skull

Summary

Summary: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi New directions in craniofacial morphogenesis
    Heather L Szabo-Rogers
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, UK SE1 9RT
    Dev Biol 341:84-94. 2010
  2. ncbi Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault
    Xiaobing Jiang
    Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 241:106-16. 2002
  3. ncbi Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesis
    Yang Chai
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:2353-75. 2006
  4. ncbi Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish I: branchial arches
    T F Schilling
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
    Development 123:329-44. 1996
  5. doi Thinned-skull cranial window technique for long-term imaging of the cortex in live mice
    Guang Yang
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Protoc 5:201-8. 2010
  6. pmc Critical role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-MAPK pathway in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development
    Chunxi Ge
    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Cell Biol 176:709-18. 2007
  7. ncbi BMP signalling in craniofacial development
    Xuguang Nie
    Section of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies V91, 5009 Bergen, Norway
    Int J Dev Biol 50:511-21. 2006
  8. ncbi The effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on osteoblastic cells in culture and bone regeneration in a rat skull defect
    Satoshi Yoneda
    Masticatory Function Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Tokyo, Japan
    J Periodontal Res 38:333-42. 2003
  9. pmc Growth of the normal skull vault and its alteration in craniosynostosis: insights from human genetics and experimental studies
    Gillian M Morriss-Kay
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
    J Anat 207:637-53. 2005
  10. ncbi Cell lineage in mammalian craniofacial mesenchyme
    Toshiyuki Yoshida
    Department of Molecular Craniofacial Embryology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    Mech Dev 125:797-808. 2008

Detail Information

Publications251 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi New directions in craniofacial morphogenesis
    Heather L Szabo-Rogers
    Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, UK SE1 9RT
    Dev Biol 341:84-94. 2010
    ..These and future studies will improve our understanding of the genetic and environmental influences underlying human craniofacial anomalies...
  2. ncbi Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vault
    Xiaobing Jiang
    Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Dev Biol 241:106-16. 2002
    ..expansion of the cerebral hemispheres was accompanied by expansion of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull vault and deployment of the coronal (fronto-parietal) and sagittal (parietal-parietal) sutures as major growth ..
  3. ncbi Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesis
    Yang Chai
    Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:2353-75. 2006
    ..Together, these findings will be beneficial for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of human congenital malformations and establish the foundation for craniofacial tissue regeneration...
  4. ncbi Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish I: branchial arches
    T F Schilling
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
    Development 123:329-44. 1996
    ....
  5. doi Thinned-skull cranial window technique for long-term imaging of the cortex in live mice
    Guang Yang
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Nat Protoc 5:201-8. 2010
    ..Here we describe in detail a protocol for imaging cortical structures at high optical resolution through a thinned-skull cranial window in live mice using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM)...
  6. pmc Critical role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-MAPK pathway in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal development
    Chunxi Ge
    Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Cell Biol 176:709-18. 2007
    ..This work establishes an important in vivo function for the ERK-MAPK pathway in bone that involves stimulation of RUNX2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity...
  7. ncbi BMP signalling in craniofacial development
    Xuguang Nie
    Section of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies V91, 5009 Bergen, Norway
    Int J Dev Biol 50:511-21. 2006
    ..BMP signalling is also an important participant for tooth development, regulating early tooth morphogenesis and subsequent odontoblast differentiation. In this review these aspects are discussed in detail with a focus on recent advances...
  8. ncbi The effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on osteoblastic cells in culture and bone regeneration in a rat skull defect
    Satoshi Yoneda
    Masticatory Function Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Tokyo, Japan
    J Periodontal Res 38:333-42. 2003
    ..Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been clinically used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of the present study is to clarify EMD affects on osteoblastic cells and bone regeneration...
  9. pmc Growth of the normal skull vault and its alteration in craniosynostosis: insights from human genetics and experimental studies
    Gillian M Morriss-Kay
    Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
    J Anat 207:637-53. 2005
    The mammalian skull vault is constructed principally from five bones: the paired frontals and parietals, and the unpaired interparietal. These bones abut at sutures, where most growth of the skull vault takes place...
  10. ncbi Cell lineage in mammalian craniofacial mesenchyme
    Toshiyuki Yoshida
    Department of Molecular Craniofacial Embryology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    Mech Dev 125:797-808. 2008
    ..At E13.5 the primordia of these bones lie basolateral to the brain, extending towards the vertex of the skull during the following 4-5 days. We used DiI labelling of the bone primordia in ex-utero E13...
  11. ncbi Modeling of the human skull in EEG source analysis
    Moritz Dannhauer
    Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig 04303, Germany
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:1383-99. 2011
    We used computer simulations to investigate finite element models of the layered structure of the human skull in EEG source analysis...
  12. ncbi Patterns of morphospace occupation and mechanical performance in extant crocodilian skulls: a combined geometric morphometric and finite element modeling approach
    Stephanie E Pierce
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
    J Morphol 269:840-64. 2008
    ..and fossil crocodilians have long been divided into taxonomic and/or ecological groups based on broad patterns of skull shape, particularly the relative length and width of the snout...
  13. ncbi A geometric morphometric analysis of heterochrony in the cranium of chimpanzees and bonobos
    Daniel E Lieberman
    Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Hum Evol 52:647-62. 2007
    ..These analyses indicate that the bonobo skull is paedomorphic relative to the chimpanzee for the first principal component of size-related shape variation, most ..
  14. pmc Molecular origins of rapid and continuous morphological evolution
    John W Fondon
    Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8591, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18058-63. 2004
    ..transcription factor 2) genes were quantitatively associated with significant differences in limb and skull morphology...
  15. pmc Motor threshold in transcranial magnetic stimulation: the impact of white matter fiber orientation and skull-to-cortex distance
    Tal Herbsman
    Mood Disorders Program and Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:2044-55. 2009
    ..We also measured the skull-to-cortex distance over the left motor region...
  16. ncbi Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroids
    Xing Xu
    Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
    Nature 431:680-4. 2004
    ..One of the specimens also preserves a filamentous integumentary covering similar to that of other coelurosaurian theropods from western Liaoning. This provides the first direct fossil evidence that tyrannosauroids had protofeathers...
