Genomes and Genes
Summary: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Publications251 found, 100 shown here
- New directions in craniofacial morphogenesisHeather L Szabo-Rogers
Department of Craniofacial Development, King s College London, UK SE1 9RT
Dev Biol 341:84-94. 2010..These and future studies will improve our understanding of the genetic and environmental influences underlying human craniofacial anomalies...
- Tissue origins and interactions in the mammalian skull vaultXiaobing Jiang
Institute for Genetic Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
Dev Biol 241:106-16. 2002..expansion of the cerebral hemispheres was accompanied by expansion of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull vault and deployment of the coronal (fronto-parietal) and sagittal (parietal-parietal) sutures as major growth ..
- Recent advances in craniofacial morphogenesisYang Chai
Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
Dev Dyn 235:2353-75. 2006..Together, these findings will be beneficial for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of human congenital malformations and establish the foundation for craniofacial tissue regeneration...
- Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish I: branchial archesT F Schilling
Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK
Development 123:329-44. 1996....
- Thinned-skull cranial window technique for long-term imaging of the cortex in live miceGuang Yang
Molecular Neurobiology Program, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
Nat Protoc 5:201-8. 2010..Here we describe in detail a protocol for imaging cortical structures at high optical resolution through a thinned-skull cranial window in live mice using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM)...
- Critical role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-MAPK pathway in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal developmentChunxi Ge
Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
J Cell Biol 176:709-18. 2007..This work establishes an important in vivo function for the ERK-MAPK pathway in bone that involves stimulation of RUNX2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity...
- BMP signalling in craniofacial developmentXuguang Nie
Section of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies V91, 5009 Bergen, Norway
Int J Dev Biol 50:511-21. 2006..BMP signalling is also an important participant for tooth development, regulating early tooth morphogenesis and subsequent odontoblast differentiation. In this review these aspects are discussed in detail with a focus on recent advances...
- The effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on osteoblastic cells in culture and bone regeneration in a rat skull defectSatoshi Yoneda
Masticatory Function Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima, Tokyo, Japan
J Periodontal Res 38:333-42. 2003..Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been clinically used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of the present study is to clarify EMD affects on osteoblastic cells and bone regeneration...
- Growth of the normal skull vault and its alteration in craniosynostosis: insights from human genetics and experimental studiesGillian M Morriss-Kay
Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK
J Anat 207:637-53. 2005The mammalian skull vault is constructed principally from five bones: the paired frontals and parietals, and the unpaired interparietal. These bones abut at sutures, where most growth of the skull vault takes place...
- Cell lineage in mammalian craniofacial mesenchymeToshiyuki Yoshida
Department of Molecular Craniofacial Embryology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
Mech Dev 125:797-808. 2008..At E13.5 the primordia of these bones lie basolateral to the brain, extending towards the vertex of the skull during the following 4-5 days. We used DiI labelling of the bone primordia in ex-utero E13...
- Modeling of the human skull in EEG source analysisMoritz Dannhauer
Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig 04303, Germany
Hum Brain Mapp 32:1383-99. 2011We used computer simulations to investigate finite element models of the layered structure of the human skull in EEG source analysis...
- Patterns of morphospace occupation and mechanical performance in extant crocodilian skulls: a combined geometric morphometric and finite element modeling approachStephanie E Pierce
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK
J Morphol 269:840-64. 2008..and fossil crocodilians have long been divided into taxonomic and/or ecological groups based on broad patterns of skull shape, particularly the relative length and width of the snout...
- A geometric morphometric analysis of heterochrony in the cranium of chimpanzees and bonobosDaniel E Lieberman
Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
J Hum Evol 52:647-62. 2007..These analyses indicate that the bonobo skull is paedomorphic relative to the chimpanzee for the first principal component of size-related shape variation, most ..
- Molecular origins of rapid and continuous morphological evolutionJohn W Fondon
Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8591, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18058-63. 2004..transcription factor 2) genes were quantitatively associated with significant differences in limb and skull morphology...
- Motor threshold in transcranial magnetic stimulation: the impact of white matter fiber orientation and skull-to-cortex distanceTal Herbsman
Mood Disorders Program and Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA
Hum Brain Mapp 30:2044-55. 2009..We also measured the skull-to-cortex distance over the left motor region...
- Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroidsXing Xu
Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
Nature 431:680-4. 2004..One of the specimens also preserves a filamentous integumentary covering similar to that of other coelurosaurian theropods from western Liaoning. This provides the first direct fossil evidence that tyrannosauroids had protofeathers...
- Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis at the midline in the zebrafish skullNaoyuki Wada
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, 5210 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 2300, USA
Development 132:3977-88. 2005..Neural crest cells that form the vertebrate head skeleton migrate and interact with surrounding tissues to shape the skull, and defects in these processes underlie many human craniofacial syndromes...
- Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviourLawrence M Witmer
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA
Nature 425:950-3. 2003..Orientation of the osseous labyrinth relative to the long axis of the skull was different in these two pterosaur species, suggesting very different head postures and reflecting differing ..
- Principles for the virtual reconstruction of hominin craniaPhilipp Gunz
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
J Hum Evol 57:48-62. 2009..While there will typically be shape differences among equally plausible reconstructions, these different estimates might still support a single conclusion...
- Accuracy and reliability of linear cephalometric measurements from cone-beam computed tomography scans of a dry human skullMauricio Berco
Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, Mass, USA
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 136:17.e1-9; discussion 17-8. 2009The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional craniofacial measurements obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of a dry human skull.
- Customised fabricated implants after previous failed cranioplastyRaymond C W Goh
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, 5 Fu Shin Street, Kwei Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 63:1479-84. 2010..Customised fabricated alloplastic implants provide a safe, accurate and efficient way of restoring normal cranial contours in patients with cranial defects who have had previous failed cranioplasties...
- Custom made cranioplasty prostheses in porous hydroxy-apatite using 3D design techniques: 7 years experience in 25 patientsG Staffa
Division of Neurotraumatology, Presidio Ospedaliero Bufalini, Cesena, Italy
Acta Neurochir (Wien) 149:161-70; discussion 170. 2007None of the materials currently used to reconstruct skull defects is fully satisfactory. Their biological and physical properties are very different to those of natural bone...
- Bone morphogenetic protein 2 therapy for craniofacial surgeryDarren M Smith
University of Pittsburgh, Division of Plastic Surgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
J Craniofac Surg 19:1244-59. 2008....
- The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometricsS L Brusatte
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA
J Evol Biol 25:365-77. 2012..iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history...
- Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivoreMark T Young
School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, UK
Naturwissenschaften 99:637-43. 2012..Biomechanical modelling, using finite element analysis, was used to examine the performance of the Diplodocus skull. Three feeding behaviours were modelled: muscle-driven static biting, branch stripping and bark stripping...
- A complete skull of an early cretaceous sauropod and the evolution of advanced titanosauriansHussam Zaher
Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
PLoS ONE 6:e16663. 2011..Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been largely hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved cranial remains...
- Modeling skull electrical propertiesR J Sadleir
The J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611 6131, USA
Ann Biomed Eng 35:1699-712. 2007Accurate representations and measurements of skull electrical conductivity are essential in developing appropriate forward models for applications such as inverse EEG or Electrical Impedance Tomography of the head...
- Evaluation of the volumes of cranial cavities in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Chiari-like malformation and other brachycephalic dogs as measured via computed tomographyMartin J Schmidt
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Small Animal Clinic, Justus Liebig University, Frankfurter St 108, 35392 Giessen, Germany
Am J Vet Res 70:508-12. 2009..AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results of this study suggested that descent of the cerebellum into the foramen magnum and the presence of syringohydromyelia in CKCSs are not necessarily associated with a volume reduction in the CF of the skull.
- Morphological evolution through integration: a quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and PongoNandini Singh
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
J Hum Evol 62:155-64. 2012..Thus, despite having very distinct morphologies the way in which the face, basicranium and cranial vault covary is shared among these taxa. These results imply that the pattern of cranial integration among hominoids is conserved...
- Shape and mechanics in thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) skulls: implications for feeding behaviour and niche partitioningS E Pierce
University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
J Anat 215:555-76. 2009Variation in modern crocodilian and extinct thalattosuchian crocodylomorph skull morphology is only weakly correlated with phylogeny, implying that factors other than evolutionary proximity play important roles in determining crocodile ..
- Long-term results following titanium cranioplasty of large skull defectsMario Cabraja
Department of Neurosurgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Neurosurg Focus 26:E10. 2009..6-10% of hydroxyapatite-based implants require replacement. In this retrospective study of large skull defects, the authors compared computer-assisted design/computer-assisted modeled (CAD/CAM) titanium implants for ..
- Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaurE J Rayfield
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK
Nature 409:1033-7. 2001..Here we have applied this technique to the long skull of the large carnivorous theropod dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis...
