central nervous system

Summary

Summary: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Top Publications

  1. pmc IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005
  2. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
  3. ncbi Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:880-4. 2006
  4. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
  5. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system
    Guo li Ming
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:223-50. 2005
  6. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
  7. ncbi Immunology of multiple sclerosis
    Mireia Sospedra
    Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:683-747. 2005
  8. ncbi The myeloid cells of the central nervous system parenchyma
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Mail Code NC30, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 468:253-62. 2010
  9. pmc Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system
    Anthony Orvedahl
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:115-27. 2010
  10. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001

Detail Information

Publications304 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005
    ..Using passive transfer studies, we confirm that these IL-23-dependent CD4(+) T cells are highly pathogenic and essential for the establishment of organ-specific inflammation associated with central nervous system autoimmunity.
  2. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
  3. ncbi Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:880-4. 2006
    ..We found that mice lacking Atg7 specifically in the central nervous system showed behavioural defects, including abnormal limb-clasping reflexes and a reduction in coordinated ..
  4. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
    ..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
  5. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system
    Guo li Ming
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:223-50. 2005
    ..Advances in our understanding of adult neurogenesis will not only shed light on the basic principles of adult plasticity, but also may lead to strategies for cell replacement therapy after injury or degenerative neurological diseases...
  6. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions...
  7. ncbi Immunology of multiple sclerosis
    Mireia Sospedra
    Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:683-747. 2005
    ..Damage of the target tissue, the central nervous system, is, however, most likely mediated by other components of the immune system, such as antibodies, ..
  8. ncbi The myeloid cells of the central nervous system parenchyma
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Mail Code NC30, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nature 468:253-62. 2010
    A microglial cell is both a glial cell of the central nervous system and a mononuclear phagocyte, which belongs to the haematopoietic system and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. As such, microglia face a challenging task...
  9. pmc Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system
    Anthony Orvedahl
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:115-27. 2010
    ..gene Atg5 function is critical for protection against lethal Sindbis virus (SIN) infection of the mouse central nervous system. Inactivating Atg5 in SIN-infected neurons results in delayed clearance of viral proteins, increased ..
  10. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001
    During the past decade, mechanisms involved in the immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have moved to the forefront of neuropathological research mainly because of the recognition that most neurological disorders ..
  11. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    ..Thus, microglia appear to be a unique and important component of both the innate and adaptive immune response, providing the CNS with a means to rapidly and efficiently respond to a wide variety of pathogens...
  12. pmc Autoimmune T cell responses in the central nervous system
    Joan Goverman
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7650, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:393-407. 2009
    Autoreactive T cell responses have a crucial role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as multiple sclerosis...
  13. pmc Interleukin-17 production in central nervous system-infiltrating T cells and glial cells is associated with active disease in multiple sclerosis
    John S Tzartos
    Department of Neuropathology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Am J Pathol 172:146-55. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
    ..of gene functions in neuroblast proliferation, axon guidance, and dendritic elaboration in the complex central nervous system. As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension ..
  15. ncbi Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor
    Astrid E Cardona
    Neuroinflammation Research Center and Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:917-24. 2006
    ..Augmenting CX3CR1 signaling may protect against microglial neurotoxicity, whereas CNS penetration by pharmaceutical CX3CR1 antagonists could increase neuronal vulnerability...
  16. pmc Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism
    Gregory J Morton
    Diabetes and Obesity Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Physiol Rev 91:389-411. 2011
    ..This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes...
  17. pmc Innate immunity in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1164-71. 2012
    ....
  18. ncbi Three or more routes for leukocyte migration into the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    The Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Department of Neurology, 9500 Euclid Avenue, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:569-81. 2003
    ..Leukocyte entry into the central nervous system (CNS) is restricted, in part, because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
  19. ncbi Human TH17 lymphocytes promote blood-brain barrier disruption and central nervous system inflammation
    Hania Kebir
    Neuroimmunology Unit, Center for the Study of Brain Diseases, Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal Notre Dame Hospital, 1560 Sherbrooke Street East, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada
    Nat Med 13:1173-5. 2007
    ..Furthermore, T(H)17 lymphocytes transmigrate efficiently across BBB-ECs, highly express granzyme B, kill human neurons and promote central nervous system inflammation through CD4+ lymphocyte recruitment.
  20. ncbi Transient expression of doublecortin during adult neurogenesis
    Jason P Brown
    Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 467:1-10. 2003
    During development of the central nervous system, expression of the microtubule binding protein doublecortin (DCX) is associated with migration of neuroblasts...
  21. ncbi The anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:623-35. 2012
    The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain, spinal cord, optic nerves and retina, and contains post-mitotic, delicate cells...
  22. pmc α-Synuclein in central nervous system and from erythrocytes, mammalian cells, and Escherichia coli exists predominantly as disordered monomer
    Bruno Fauvet
    Laboratory of Molecular and Chemical Biology of Neurodegeneration, Brain Mind Institute, Station 19, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 287:15345-64. 2012
    ..Our findings demonstrate that both human and rodent α-syn expressed in the central nervous system exist predominantly as an unfolded monomer...
  23. pmc Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration
    Eitan Okun
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res Rev 59:278-92. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi What is immune privilege (not)?
    Ian Galea
    CNS Inflammation Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, SO16 7PX, UK
    Trends Immunol 28:12-8. 2007
    The 'immune privilege' of the central nervous system (CNS) is indispensable for damage limitation during inflammation in a sensitive organ with poor regenerative capacity...
