarchy of musical pitch in the human brainstem
    Gavin M Bidelman
    Department of Speech Language, Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2038, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13165-71. 2009
  76. doi Mapping of neural activity produced by thermal pain in the healthy human spinal cord and brain stem: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Catherine M Cahill
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
    Magn Reson Imaging 29:342-52. 2011
    ..Activity was greater in the spinal cord and brain stem in earlier experiments, compared with repeated experiments after the more noxious (46 °C) stimulus had been ..
  77. ncbi Brain stem and cerebellar findings in Joubert syndrome
    Ibrahim A Alorainy
    Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 30:116-21. 2006
    ..The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the brain stem and cerebellar imaging findings in Joubert syndrome...
  78. doi Far field potentials from brain stem after transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation: optimization of stimulation and recording parameters
    Thomas Polak
    Laboratory for Psychophysiology and Functional Imaging, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Julius Maximilians University, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 116:1237-42. 2009
    The method of vagus somatosensory evoked potentials (VSEP) was introduced to easily measure the activity of vagus brain stem nuclei...
  79. doi Transcription factors and the genetic organization of brain stem respiratory neurons
    Paul A Gray
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110 1093, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1513-21. 2008
    Breathing is a genetically determined behavior generated by neurons in the brain stem. Transcription factors, in part, determine the basic developmental identity of neurons, but the relationships between these genes and the neural ..
  80. pmc Motor cortex electrical stimulation promotes axon outgrowth to brain stem and spinal targets that control the forelimb impaired by unilateral corticospinal injury
    Jason B Carmel
    Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience and Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 37:1090-102. 2013
    ..Here, we tested: (i) if M1 stimulation only increases spinal axon length or if it also promotes connections to brain stem forelimb control centers, especially magnocellular red nucleus; and (ii) if stimulation-induced increase in axon ..
  81. ncbi Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system
    Roger D Cone
    Vollum Institute and the Center for the Study of Weight Regulation, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:571-8. 2005
  82. ncbi Evidence for increased nitric oxide production in the auditory brain stem of the aged dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus): an NADPH-diaphorase histochemical study
    S Reuss
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Mech Ageing Dev 112:125-34. 2000
    ..The superior olivary complex (SOC), a group of interrelated brain stem nuclei, projects to a variety of neuronal structures including the cochlea and the inferior colliculus (IC)...
  83. pmc Post-tetanic potentiation in the rat calyx of Held synapse
    Ron L P Habets
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Physiol 564:173-87. 2005
    ..Although part of the PTP can be explained by a direct activation of the calcium sensor for phasic release, other mechanisms are likely to contribute as well...
  84. ncbi Anticipatory brainstem activity predicts neural processing of pain in humans
    Merle Fairhurst
    Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, United Kingdom
    Pain 128:101-10. 2007
    ..Together, the results suggest a possible role of brainstem areas in anticipatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of chronic pain...
  85. ncbi Implanted embryonic sensory neurons project axons toward adult auditory brainstem neurons in roller drum and Stoppini co-cultures
    Charoensri Thonabulsombat
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Bangkok 10400 and Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakorn Pathom 73170, Thailand
    Brain Res 1170:48-58. 2007
  86. ncbi Altered glycinergic synaptic activities in guinea pig brain stem auditory nuclei after unilateral cochlear ablation
    S J Potashner
    Department of Anatomy, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    Hear Res 147:125-36. 2000
    ..Third, several tissues exhibited various transient changes in activity. These types of post-lesion change might contribute to altered auditory functions, which often accompany hearing loss...
  87. doi Relative maturation of peripheral and central regions of the human brainstem from preterm to term and the influence of preterm birth
    Ze D Jiang
    Children s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Pediatr Res 65:657-62. 2009
    ..Preterm birth slightly delays early maturation of central brainstem regions...
  88. ncbi Assessment of MRI abnormalities of the brainstem from patients with migraine and multiple sclerosis
    Paola Tortorella
    Neuroimaging Research Unit, Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    J Neurol Sci 244:137-41. 2006
    ..In patients with migraine, functional changes have been described in the red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG)...