- Anatomy and taxonomic status of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.AAndrew A Farke
Raymond M Alf Museum of Paleontology, Claremont, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e16196. 2011The validity of Nedoceratops hatcheri, a chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur known from a single skull recovered in the Lance Formation of eastern Wyoming, U.S.A., has been debated for over a century...
- Facial heights: evolutionary relevance of postnatal ontogeny for facial orientation and skull morphology in humans and chimpanzeesMarkus Bastir
Department of Paleobiology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid, Spain
J Hum Evol 47:359-81. 2004..and inferior limits of facial compartments, contribute to the orientation of the viscerocranium in the primate skull. In humans, vertical facial variation is among the main sources of diversity and frequently associated with an ..
- GTF2IRD1 in craniofacial development of humans and miceMay Tassabehji
Academic Unit of Medical Genetics, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Science 310:1184-7. 2005..human microdeletion disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS); craniofacial imaging reveals abnormalities in both skull and jaws that may arise through misregulation of goosecoid, a downstream target of Gtf2ird1...
- Gene therapy-directed osteogenesis: BMP-7-transduced human fibroblasts form bone in vivoP H Krebsbach
Center for Biorestoration of Oral Health, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
Hum Gene Ther 11:1201-10. 2000....
- Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolutionLindsay E Zanno
Department of Geology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:232-7. 2011....
- Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skullPatrick J Drew
Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
Nat Methods 7:981-4. 2010We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation...
- A basal dinosaur from the dawn of the dinosaur era in southwestern PangaeaRicardo N Martinez
Instituto y Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan 5400, Argentina
Science 331:206-10. 2011..The extinction of nondinosaurian herbivores is sequential and is not linked to an increase in dinosaurian diversity, which weakens the predominant scenario for dinosaurian ascendancy as opportunistic replacement...
- Conditional Kif3a ablation causes abnormal hedgehog signaling topography, growth plate dysfunction, and excessive bone and cartilage formation during mouse skeletogenesisEiki Koyama
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Development 134:2159-69. 2007....
- Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shapeStephen Wroe
School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Evolution 61:1251-60. 2007..Here we compare skull shape in a wide range of carnivoran placentals (Carnivora) and nonherbivorous marsupials using a three-dimensional ..
- Computer aided design of large-format prefabricated cranial platesDavid Dean
Department of Neurological Surgery and the Research Institute, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Craniofac Surg 14:819-32. 2003..The authors begin by locating the cranial defect margin on a skull surface image generated from a 3D head CT-scan...
- Thin-plate spline analysis of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial complexAntonio Rosas
Department of Paleobiology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, 28006 Madrid, Spain
Am J Phys Anthropol 117:236-45. 2002..The sex-specific TPS deformation patterns are hypothesized to be associated with sexual differences in body composition and energetic requirements...
- Cranial reconstruction with computer-generated hard-tissue replacement patient-matched implants: indications, surgical technique, and long-term follow-upBarry L Eppley
Division of Plastic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, 702 Barnhill Drive, 3540, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Plast Reconstr Surg 109:864-71. 2002..Critical attention must be paid, however, to management of the frontal sinus and preexisting bone infection and the quality of the overlying soft-tissue cover...
- Were neandertal and modern human cranial differences produced by natural selection or genetic drift?Timothy D Weaver
Department of Anthropology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Hum Evol 53:135-45. 2007..We conclude that rather than requiring special adaptive accounts, Neandertal and modern human crania may simply represent two outcomes from a vast space of random evolutionary possibilities...
- The induction of bone formation in rat calvarial defects and subcutaneous tissues by recombinant human BMP-2, produced in Escherichia coliJi Hyun Lee
Department of Dentistry, Hangang Secred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University 94 195 Youngdeungpo dong, Youngdeungpo gu, Seoul 150030, Republic of Korea
Biomaterials 31:3512-9. 2010..These results showed that ErhBMP-2 was osteoinductive under controlled in vivo conditions. Thus, ErhBMP-2 has definite potential as an alternative to rhBMP-2 produced in a eukaryotic system for clinical use...
- Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) gene expression is correlated with differentiation in rat calvarial osteoblastsJ Hino
National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka, Fujishirodai, Suita, 565 8565, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256:419-24. 1999..These findings indicate that BMP-3b gene expression is regulated by osteoblastic differentiation and BMP-3b functions in highly differentiated osteoblasts...
