central nervous system

Summary

Summary: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.

Top Publications

  1. pmc IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005
  2. pmc Innate immunity in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1164-71. 2012
  3. ncbi Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:880-4. 2006
  4. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
  5. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
  6. doi The anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:623-35. 2012
  7. pmc Interleukin-17 production in central nervous system-infiltrating T cells and glial cells is associated with active disease in multiple sclerosis
    John S Tzartos
    Department of Neuropathology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Am J Pathol 172:146-55. 2008
  8. pmc Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system
    Anthony Orvedahl
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:115-27. 2010
  9. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001
  10. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006

Detail Information

Publications359 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation
    Claire L Langrish
    Discovery Research, DNAX Research Inc, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Exp Med 201:233-40. 2005
    ..Using passive transfer studies, we confirm that these IL-23-dependent CD4(+) T cells are highly pathogenic and essential for the establishment of organ-specific inflammation associated with central nervous system autoimmunity.
  2. pmc Innate immunity in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1164-71. 2012
    ....
  3. ncbi Loss of autophagy in the central nervous system causes neurodegeneration in mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:880-4. 2006
    ..We found that mice lacking Atg7 specifically in the central nervous system showed behavioural defects, including abnormal limb-clasping reflexes and a reduction in coordinated ..
  4. ncbi Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker for studies of gene function in neuronal morphogenesis
    T Lee
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Neuron 22:451-61. 1999
    ..of gene functions in neuroblast proliferation, axon guidance, and dendritic elaboration in the complex central nervous system. As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension ..
  5. ncbi Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
    G J Morton
    Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA
    Nature 443:289-95. 2006
    ..This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research...
  6. doi The anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    Neuroinflammation Research Center and Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:623-35. 2012
    The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain, spinal cord, optic nerves and retina, and contains post-mitotic, delicate cells...
  7. pmc Interleukin-17 production in central nervous system-infiltrating T cells and glial cells is associated with active disease in multiple sclerosis
    John S Tzartos
    Department of Neuropathology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Am J Pathol 172:146-55. 2008
    ....
  8. pmc Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system
    Anthony Orvedahl
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:115-27. 2010
    ..gene Atg5 function is critical for protection against lethal Sindbis virus (SIN) infection of the mouse central nervous system. Inactivating Atg5 in SIN-infected neurons results in delayed clearance of viral proteins, increased ..
  9. ncbi Immune function of microglia
    F Aloisi
    Neurophysiology Unit, Laboratory of Organ and System Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma, Italy
    Glia 36:165-79. 2001
    During the past decade, mechanisms involved in the immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have moved to the forefront of neuropathological research mainly because of the recognition that most neurological disorders ..
  10. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
  11. doi Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy
    Robin J M Franklin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:839-55. 2008
    ..The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically...
  12. pmc α-Synuclein in central nervous system and from erythrocytes, mammalian cells, and Escherichia coli exists predominantly as disordered monomer
    Bruno Fauvet
    Laboratory of Molecular and Chemical Biology of Neurodegeneration, Brain Mind Institute, Station 19, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 287:15345-64. 2012
    ..Our findings demonstrate that both human and rodent α-syn expressed in the central nervous system exist predominantly as an unfolded monomer...
  13. pmc Toll-like receptor (TLR) and inflammasome actions in the central nervous system
    Richa Hanamsagar
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
    Trends Immunol 33:333-42. 2012
    ..10 years, much attention has been focused towards elucidating the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in central nervous system (CNS) innate immunity...
  14. ncbi Three or more routes for leukocyte migration into the central nervous system
    Richard M Ransohoff
    The Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Department of Neurology, 9500 Euclid Avenue, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:569-81. 2003
    ..Leukocyte entry into the central nervous system (CNS) is restricted, in part, because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
  15. ncbi Recombinant AAV viral vectors pseudotyped with viral capsids from serotypes 1, 2, and 5 display differential efficiency and cell tropism after delivery to different regions of the central nervous system
    Corinna Burger
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610, USA
    Mol Ther 10:302-17. 2004
    ..We have investigated the tropism and transduction frequency in the central nervous system (CNS) of three different rAAV vector serotypes...
  16. doi Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Bruce D Trapp
    Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:247-69. 2008
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. The clinical disease course is variable, usually starts with reversible episodes of neurological disability in the third or ..
  17. ncbi SOX2 functions to maintain neural progenitor identity
    Victoria Graham
    Neuroscience Center, Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Neuron 39:749-65. 2003
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that SOXB1 signaling is both necessary and sufficient to maintain panneural properties of neural progenitor cells...
  18. pmc Autoimmune T cell responses in the central nervous system
    Joan Goverman
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7650, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:393-407. 2009
    Autoreactive T cell responses have a crucial role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as multiple sclerosis...
  19. pmc Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system
    Alison Elder
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1172-8. 2006
    ..Studies in monkeys with intranasally instilled gold ultrafine particles (UFPs; <100 nm) and in rats with inhaled carbon UFPs suggested that solid UFPs deposited in the nose travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb...
  20. ncbi A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes
    Shiaoching Gong
    GENSAT Project, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 260, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 425:917-25. 2003
    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions...
  21. pmc Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism
    Gregory J Morton
    Diabetes and Obesity Center of Excellence, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Physiol Rev 91:389-411. 2011
    ..This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes...
  22. pmc Dual-mode modulation of Smad signaling by Smad-interacting protein Sip1 is required for myelination in the central nervous system
    Qinjie Weng
    Department of Developmental Biology and Kent Waldrep Foundation Center for Basic Neuroscience Research on Nerve Growth and Regeneration, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Neuron 73:713-28. 2012
    Myelination by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for proper brain function, yet the molecular determinants that control this process remain poorly understood...
  23. doi Microglia: gatekeepers of central nervous system immunology
    Bart R Tambuyzer
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Neuropharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, and Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk, Belgium
    J Leukoc Biol 85:352-70. 2009
    ..This review about microglia aims to introduce the reader extensively into their ontogeny, cell biology, and involvement in different neuropathologies...
  24. ncbi What is immune privilege (not)?