  89. pmc Timing of impulses from the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis to the brain stem
    Frank Z Nagy
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    J Neurophysiol 100:3429-36. 2008
    ..connections, we compared the antidromic response latencies of BNST and central amygdala (CE) neurons to brain stem stimulation...
  90. ncbi Vacuolization correlates with spin-spin relaxation time in motor brainstem nuclei and behavioural tests in the transgenic G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS
    Selina Bucher
    Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 26:1895-901. 2007
    ..Finally, our data suggest that MRI does not only resemble the findings of behavioural tests, but is potentially superior to behavioural studies...
  91. doi Comparison of 3D FLAIR, 2D FLAIR, and 2D T2-weighted MR imaging of brain stem anatomy
    M Kitajima
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1 1 1 Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan 860 8556
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33:922-7. 2012
    Although 3D FLAIR imaging visualizes detailed structures of the brain stem, it has not been used to evaluate its normal anatomy...
  92. ncbi Evidence for a widespread brain stem escape network in larval zebrafish
    Ethan Gahtan
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:608-14. 2002
    ..We therefore recorded the activity of other descending neurons in the brain stem using confocal imaging of cells retrogradely labeled with fluorescent calcium indicators...
  93. pmc Learning to encode timing: mechanisms of plasticity in the auditory brainstem
    Thanos Tzounopoulos
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuron 62:463-9. 2009
    ..However, recent groundbreaking results from animal models and human studies have revealed remarkable evidence for cellular and behavioral mechanisms for learning and memory in the auditory brainstem...
  94. ncbi IL-6 deficiency leads to reduced metallothionein-I+II expression and increased oxidative stress in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment
    M Penkowa
    Department of Medical Anatomy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Exp Neurol 163:72-84. 2000
    ..of a niacin antagonist, 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN), which causes both astroglial degeneration/cell death in brain stem gray matter areas and BM toxicity...
  95. pmc The role of arousal related brainstem reflexes in causing recovery from upper airway occlusion in infants
    Henning Wulbrand
    Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Sleep 31:833-40. 2008
    ..Lung inflation is not a prerequisite for the reflex to occur...
  96. pmc Failed heart rate recovery at a critical age in 5-HT-deficient mice exposed to episodic anoxia: implications for SIDS
    Kevin J Cummings
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 111:825-33. 2011
    ..They may apply to the sudden infant death syndrome, which occurs at a critical age and is associated with 5-HT deficiency...
  97. pmc EphB signaling regulates target innervation in the developing and deafferented auditory brainstem
    Paul A Nakamura
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    Dev Neurobiol 72:1243-55. 2012
    ..We have also found that ephrin-B reverse signaling repels induced projections to the ipsilateral MNTB after unilateral deafferentation, suggesting that similar mechanisms regulate these two processes...
  98. doi MALAT-1, a non protein-coding RNA is upregulated in the cerebellum, hippocampus and brain stem of human alcoholics
    Rosemarie Kryger
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia
    Alcohol 46:629-34. 2012
    ..transcripts was detected in cerebellum of human alcoholics and increases were also noted in hippocampus and brain stem, while no significant increase of MALAT-1 expression was noted in frontal or motor cortices...
  99. ncbi Xenografted fetal dorsal root ganglion, embryonic stem cell and adult neural stem cell survival following implantation into the adult vestibulocochlear nerve
    C Regala
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, PO Box SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Exp Neurol 193:326-33. 2005 the site of injection in the vestibulocochlear nerve of the host rats and guinea pigs but also within the brain stem. Thy 1.2 profiles were seen among the EGFP ES cells within the 8th cranial nerve...
  100. ncbi Pathology of post traumatic brainstem and hypothalamic injuries
    D Shukla
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India
    Clin Neuropathol 26:197-209. 2007
    ..We studied brains of 47 patients who succumbed to head injury, with special attention to topographical distribution of brainstem and hypothalamic injuries...
  101. ncbi The conformation of the brain plays an important role in the distribution of diffuse axonal injury in fatal road traffic accident
    José Eymard Homem Pittella
    Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 62:406-12. 2004
    ..A study was made of the brain lesions in 120 random victims of fatal road traffic accidents to determine the frequency and topographic distribution of diffuse axonal damage (DAI) in relation to the midline brain structures...