  25. pmc Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks
    Bridgette D Semple
    National Trauma Research Institute, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:459-73. 2010
    ..leukocytes, and are of particular interest in the context of the unique immune responses elicited in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  26. pmc Heat shock proteins: cellular and molecular mechanisms in the central nervous system
    R Anne Stetler
    Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States
    Prog Neurobiol 92:184-211. 2010
    ....
  27. ncbi A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system
    D C Van Essen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 385:313-8. 1997
    Many structural features of the mammalian central nervous system can be explained by a morphogenetic mechanism that involves mechanical tension along axons, dendrites and glial processes...
  28. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:913-9. 2007
    ..induction, cells of myeloid lineage, antibodies and complement as well as processes intrinsic to the central nervous system seem to determine the effector stages of tissue damage...
  29. pmc Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus can enter the central nervous system and induce neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
    Haeman Jang
    Department of Developmental Neurobiolog, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14063-8. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that a pandemic H5N1 pathogen, or other neurotropic influenza virus, could initiate CNS disorders of protein aggregation including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
  30. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:247-69. 2008
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. The clinical disease course is variable, usually starts with reversible episodes of neurological disability in the third or ..
  31. ncbi Recombinant AAV viral vectors pseudotyped with viral capsids from serotypes 1, 2, and 5 display differential efficiency and cell tropism after delivery to different regions of the central nervous system
    Corinna Burger
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Mol Ther 10:302-17. 2004
    ..We have investigated the tropism and transduction frequency in the central nervous system (CNS) of three different rAAV vector serotypes...
  32. pmc HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system occurs in two distinct cell types
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002286. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to the development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)...
  33. pmc Identification of piRNAs in the central nervous system
    Eun Joo Lee
    Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    RNA 17:1090-9. 2011
    ..Antisense suppression of this piRNA suggested a role in spine morphogenesis. Possible targets include genes, which control spine shape by a distinctive mechanism in comparison to microRNAs...
  34. doi Illuminating viral infections in the nervous system
    Dorian B McGavern
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:318-29. 2011
    ..Viral infections in the central nervous system (CNS) can alter homeostasis, induce neurological dysfunction and result in serious, potentially life-..
  35. pmc Selective chemokine receptor usage by central nervous system myeloid cells in CCR2-red fluorescent protein knock-in mice
    Noah Saederup
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e13693. 2010
    ..Monocyte subpopulations distinguished by differential expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 are difficult to track in vivo, partly due to lack of CCR2 reagents...
  36. doi Inflammation and central nervous system Lyme disease
    Brian A Fallon
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:534-41. 2010
    ..the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause multi-systemic signs and symptoms, including peripheral and central nervous system disease...
  37. pmc Behavioral consequences of dopamine deficiency in the Drosophila central nervous system
    Thomas Riemensperger
    Genetics and Physiopathology of Neurotransmission, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles ParisTech, 75005 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:834-9. 2011
    ..Our findings show that flies can perform complex brain functions in the absence of neural DA, whereas specific behaviors involving, in particular, arousal and choice require normal levels of this neuromodulator...
  38. ncbi CNS-derived interleukin-4 is essential for the regulation of autoimmune inflammation and induces a state of alternative activation in microglial cells
    Eugene D Ponomarev
    BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 2178, USA
    J Neurosci 27:10714-21. 2007
    ..Macrophages that have undergone alternative activation have been shown to be important in tissue repair; thus, our results suggest a new role for microglial cells in the regulation of inflammation in the CNS...
  39. ncbi Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in the human central nervous system
    Malika Bsibsi
    Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:1013-21. 2002
    ..Together, our data reveal broad and regulated expression of TLRs both in vitro and in vivo by human glia cells...
  40. doi Regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination
    Ben Emery
    Centre for Neuroscience and Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Level 2, Alan Gilbert Building, The University of Melbourne, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia
    Science 330:779-82. 2010
    ..for the rapid conduction of action potentials, the molecular bases of oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system (CNS) myelination are still incompletely understood...
  41. pmc Trafficking of immune cells in the central nervous system
    Emma H Wilson
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:1368-79. 2010
    ..In this review, several recent advances are highlighted that provide new insights into the processes that regulate leukocyte access to, and movement within, the brain...
  42. doi Intranasal delivery to the central nervous system: mechanisms and experimental considerations
    Shyeilla V Dhuria
    Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Pharm Sci 99:1654-73. 2010
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS), posing a significant challenge to drug development efforts to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases ..
  43. ncbi The ins and outs of T-lymphocyte trafficking to the CNS: anatomical sites and molecular mechanisms
    Britta Engelhardt
    Theodor Kocher Institute, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Trends Immunol 26:485-95. 2005
    ..signals involved in the migration of circulating leukocytes across the highly specialized blood-central nervous system (CNS) barriers during immunosurveillance and inflammation...
  44. ncbi The neurotoxicant, cuprizone, as a model to study demyelination and remyelination in the central nervous system
    G K Matsushima
    UNC Neuroscience Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Brain Pathol 11:107-16. 2001
    ..g. available knockouts or transgenics on the common genetic background, or pharmacological treatments) which may accelerate or repress the process of demyelination and or remyelination...
  45. pmc Role of CD8+ T cells in control of West Nile virus infection
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 78:8312-21. 2004
    ..immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG, have critical roles in preventing dissemination of WNV infection to the central nervous system. In this study, we addressed the function of CD8(+) T cells in controlling WNV infection...
  46. ncbi Thematic review series: brain Lipids. Cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system during early development and in the mature animal
    John M Dietschy
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390 8887, USA
    J Lipid Res 45:1375-97. 2004
    ..During evolution, this membrane came to play an additional, highly specialized role in the central nervous system (CNS) as the major architectural component of compact myelin...