  17. ncbi Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis at the midline in the zebrafish skull
    Naoyuki Wada
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, 5210 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
    Development 132:3977-88. 2005
    ..Neural crest cells that form the vertebrate head skeleton migrate and interact with surrounding tissues to shape the skull, and defects in these processes underlie many human craniofacial syndromes...
  18. ncbi Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour
    Lawrence M Witmer
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA
    Nature 425:950-3. 2003
    ..Orientation of the osseous labyrinth relative to the long axis of the skull was different in these two pterosaur species, suggesting very different head postures and reflecting differing ..
  19. doi Principles for the virtual reconstruction of hominin crania
    Philipp Gunz
    Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
    J Hum Evol 57:48-62. 2009
    ..While there will typically be shape differences among equally plausible reconstructions, these different estimates might still support a single conclusion...
  20. ncbi Accuracy and reliability of linear cephalometric measurements from cone-beam computed tomography scans of a dry human skull
    Mauricio Berco
    Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, Mass, USA
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136:17.e1-9; discussion 17-8. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional craniofacial measurements obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of a dry human skull.
  21. ncbi Customised fabricated implants after previous failed cranioplasty
    Raymond C W Goh
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, 5 Fu Shin Street, Kwei Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 63:1479-84. 2010
    ..Customised fabricated alloplastic implants provide a safe, accurate and efficient way of restoring normal cranial contours in patients with cranial defects who have had previous failed cranioplasties...
  22. ncbi Custom made cranioplasty prostheses in porous hydroxy-apatite using 3D design techniques: 7 years experience in 25 patients
    G Staffa
    Division of Neurotraumatology, Presidio Ospedaliero Bufalini, Cesena, Italy
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149:161-70; discussion 170. 2007
    None of the materials currently used to reconstruct skull defects is fully satisfactory. Their biological and physical properties are very different to those of natural bone...
  23. doi Bone morphogenetic protein 2 therapy for craniofacial surgery
    Darren M Smith
    University of Pittsburgh, Division of Plastic Surgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Craniofac Surg 19:1244-59. 2008
    ....
  24. doi The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics
    S L Brusatte
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA
    J Evol Biol 25:365-77. 2012
    ..iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history...
  25. doi Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivore
    Mark T Young
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, UK
    Naturwissenschaften 99:637-43. 2012
    ..Biomechanical modelling, using finite element analysis, was used to examine the performance of the Diplodocus skull. Three feeding behaviours were modelled: muscle-driven static biting, branch stripping and bark stripping...
  26. pmc A complete skull of an early cretaceous sauropod and the evolution of advanced titanosaurians
    Hussam Zaher
    Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 6:e16663. 2011
    ..Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been largely hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved cranial remains...
  27. pmc Modeling skull electrical properties
    R J Sadleir
    The J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611 6131, USA
    Ann Biomed Eng 35:1699-712. 2007
    Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head...
  28. doi Evaluation of the volumes of cranial cavities in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari-like malformation and other brachycephalic dogs as measured via computed tomography
    Martin J Schmidt
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Justus Liebig University, Frankfurter St 108, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Am J Vet Res 70:508-12. 2009
    ..AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results of this study suggested that descent of the cerebellum into the foramen magnum and the presence of syringohydromyelia in CKCSs are not necessarily associated with a volume reduction in the CF of the skull.
  29. doi Morphological evolution through integration: a quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo
    Nandini Singh
    Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
    J Hum Evol 62:155-64. 2012
    ..Thus, despite having very distinct morphologies the way in which the face, basicranium and cranial vault covary is shared among these taxa. These results imply that the pattern of cranial integration among hominoids is conserved...
  30. pmc Shape and mechanics in thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) skulls: implications for feeding behaviour and niche partitioning
    S E Pierce
    University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Anat 215:555-76. 2009
    Variation in modern crocodilian and extinct thalattosuchian crocodylomorph skull morphology is only weakly correlated with phylogeny, implying that factors other than evolutionary proximity play important roles in determining crocodile ..
  31. doi Long-term results following titanium cranioplasty of large skull defects
    Mario Cabraja
    Department of Neurosurgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Neurosurg Focus 26:E10. 2009
    ..6-10% of hydroxyapatite-based implants require replacement. In this retrospective study of large skull defects, the authors compared computer-assisted design/computer-assisted modeled (CAD/CAM) titanium implants for ..
  32. ncbi Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur
    E J Rayfield
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK
    Nature 409:1033-7. 2001
    ..Here we have applied this technique to the long skull of the large carnivorous theropod dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis...
  33. pmc Anatomy and taxonomic status of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A
    Andrew A Farke
    Raymond M Alf Museum of Paleontology, Claremont, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e16196. 2011
    The validity of Nedoceratops hatcheri, a chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur known from a single skull recovered in the Lance Formation of eastern Wyoming, U.S.A., has been debated for over a century...
  34. ncbi Facial heights: evolutionary relevance of postnatal ontogeny for facial orientation and skull morphology in humans and chimpanzees
    Markus Bastir
    Department of Paleobiology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    J Hum Evol 47:359-81. 2004
    ..and inferior limits of facial compartments, contribute to the orientation of the viscerocranium in the primate skull. In humans, vertical facial variation is among the main sources of diversity and frequently associated with an ..
  35. ncbi GTF2IRD1 in craniofacial development of humans and mice
    May Tassabehji
    Academic Unit of Medical Genetics, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
    Science 310:1184-7. 2005
    ..human microdeletion disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS); craniofacial imaging reveals abnormalities in both skull and jaws that may arise through misregulation of goosecoid, a downstream target of Gtf2ird1...
  36. ncbi Gene therapy-directed osteogenesis: BMP-7-transduced human fibroblasts form bone in vivo
    P H Krebsbach
    Center for Biorestoration of Oral Health, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Hum Gene Ther 11:1201-10. 2000
    ....
  37. pmc Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution
    Lindsay E Zanno
    Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:232-7. 2011
    ....
  38. pmc Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull
    Patrick J Drew
    Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
    Nat Methods 7:981-4. 2010
    We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation...