    Ian Galea
    CNS Inflammation Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, SO16 7PX, UK
    Trends Immunol 28:12-8. 2007
    The 'immune privilege' of the central nervous system (CNS) is indispensable for damage limitation during inflammation in a sensitive organ with poor regenerative capacity...
  25. doi Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells): multifunctional cells with lineage plasticity
    Akiko Nishiyama
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 3156, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:9-22. 2009
    ..This Review highlights recent findings and unresolved questions related to the lineage and function of polydendrocytes in the CNS...
  26. pmc Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus can enter the central nervous system and induce neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
    Haeman Jang
    Department of Developmental Neurobiolog, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14063-8. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that a pandemic H5N1 pathogen, or other neurotropic influenza virus, could initiate CNS disorders of protein aggregation including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
  27. ncbi Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system
    N Baumann
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U 495, Biology of Neuron Glia Interactions, Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France
    Physiol Rev 81:871-927. 2001
    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and astrocytes constitute macroglia...
  28. doi Regulatory T cells in the central nervous system
    Daniel E Lowther
    Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Immunol Rev 248:156-69. 2012
    ..for forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Tregs has been shown in the pathogenesis of mechanistically diverse central nervous system (CNS) diseases from autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis to glioblastomas...
  29. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity
    Henry F McFarland
    Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 8:913-9. 2007
    ..induction, cells of myeloid lineage, antibodies and complement as well as processes intrinsic to the central nervous system seem to determine the effector stages of tissue damage...
  30. ncbi Control of male sexual behavior and sexual orientation in Drosophila by the fruitless gene
    L C Ryner
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Cell 87:1079-89. 1996
    ..fru), the first gene in a branch of the sex-determination hierarchy functioning specifically in the central nervous system (CNS). The phenotypes of new fru mutants encompass nearly all aspects of male sexual behavior...
  31. pmc Interleukin-6, a major cytokine in the central nervous system
    María Erta
    Instituto de Neurociencias y Departamento de Biología Celular, Fisiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Biociencias, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Int J Biol Sci 8:1254-66. 2012
    ..Its expression is affected in several of the main brain diseases, and animal models strongly suggest that IL-6 could have a role in the observed neuropathology and that therefore it is a clear target of strategic therapies...
  32. ncbi Planarian homologs of netrin and netrin receptor are required for proper regeneration of the central nervous system and the maintenance of nervous system architecture
    Francesc Cebria
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, B107 Chemical and Life Sciences Laboratory, 601 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Development 132:3691-703. 2005
    ..Because freshwater planarians can regenerate a functional central nervous system (CNS) from almost any portion of their body, they are useful models in which to study the roles of ..
  33. pmc Complement activation in the injured central nervous system: another dual-edged sword?
    Faith H Brennan
    The University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    J Neuroinflammation 9:137. 2012
    ..The awareness that immunological mediators support various aspects of both normal central nervous system (CNS) function and pathology has led to a renaissance of complement research in neuroscience...
  34. pmc Identification of piRNAs in the central nervous system
    Eun Joo Lee
    Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    RNA 17:1090-9. 2011
    ..Antisense suppression of this piRNA suggested a role in spine morphogenesis. Possible targets include genes, which control spine shape by a distinctive mechanism in comparison to microRNAs...
  35. doi Inflammation and central nervous system Lyme disease
    Brian A Fallon
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 37:534-41. 2010
    ..the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause multi-systemic signs and symptoms, including peripheral and central nervous system disease...
  36. ncbi A tension-based theory of morphogenesis and compact wiring in the central nervous system
    D C Van Essen
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 385:313-8. 1997
    Many structural features of the mammalian central nervous system can be explained by a morphogenetic mechanism that involves mechanical tension along axons, dendrites and glial processes...
  37. pmc Role of chemokines in CNS health and pathology: a focus on the CCL2/CCR2 and CXCL8/CXCR2 networks
    Bridgette D Semple
    National Trauma Research Institute, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30:459-73. 2010
    ..leukocytes, and are of particular interest in the context of the unique immune responses elicited in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  38. pmc Heat shock proteins: cellular and molecular mechanisms in the central nervous system
    R Anne Stetler
    Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States
    Prog Neurobiol 92:184-211. 2010
    ....
  39. pmc Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion
    Melanie A Samuel
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:9349-60. 2006
  40. doi Illuminating viral infections in the nervous system
    Dorian B McGavern
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:318-29. 2011
    ..Viral infections in the central nervous system (CNS) can alter homeostasis, induce neurological dysfunction and result in serious, potentially life-..
  41. ncbi NG2-expressing glial progenitor cells: an abundant and widespread population of cycling cells in the adult rat CNS
    Mary R L Dawson
    Department of Neuroinflammation, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:476-88. 2003
    ....
  42. pmc Behavioral consequences of dopamine deficiency in the Drosophila central nervous system
    Thomas Riemensperger
    Genetics and Physiopathology of Neurotransmission, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles ParisTech, 75005 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:834-9. 2011
    ..Our findings show that flies can perform complex brain functions in the absence of neural DA, whereas specific behaviors involving, in particular, arousal and choice require normal levels of this neuromodulator...
  43. ncbi CNS-derived interleukin-4 is essential for the regulation of autoimmune inflammation and induces a state of alternative activation in microglial cells
    Eugene D Ponomarev
    BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 2178, USA
    J Neurosci 27:10714-21. 2007
    ..Macrophages that have undergone alternative activation have been shown to be important in tissue repair; thus, our results suggest a new role for microglial cells in the regulation of inflammation in the CNS...
  44. doi Intranasal delivery to the central nervous system: mechanisms and experimental considerations
    Shyeilla V Dhuria
    Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    J Pharm Sci 99:1654-73. 2010
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the distribution of systemically administered therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS), posing a significant challenge to drug development efforts to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases ..
  45. pmc Trafficking of immune cells in the central nervous system
    Emma H Wilson
    Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:1368-79. 2010
    ..In this review, several recent advances are highlighted that provide new insights into the processes that regulate leukocyte access to, and movement within, the brain...
  46. ncbi Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in the human central nervous system
    Malika Bsibsi
    Division of Immunological and Infectious Diseases, TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:1013-21. 2002
    ..Together, our data reveal broad and regulated expression of TLRs both in vitro and in vivo by human glia cells...