  47. ncbi The central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics by learning optimal impedance
    E Burdet
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore
    Nature 414:446-9. 2001
    ..Our results show that humans learn to stabilize unstable dynamics using the skillful and energy-efficient strategy of selective control of impedance geometry...
  48. ncbi Complete Freunds adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation evokes glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the CNS
    Vasudeva Raghavendra
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:467-73. 2004
    ..These findings further support a unifying theory that glial activation and enhanced cytokine expression at the CNS have a role in eliciting behavioral hypersensitivity...
  49. doi Role of endothelial TLR4 for neutrophil recruitment into central nervous system microvessels in systemic inflammation
    Hong Zhou
    Immunology Research Group, Department Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, NW Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Immunol 183:5244-50. 2009
    ..Our results demonstrate that direct endothelial activation is sufficient to mediate leukocyte rolling and adhesion in cerebral microvessels but not sufficient for emigration to brain parenchyma...
  50. ncbi Neurochemokines: a menage a trois providing new insights on the functions of chemokines in the central nervous system
    William Rostene
    Institut de la Vision UMRS INSERM UPMC 968, Paris, France
    J Neurochem 118:680-94. 2011
    ..In this deliberately challenging review, we provide novel hypotheses on the role of these subtle messenger molecules in brain functions leading to the evidence that previous dogmas concerning chemokines should be reconsidered...
  51. ncbi A homeodomain protein code specifies progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube
    J Briscoe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 101:435-45. 2000
    ..The combinatorial expression of three of these proteins--Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2, and Irx3--specifies the identity of three classes of neurons generated in the ventral third of the neural tube...
  52. ncbi Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy
    Robin J M Franklin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:839-55. 2008
    ..The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically...
  53. ncbi Microglial cell activation and proliferation precedes the onset of CNS autoimmunity
    Eugene D Ponomarev
    Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 2178, USA
    J Neurosci Res 81:374-89. 2005
    Microglial cells are central nervous system (CNS) resident cells that are thought to become activated and contribute to the inflammation that occurs in the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  54. pmc Validation of the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness rank for quantifying antiretroviral penetration into the central nervous system
    Scott Letendre
    University of California, San Diego, 150 W Washington St, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    Arch Neurol 65:65-70. 2008
    To evaluate whether penetration of a combination regimen into the central nervous system (CNS), as estimated by the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness (CPE) rank, is associated with lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load.
  55. ncbi Characterization of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system: physiopathological implications
    Adriana Bajetto
    Service of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy
    J Neurochem 82:1311-29. 2002
    ....
  56. pmc Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2
    L Izikson
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 192:1075-80. 2000
    Monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) is a necessary step in the development of pathologic inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis...
  57. ncbi Myelin impairs CNS remyelination by inhibiting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation
    Mark R Kotter
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:328-32. 2006
    ..These data identify myelin as an inhibitor of remyelination as well as its well documented inhibition of axon regeneration...
  58. ncbi Chemokine receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases
    Laetitia Cartier
    Biology of Ageing Laboratory, Department of Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, 2 Chemin du Petit Bel Air, CH 1225 Chene Bourg, Switzerland
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:16-42. 2005
    ..The study of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is not only relevant for the understanding of brain physiology and pathophysiology, but may also ..
  59. pmc Urease expression by Cryptococcus neoformans promotes microvascular sequestration, thereby enhancing central nervous system invasion
    Michal A Olszewski
    Veteran s Administration Medical Center Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:1761-71. 2004
    Our objective was to determine the role of the cryptococcal virulence factor urease in pulmonary-to-central nervous system, dissemination, invasion, and growth. C...
  60. pmc Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier
    Yun C Chang
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 72:4985-95. 2004
    ..neoformans with the choroid plexus, however, was not detected during up to 10 days of observation. Our findings indicate that C. neoformans cells invade the central nervous system by transcellular crossing of the endothelium of the BBB.
  61. pmc Neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling serves distinct functions in myelination of the peripheral and central nervous system
    Bastian G Brinkmann
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Goettingen 37075, Germany
    Neuron 59:581-95. 2008
    ..Thus, NRG1/ErbB signaling is markedly different between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that have evolved an NRG/ErbB-independent mechanism of myelination control...
  62. pmc Circulating Ly-6C+ myeloid precursors migrate to the CNS and play a pathogenic role during autoimmune demyelinating disease
    Irah L King
    Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, NY, USA
    Blood 113:3190-7. 2009
    ..traffic across the blood-brain barrier, up-regulate proinflammatory molecules, and differentiate into central nervous system dendritic cells and macrophages...
  63. doi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
    ..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
  64. pmc Toll-like receptor (TLR) and inflammasome actions in the central nervous system
    Richa Hanamsagar
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
    Trends Immunol 33:333-42. 2012
    ..10 years, much attention has been focused towards elucidating the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in central nervous system (CNS) innate immunity...
  65. pmc Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway
    Erin Harberts
    Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13734-9. 2011
    ..Collectively, these results support HHV-6 utilization of the olfactory pathway as a route of entry into the CNS...
  66. pmc Role of specific innate immune responses in herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system
    Jennifer P Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:2273-81. 2012
    ..The relative contributions of different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune response during central nervous system infection with HSV-1 have not been fully characterized...
  67. doi NOX enzymes in the central nervous system: from signaling to disease
    Silvia Sorce
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2481-504. 2009
    ..In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about NOX enzymes in the central nervous system and their involvement in neurologic and psychiatric diseases.