  39. doi A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern Pangaea
    Ricardo N Martinez
    Instituto y Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan 5400, Argentina
    Science 331:206-10. 2011
    ..The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement...
  40. pmc Conditional Kif3a ablation causes abnormal hedgehog signaling topography, growth plate dysfunction, and excessive bone and cartilage formation during mouse skeletogenesis
    Eiki Koyama
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Development 134:2159-69. 2007
    ....
  41. ncbi Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape
    Stephen Wroe
    School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Evolution 61:1251-60. 2007
    ..Here we compare skull shape in a wide range of carnivoran placentals (Carnivora) and nonherbivorous marsupials using a three-dimensional ..
  42. ncbi Computer aided design of large-format prefabricated cranial plates
    David Dean
    Department of Neurological Surgery and the Research Institute, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Craniofac Surg 14:819-32. 2003
    ..The authors begin by locating the cranial defect margin on a skull surface image generated from a 3D head CT-scan...
  43. ncbi Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complex
    Antonio Rosas
    Department of Paleobiology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, 28006 Madrid, Spain
    Am J Phys Anthropol 117:236-45. 2002
    ..The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements...
  44. ncbi Cranial reconstruction with computer-generated hard-tissue replacement patient-matched implants: indications, surgical technique, and long-term follow-up
    Barry L Eppley
    Division of Plastic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, 3540, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Plast Reconstr Surg 109:864-71. 2002
    ..Critical attention must be paid, however, to management of the frontal sinus and preexisting bone infection and the quality of the overlying soft-tissue cover...
  45. ncbi Were neandertal and modern human cranial differences produced by natural selection or genetic drift?
    Timothy D Weaver
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Hum Evol 53:135-45. 2007
    ..We conclude that rather than requiring special adaptive accounts, Neandertal and modern human crania may simply represent two outcomes from a vast space of random evolutionary possibilities...
  46. doi The induction of bone formation in rat calvarial defects and subcutaneous tissues by recombinant human BMP-2, produced in Escherichia coli
    Ji Hyun Lee
    Department of Dentistry, Hangang Secred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University 94 195 Youngdeungpo dong, Youngdeungpo gu, Seoul 150030, Republic of Korea
    Biomaterials 31:3512-9. 2010
    ..These results showed that ErhBMP-2 was osteoinductive under controlled in vivo conditions. Thus, ErhBMP-2 has definite potential as an alternative to rhBMP-2 produced in a eukaryotic system for clinical use...
  47. ncbi Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) gene expression is correlated with differentiation in rat calvarial osteoblasts
    J Hino
    National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka, Fujishirodai, Suita, 565 8565, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256:419-24. 1999
    ..These findings indicate that BMP-3b gene expression is regulated by osteoblastic differentiation and BMP-3b functions in highly differentiated osteoblasts...
  48. doi Fossil evidence on origin of the mammalian brain
    Timothy B Rowe
    Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas, C1100, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Science 332:955-7. 2011
    ..The origin of crown Mammalia saw a third pulse of olfactory enhancement, with ossified ethmoid turbinals supporting an expansive olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity, allowing full expression of a huge odorant receptor genome...
  49. ncbi In vivo RANK signaling blockade using the receptor activator of NF-kappaB:Fc effectively prevents and ameliorates wear debris-induced osteolysis via osteoclast depletion without inhibiting osteogenesis
    Lisa M Childs
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York 14642, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 17:192-9. 2002
    ..These studies indicate that osteoclast depletion via RANK blockade is an effective method to prevent and reverse wear debris-induced osteolysis without jeopardizing osteogenesis...
  50. ncbi Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase by BMP-2 and their implication in the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation
    J Guicheux
    Division of Bone Diseases, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Bone Miner Res 18:2060-8. 2003
    ..We report that BMP-2 can activate JNK and p38 in osteoblastic cells and provide evidences that these MAP kinases have distinct roles in regulating alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression...
  51. ncbi The evolutionary position of turtles revised
    R Zardoya
    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain
    Naturwissenschaften 88:193-200. 2001
    ..of turtles as the only living survivors of the anapsid reptiles (those that lack temporal fenestrae in the skull)...
  52. ncbi Review of fate-mapping studies of osteogenic cranial neural crest in vertebrates
    Joshua B Gross
    Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Dev Biol 317:389-400. 2008
    ..have witnessed renewed interest in defining the embryonic cell populations that directly contribute to the bony skull. This question lies at the intersection of several important developmental, clinical and evolutionary interests...
  53. ncbi The conductivity of the human skull: results of in vivo and in vitro measurements
    T F Oostendorp
    Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 47:1487-92. 2000
    The conductivity of the human skull was measured both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro measurement was performed on a sample of fresh skull placed within a saline environment...
  54. ncbi Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiation
    T Piotrowski
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung Genetik, Tubingen, Germany
    Development 123:345-56. 1996
    ..The mutants presented here may be valuable tools for elucidating the genetic mechanisms that underlie the development of the mandibular and the hyoid arches, as well as the process of cartilage differentiation...
  55. pmc Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulator placement using high-field interventional magnetic resonance imaging and a skull-mounted aiming device: technique and application accuracy
    Philip A Starr
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    J Neurosurg 112:479-90. 2010
    ....
  56. doi A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaurs
    Sterling J Nesbitt
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
    Science 326:1530-3. 2009
    ....
  57. pmc The Later Stone Age calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: morphology and chronology
    Katerina Harvati
    Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoecology, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e24024. 2011
    ..We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology...
  58. doi Reproducibility of osseous landmarks used for computed tomography based three-dimensional cephalometric analyses
    Raphael Olszewski
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 10 av Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Craniomaxillofac Surg 38:214-21. 2010
    ..Finally, we propose a classification scheme and exclusion criteria for reference landmarks used in 3D cephalometrics, based on inter-observer reproducibility and anatomical reality...
  59. doi The Gavialis-Tomistoma debate: the contribution of skull ontogenetic allometry and growth trajectories to the study of crocodylian relationships
    Paolo Piras
    Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita Roma Tre, Italy
    Evol Dev 12:568-79. 2010
    ..Here skull allometric trajectories of Tomistoma and Gavialis were contrasted with those of two longirostral crocodylian taxa, ..