Research Grants70

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    ERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Repairing the pathway in vocal learners, when damaged, would have profound impact for correcting neurological disorders of speech. ..
  3. Exercise training and blood pressure in hypertension: integrated mechanisms
    Noreen F Rossi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research focuses on specific neuronal networks located in the lower part of the brain called the medulla oblongata and its ultimate goal is to uncover novel treatments for OSA and other sleep-related respiratory disorders. ..
  5. Chronic nicotine and synaptic transmission in brainstem respiratory neurons
    RALPH FRANK FREGOSI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is therefore crucial to begin establishing the mechanisms that lead to abnormal development of the brainstem neurons that regulate these critical homeostatic functions. ..
  6. Autonomic and Antihypertensive Actions of Neuronal CGRP/RAMP1 Receptors
    Mark W Chapleau; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Inhibition of Ang II-mediated effects by activation of CGRP/RAMP1 receptors has widespread implications in hypertension and heart failure. ..
  7. Steroid Responsive Mechanisms in the Ear
    DENNIS ROYAL TRUNE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Of particular interest are immune suppression of inflammatory cytokines and related transcription factors compared to the regulation of ion transport pathways that control fluid homeostasis. ..
  8. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary, unpublished data suggest the resident cells residing in the brain stem with an intact type I IFN system are critical to control viral infection whereas in the peripheral nervous ..
  9. Contribution of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity to vestibular schwannoma growth
    Marlan R Hansen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of these studies will provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms contributing to VS cell growth and radiosensitivity and will likely contribute to the development of novel therapies for VSs. ..
  10. GI Endotoxin as an Environmental Trigger in an alpha-Synuclein Transgenic Mouse
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..enteric nervous system (ENS), while PD pathology in the CNS appeared at older ages, affecting predominantly the brain stem, as well as in the ENS...
  11. Amelioration of cisplatin ototoxicity by transplatin
    Debashree Mukherjea; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Otoprotection will be assessed by auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) and by assessing the morphology of cochlear inner and outer hair cells, using scanning electron ..
  12. Persisting Grand Mal and Myoclonic Seizures in JME including Veterans
    Antonio V Delgado-Escueta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding JME disease mechanisms brings an era of targeted and designer medicine, and positively impacts the mission of the VA healthcare system and the health of Veterans. ..
  13. Role of Dendritic Ca2+ Transients in Respiratory Rhythm Generation
    Jack L Feldman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will significantly advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms generating respiratory rhythm and shed light on human disorders of breathing. ..
  14. Mechanisms of Cochlear Oxidative Stress Injury and Strategies to Protect Hearing
    Michael J Brenner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long-term goal of this research is to develop safe and effective strategies to prevent hearing loss related to aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy. ..
  15. The Role of the Terminal Complement Pathway in ALS
    Scott R Barnum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will provide new information regarding the role of complement in ALS and potentially new therapeutic directions. ..
  16. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will determine the levels of 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-HIAA in the brain stem raphe nuclei, where the cell bodies of serotonergic neurons are located and 5-HT is synthesized, as well as in ..
    HANNAH CHASE KINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our goal is to determine the fundamental basis of this deficiency by state-of-the-art techniques in human brainstem analysis. Such knowledge is essential to the future development of a means to identify and treat living infants at risk. ..
    Brian J Koos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, the proposed studies are directly applicable to the morbidity and mortality of heart and breathing disorders in infants, children, and adults, including prolonged sleep apnea, brain injury, and sudden death. ..
  19. Effects of nerve demyelination on auditory synaptic functions
    Jun Hee Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Eric E Turner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Hannah C Kinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Plasticity of nTS output neurons in acute and chronic hypoxia
    DAVID DOUGLAS KLINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This will be done in a model of OSA with the expectation of understanding potential therapeutic interventions. ..
  23. Brain Nicotine Receptor Density &Response to Nicotine Patch
    Arthur Brody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, we will explore whether the combination of information from the PET images and rating scales can be used to identify even more robustly who will quit smoking with nicotine patch treatment. ..