  47. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system
    Guo li Ming
    Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:223-50. 2005
    ..Advances in our understanding of adult neurogenesis will not only shed light on the basic principles of adult plasticity, but also may lead to strategies for cell replacement therapy after injury or degenerative neurological diseases...
  48. ncbi Interleukin 27 negatively regulates the development of interleukin 17-producing T helper cells during chronic inflammation of the central nervous system
    Jason S Stumhofer
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6008, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:937-45. 2006
    ..Thus IL-27, a potent inhibitor of T(H)-17 cell development, may be a useful target for treating inflammatory diseases mediated by these cells...
  49. ncbi Chemokine receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases
    Laetitia Cartier
    Biology of Ageing Laboratory, Department of Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, 2 Chemin du Petit Bel Air, CH 1225 Chene Bourg, Switzerland
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 48:16-42. 2005
    ..The study of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is not only relevant for the understanding of brain physiology and pathophysiology, but may also ..
  50. ncbi The ins and outs of T-lymphocyte trafficking to the CNS: anatomical sites and molecular mechanisms
    Britta Engelhardt
    Theodor Kocher Institute, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
    Trends Immunol 26:485-95. 2005
    ..signals involved in the migration of circulating leukocytes across the highly specialized blood-central nervous system (CNS) barriers during immunosurveillance and inflammation...
  51. ncbi The neurotoxicant, cuprizone, as a model to study demyelination and remyelination in the central nervous system
    G K Matsushima
    UNC Neuroscience Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    Brain Pathol 11:107-16. 2001
    ..g. available knockouts or transgenics on the common genetic background, or pharmacological treatments) which may accelerate or repress the process of demyelination and or remyelination...
  52. ncbi Thematic review series: brain Lipids. Cholesterol metabolism in the central nervous system during early development and in the mature animal
    John M Dietschy
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75390 8887, USA
    J Lipid Res 45:1375-97. 2004
    ..During evolution, this membrane came to play an additional, highly specialized role in the central nervous system (CNS) as the major architectural component of compact myelin...
  53. pmc Tumor necrosis factor alpha protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by promoting trafficking of mononuclear leukocytes into the central nervous system
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 82:8956-64. 2008
    ..Our data are most consistent with a model in which interaction of TNF-alpha with TNF-R1 protects against WNV infection by regulating migration of protective inflammatory cells into the brain during acute infection...
  54. doi Fumarates promote cytoprotection of central nervous system cells against oxidative stress via the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathway
    Robert H Scannevin
    Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 341:274-84. 2012
    ..metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) on cellular resistance to oxidative damage in primary cultures of central nervous system (CNS) cells and further explore the dependence and function of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-..
  55. pmc Potassium buffering in the central nervous system
    P Kofuji
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, 6 145 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Neuroscience 129:1045-56. 2004
    ..We also discuss intriguing new data that suggest a close physical and functional relationship between Kir and water channels in glial cells...
  56. ncbi Down-regulation of the macrophage lineage through interaction with OX2 (CD200)
    R M Hoek
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Science 290:1768-71. 2000
    ..Thus, in diverse tissues OX2 delivers an inhibitory signal for the macrophage lineage...
  57. pmc Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration
    Eitan Okun
    Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res Rev 59:278-92. 2009
    ....
  58. pmc Viral vectors for gene delivery to the central nervous system
    Thomas B Lentz
    Gene Therapy Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7352, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 48:179-88. 2012
    ..Our goal is to provide insight into features of the optimal vector and which viral vectors can provide these features...
  59. doi Central nervous system reorganization in a variety of chronic pain states: a review
    Douglas E Henry
    Department of Developmental and Rehabilitative Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44104, USA
    PM R 3:1116-25. 2011
    ..It is now clear that substantial functional and structural changes, or plasticity, in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with many chronic pain syndromes...
  60. pmc Lysophospholipids and their receptors in the central nervous system
    Ji Woong Choi
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1831:20-32. 2013
    ..In the central nervous system (CNS), a major locus for these signaling pathways, LPA and S1P have been shown to influence myriad ..
  61. ncbi The central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics by learning optimal impedance
    E Burdet
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore
    Nature 414:446-9. 2001
    ..Our results show that humans learn to stabilize unstable dynamics using the skillful and energy-efficient strategy of selective control of impedance geometry...
  62. ncbi Complete Freunds adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation evokes glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the CNS
    Vasudeva Raghavendra
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:467-73. 2004
    ..These findings further support a unifying theory that glial activation and enhanced cytokine expression at the CNS have a role in eliciting behavioral hypersensitivity...
  63. doi Neurochemokines: a menage a trois providing new insights on the functions of chemokines in the central nervous system
    William Rostene
    Institut de la Vision UMRS INSERM UPMC 968, Paris, France
    J Neurochem 118:680-94. 2011
    ..In this deliberately challenging review, we provide novel hypotheses on the role of these subtle messenger molecules in brain functions leading to the evidence that previous dogmas concerning chemokines should be reconsidered...
  64. doi Role of endothelial TLR4 for neutrophil recruitment into central nervous system microvessels in systemic inflammation
    Hong Zhou
    Immunology Research Group, Department Physiology and Biophysics, University of Calgary, NW Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    J Immunol 183:5244-50. 2009
    ..Our results demonstrate that direct endothelial activation is sufficient to mediate leukocyte rolling and adhesion in cerebral microvessels but not sufficient for emigration to brain parenchyma...
  65. pmc HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system occurs in two distinct cell types
    Gretja Schnell
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002286. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to the development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)...
  66. ncbi Microglial cell activation and proliferation precedes the onset of CNS autoimmunity
    Eugene D Ponomarev
    Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 2178, USA
    J Neurosci Res 81:374-89. 2005
    Microglial cells are central nervous system (CNS) resident cells that are thought to become activated and contribute to the inflammation that occurs in the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  67. pmc Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2
    L Izikson
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 192:1075-80. 2000
    Monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) is a necessary step in the development of pathologic inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis...