  60. doi Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes
    Peter Johnston
    Department of Anatomy with Radiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
    J Morphol 272:1492-512. 2011
    ..Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes...
  61. doi Age, sex and body mass index in relation to calvarial diploe thickness and craniometric data on MRI
    Hatice Gul Hatipoglu
    Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Talatpasa Bulvari Samanpazari 06100, Ankara, Turkey
    Forensic Sci Int 182:46-51. 2008
    It might be critical to determine sex, body mass and age of the individual from skull in forensic medicine and anthropology...
  62. doi Comparison of cerebral cranium volumes between cavalier King Charles spaniels with Chiari-like malformation, small breed dogs and Labradors
    H R Cross
    The Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK
    J Small Anim Pract 50:399-405. 2009
    ..To ascertain whether cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCSs) have a proportionately smaller caudal fossa compared with other small dogs and with Labradors. To evaluate if cerebellar herniation in CKCS correlates with caudal fossa volume...
  63. doi [Clinical and ossification outcome of custom-made hydroxyapatite prothese for large skull defect]
    H Hardy
    Service de Chirurgie Maxillo faciale, CHRU de Rouen, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France
    Neurochirurgie 58:25-9. 2012
    ..Cranioplasty is an everyday concern in neurosurgery, especially in decompressive craniectomy cases. Our surgical team uses custom-made hydroxyapatite implants for large and/or complex defects...
  64. pmc MT1-MMP-dependent, apoptotic remodeling of unmineralized cartilage: a critical process in skeletal growth
    Kenn Holmbeck
    Matrix Metalloproteinase Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 163:661-71. 2003
    ..The coordinated apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase-directed cartilage dissolution is akin to metamorphosis and may thus represent its evolutionary legacy in mammals...
  65. pmc Evidence for modular evolution in a long-tailed pterosaur with a pterodactyloid skull
    Junchang Lü
    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, People s Republic of China
    Proc Biol Sci 277:383-9. 2010
    ..Darwinopterus exhibits a remarkable 'modular' combination of characters: the skull and neck are typically pterodactyloid, exhibiting numerous derived character states, while the remainder of the ..
  66. doi The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics
    Adam S Smith
    School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland
    Naturwissenschaften 95:975-80. 2008
    ..In this paper, we describe the three dimensionally preserved skull of the giant Jurassic pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni...
  67. pmc Cutaneous skull metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report
    Nikolaos Barbetakis
    Thoracic Surgery Department, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, A Simeonidi 2, Thessaloniki, 54007, Greece
    World J Surg Oncol 7:45. 2009
    ..Cutaneous metastases in the facial region occur in less than 0.5% of patients with metastatic cancer...
  68. ncbi Craniofacial development in marsupial mammals: developmental origins of evolutionary change
    Kathleen K Smith
    Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:1181-93. 2006
    ..Finally, the implications of these results for hypotheses on the genetic modulation of craniofacial patterning are presented...
  69. ncbi Genetic analysis of skull shape variation and morphological integration in the mouse using interspecific recombinant congenic strains between C57BL/6 and mice of the mus spretus species
    Gaétan Burgio
    Unité postulante de Génétique fonctionnelle de la Souris, CNRS URA 2578, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Evolution 63:2668-86. 2009
    To assess the genetic basis of the skull shape variation and morphological integration in mice, we have used a tool based on the cross between the distantly related mouse species Mus spretus (SEG/Pas strain) and the laboratory strain ..
  70. ncbi Landmark-based shape analysis of the archaic Homo calvarium from Ceprano (Italy)
    Emiliano Bruner
    Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell Uomo, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Am J Phys Anthropol 132:355-66. 2007
    ..In fact, despite the fact that the skull appears partially distorted by diagenetic pressures (thus precluding a comprehensive landmark-based analysis), ..
  71. ncbi New insights into craniofacial morphogenesis
    Jill A Helms
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Development 132:851-61. 2005
    ..Changes in craniofacial architecture also lie at the heart of evolutionary adaptation, as new studies in fish and fowl attest. Together, these findings reveal much about molecular and tissue interactions behind craniofacial development...
  72. ncbi Use of bone SPECT in the evaluation of fibrous dysplasia of the skull
    Tadaki Nakahara
    Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Nucl Med 29:554-9. 2004
  73. pmc Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches
    W James Cooper
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 9:24. 2009
    ..were used to describe patterns of morphological diversity and determine positions of functional groups in a skull morphospace...
  74. pmc Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull
    M Moazen
    Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull, UK
    J Anat 213:499-508. 2008
    Lizard skulls vary greatly in shape and construction, and radical changes in skull form during evolution have made this an intriguing subject of research...
  75. pmc Activation of p38 MAPK pathway in the skull abnormalities of Apert syndrome Fgfr2(+P253R) mice
    Yingli Wang
    Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    BMC Dev Biol 10:22. 2010
    ..We previously reported an inbred transgenic mouse model with the Fgfr2 +/S252W mutation on the C57BL/6J background for Apert syndrome. Here we present a mouse model for the Fgfr2+/P253R mutation...
  76. ncbi Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularity
    Abby Grace Drake
    Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Am Nat 175:289-301. 2010
    ..We use geometric morphometrics to quantify the diversity of skull shape in 106 breeds of domestic dog, in three wild canid species, and across the order Carnivora...
  77. doi Endocranial shape asymmetries in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla assessed via skull based landmark analysis
    Antoine Balzeau
    Equipe de Paléontologie Humaine, CNRS, UMR 7194, Département de Préhistoire du Muséum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
    J Hum Evol 59:54-69. 2010
    ..Moreover, the detailed analysis of the 3D structure of these petalias reveals shared features, as well as features that are unique to the different great ape species...
  78. pmc Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis
    Karen Moreno
    School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australia
    J Anat 212:736-46. 2008
    ..Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high ..
  79. doi Controversies in skull reconstruction
    James E Zins
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Craniofac Surg 21:1755-60. 2010
    In the early 1980s, it was shown that bone from the skull (membranous bone) maintained its volume to a significantly greater extent than bone from the rib and iliac crest regions (endochondral bone)...