  68. ncbi Aquaporin-4 in the central nervous system: cellular and subcellular distribution and coexpression with KIR4.1
    E A Nagelhus
    Nordic Centre of Excellence for Research in Water Imbalance Related Disorders and Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, POB 1105 Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Neuroscience 129:905-13. 2004
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the neuropil of the central nervous system. It is expressed primarily in astrocytes, but also occurs in ependymocytes and endothelial cells...
  69. pmc Activation of central nervous system inflammatory pathways by interferon-alpha: relationship to monoamines and depression
    Charles L Raison
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:296-303. 2009
    ..The degree to which peripheral administration of IFN-alpha accesses the brain and is associated with a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response is unknown...
  70. doi Insulin/IGF-like signalling, the central nervous system and aging
    Susan Broughton
    UCL Institute of Healthy Aging, GEE Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Biochem J 418:1-12. 2009
    ..One tissue of particular importance for lifespan extension in diverse organisms is the CNS (central nervous system)...
  71. ncbi Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression
    Jeffrey D Rothstein
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Nature 433:73-7. 2005
    ..Thus these studies provide a class of potential neurotherapeutics that act to modulate the expression of glutamate neurotransmitter transporters via gene activation...
  72. pmc Doublesex establishes sexual dimorphism in the Drosophila central nervous system in an isoform-dependent manner by directing cell number
    Laura E Sanders
    Sections of Molecular and Computational Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
    Dev Biol 320:378-90. 2008
    ..Here, the mechanisms by which DSX acts to establish dimorphism in the central nervous system were examined...
  73. pmc Inflammation induced by innate immunity in the central nervous system leads to primary astrocyte dysfunction followed by demyelination
    Rakhi Sharma
    Centre for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Acta Neuropathol 120:223-36. 2010
    ..of astrocytes may trigger demyelination, as seen in neuromyelitis optica, an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. In most patients affected by this disease, injury to astrocytes is initiated by the action of ..
  74. ncbi Expression of the zebrafish CD133/prominin1 genes in cellular proliferation zones in the embryonic central nervous system and sensory organs
    Maura McGrail
    Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Dev Dyn 239:1849-57. 2010
    ..and overlapping patterns of expression in proliferating zones in the developing sensory organs and central nervous system. The expression patterns suggest functional conservation of the zebrafish prominin1 genes...
  75. ncbi Lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection of the central nervous system
    Silvia S Kang
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Front Biosci 13:4529-43. 2008
    Viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in a multitude of responses including pathology, persistence or immune clearance...
  76. ncbi Axonal swellings and degeneration in mice lacking the major proteolipid of myelin
    I Griffiths
    Applied Neurobiology Group, Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland, UK
    Science 280:1610-3. 1998
    ..Thus, fiber degeneration, which was probably secondary to impaired axonal transport, could indicate that myelinated axons require local oligodendroglial support...
  77. ncbi Physiology and pathophysiology of Na(+)/H(+) exchange isoform 1 in the central nervous system
    Jing Luo
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Curr Neurovasc Res 4:205-15. 2007
    ..NHE1 is the most abundant NHE isoform in the rat central nervous system (CNS). This review discusses distribution and regulation of NHE1, and its physiological roles in the CNS...
  78. ncbi The cellular, molecular and ionic basis of GABA(A) receptor signalling
    Mark Farrant
    Department of Pharmacology, UCL University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Prog Brain Res 160:59-87. 2007
    ..Untangling all these complexities allows us to appreciate the variety of GABA-mediated signalling, a diverse set of phenomena encompassing both synaptic and non-synaptic functions that can be overtly excitatory as well as inhibitory...
  79. pmc Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination
    Jeffrey K Huang
    MRC Centre for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 14:45-53. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that RXR-γ is a positive regulator of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and remyelination and might be a pharmacological target for regenerative therapy in the CNS...
  80. ncbi NG2-expressing glial progenitor cells: an abundant and widespread population of cycling cells in the adult rat CNS
    Mary R L Dawson
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:476-88. 2003
    ....
  81. ncbi Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection
    James J Sejvar
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, and Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 290:511-5. 2003
    ..The neurologic manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients with West Nile virus (WNV) infection have not been prospectively characterized...
  82. pmc Multiple roles of chemokine CXCL12 in the central nervous system: a migration from immunology to neurobiology
    Meizhang Li
    Neuroinflammation Research Center, Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Mail Code NC30, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Prog Neurobiol 84:116-31. 2008
    ..However, chemokines and their cognate receptors are constitutively expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) where immune activities are under stringent control...
  83. pmc Molecular mechanisms of node of Ranvier formation
    Keiichiro Susuki
    Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston TX 77030, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 20:616-23. 2008
    ..In the central nervous system, both glial soluble factors and paranodal axoglial junctions may function in a complementary manner to ..
  84. ncbi Neuropilin-1 is required for endothelial tip cell guidance in the developing central nervous system
    Holger Gerhardt
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Goteborg, Medicinaregatan 9A, Box 440, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Dev Dyn 231:503-9. 2004
    Recent evidence indicates that sprouting angiogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS) is a guided process similar to the guidance of axons and insect tracheal tubes...
  85. ncbi License to run: exercise impacts functional plasticity in the intact and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins
    Shoshanna Vaynman
    Department of Neurosurgery and Physiological Science, and Brain Injury Research Center, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Neurorehabil Neural Repair 19:283-95. 2005
    ....
  86. ncbi The sympathetic control of blood pressure
    Patrice G Guyenet
    Department of Pharmacology, Health Sciences Center, University of Virginia, 1300 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0735, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 7:335-46. 2006
    ..This review examines how the sympathetic tone to cardiovascular organs is generated, and discusses how elevated sympathetic tone can contribute to hypertension...