  68. ncbi Characterization of chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system: physiopathological implications
    Adriana Bajetto
    Service of Pharmacology and Neuroscience Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy
    J Neurochem 82:1311-29. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi Immunology of multiple sclerosis
    Mireia Sospedra
    Cellular Immunology Section, Neuroimmunology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1400, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 23:683-747. 2005
    ..Damage of the target tissue, the central nervous system, is, however, most likely mediated by other components of the immune system, such as antibodies, ..
  70. pmc Circulating Ly-6C+ myeloid precursors migrate to the CNS and play a pathogenic role during autoimmune demyelinating disease
    Irah L King
    Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, NY, USA
    Blood 113:3190-7. 2009
    ..traffic across the blood-brain barrier, up-regulate proinflammatory molecules, and differentiate into central nervous system dendritic cells and macrophages...
  71. pmc Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier
    Yun C Chang
    Molecular Microbiology Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 72:4985-95. 2004
    ..neoformans with the choroid plexus, however, was not detected during up to 10 days of observation. Our findings indicate that C. neoformans cells invade the central nervous system by transcellular crossing of the endothelium of the BBB.
  72. pmc Neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling serves distinct functions in myelination of the peripheral and central nervous system
    Bastian G Brinkmann
    Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Goettingen 37075, Germany
    Neuron 59:581-95. 2008
    ..Thus, NRG1/ErbB signaling is markedly different between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that have evolved an NRG/ErbB-independent mechanism of myelination control...
  73. pmc Urease expression by Cryptococcus neoformans promotes microvascular sequestration, thereby enhancing central nervous system invasion
    Michal A Olszewski
    Veteran s Administration Medical Center Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Am J Pathol 164:1761-71. 2004
    Our objective was to determine the role of the cryptococcal virulence factor urease in pulmonary-to-central nervous system, dissemination, invasion, and growth. C...
  74. ncbi Myelin impairs CNS remyelination by inhibiting oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation
    Mark R Kotter
    Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:328-32. 2006
    ..These data identify myelin as an inhibitor of remyelination as well as its well documented inhibition of axon regeneration...
  75. doi The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease
    Ben A Barres
    Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Neuron 60:430-40. 2008
    ..I argue that until the roles of nonneuronal cells are more fully understood and considered, neurobiology as a whole will progress only slowly...
  76. doi Infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells and activation of microglia in the CNS during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Aine C Murphy
    Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Brain Behav Immun 24:641-51. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that T cells which secrete IL-17 or IL-17 and IFN-gamma infiltrate the CNS prior to the onset of clinical symptoms of EAE, where they may mediate CNS inflammation, in part, through microglial activation...
  77. pmc Central nervous system neuronal surface antibody associated syndromes: review and guidelines for recognition
    Luigi Zuliani
    Department of Neurology, Ospedale Ca Foncello, Treviso, Italy
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:638-45. 2012
    ..Here, the known conditions associated with neuronal surface antibodies are briefly reviewed, some general aspects of these syndromes are considered and guidelines that could help in the recognition of further disorders are suggested...
  78. pmc Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway
    Erin Harberts
    Viral Immunology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13734-9. 2011
    ..Collectively, these results support HHV-6 utilization of the olfactory pathway as a route of entry into the CNS...
  79. doi NOX enzymes in the central nervous system: from signaling to disease
    Silvia Sorce
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2481-504. 2009
    ..In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about NOX enzymes in the central nervous system and their involvement in neurologic and psychiatric diseases.
  80. pmc Role of specific innate immune responses in herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system
    Jennifer P Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:2273-81. 2012
    ..The relative contributions of different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune response during central nervous system infection with HSV-1 have not been fully characterized...
  81. ncbi Aquaporin-4 in the central nervous system: cellular and subcellular distribution and coexpression with KIR4.1
    E A Nagelhus
    Nordic Centre of Excellence for Research in Water Imbalance Related Disorders and Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, POB 1105 Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Neuroscience 129:905-13. 2004
    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the neuropil of the central nervous system. It is expressed primarily in astrocytes, but also occurs in ependymocytes and endothelial cells...
  82. pmc Activation of central nervous system inflammatory pathways by interferon-alpha: relationship to monoamines and depression
    Charles L Raison
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:296-303. 2009
    ..The degree to which peripheral administration of IFN-alpha accesses the brain and is associated with a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response is unknown...
  83. pmc Role of CD8+ T cells in control of West Nile virus infection
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 78:8312-21. 2004
    ..immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG, have critical roles in preventing dissemination of WNV infection to the central nervous system. In this study, we addressed the function of CD8(+) T cells in controlling WNV infection...
  84. doi Insulin/IGF-like signalling, the central nervous system and aging
    Susan Broughton
    UCL Institute of Healthy Aging, GEE Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Biochem J 418:1-12. 2009
    ..One tissue of particular importance for lifespan extension in diverse organisms is the CNS (central nervous system)...
  85. ncbi Transient expression of doublecortin during adult neurogenesis
    Jason P Brown
    Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 467:1-10. 2003
    During development of the central nervous system, expression of the microtubule binding protein doublecortin (DCX) is associated with migration of neuroblasts...
  86. ncbi A homeodomain protein code specifies progenitor cell identity and neuronal fate in the ventral neural tube
    J Briscoe
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 101:435-45. 2000
    ..The combinatorial expression of three of these proteins--Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2, and Irx3--specifies the identity of three classes of neurons generated in the ventral third of the neural tube...
  87. ncbi Requirement for LIM homeobox gene Isl1 in motor neuron generation reveals a motor neuron-dependent step in interneuron differentiation
    S L Pfaff
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecule Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 84:309-20. 1996
    ..These results show that ISL1 is required for the generation of motor neurons and suggest that motor neuron generation is required for the subsequent differentiation of certain interneurons...
  88. ncbi Myelin-associated inhibitors of axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian CNS
    Marie T Filbin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:703-13. 2003
  89. pmc Microglia express distinct M1 and M2 phenotypic markers in the postnatal and adult central nervous system in male and female mice
    Jessica M Crain
    Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    J Neurosci Res 91:1143-51. 2013
    ..In conclusion, age- and sex-specific variances in basal gene expression may allow differential microglial responses to the same stimulus at different ages, perhaps contributing to altered CNS vulnerabilities and/or disease courses...