  80. doi Allometry and performance: the evolution of skull form and function in felids
    G J Slater
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA90095 1606, USA
    J Evol Biol 22:2278-87. 2009
    Allometric patterns of skull-shape variation can have significant impacts on cranial mechanics and feeding performance, but have received little attention in previous studies...
  81. ncbi Skull deformities
    Emily B Ridgway
    Department of Neurological Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, 317 East 34 th Street, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Pediatr Clin North Am 51:359-87. 2004
    ..Because the most common causes of distortion or asymmetry are craniosynostosis or deformation, these abnormalities are the primary subjects of this article...
  82. doi A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China
    Jonah N Choiniere
    Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
    Science 327:571-4. 2010
    ..The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb...
  83. ncbi Homeotic transformation of the occipital bones of the skull by ectopic expression of a homeobox gene
    T Lufkin
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Eucaryotes du CNRS, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg, France
    Nature 359:835-41. 1992
    ..2. These results are similar to the homeotic posteriorization phenomenon generated in Drosophila by ectopic expression of genes of the homeotic complex HOM-C (refs 7-10; reviewed in ref. 3)...
  84. ncbi Evaluation of inverse methods and head models for EEG source localization using a human skull phantom
    S Baillet
    Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain Imaging Laboratory, CNRS UPR640 LENA, H pital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France
    Phys Med Biol 46:77-96. 2001
    We used a real-skull phantom head to investigate the performances of representative methods for EEG source localization when considering various head models...
  85. pmc A cranium for the earliest Europeans: phylogenetic position of the hominid from Ceprano, Italy
    G Manzi
    Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana, Rome, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:10011-6. 2001
    ..Alternatively, a new species-ancestral to later European and African hominines-should be named to accommodate such a unique fossil specimen...
  86. ncbi Fgfr mRNA isoforms in craniofacial bone development
    D P C Rice
    Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Bone 33:14-27. 2003
    ..Fgfr4 transcripts were found in developing muscles. These data help to explain the disturbances in craniofacial growth exhibited by both patients and the growing number of transgenic mice carrying mutations in genes encoding FGFRs/Fgfrs...
  87. ncbi The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of Africa
    P C Sereno
    Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Science 294:1516-9. 2001
    ..The skull has an expansive narial bulla and elongate jaws studded with stout, smooth crowns that do not interlock...
  88. ncbi A basal troodontid from the Early Cretaceous of China
    Xing Xu
    Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
    Nature 415:780-4. 2002
    ..The discovery of Sinovenator and the examination of character distributions along the maniraptoran lineage indicate that principal structural modifications toward avians were acquired in the early stages of maniraptoran evolution...
  89. pmc Epigenetic control of skull morphogenesis by histone deacetylase 8
    Michael Haberland
    Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1625-30. 2009
    ..Here we provide evidence that Hdac8 specifically controls patterning of the skull by repressing a subset of transcription factors in cranial neural crest cells...
  90. ncbi Differences in matrix composition between calvaria and long bone in mice suggest differences in biomechanical properties and resorption: Special emphasis on collagen
    T Van den Bos
    Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam, Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Bone 43:459-68. 2008
    ..Our data demonstrate considerable differences in protein composition of flat and long bones and strongly suggest functional differences in formation, resorption, and mechanical properties of these bone types...
  91. doi Frontal sinuses and head-butting in goats: a finite element analysis
    Andrew A Farke
    Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 8081, USA
    J Exp Biol 211:3085-94. 2008
    ..This is consistent with the hypothesis that sinuses result at least in part from the removal of mechanically unnecessary bone...
  92. ncbi Cioclovina (Romania): affinities of an early modern European
    Katerina Harvati
    Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
    J Hum Evol 53:732-46. 2007
    ..Our results show Cioclovina to be entirely modern in its cranial shape, and do not support the hypothesis that it represents a hybrid...
  93. ncbi On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, Germany
    D Dean
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Hum Evol 34:485-508. 1998
    ..Biache 1), which present greater platycephaly, a reduced mastoid process, an enlarged juxtamastoid eminence, and true "en-bombe" (parieto-occipital form), and Weichsel Stage 4 "Neandertals" (sensu stricto, i.e., "classic" Neandertals)...
  94. ncbi SOX3 activity during pharyngeal segmentation is required for craniofacial morphogenesis
    Karine Rizzoti
    Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Development 134:3437-48. 2007
    ..They also give insight into the formation of pharyngeal pouches, of which little is known in vertebrates. Finally, this work introduces two new players in craniofacial development - SOX3 and SOX2...
  95. ncbi MT1-MMP-deficient mice develop dwarfism, osteopenia, arthritis, and connective tissue disease due to inadequate collagen turnover
    K Holmbeck
    MMP Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Cell 99:81-92. 1999
    ....
  96. doi Rigid-body analysis of a lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii
    M Moazen
    Centre for Medical Engineering and Technology, University of Hull, Hull, East Yorkshire HU6 7RX, UK
    J Biomech 41:1274-80. 2008
    ..Theoretical models and practical studies have posited a definite relationship between skull morphology and bite performance, but this can be difficult to demonstrate in vivo...
  97. ncbi Effect of measurement noise and electrode density on the spatial resolution of cortical potential distribution with different resistivity values for the skull
    Outi R M Ryynänen
    Ragnar Granit Institute, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
    IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1851-8. 2006
    ..noise and the number of electrodes on the spatial resolution with different resistivity ratios for the scalp, skull and brain...
  98. doi Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull
    N Curtis
    Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull HU67RX, United Kingdom
    J Biomech 43:2804-9. 2010
    ..Here, using a sophisticated multi-body computer model of a reptile skull (the rhynchocephalian Sphenodon), we assess the accuracy of muscle force predictions by comparing predicted bite ..
  99. ncbi Skeletal height reconstruction from measurements of the skull in indigenous South Africans
    I Ryan
    School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Forensic Sci Int 167:16-21. 2007
    ..these bones are not always available for forensic analysis, it became necessary to use other bones such as the skull for stature estimation...