  87. pmc Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies
    Tracy Fischer-Smith
    Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA
    J Neurovirol 14:318-26. 2008
    ..supporting two opposing views regarding the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the central nervous system (CNS): (1) HIV infection in the CNS is a compartmentalized infection, with the virus-infected macrophages ..
  88. ncbi Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development
    James B Skeath
    Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, 4566 Scott Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:8-15. 2003
    ..These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter...
  89. pmc Long-range neural and gap junction protein-mediated cues control polarity during planarian regeneration
    Néstor J Oviedo
    Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology and Department of Biology, Tufts University Suite 4600, 200 Boston Avenue, Medford MA 02155, USA
    Dev Biol 339:188-99. 2010
    ..We identified novel early signals, mediated by the central nervous system and 3 innexin proteins, which determine the fate and axial polarity of regenerated tissue in planarians...
  90. pmc Different timings of Dicer deletion affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing mouse central nervous system
    Yoko Kawase-Koga
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Dev Dyn 238:2800-12. 2009
    ..The function of Dicer in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) development is not well understood...
  91. ncbi The TIMPs tango with MMPs and more in the central nervous system
    Stephen J Crocker
    Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci Res 75:1-11. 2004
    ....
  92. ncbi Proteoglycans in the central nervous system: plasticity, regeneration and their stimulation with chondroitinase ABC
    Jessica C F Kwok
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 2PY, UK
    Restor Neurol Neurosci 26:131-45. 2008
    After injury to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons are not able to regenerate their axons and recovery is limited by restricted plasticity...
  93. ncbi Activity and injury-dependent expression of inducible transcription factors, growth factors and apoptosis-related genes within the central nervous system
    P E Hughes
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology and Research Centre for Developmental Medicine and Biology, School of Medicine, The University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Prog Neurobiol 57:421-50. 1999
    ..Here we discuss our results which show that pharmacological enhancement of this response with exogenous application of IGF-1 or TGF-beta reduces neuronal loss after brain injury...
  94. pmc A gamma-secretase inhibitor decreases amyloid-beta production in the central nervous system
    Randall J Bateman
    Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA
    Ann Neurol 66:48-54. 2009
    Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) by overproduction or underclearance in the central nervous system (CNS) is hypothesized to be a necessary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease...
  95. ncbi Sanpodo and Notch act in opposition to Numb to distinguish sibling neuron fates in the Drosophila CNS
    J B Skeath
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    Development 125:1857-65. 1998
    ..Taken together, these results show that interactions between sanpodo, the Notch signaling pathway and numb enable CNS sibling neurons to acquire different fates...
  96. ncbi Functional relevance of neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the central nervous system
    Sergi Ferre
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Trends Neurosci 30:440-6. 2007
    ..This is illustrated by the analysis of striatal receptor heteromers that control striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission...
  97. doi Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells): multifunctional cells with lineage plasticity
    Akiko Nishiyama
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3156, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:9-22. 2009
    ..This Review highlights recent findings and unresolved questions related to the lineage and function of polydendrocytes in the CNS...
  98. ncbi Drosophila melanogaster neurobiology, neuropharmacology, and how the fly can inform central nervous system drug discovery
    Charles D Nichols
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, LSU Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido St, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 112:677-700. 2006
    b>Central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery in the post-genomic era is rapidly evolving...
  99. ncbi Drug delivery to the central nervous system: a review
    Ambikanandan Misra
    Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M S University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001 Gujarat
    J Pharm Pharm Sci 6:252-73. 2003
    ..Despite aggressive research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as brain tumors, HIV encephalopathy, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases and ..
  100. ncbi Migratory activity and functional changes of green fluorescent effector cells before and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    A Flügel
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Department of Neuroimmunology, 82152 Martinsried, 10098, Berlin, Germany
    Immunity 14:547-60. 2001
    ..Within the CNS, the effector cells are reactivated, with upregulated proinflammatory cytokines and downmodulated T cell receptor-associated structures, presumably reflecting autoantigen recognition in situ...
  101. ncbi Assembly of CNS myelin in the absence of proteolipid protein
    M Klugmann
    Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie ZMBH University of Heidelburg, Federal Republic of Germany
    Neuron 18:59-70. 1997
    Two proteolipid proteins, PLP and DM20, are the major membrane components of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Mutations of the X-linked PLP/DM20 gene cause dysmyelination in mouse and man and result in significant mortality...

Research Grants151 found, 100 shown here

  1. FETAL REFLEX RESPONSES TO CEREBRAL HYPOPERFUSION
    Charles Wood; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..that reductions in cerebral blood flow stimulate the local production of prostanoids within the central nervous system which, in turn, stimulate adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cardiovascular responses...
  2. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells and Hirschsprung disea
    SEAN MORRISON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..anders.bjorklund@mphy.lu.se</auth-address;titles;title>Cell replacement therapies for central nervous system disorders</title;secondary-title>Nat Neurosci</secondary-title;/titles;periodical;full-title>..
  3. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the eye, mucous membranes, and other body organs such as the joints, intestinal tract, blood vessels, and central nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to see how genes affect Beh et's disease and if there are ..
  4. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the eye, mucous membranes, and other body organs such as the joints, intestinal tract, blood vessels, and central nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to see how genes affect Beh et's disease and if there are ..
  5. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  6. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  7. Systemic Inflammation and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
    Laura L Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  8. Study of zidovudine addition in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Albert Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..who aims to become a leader in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical research with a focus on the central nervous system (CNS) involvement of HIV...
  9. Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune Disease
    Sienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized in the initial stages by inflammation, in the later stages by neurodegeneration, and ..
  10. Mechanisms Regulating Reduced c-Kit-Dependent EAE Susceptibility in Male SJL Mice
    MELISSA ANN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide...