  90. doi Harnessing monocyte-derived macrophages to control central nervous system pathologies: no longer 'if' but 'how'
    Ravid Shechter
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel
    J Pathol 229:332-46. 2013
    The central nervous system (CNS) tissues, including the brain, the eye, and the spinal cord, are immune-privileged, secluded from the circulation by a complex of barriers, and equipped with their own myeloid cell population, the resident ..
  91. doi Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoids: reciprocal influence on the central nervous system
    T Numakawa
    Department of Mental Disorder Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry NCNP, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    Neuroscience 239:157-72. 2013
    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has multiple roles in the central nervous system (CNS), including maintaining cell survival and regulation of synaptic function...
  92. pmc The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function
    Annina Huser
    Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e47518. 2012
    ..during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was ..
  93. ncbi Microglia initiate central nervous system innate and adaptive immune responses through multiple TLRs
    Julie K Olson
    Department of Microbiology Immunology and Interdepartmental Immunobiology Program, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    J Immunol 173:3916-24. 2004
    ..Thus, microglia appear to be a unique and important component of both the innate and adaptive immune response, providing the CNS with a means to rapidly and efficiently respond to a wide variety of pathogens...
  94. pmc Chemokine-like receptor-1 expression by central nervous system-infiltrating leukocytes and involvement in a model of autoimmune demyelinating disease
    Kareem L Graham
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    J Immunol 183:6717-23. 2009
    ..The results imply involvement of CMKLR1 in both the induction and effector phases of disease. We conclude that CMKLR1 participates in the inflammatory mechanisms of EAE and represents a potential therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis...
  95. doi Considering the evolution of regeneration in the central nervous system
    Elly M Tanaka
    Center for Regeneration Therapies, University of Technology, Dresden, c o Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 10:713-23. 2009
    ..Here we compare CNS regeneration among vertebrates and speculate on how this ability may have emerged or been restricted...
  96. pmc Slit/Robo signaling modulates the proliferation of central nervous system progenitors
    Victor Borrell
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Miguel Hernández, Sant Joan d Alacant 03550, Spain
    Neuron 76:338-52. 2012
    ..Here we report that central nervous system progenitors express Robo1 and Robo2, receptors for Slit proteins that regulate axon guidance, and that ..
  97. pmc Defining desirable central nervous system drug space through the alignment of molecular properties, in vitro ADME, and safety attributes
    Travis T Wager
    558 Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT, USA
    ACS Chem Neurosci 1:420-34. 2010
    ..Neuroscience therapeutic area, we embarked on a detailed study of the property space for a collection of central nervous system (CNS) molecules...
  98. pmc Transcriptome analysis of the Octopus vulgaris central nervous system
    Xiang Zhang
    The Laboratory of Marine Biodiversity and Global Change, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e40320. 2012
    ..Unfortunately, the lack of neuronal molecular sequences, such as ESTs, transcriptomic or genomic information, has limited the development of molecular neurobiology research in this unique model organism...
  99. pmc Regulatory B cells inhibit EAE initiation in mice while other B cells promote disease progression
    Takashi Matsushita
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:3420-30. 2008
    ..The therapeutic effect of B cell depletion for the treatment of autoimmunity may therefore depend on the relative contributions and the timing of these opposing B cell activities during the course of disease initiation and pathogenesis...
  100. ncbi Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse
    Nobuaki Tamamaki
    Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    J Comp Neurol 467:60-79. 2003
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the central nervous system regulate the activity of other neurons and play a crucial role in information processing...
  101. ncbi Base excision repair and the central nervous system
    D M Wilson
    Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neuroscience 145:1187-200. 2007
    ..The focus of the review is on the core mammalian BER participants, i.e. the DNA glycosylases, AP endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase beta, X-ray cross-complementing 1, and the DNA ligases...

Research Grants112 found, 100 shown here

  1. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the eye, mucous membranes, and other body organs such as the joints, intestinal tract, blood vessels, and central nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to see how genes affect Beh et's disease and if there are ..
  2. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the eye, mucous membranes, and other body organs such as the joints, intestinal tract, blood vessels, and central nervous system. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to see how genes affect Beh et's disease and if there are ..
  3. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  4. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  5. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural crest stem cells and Hirschsprung disea
    Sean J Morrison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..anders.bjorklund@mphy.lu.se</auth-address;titles;title>Cell replacement therapies for central nervous system disorders</title;secondary-title>Nat Neurosci</secondary-title;/titles;periodical;full-title>..
  6. H1R Signaling and Immune Deviation in EAE
    Cory Teuscher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..EAE is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a critical genetic component...
  7. ORGANIZATION OF CENTRAL SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS
    Patrice G Guyenet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our basic research seeks to understand the central nervous system mechanisms implicated in the effects of asphyxia on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during ..
  8. Agrin/alpha 3 Na,K-ATPase signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Martin A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Agrin-dependent regulation of the a3 pump modulates excitability of central nervous system neurons, as well as the levels of cytoplasmic calcium and other second messengers implicated in regulating ..
  9. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis as it integrates signals from the gut, peripheral tissue and central nervous system. This process is disrupted in diseases such as TD2M and the Metabolic Syndrome...
  10. MOLECULAR BASIS OF REOVIRUS PATHOGENESIS
    Terence S Dermody; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intestinal mucosa, disseminates via hematogenous or neural routes, and targets the heart, liver, and central nervous system (CNS) to cause disease...
  11. Neuroprotection and Myelin Repair Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis
    Inderjit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory, demyelinating disease that affects individuals in their most productive ages...
  12. Systemic Inflammation and Central Nervous System Dysfunction
    Laura L Dugan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. A unique approach to identify markers for congenital syphilis and neurosyphilis
    Nikhat Parveen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Invasion of the placenta, which may lead to congenital transmission and of the central nervous system will be detectable in mice by an in vivo imaging system (IVIS 200)...
  14. Mechanism of action of omega-3 fatty acids in brain injury
    CHARLES NICHOLAS SERHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid-DHA particularly), are uniquely concentrated in the central nervous system and are involved in neuroprotection, cognition, and other brain and retinal functions...