  100. pmc Longitudinal and shear mode ultrasound propagation in human skull bone
    P J White
    Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1085-96. 2006
    ..the idea of the longitudinal mode being the only significant mode of ultrasound energy transport through the skull bone...
  101. pmc Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogeny
    John R Horner
    Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 0040, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 273:2757-61. 2006
    ..Our analysis is based on a growth series of 10 skulls, ranging from a 38 cm long baby skull to about 2 m long adult skulls...

Research Grants95

  1. Pediatric Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation Clinical Validation & Implementation
    Robert F Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PCI reduces CI surgery to a single pass of a drill from the lateral skull base to the cochlea...
  2. Perceptions of Social Risk in Medical Child Abuse Evaluation
    Heather T Keenan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will both submit and review cases of three injury types (traumatic brain injury, long-bone fracture, and skull fracture) using a web-based template. Physicians will rate their perceptions of social risk for each injury case...
  3. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..associated with a decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, other neurologic or neuropsychological abnormalities, skull fracture, intracranial lesions, or death...
  4. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN IRA FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..associated with a decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, other neurologic or neuropsychological abnormalities, skull fracture, intracranial lesions, or death...
  5. Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBI
    ALAN FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..associated with a decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, other neurologic or neuropsychological abnormalities, skull fracture, intracranial lesions, or death...
  6. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Tool for Infant Head Injuries from Fal
    SUSAN SHEPS contact MARGULIES; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mechanical responses from the model (cortical displacement relative to skull and peak cortical tissue strain) are statistically correlated with the actual occurrence of extra- axial ..
  7. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Tool for Infant Head Injuries from Fal
    Susan Margulies; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Mechanical responses from the model (cortical displacement relative to skull and peak cortical tissue strain) are statistically correlated with the actual occurrence of extra- axial ..
  8. Graves' Disease Therapy Risks to Mother and Fetus
    Scott A Rivkees; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In murine models, we observed that PTU exposure during embryogenesis (E7.5 to 10.5) is associated with skull and cardiac defects, whereas we do not observe malformations in embryos of dams treated with MMI or high doses of ..
  9. Pediatric Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation Clinical Validation & Implementation
    Robert Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PCI reduces CI surgery to a single pass of a drill from the lateral skull base to the cochlea...
  10. TREATMENT OF CANCER WITH HEAVY CHARGED PARTICLES
    JOSEPH CASTRO; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..clinical advances in the treatment of tumors lying close to critical normal structures in the eye, orbit, skull base, paranasal sinuses, juxtaspinal area, retroperitoneum or pelvis...
  11. Delivery of Soluble FGFR3 as a Treatment for Achondroplasia
    Steven C Ghivizzani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Affected children suffer from abnormal long bone development and deformations of the vertebrae and bones in the skull. There is no cure for achondroplasia, and existing treatments only address some of the complications...
  12. Genetic Architecture of the Mammalian (Canid) Skeleton
    KARL LARK; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Dogs are genotyped using microsatellite markers and phenotyped from five x-rays comprising the skull, fore- and hind limbs and pelvis...
  13. Genetic Architecture of the Mammalian (Canid) Skeleton
    KARL LARK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Dogs are genotyped using microsatellite markers and phenotyped from five x-rays comprising the skull, fore- and hind limbs and pelvis...
  14. Genetic Architecture of the Mammalian (Canid) Skeleton
    KARL LARK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Dogs are genotyped using microsatellite markers and phenotyped from five x-rays comprising the skull, fore- and hind limbs and pelvis...
  15. Electrical Impedance-based Imaging of Brain Compliance in an Animal Model
    RYAN JOSEPH HALTER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The primary limitation to employing this modality for brain imaging has been the high impedance skull which limits current levels able to interrogate internal anatomy...
  16. Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic Ultrasound
    Thilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..be repeated to optimize US transmit parameters now insonating through intervening wet human cadaveric temporal skull bone. Insonation through bone is limited by sound absorption, scattering and phase aberration...
  17. Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic Ultrasound
    Thilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..be repeated to optimize US transmit parameters now insonating through intervening wet human cadaveric temporal skull bone. Insonation through bone is limited by sound absorption, scattering and phase aberration...
  18. Calvarial periosteal afferents in post-traumatic headache
    Dan Levy; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..can promote the activation of putative nociceptive afferent neurons that innervate the periosteal lining of the skull. Our data also indicate that similar to patients suffering from PTH, head trauma in rats can also lead to ..
  19. The Role of Leptin in Inflammation-driven Bone Loss
    Urszula T Iwaniec; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This knowledge is important because chronic inflammation results in bone loss, a common cause of bone fractures in the elderly. ..
  20. COLLAGEN GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION
    Bjorn Reino Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment and midline defects in bones of the skull;some patients have imaging abnormalities in the brain suggesting defects in neuronal migration...
  21. The Role of FKBP10 in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta
    Caressa Lietman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, joint and skin laxity, hearing impairment and/or wormian bones on the skull [1]...
  22. COLLAGEN GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION
    Bjorn Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment and midline defects in bones of the skull;some patients have imaging abnormalities in the brain suggesting defects in neuronal migration...
  23. PHENOGENETICS OF SKULL AND BRAIN INTEGRATION IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    JOAN THERESE RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The skull shape in craniosynostosis can not be explained simply by the premature fusion of sutures, but involves widespread ..
  24. PHENOGENETICS OF SKULL AND BRAIN INTEGRATION IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    JOAN RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The skull shape in craniosynostosis can not be explained simply by the premature fusion of sutures, but involves widespread ..
  25. A Developmental Craniofacial Atlas for the Zebrafish
    Charles Kimmel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..skeleton of zebrafish, a widely used model organism for understanding conserved features of development of the skull, and human disorders such as cleft palate...
  26. A Developmental Craniofacial Atlas for the Zebrafish
    Charles B Kimmel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..skeleton of zebrafish, a widely used model organism for understanding conserved features of development of the skull, and human disorders such as cleft palate...
  27. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..to see whether the pattern is produced by the muscle directly, by loading the jaw joint, or by twisting the skull. Aim 4 addresses the problem of how the zygomatic suture affects stress transmission by investigating the physical ..