  11. Misty: a model for central regulation of bone remodeling
    CLIFFORD JAMES ROSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central nervous system (CNS) modulates adipose tissue function and bone turnover through efferent pathways from the SNS...
  12. Role of natural indoles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Mitzi Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation in the central nervous system that results in neuron demyelination leading to paralysis...
  13. Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDS
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): Drug toxicities, patient compliance and limited penetrance into viral reservoirs (notably the central nervous system (CNS), gut and lymphatic organs) have diminished long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy for HIV ..
  14. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the central nervous system (CNS), the glial cells are infected by the HIV-1 virus, causing neuroinflammation...
  15. Mapping Orofacial Nociceptive Pathways and Alterations Due to Inflammation
    JOSHUA EMRICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stimuli activate primary afferent sensory neurons (nociceptors) producing pain via signaling to the central nervous system (CNS) and contributing to inflammation by releasing inflammatory mediators at the site of injury...
  16. Role of Central Neural NFkB and ER Stress in Obesity-induced Hypertension
    COLIN NEAL YOUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A potential means is by evoking long-term changes in gene expression in central nervous system (CNS) cardiovascular neurons through the activation of inducible transcription factors, including nuclear ..
  17. MOUSE MODELS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Domenico Accili; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..homeostasis;(ii) the discovery of mechanisms by which non-canonical sites of insulin action, such as central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine pancreas, play an early and decisive role in the progression from insulin resistance ..
  18. MOUSE MODELS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Domenico Accili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..homeostasis;(ii) the discovery of mechanisms by which non-canonical sites of insulin action, such as central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine pancreas, play an early and decisive role in the progression from insulin resistance ..
  19. Regulation and Function of Urocortins and their Receptors
    Aditi Bhargava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CRF and urocortins [Ucn] 1-3) and their receptors (CRFR1, CRFR2) are essential mediators of stress in the central nervous system. Therefore a systemic inhibition of their function is not an attractive therapeutic model...
  20. Regulation and Function of Urocortins and their Receptors
    Aditi Bhargava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CRF and urocortins [Ucn] 1-3) and their receptors (CRFR1, CRFR2) are essential mediators of stress in the central nervous system. Therefore a systemic inhibition of their function is not an attractive therapeutic model...
  21. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can cause both acute and chronic diseases that devastate the host...
  22. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells and Hirschsprung disea
    Sean J Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..anders.bjorklund@mphy.lu.se</auth-address;titles;title>Cell replacement therapies for central nervous system disorders</title;secondary-title>Nat Neurosci</secondary-title;/titles;periodical;full-title>..
  23. The role of indolamine2,3-dioxygenase in the host response/pathogenesis of Venezu
    Robert Seymour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The neuropathogenesis of these viruses and the host response of the central nervous system are still not completely understood...
  24. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Young Adult Follow Up
    Ruth Rose-Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..young adult use of psychoactive substances are both indicators of biologic risk to the still developing central nervous system &a major outcome...
  25. Regulation of B cells in the CNS
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT Antibody (Ab) production and the presence of B cells within the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented in humans with the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and those afflicted by neurotropic infections...
  26. Investigating the mechanism of TNFalpha mediated cell death in oligodendrocytes
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MS, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is the most common chronic neurodegenerative disease for young adults during their most productive ..
  27. Air pollution and the brain: gender as an important determinant of susceptibility
    Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..well established;in addition, initial evidence suggests that air pollution may also negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases...
  28. The role of diet-induced obesity in cognitive impairment
    CATRINA SIMS ROBINSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies have demonstrated that improving insulin signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) has a positive impact on cognition;however, obese individuals are excluded from such studies...
  29. Control of Breathing and Pompe Disease
    David D Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pompe disease - intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant GAA - does not target the central nervous system (CNS)...
  30. Glypican-1 in gliomagenesis
    Andreas Friedl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Central nervous system gliomas cause morbidity and mortality by relentless growth and local invasion. High-grade gliomas typically kill patients within months after diagnosis...
  31. Methylmercury exposure, mercury metabolism genotypes, and risk of adult glioma
    Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central nervous system is highly susceptible to the toxic effects of MeHg since the compound is able to cross the blood-brain ..
  32. The Molecular Genetics of Early Neurogenesis
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role during neural induction to establish the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis and to distinguish epidermal from central nervous system cell fates...
  33. Central Nervous System Mechanisms in Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA)
    Daniel J Clauw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leading to pain and symptom expression in KOA, some patients possess varying degrees of non-psychological central nervous system (CNS) factors which play an equally or even more prominent role in the expression of pain and co-morbid ..
  34. Brain Oxygen Metabolism and Hemodynamic Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis
    Yulin Ge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and one of the most common causes of nontraumatic disability among young and middle-aged people...
  35. Small-molecule probes of chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity
    Stephen J Haggarty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..based upon this knowledge is critical in order to improve the treatment and prevention of a myriad of central nervous system disorders...
  36. RAX, PKR and ethanol neurotoxicity
    Gang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Central nervous system (CNS) damage is a major feature observed in FASD patients...
  37. MRP4 extrudes cAMP for localized regulation of calcium channel activity
    OLIVIA RUTH BUONARATI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2-associated disorders in the central nervous system, including stroke, depression, anxiety, senility and Alzheimer's disease.
  38. Mechanisms of mitochondrial fission/fusion dysregulation during HIV-1-associated
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..there is great need for therapies capable ameliorating the devastating effects of HIV infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS)...
  39. Vascular and Neural Mechanisms of Serotonin-induced Reduction in Blood Pressure
    Stephanie W Watts; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1 directly addresses the controversial issue of whether 5-HT enters the central nervous system (CNS)...