  15. Conference on Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disea
    Martin Frank; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..New nanoparticle delivery techniques can be utilized for targeted therapy to the central nervous system for the treatment of diseases characterized by sympathoexcitation...
  16. Chemical modulators of Tet-family proteins
    Anjana Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In cancer, DNA methylation has been linked to aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes;in the central nervous system (CNS), it has been implicated, among other things, in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity...
  17. Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier
    Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a significant barrier to delivery of drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) and in removal of potential toxins produced within the CNS (e.g. beta-amyloid)...
  18. Glutamate receptor recruitment to new synapses in vivo
    PHILIP ERIC WASHBOURNE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most synapses in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) depend on the neurotransmitter glutamate, and thus glutamatergic synapses have been an important ..
  19. The Role of Interleukin-10 During Fatal Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis
    KIRSTEN KULCSAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The proposed research is aimed at determining the role IL-10 has in the central nervous system during fatal viral encephalitis...
  20. Overcoming Temozolomide Resistance using MGMT-targeting Spherical Nucleic Acids
    TIMOTHY L SITA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent primary central nervous system malignancy...
  21. Efficacy of GABAA a5 receptor inverse agonists in learning impaired rats
    EARL MICHAEL GIBBS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..BZs can cause depressing (agonist) or stimulating (inverse agonist) effects on the central nervous system by modulating the GABAA receptor, the most prevalent inhibitory receptor within the brain...
  22. Characterization of epsilon-sarcoglycan interacting proteins in mouse brain
    Yuqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Dystonia is generally believed to be a disorder of the central nervous system. Inherited myoclonus- dystonia (M-D), previously referred to as hereditary essential myoclonus or ..
  23. Identification of Compounds to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2E neuropathy
    RONALD K LIEM; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although the genes mutated in CMT are also expressed in the central nervous system, the disorder almost never affects brain function...
  24. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) subfamily function in Hippocampus.
    David E Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of ion channel subunits comprise 7 distinct gene products (TRPC1-7), most of which are expressed in the central nervous system. Three subfamily members of this class (TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC5) are highly expressed in the hippocampus...
  25. Mechanisms of virus-induced injury in the brain and spinal cord
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viruses induce disease in the central nervous system (CNS) by either killing or disrupting essential functions of neurons within the brain and spinal cord...
  26. Regulation of Astrocyte TIMP-1 in HIV-Associated Dementia
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The disease is characterized by an accumulation of activated and infected macrophages/microglia in the central nervous system, which secrete cytokines, infectious virions and viral proteins that activate surrounding astrocytes ..
  27. Dynamics of Kinesins, Dyneins, and Myosins
    Paul R Selvin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..as a function of insertion length of the cargo-binding domain of myosin VI (with L. Sweeney, UPenn.). d) Technological developments: Optics/microscopy needs to be achieved to fulfill the above goals. ..
  28. Hormonal regulation of a Ca2+/AMPK signaling pathway
    Anthony R Means; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..At least part of the protection is mediated via the central nervous system as CaMKK2 functions in neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus to control production of neuropeptide Y...
  29. Neuroprotection by IFN-beta in AIDS
    Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IFNs are important for an anti-viral immune response, the lasting expression of IFN? in the HIV-1 exposed central nervous system (CNS) has been connected to cognitive impairment and inflammatory neuropathology...
  30. Combined BAC Transgenic and Knock-Out Mouse Model of Lowe Syndrome Nephropathy
    Robert L Nussbaum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, after completing a 10-generation backcross onto C57Bl/6, we will examine the mice for abnormalities in central nervous system by testing motor function, anxiety, learning, memory and by examining the brains neuropathologically.
  31. Study of zidovudine addition in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
    Albert Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..who aims to become a leader in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical research with a focus on the central nervous system (CNS) involvement of HIV...
  32. Mechanisms of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental effects
    Marina Guizzetti; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..e. its effect on cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system. While too much cholesterol may be deleterious, as in case of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease,..
  33. Role of Sex Chromosome Complement in the CNS during Autoimmune Disease
    Sienmi Du; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized in the initial stages by inflammation, in the later stages by neurodegeneration, and ..
  34. Mechanisms Regulating Reduced c-Kit-Dependent EAE Susceptibility in Male SJL Mice
    MELISSA ANN BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide...
  35. Neuropeptide modulation of biogenic amine function and aggression in a crustacean
    Maria A Sosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..prawn male morphotypes and aggressive behaviors induced by injection of 5-HT and OA;(2) Characterize the central nervous system (CNS) distribution of these neuropeptides in the prawn morphotypes and determine how it relates with those ..
  36. Misty: a model for central regulation of bone remodeling
    CLIFFORD JAMES ROSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central nervous system (CNS) modulates adipose tissue function and bone turnover through efferent pathways from the SNS...
  37. Brain Delivery of Nanoformulated Superoxide Dismutase
    Erin G Rosenbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to increase brain delivery and neuronal uptake of antioxidant proteins may be applicable to other central nervous system disorders associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, including Alzheimer's disease, ..
  38. Hiv-1 Infection: Central Serotonergic Activity and its Health Implications
    Adarsh M Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) immediately after initial infection and localizes itself with variable concentration in different ..
  39. Genomic adaptation to HIV infection of the CNS in opioid-abusers
    Rajnish S Dave; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..well- characterized reactions induced by these pathologic (HIV) and biochemical (opioids) insults to the central nervous system (CNS)...
  40. Adipose Tissue Macrophage Phenotype and Function
    Anthony W Ferrante; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In other tissues, including bone, the central nervous system and liver, resident macrophages through complex paracrine loops play essential roles in the development ..
  41. CHEMOSENSORY PERCEPTION AND PSYCHOPHYSICS IN THE AGED
    CLAIRE L MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..taste and odor information in order to test the overarching hypothesis that functional changes in central nervous system activity, detectable in the cortical representation on fMRI, constitute a major neural substrate for ..
  42. Mechanisms of Astrocyte Development
    Teri L Belecky Adams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The central nervous system contains a specialized group of glial cells, known as astrocytes...