  28. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..to see whether the pattern is produced by the muscle directly, by loading the jaw joint, or by twisting the skull. Aim 4 addresses the problem of how the zygomatic suture affects stress transmission by investigating the physical ..
  29. Clinical Validation and Testing of Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation
    Robert Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..demonstrated the concept of percutaneous cochlear access as a single pass of a surgical drill from the lateral skull to the cochlea without injury to adjacent vital structures...
  30. Clinical Validation and Testing of Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation
    Robert Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..demonstrated the concept of percutaneous cochlear access as a single pass of a surgical drill from the lateral skull to the cochlea without injury to adjacent vital structures...
  31. Clinical Validation and Testing of Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation
    Robert F Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..demonstrated the concept of percutaneous cochlear access as a single pass of a surgical drill from the lateral skull to the cochlea without injury to adjacent vital structures...
  32. Risk Factors for Craniosynostosis
    Suzan Carmichael; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..control and oxidative stress because folate-responsive neural crest cells contribute to the development of the skull and because glycemic control and hypoxia may contribute to CS...
  33. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Patterned Growth of the Mammalian Skull
    Robert Maxson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..genetic control of patterned growth during the morphogenesis of a complex, multicomponent structure, the mammalian skull vault...
  34. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Patterned Growth of the Mammalian Skull
    Robert E Maxson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..genetic control of patterned growth during the morphogenesis of a complex, multicomponent structure, the mammalian skull vault...
  35. High frequency activity in infants with epilepsy
    JULIA MARIE STEPHEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..coils are much closer to the scalp than the coils of conventional MEG systems (6 vs 20 mm) and the scalp and skull of infants are thin, much weaker neocortical signals are measurable...
  36. High frequency activity in infants with epilepsy
    Julia Stephen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..coils are much closer to the scalp than the coils of conventional MEG systems (6 vs 20 mm) and the scalp and skull of infants are thin, much weaker neocortical signals are measurable...
  37. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION, AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Major areas of interest for the next project period will be the cranial sutures, the primary loci of skull deformation during function, and the architecture of newly formed periosteal bone, an important determinant of ..
  38. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION, AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Major areas of interest for the next project period will be the cranial sutures, the primary loci of skull deformation during function, and the architecture of newly formed periosteal bone, an important determinant of ..
  39. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION, AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Major areas of interest for the next project period will be the cranial sutures, the primary loci of skull deformation during function, and the architecture of newly formed periosteal bone, an important determinant of ..
  40. Permanently Implantable, Intracranial Pressure Sensor
    Arye Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Since the intracranial contents exist within a rigid container (skull), direct pressure measurements require neurosurgical procedures, with their attendant risks, discomforts, and ..
  41. Permanently Implantable, Intracranial Pressure Sensor
    Arye Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Since the intracranial contents exist within a rigid container (skull), direct pressure measurements require neurosurgical procedures, with their attendant risks, discomforts, and ..
  42. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION RELATIONS IN MIDDLE EAR
    JOHN ROSOWSKI; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..essentially) all 36 species of this family to determine quantitative rules that relate dimensions of the ear to skull size...
  43. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    MICHAEL IGNELZI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Proper skull development is dependent upon complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the developing flat bones of the calvaria, the mesenchymal blastema of the presumptive ..
  44. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    MICHAEL IGNELZI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Proper skull development is dependent upon complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the developing flat bones of the calvaria, the mesenchymal blastema of the presumptive ..
  45. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    MICHAEL IGNELZI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Proper skull development is dependent upon complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the developing flat bones of the calvaria, the mesenchymal blastema of the presumptive ..
  46. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    MICHAEL IGNELZI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Proper skull development is dependent upon complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the developing flat bones of the calvaria, the mesenchymal blastema of the presumptive ..
  47. GENES INVOLVED IN SKULL SUTURE MORPHOGENESIS
    Yi Hsin Liu; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..is a common birth defect that affects newborns (1 in 3000 live births) with manifestations of abnormal skull shape which may result in raised intracranial pressure, blockage of cerebral blood flow and airway, impaired ..
  48. PROTEIN MEDIATED BONE MINERAL DISSOLUTION
    David Bushinsky; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Neonatal mouse calvaria (frontal and parietal bones of the skull) in culture is an appropriate model in which to study the effects of protons on bone since calvariae release ..
  49. GENES INVOLVED IN SKULL SUTURE MORPHOGENESIS
    Yi Hsin Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..is a common birth defect that affects newborns (1 in 3000 live births) with manifestations of abnormal skull shape which may result in raised intracranial pressure, blockage of cerebral blood flow and airway, impaired ..
  50. Regional differences in neural crest and mesodermal derived calvarial bone healin
    Michael T Longaker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The paired parietal frontal bones in the anterior skull are derived from the neural crest and the paired parietal bones, positioned posteriorly, are derived from the ..
  51. Wireless Multichannel Electrocorticogram Recording for Epilepsy Monitoring
    Stuart Cogan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The ability to completely close the dura and skull, avoiding wired conduits to the brain, will reduce the risk of morbidity due to infection and reduce cost by ..
  52. MUSCLE ANATOMY AND JAW GAPES IN TREE GOUGING VERSUS NON-GOUGING CALLITRICHIDS
    CHRIS VINYARD; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the evolution of head form in tree-gouging marmosets, we are studying the jaw muscle position in the [unreadable] skull, basic anatomy and fiber architecture in marmosets and tamarins...
  53. A Novel Imaging Informatics Platform for Craniomaxillofacial Surgery
    Xiaobo Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CMF surgery involves the correction of congenital and acquired deformities of the skull and face. Due to the complex nature of the CMF skeleton, it requires extensive presurgical planning...
  54. Development of Thermoacoustic Tomography Brain Imaging
    Mark A Anastasio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..challenge in TAT brain imaging is to compensate for the distortion introduced into the TAT measurement data by the skull. The broad objective of this proposal is to make TAT brain imaging a practical, useful, and highly effective brain ..