  40. BETA ENDORPHIN NEURONS AND THE CONTROL OF HOMEOSTASIS
    MARTIN JEFFREY KELLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acting through rapid and long term genomic mechanisms are responsible for all of the actions of E2 in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  41. Characterization of Chd7 in central nervous system neural stem cells
    JOSEPH ANTHONY MICUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder that affects development of the eyes, ears, nose, and central nervous system (CNS)...
  42. Identification of CNS-homing peptides for therapeutic use in multiple sclerosis
    Kamal D Moudgil; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease involving inflammation and damage to the central nervous system (CNS)...
  43. Neuroendocrinology of Energy Balance Control
    Matthew R Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its role in controlling for food intake and body weight through action in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  44. ALTERED METABOLISM AND CARCINOGENESIS BY DES
    CORAL LAMARTINIERE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..as a time during which critical organizational events or imprinting effects are still taking place in the central nervous system. Developmental regulators, such as hormones irreversibly direct maturational differentiation to take place ..
  45. Hormonal Modulation of Aggression in Drosophila
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are approximately 100 OA and 5HT neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. Of the total OA pool, we have identified a small group of 3 or 4 neurons, that co-express the amine and ..
  46. Prospective Cohort Study of Cryptococcosis
    PETER RICHARD WILLIAMSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as the need for a different clinical approach, given excessive neurologic inflammation associated with central nervous system infection...
  47. Advanced technology for neural interfaces based on microstimulation
    DOUGLAS BUCHANAN MCCREERY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Functional electrical stimulation in the central nervous system with penetrating microelectrodes has potential applications in clinical medicine and basic neural science, ..
  48. Adoptive Transfer of AlloCTL for Immunotherapy of Recurrent Gliomas
    Linda M Liau; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a better understanding of the mechanisms of immune responses generated by cell-based strategies targeting central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms...
  49. CNS EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL: CELLULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
    Loren H Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Institute (TSRI-ARC) proposes to continue its interdisciplinary program focused on the theme of the central nervous system effects of alcohol...
  50. Identification of Immune modulators associated with JC virus replication
    Jennifer Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV)...
  51. Immune effector-mediated killing of CNS tumors in the GL261 model of glioblastoma
    DANIELLE RENNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by less invasive routes to determine if tolerance can be broken despite immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  52. Molecular mechanisms of central chemoreception in breathing
    Marco Martina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemoreceptors sensitive to the levels of CO2 or pH in the central nervous system are critical to the regulation of cardiorespiratory homeostasis...
  53. Endoplasmic reticulum quality control of mutant HexA enzyme in Tay-Sachs disease
    Devin Dersh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lysosomal processing of cellular components is particularly essential in the central nervous system, where cells have extremely low turnover rates...
  54. Mechanism of action of novel GluN2C NMDA receptor potentiators
    Alpa Khatri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acid (AMPA), kainate, and delta receptors, mediate the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The NMDA receptor is a heteromeric receptor formed by two glycine binding GluN1 and two glutamate binding ..
  55. Artificial Placenta Device
    KATHRYN R OSTERHOLZER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The complications of premature birth include respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system morbidity, and significant mortality...
  56. A twin study of obesity pathogenesis using fMRI
    Ellen A Schur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our goal is to identify central nervous system (CNS) mechanisms that contribute to genetic susceptibility to weight gain in the modern food environment...
  57. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF CIITA AND CLASS II MHC IN GLIA
    ETTY BENVENISTE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune and inflammatory responses within the central nervous system (CNS)...
  58. Role of LRG-47 (Irgm1) in EAE
    Shidu Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of LRG-47 were robustly elevated in multiple sclerosis (MS)-affected tissue from patients and in the central nervous system (CNS) of EAE mice, especially in cells of lymphoid and mononuclear phagocyte origin...
  59. Disruption of Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis by Cytomegalovirus
    DEBORAH HYE SPECTOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of birth defects and affects the central nervous system. It is likely that gestational age an the stage of differentiation of the susceptible neural cells at the ..
  60. Mechanisms of Cancer Treatment Related Symptoms
    Lisa J Wood; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..response to harmful stimuli caused by increased production of IL-12 and TNF-1 peripherally and in the central nervous system. Our hypothesis is compatible with the emerging area of research on symptom clusters in cancer because we ..
  61. Lysosomal Disease Network
    Chester B Whitley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Central nervous system (CNS) disease has been the most difficult to treat as well as to measure...
  62. Transcriptional regulation of neuronal differentiation
    Bennett G Novitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The development of the central nervous system depends upon the ability of neural stem and progenitor cells to produce an array of distinct neurons and glia that carry out highly specialized functions ..
  63. Novel mechanisms for Alzheimer's disease prevention and/or treatment
    Luigi Puglielli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..initial results show that our compound: (i) is able to cross the brain-blood-barrier (BBB) and reach the Central Nervous System (CNS) with high efficiency;(ii) reduce both BACE1 and A[unreadable] levels in the brain;and (iii) prevent ..
  64. Bax function in apoptosis
    DONALD DAVID NEWMEYER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and treatment of various diseases, including cancer, AIDS, and disorders of the immune system and the central nervous system. A basic understanding of the apoptotic cell death machinery will help us understand both normal cellular ..
  65. Structure and Finction of AMPA subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors
    ALEXANDER SOBOLEVSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acid) subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Alteration in AMPA receptor function is associated with numerous devastating neurological diseases ..
  66. Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a significant barrier to delivery of drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) and in removal of potential toxins produced within the CNS (e.g. beta-amyloid)...