  43. Interacting Impact of Adrenal and Ovarian Aging on the CNS
    Henryk F Urbanski; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..However, the impact of these changes on human physiology, especially within the central nervous system (CNS), is far from being clear...
  44. The Role of the Terminal Complement Pathway in ALS
    Scott R Barnum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..immune system, drives neuroinflammation along with other inflammatory mediators in most, if not all, central nervous system diseases and infections. There is growing evidence that complement contributes to neurodegeneration in ALS...
  45. Connexins in Neuronal and Glial Gap Junctions in the Central Nervous System
    John E Rash; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to occur only between a few types of neurons, and to occur only in limited, non- cognitive areas of the central nervous system. The discovery of "miniature" gap junctions (<100 connexons) and preliminary evidence for their ..
  46. Optimization of EphA4 antagonists for CNS disorders
    ELENA B contact PASQUALE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the adult central nervous system (CNS), EphA4 regulates the structure and plasticity of neuronal connections (synapses) and plays an ..
  47. Potentiation of Glycine Receptors by Ethanol
    LUIS GERARDO AGUAYO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to identify the mechanism and sites of ethanol action in order to understand how ethanol affects the central nervous system and to propose useful therapies to alleviate neurological health problems associated with its excessive ..
  48. Virus-Host Interactions that Lead to Epilepsy
    Robert S Fujinami; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in encephalitis. Viral encephalitis is a risk factor for epilepsy. Epilepsy has an incidence of about 1 to 3% and affects about 2...
  49. A Cis-regulatory Model for Neural Border Induction
    Daniel Meulemans Medeiros; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neural crest is a population of multipotent progenitor cells that forms at the border of the developing central nervous system and epidermis...
  50. Role of natural indoles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Mitzi Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation in the central nervous system that results in neuron demyelination leading to paralysis...
  51. Immune Regulation of Viral Recrudescence
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The central nervous system (CNS) is a major target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir of latent/persisting viruses...
  52. Inhibition of matrix proteases to sensitize medulloblastoma cells to radiation
    Andrei L Gartel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..goal for these patients is to develop treatment strategies that minimize the dose of radiation to the central nervous system. Gene therapy consists of the introduction of genetic material into diseased cellular targets to bring ..
  53. GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS IN THE CNS
    MICHAEL BYRNE ROBINSON; Fiscal Year: 2011
    The acidic amino acid, glutamate, is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Although there are millimolar concentrations of this excitatory amino acid (EAA) in the brain, extracellular ..
  54. Control of Drug Delivery to the CNS: Modulating P-glycoprotein Activity
    William A Banks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effective therapeutics for the brain is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which excludes many drugs from the central nervous system (CNS). One major mechanism by which the BBB excludes drugs is through P- glycorprotein (P-gp)...
  55. Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDS
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): Drug toxicities, patient compliance and limited penetrance into viral reservoirs (notably the central nervous system (CNS), gut and lymphatic organs) have diminished long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy for HIV ..
  56. Protein Modifications and Unfolded Protein Response in Diabetic Embryopathy
    Zhiyong Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The common anomalies resulted from diabetic pregnancy are in the central nervous system, primarily neural tube defects (NTDs)...
  57. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the central nervous system (CNS), the glial cells are infected by the HIV-1 virus, causing neuroinflammation...
  58. Germ Cell Migration in Drosophila.
    Ruth Lehmann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In vertebrate embryos, for example, neural crest cells leave the developing central nervous system and migrate over long distances to give rise to such cell types as sensory neurons, facial cartilage and ..
  59. Glucocorticoids, Stress and Blood Pressure Regulation
    Deborah A Scheuer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is to identify the central neural pathways and mechanisms by which glucocorticoids and stress modulate central nervous system control of cardiovascular function in order to discover potential new opportunities for clinical ..
  60. Developmental Programs of Neural Circuits in the Mouse Medial Hypothalamus
    Holly A Ingraham; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Major advances in the study of body weight regulation have identified central nervous system circuits involving the hypothalamus that controls energy metabolism...
  61. Control of alphavirous replacation in the nervous system
    Diane E Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, preservation of these essential cells results in persistence of viral RNA in the central nervous system (CNS) and the need for long-term suppression of virus replication...
  62. Energy Balance During Ketosis in Rat Brain
    JOSEPH CHARLES LAMANNA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of recovery of neurologic function following stroke (oxidative stress) is limited by the ability of the central nervous system to recover from an ischemic event...
  63. Mapping Orofacial Nociceptive Pathways and Alterations Due to Inflammation
    JOSHUA EMRICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stimuli activate primary afferent sensory neurons (nociceptors) producing pain via signaling to the central nervous system (CNS) and contributing to inflammation by releasing inflammatory mediators at the site of injury...
  64. Role of Central Neural NFkB and ER Stress in Obesity-induced Hypertension
    COLIN NEAL YOUNG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A potential means is by evoking long-term changes in gene expression in central nervous system (CNS) cardiovascular neurons through the activation of inducible transcription factors, including nuclear ..
  65. MOUSE MODELS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Domenico Accili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..homeostasis;(ii) the discovery of mechanisms by which non-canonical sites of insulin action, such as central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine pancreas, play an early and decisive role in the progression from insulin resistance ..
  66. Murine coronavirus neurovirulence: role of type I interferon response
    Susan R Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can cause both acute and chronic diseases that devastate the host...
  67. Regulation and Function of Urocortins and their Receptors
    Aditi Bhargava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CRF and urocortins [Ucn] 1-3) and their receptors (CRFR1, CRFR2) are essential mediators of stress in the central nervous system. Therefore a systemic inhibition of their function is not an attractive therapeutic model...
  68. The role of indolamine2,3-dioxygenase in the host response/pathogenesis of Venezu
    Robert Seymour; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The neuropathogenesis of these viruses and the host response of the central nervous system are still not completely understood...
  69. Regulation of B cells in the CNS
    Cornelia Bergmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ABSTRACT Antibody (Ab) production and the presence of B cells within the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented in humans with the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and those afflicted by neurotropic infections...
  70. Investigating the mechanism of TNFalpha mediated cell death in oligodendrocytes
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MS, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is the most common chronic neurodegenerative disease for young adults during their most productive ..