    Kevin L Grove; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will identify new pathways that regulate kisspeptin neurons that in turn control GnRH neurons and could lead to new treatments for restoring fertility or for new contraceptive agents that inhibit fertility. ..
  25. Neurochemistry/physiology of proopiomelanocortin neurons
    MALCOLM JAMES LOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
  26. Modulation of subcortical visual information processing
    CHARLES LEROY COX; Fiscal Year: 2012
  27. Role of Oleylethanolamine in the Regulation of the HPT Axis
    Csaba Fekete; Fiscal Year: 2010
  28. Basal Forebrain Cellular Mechanisms of Cortical Activation
    Robert W McCarley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We thereby lay the groundwork for targeted therapies to improve alertness, attention, and executive function in conditions that affect the Veteran population such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and sleep disorders. ..
  29. Integration of sleep/wake network models across multiple temporal and spatial sca
    ANDREW JOHN PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed project will grant Dr. Phillips the necessary protected time to conduct research, achieve the necessary experience, and learn the requisite skills to achieve these long-term goals. ..
  30. How do Amine Neurons Work?
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies at these levels of detail are not possible in other species at the present time. ..
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
  32. Presynaptic NMDAR Regulation of Substance P Release in the RVM After Injury
  33. Sepsis Outcomes and Aging: Role of Sleep Disruption and the Blood Brain Barrier
    Mark R Opp; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..use this approach to quantify cytokine profiles in plasma and discrete brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, brain stem) from the same animal...
  34. Determinants of developing efferent synapses in the mammalian cochlea
    ISABELLE CATHERINA ROUX; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transiently and the outer hair cells (OHCs) permanently receive efferent innervation originating in the auditory brain stem. This cholinergic input is mediated by a9/a10nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is inhibitory due to ..
  35. Mechanism and functional role of AKAP79/150 in M current control
    Mark S Shapiro; Fiscal Year: 2012
  36. Neural basis of learned food aversion and nausea
    CHARLES HORN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Effective treatment of nausea may substantially improve the quality of life for patients with chronic disease. ..
  37. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
  38. Control of Breathing and Pompe Disease
    David D Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This renewal application targets optimization of adeno-associated virus (AAV) based therapies to treat respiratory neurons in Pompe disease. ..
  39. Hypocretin and Locus Ceruleus Interactions in Zebrafish Development and Behavior
    Grigorios Oikonomou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal aims to investigate the physical connections between these two centers, how these connections are formed during development and how these systems interact with each other to regulate sleep/wake behaviors. ! ..
  40. Translational refinement of adaptive communication system for locked-in patients
    Melanie Fried-Oken; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed project stresses the translation of basic computer science into clinical care, supporting the proposed NIH Roadmap and public health initiatives. ..
    Joel K Elmquist; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results from these studies will advance our understanding of the serotoninergic circuits necessary to permit the design of effective treatment strategies for obesity and diabetes. ..
  42. Novel Approaches for Prevention and Treatment of Noise Induced Hearing loss
    Debashree Mukherjea; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A successful outcome of this approach in the animal studies is expected to have direct translational application for the treatment of NIHL in human. ..
  43. CNS Mechanisms of Acute Hypoglycemia-Associate Autonomic Failure
    Paul Gray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the genetic organization of the brainstem neurons that generate breathing is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of breathing disorders. ..
  45. The baroreflex in pregnancy: effects of adrenal and placental steroids
    Maureen Keller-Wood; Fiscal Year: 2012
  46. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in cerebral ischemia
    Ilknur Ay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful, the findings of these exploratory studies will be used in near future translational studies designed to optimize tVNS treatment for acute ischemic stroke in humans. ..
  47. Antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
    Daniel R Scoles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed work will break new ground for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by demonstrating feasibility of targeting dominant-acting mutated polyQ genes with antisense oligonucleotides. ..
  48. Bilateral cochlear implants: Physiology and psychophysics
    Bertrand Delgutte; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These studies will likely lead to new electronic sound processors for bilateral implants that work better in noise and are better adapted to specific types of deafness histories. ..