  55. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
  56. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
  57. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
  58. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
  59. BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTION
    Susan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
  60. DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    Robert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
  61. DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    Robert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
  62. DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    Robert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
  63. DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    Robert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
  64. DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    Robert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
  65. CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS AND SUTURE BIOLOGY
    Michael Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of premature calvarial sutural fusion include 1) increased intracranial pressure associated with brain injury, 2) skull malformations requiring extensive surgical correction, and 3) abnormal development of the zygoma and maxilla ..
  66. CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS AND SUTURE BIOLOGY
    Michael Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of premature calvarial sutural fusion include 1) increased intracranial pressure associated with brain injury, 2) skull malformations requiring extensive surgical correction, and 3) abnormal development of the zygoma and maxilla ..
  67. CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS AND SUTURE BIOLOGY
    Michael Cunningham; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of premature calvarial sutural fusion include 1) increased intracranial pressure associated with brain injury, 2) skull malformations requiring extensive surgical correction, and 3) abnormal development of the zygoma and maxilla ..
  68. MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO INOSITIDES IN CNS
    Stephen Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The regulation of cell volume is of critical importance to the CNS due to the restrictions of the skull. Brain swelling, which may occur in response to a lowering of plasma osmolarity or during cytotoxic edema, is associated with a ..
  69. MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO INOSITIDES IN CNS
    Stephen Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The regulation of cell volume is of critical importance to the CNS due to the restrictions of the skull. Brain swelling, which may occur in response to a lowering of plasma osmolarity or during cytotoxic edema, is associated with a ..
  70. MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO INOSITIDES IN CNS
    Stephen Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..by applicant): The regulation of cell volume is of critical importance to the CNS due to the restrictions of the skull. Brain swelling, which may occur in response to a lowering of plasma osmolarity or during cytotoxic edema, is ..
  71. EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE
    Yoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The resulting SEF will be measured over the exposed intact scalp (with hairs removed), intact skull and intact dura at a measurement distance of 2 mm from each of these surfaces, using a high-resolution, 4-channel ..
  72. RAPID ESTIMATION OF HUMAN BRAIN TUMOR GROWTH KINETICS
    TAKAO HOSHINO; Fiscal Year: 1990
    As the brain is encased within the skull, the space available for a tumor to grow is severely limited before it reaches a size fatal to the patient...
  73. A Novel Ultrasound Phased Array and Sonication Method for Stroke Treatments
    Kullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It is our hypothesis that transcranial sonication using phased array applicators and patient-specific skull information derived from CT scans can better localize ultrasound energy within the brain, and that this will ..
  74. A Novel Ultrasound Phased Array and Sonication Method for Stroke Treatments
    Kullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is our hypothesis that transcranial sonication using phased array applicators and patient-specific skull information derived from CT scans can better localize ultrasound energy within the brain, and that this will ..
  75. PHENOGENETICS OF SKULL AND BRAIN INTEGRATION IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS
    JOAN RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We are testing developmental associations between skull and brain using 3D data from micro-CT and micro-MR images of the Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mouse models for ..
  76. EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE
    Yoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..e. in the area of human neonatal brain research. Unlike the adults, the skull of the infants has fontanels and sutures which may be abnormally large in pathological cases...
  77. EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE
    Yoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..e. in the area of human neonatal brain research. Unlike the adults, the skull of the infants has fontanels and sutures which may be abnormally large in pathological cases...
  78. EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE
    Yoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..e. in the area of human neonatal brain research. Unlike the adults, the skull of the infants has fontanels and sutures which may be abnormally large in pathological cases...
  79. EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE
    Yoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e. in the area of human neonatal brain research. Unlike the adults, the skull of the infants has fontanels and sutures which may be abnormally large in pathological cases...
  80. Brain Motion During Blunt Impact
    Albert King; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..for different directions of impact to determine brain kinematics in terms of relative motion with respect to the skull. 2) To map brain motion during head impact while the head is protected by helmets, for a deeper understanding of ..
  81. Brain Motion During Blunt Impact
    Albert King; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..for different directions of impact to determine brain kinematics in terms of relative motion with respect to the skull. 2) To map brain motion during head impact while the head is protected by helmets, for a deeper understanding of ..
  82. FETAL CIRCULATORY RESPONSE TO CEREBRAL COMPRESSION
    Raymond Koehler; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Because of the compliant fetal skull, these forces can cause intracranial pressure (ICP) to greatly exceed amniotic fluid pressure, thereby decreasing ..
  83. Role of neuregulin 1 signaling in cortical maturation and schizophrenia
    Yachi Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..I propose to use the thinned-skull technique together with two photon microscopy for long term in vivo imaging of dendritic spines in living animals...
  84. Brain Drug Delivery Using Parkinson as a Disease Model
    Victor Yang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The protection by the bone-structured skull, the lack of targeting or retention specificity, and the presence of the impermeable blood brain barrier (BBB) render the brain the least promising territory for drug intervention...
  85. Brain Drug Delivery Using Parkinson as a Disease Model
    Victor Yang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The protection by the bone-structured skull, the lack of targeting or retention specificity, and the presence of the impermeable blood brain barrier (BBB) render the brain the least promising territory for drug intervention...
  86. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF A SYNDROME WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
    J Post; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The delineation of the panoply of genes involved in causing craniosynostosis will enhance our understanding of these diseases and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..
  87. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF A SYNDROME WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
    J Post; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The delineation of the panoply of genes involved in causing craniosynostosis will enhance our understanding of these diseases and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..
  88. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF A SYNDROME WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
    J Post; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The delineation of the panoply of genes involved in causing craniosynostosis will enhance our understanding of these diseases and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..
  89. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF A SYNDROME WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT
    J Post; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The delineation of the panoply of genes involved in causing craniosynostosis will enhance our understanding of these diseases and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..
  90. MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO INOSITIDES IN CNS
    Stephen Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The regulation of cell volume is of critical importance to the CNS due to the restrictions of the skull. Brain swelling, which may occur in response to a lowering of plasma osmolarity or during cytotoxic edema, is associated with a ..
  91. Hemorrhage Control During Brain Surgery
    Weiliam Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bleeding during brain surgery is of utmost importance, as excessive bleeding within the confined space of the skull can quickly lead to serious debilitating complications and death...