  71. Air pollution and the brain: gender as an important determinant of susceptibility
    Lucio G Costa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..well established;in addition, initial evidence suggests that air pollution may also negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases...
  72. The role of diet-induced obesity in cognitive impairment
    CATRINA SIMS ROBINSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies have demonstrated that improving insulin signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) has a positive impact on cognition;however, obese individuals are excluded from such studies...
  73. The Molecular Genetics of Early Neurogenesis
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..role during neural induction to establish the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis and to distinguish epidermal from central nervous system cell fates...
  74. Methylmercury exposure, mercury metabolism genotypes, and risk of adult glioma
    Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central nervous system is highly susceptible to the toxic effects of MeHg since the compound is able to cross the blood-brain ..
  75. Control of Breathing and Pompe Disease
    David D Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pompe disease - intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant GAA - does not target the central nervous system (CNS)...
  76. Glypican-1 in gliomagenesis
    Andreas Friedl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Central nervous system gliomas cause morbidity and mortality by relentless growth and local invasion. High-grade gliomas typically kill patients within months after diagnosis...
  77. Central Nervous System Mechanisms in Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA)
    Daniel J Clauw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leading to pain and symptom expression in KOA, some patients possess varying degrees of non-psychological central nervous system (CNS) factors which play an equally or even more prominent role in the expression of pain and co-morbid ..
  78. Brain Oxygen Metabolism and Hemodynamic Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis
    Yulin Ge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and one of the most common causes of nontraumatic disability among young and middle-aged people...
  79. Small-molecule probes of chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity
    Stephen J Haggarty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..based upon this knowledge is critical in order to improve the treatment and prevention of a myriad of central nervous system disorders...
  80. MRP4 extrudes cAMP for localized regulation of calcium channel activity
    OLIVIA RUTH BUONARATI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2-associated disorders in the central nervous system, including stroke, depression, anxiety, senility and Alzheimer's disease.
  81. RAX, PKR and ethanol neurotoxicity
    Gang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Central nervous system (CNS) damage is a major feature observed in FASD patients...
  82. Mechanisms of mitochondrial fission/fusion dysregulation during HIV-1-associated
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..there is great need for therapies capable ameliorating the devastating effects of HIV infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS)...
  83. Characterization of Chd7 in central nervous system neural stem cells
    JOSEPH ANTHONY MICUCCI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder that affects development of the eyes, ears, nose, and central nervous system (CNS)...
  84. Identification of CNS-homing peptides for therapeutic use in multiple sclerosis
    Kamal D Moudgil; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disease involving inflammation and damage to the central nervous system (CNS)...
  85. Neuroendocrinology of Energy Balance Control
    Matthew R Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its role in controlling for food intake and body weight through action in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  86. Prospective Cohort Study of Cryptococcosis
    PETER RICHARD WILLIAMSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as the need for a different clinical approach, given excessive neurologic inflammation associated with central nervous system infection...
  87. Hormonal Modulation of Aggression in Drosophila
    Edward A Kravitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are approximately 100 OA and 5HT neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system. Of the total OA pool, we have identified a small group of 3 or 4 neurons, that co-express the amine and ..
  88. Advanced technology for neural interfaces based on microstimulation
    DOUGLAS BUCHANAN MCCREERY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Functional electrical stimulation in the central nervous system with penetrating microelectrodes has potential applications in clinical medicine and basic neural science, ..
  89. Immune effector-mediated killing of CNS tumors in the GL261 model of glioblastoma
    DANIELLE RENNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by less invasive routes to determine if tolerance can be broken despite immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  90. Identification of Immune modulators associated with JC virus replication
    Jennifer Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV)...
  91. Molecular mechanisms of central chemoreception in breathing
    Marco Martina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemoreceptors sensitive to the levels of CO2 or pH in the central nervous system are critical to the regulation of cardiorespiratory homeostasis...
  92. Endoplasmic reticulum quality control of mutant HexA enzyme in Tay-Sachs disease
    Devin Dersh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Lysosomal processing of cellular components is particularly essential in the central nervous system, where cells have extremely low turnover rates...
  93. A twin study of obesity pathogenesis using fMRI
    Ellen A Schur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our goal is to identify central nervous system (CNS) mechanisms that contribute to genetic susceptibility to weight gain in the modern food environment...
  94. Artificial Placenta Device
    KATHRYN R OSTERHOLZER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The complications of premature birth include respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system morbidity, and significant mortality...
  95. Mechanism of action of novel GluN2C NMDA receptor potentiators
    Alpa Khatri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..acid (AMPA), kainate, and delta receptors, mediate the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The NMDA receptor is a heteromeric receptor formed by two glycine binding GluN1 and two glutamate binding ..
  96. Disruption of Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis by Cytomegalovirus
    DEBORAH HYE SPECTOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of birth defects and affects the central nervous system. It is likely that gestational age an the stage of differentiation of the susceptible neural cells at the ..
  97. Role of LRG-47 (Irgm1) in EAE
    Shidu Yan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of LRG-47 were robustly elevated in multiple sclerosis (MS)-affected tissue from patients and in the central nervous system (CNS) of EAE mice, especially in cells of lymphoid and mononuclear phagocyte origin...
  98. Novel mechanisms for Alzheimer's disease prevention and/or treatment
    Luigi Puglielli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..initial results show that our compound: (i) is able to cross the brain-blood-barrier (BBB) and reach the Central Nervous System (CNS) with high efficiency;(ii) reduce both BACE1 and A[unreadable] levels in the brain;and (iii) prevent ..
  99. Transcriptional regulation of neuronal differentiation
    Bennett G Novitch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The development of the central nervous system depends upon the ability of neural stem and progenitor cells to produce an array of distinct neurons and glia that carry out highly specialized functions ..
  100. Lysosomal Disease Network
    Chester B Whitley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Central nervous system (CNS) disease has been the most difficult to treat as well as to measure...
  101. Bax function in apoptosis
    DONALD DAVID NEWMEYER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and treatment of various diseases, including cancer, AIDS, and disorders of the immune system and the central nervous system. A basic understanding of the apoptotic cell death machinery will help us understand both normal cellular ..