    Larry W Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The proposed research is designed to clarify very poorly understood neural circuits that mediate normal ingestive, defensive, reproductive, and sleep/wake behaviors;understanding their pathology will follow. ..
  50. Genetic and Functional Profiles of Serotonergic Neuron Subtypes
    Rachael D Brust; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g. channels, receptors) associated with CO2 chemosensitivity (Aim 3) that may potentially underlie this vital function. ..
  51. Functional Anatomy of REM Sleep: Brainstem-Control
    Gerald A Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This research proposal hopes to contribute to our knowledge on the role of REM sleep mechanisms in the etiology and reinforcement of these disorders. ..
  52. BMP7 and the regulation of central and peripheral energy balance
    Kristy Townsend; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Therefore, the research outlined in this proposal could provide important new findings for the field of obesity research, and potentially lead to development of new obesity therapeutics. ..
  53. P450 Epoxygenase Mechanisms of Opioid Analgesia
    LINDSAY HOUGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite substantial information on mu signaling, the mechanisms by which morphine activates brain stem analgesic circuits remain unknown...
  54. Hybrid atomic force-optical imaging system to investigate prenatal nicotine
    Jeffrey Potts; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is also of clinical significance since nicotine replacement therapy for pregnant women is often regarded as a safe alternative in smoking cessation programs. ..
  55. Intestinal satiation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats: brain mechanisms and sex d
    Thomas Alexander Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
  56. The effects of glucose on central vagal brainstem circuits
    KIRSTEEN NAIRN BROWNING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Modulation of subcortical visual information processing
    Charles Cox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Coordination of orofacial and respiratory movements
    Detlef H Heck; Fiscal Year: 2012 the fastigial nucleus (FN) represent multiple orofacial movements and that FN neurons project to multiple brain stem pattern generators...
  59. Regulation of Brain Signaling After Bariatric Surgery
    Jonathan Q Purnell; Fiscal Year: 2010 intake and energy expenditure through mechanisms that include direct binding to receptors in the brain stem and brain, and by altering afferent vagal signaling...
    Mary Bartlett Bunge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Discovery of translational methods to improve exiting of regenerated brainstem axons from the SC bridge into the cord will have an important impact on fostering spinal cord repair, particularly for the use of SCs to mend human SCIs. ..
  61. Cannabinoid Mechanisms in Human Gastrointestinal Motor and Sensory Functions
    MICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Cannabinoid receptors (CBR) are on cholinergic neurons in the brain stem, stomach and colon...
  62. Risk factors for encephalopathy in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia
    K Y Pau; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Aim 3b will determine if electrical lesions of the nPGi and/or nPH prevent either the postcoital expression of LC cFos protein, TH/NET mRNAs or the LH surge. These studies may provide information on neurologically related infertility. ..
    Rami Burstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..One option to test such an hypothesis will be to lesion the pathway selectively and determine changes in the activity of the target neurons and/or in the behavior of the animal. ..
    ALBERT BERGER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We hypothesize that ethanol increases the affinity of glycine-Rs for glycine and thereby potentiates inhibitory synaptic events. This may be an important mechanism whereby alcohol consumption exacerbates obstructive sleep apnea. ..
    Patricia Rodier; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..studies, and studies of comorbid conditions suggest that one cause of autism is early maldevelopment of the brain stem. Evidence for several new candidate genes for ASD susceptibility has been published in the last year, and all ..
  67. Mu Opioid Receptor Regulation in Neonatal Brainstem
    GEORGE OLSEN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide developmental information on guinea pig NTS MOR following chronic in utero opioid exposure. ..
    Patricia Rodier; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..when injury can cause autism has led to the insight that the disorder is initiated by changes in the developing brain stem. The shortening of the hindbrain and loss of cranial nerve neurons in an animal model of the insult and a human ..
    Christopher Gomez; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will test the hypothesis that sensitive measures of eye movements and balance can be used to detect and quantify ataxia from its earliest stages. ..
  70. Trigeminal Autonomic Interactions
    Paul McCulloch; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Having a better understanding of brainstem cardiorespiratory integration might provide a neurological basis for the etiology of SIDS. ..