  67. Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Jashvant Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a significant barrier to delivery of drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) and in removal of potential toxins produced within the CNS (e.g. beta-amyloid)...
  68. Control of Drug Delivery to the CNS: Modulating P-glycoprotein Activity
    William Banks; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..effective therapeutics for the brain is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which excludes many drugs from the central nervous system (CNS). One major mechanism by which the BBB excludes drugs is through P- glycorprotein (P-gp)...
  69. A Haplotype Map for Multiple Sclerosis
    Stephen L Hauser; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common and severe disorder of the central nervous system characterized by chronic inflammation, myelin loss, gliosis, varying degrees of axonal and oligodendrocyte ..
  70. UAB MENTAL RETARDATION RESEARCH CENTER (MRRC)
    Alan Percy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..disabilities either through direct actions on those systems and/or through secondary effects on the central nervous system. Taken together, these developmental disabilities account for a substantial health burden in the United ..
  71. Global Regulation of Gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bernard Weisblum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As a pathogen, it spreads to the lungs (pneumonia), the central nervous system (meningitis), and the middle ear (otitis media). Mortality and morbidity due to S...
  72. Global Regulation of Gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Bernard Weisblum; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..As a pathogen, it spreads to the lungs (pneumonia), the central nervous system (meningitis), and the middle ear (otitis media). Mortality and morbidity due to S...
  73. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Novel strategies for identifying and treating viral central nervous system (CNS) infections are thus urgently needed. OBJECTIVE 1...
  74. CHEMOKINE-MEDIATED NEUROPROTECTION AND REPAIR DURING WNV ENCEPHALITIS
    ROBYN SUE KLEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..published studies we have determined that the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL10 control leukocyte access to the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and within the CNS parenchyma in a region-specific ..
  75. Surface Lipoproteins and Serum Resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi
    Darrin R Akins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..garinii often causes central nervous system abnormalities. It was recently shown that both B. burgdorferi and B...
  76. Chemical Biodiversity: Investigating the Phylogeny and Functional Toxins of Venom
    MANDE N HOLFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Among the important tools identified for investigating cellular communication in the central nervous system are the toxins from venomous marine snails...
  77. Chemical Biodiversity: Investigating the Phylogeny and Functional Toxins of Venom
    MANDE HOLFORD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Among the important tools identified for investigating cellular communication in the central nervous system are the toxins from venomous marine snails...
  78. CD-73 adenosine signaling in the central nervous system in disease and health
    MARGARET BYNOE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory attack on the central nervous system (CNS) that results in loss of neuronal function and can lead to death...
  79. Mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental effects
    Marina Guizzetti; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e. its effect on cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system. While too much cholesterol may be deleterious, as in case of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease,..
  80. Mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental effects
    Marina Guizzetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e. its effect on cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system. While too much cholesterol may be deleterious, as in case of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease,..
  81. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  82. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  83. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2007
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  84. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  85. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  86. Nicotine & Immunopathogenesis of Cryptococcal meningitis
    Mohan Sopori; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are common complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients...
  87. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) immediately after initial infection and localizes itself with variable concentration in different ..
  88. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) immediately after initial infection and localizes itself with variable concentration in different ..
  89. Lipoic Acid Therapy for Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
    Dennis Bourdette; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common and disabling disease of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  90. CORE--NEUROCYTOLOGY/CELLULAR IMAGING
    Paul Micevych; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Purpose and Objectives Genetic and environmentally-induced developmental disorders can adversely affect central nervous system (CMS) development and function...
  91. Characterization of a novel murine model of central nervous system catheter infec
    Jessica Snowden; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The most common organisms responsible for these central nervous system (CNS) catheter infections, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are both known to form ..
  92. Disregulation of Potassium Channels in Menopausal Hot Flashes
    Jon Levine; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Estrogen receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system...
  93. MOLECULAR BASIS OF REOVIRUS PATHOGENESIS
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..intestinal mucosa, disseminates via hematogenous or neural routes, and targets the heart, liver, and central nervous system (CNS) to cause disease...
  94. Gene therapy for alpha-mannosidosis
    Mark E Haskins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..many years, the blood brain barrier has been considered a major obstacle to systemic therapy to reach the central nervous system for lysosomal storage diseases...
  95. CD-73 adenosine signaling in the central nervous system in disease and health
    Margaret S Bynoe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory attack on the central nervous system (CNS) that results in loss of neuronal function and can lead to death...
  96. CD-73 adenosine signaling in the central nervous system in disease and health
    Margaret S Bynoe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory attack on the central nervous system (CNS) that results in loss of neuronal function and can lead to death...
  97. Dopamine Exacerbates NeuroAIDS by Activation of Macrophage Dopaminergic System
    PETER JESSE GASKILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..methamphetamine act by increasing in extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) within the central nervous system (CNS)...
  98. Pharmacology and Regulation of Nicotinic Receptor Subtypes
    Kenneth Kellar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of the diverse heteromeric neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)...
  99. Pharmacology and Regulation of Nicotinic Receptor Subtypes
    Kenneth J Kellar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the diverse heteromeric neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS)...
  100. ATYPICAL ODONTALGIA AND ENDODONTIC TREATMENT, SENSORY TESTING AND GENETIC STUDY
    Eli Eliav; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..will employ dynamic sensory tests as temporal summation and Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) for central nervous system involvment evaluation...
  101. ATYPICAL ODONTALGIA AND ENDODONTIC TREATMENT, SENSORY TESTING AND GENETIC STUDY
    Eli Eliav; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will employ dynamic sensory tests as temporal summation and Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) for central nervous system involvment evaluation...