- Fossil evidence on origin of the mammalian brainTimothy B Rowe
Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas, C1100, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Science 332:955-7. 2011..The origin of crown Mammalia saw a third pulse of olfactory enhancement, with ossified ethmoid turbinals supporting an expansive olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity, allowing full expression of a huge odorant receptor genome...
- In vivo RANK signaling blockade using the receptor activator of NF-kappaB:Fc effectively prevents and ameliorates wear debris-induced osteolysis via osteoclast depletion without inhibiting osteogenesisLisa M Childs
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York 14642, USA
J Bone Miner Res 17:192-9. 2002..These studies indicate that osteoclast depletion via RANK blockade is an effective method to prevent and reverse wear debris-induced osteolysis without jeopardizing osteogenesis...
- Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase by BMP-2 and their implication in the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiationJ Guicheux
Division of Bone Diseases, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
J Bone Miner Res 18:2060-8. 2003..We report that BMP-2 can activate JNK and p38 in osteoblastic cells and provide evidences that these MAP kinases have distinct roles in regulating alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression...
- The evolutionary position of turtles revisedR Zardoya
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain
Naturwissenschaften 88:193-200. 2001..of turtles as the only living survivors of the anapsid reptiles (those that lack temporal fenestrae in the skull)...
- Review of fate-mapping studies of osteogenic cranial neural crest in vertebratesJoshua B Gross
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Dev Biol 317:389-400. 2008..have witnessed renewed interest in defining the embryonic cell populations that directly contribute to the bony skull. This question lies at the intersection of several important developmental, clinical and evolutionary interests...
- The conductivity of the human skull: results of in vivo and in vitro measurementsT F Oostendorp
Department of Medical Physics and Biophysics, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 47:1487-92. 2000The conductivity of the human skull was measured both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro measurement was performed on a sample of fresh skull placed within a saline environment...
- Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiationT Piotrowski
Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung Genetik, Tubingen, Germany
Development 123:345-56. 1996..The mutants presented here may be valuable tools for elucidating the genetic mechanisms that underlie the development of the mandibular and the hyoid arches, as well as the process of cartilage differentiation...
- Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulator placement using high-field interventional magnetic resonance imaging and a skull-mounted aiming device: technique and application accuracyPhilip A Starr
Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
J Neurosurg 112:479-90. 2010....
- A complete skeleton of a Late Triassic saurischian and the early evolution of dinosaursSterling J Nesbitt
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
Science 326:1530-3. 2009....
- The Later Stone Age calvaria from Iwo Eleru, Nigeria: morphology and chronologyKaterina Harvati
Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoecology, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e24024. 2011..We undertook a morphometric reanalysis of this cranium in order to better assess its affinities. We also conducted Uranium-series dating to re-evaluate its chronology...
- Reproducibility of osseous landmarks used for computed tomography based three-dimensional cephalometric analysesRaphael Olszewski
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 10 av Hippocrate, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 38:214-21. 2010..Finally, we propose a classification scheme and exclusion criteria for reference landmarks used in 3D cephalometrics, based on inter-observer reproducibility and anatomical reality...
- The Gavialis-Tomistoma debate: the contribution of skull ontogenetic allometry and growth trajectories to the study of crocodylian relationshipsPaolo Piras
Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita Roma Tre, Italy
Evol Dev 12:568-79. 2010..Here skull allometric trajectories of Tomistoma and Gavialis were contrasted with those of two longirostral crocodylian taxa, ..
- Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomesPeter Johnston
Department of Anatomy with Radiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
J Morphol 272:1492-512. 2011..Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes...
- Age, sex and body mass index in relation to calvarial diploe thickness and craniometric data on MRIHatice Gul Hatipoglu
Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Talatpasa Bulvari Samanpazari 06100, Ankara, Turkey
Forensic Sci Int 182:46-51. 2008It might be critical to determine sex, body mass and age of the individual from skull in forensic medicine and anthropology...
- Comparison of cerebral cranium volumes between cavalier King Charles spaniels with Chiari-like malformation, small breed dogs and LabradorsH R Cross
The Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK
J Small Anim Pract 50:399-405. 2009..To ascertain whether cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCSs) have a proportionately smaller caudal fossa compared with other small dogs and with Labradors. To evaluate if cerebellar herniation in CKCS correlates with caudal fossa volume...
- [Clinical and ossification outcome of custom-made hydroxyapatite prothese for large skull defect]H Hardy
Service de Chirurgie Maxillo faciale, CHRU de Rouen, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France
Neurochirurgie 58:25-9. 2012..Cranioplasty is an everyday concern in neurosurgery, especially in decompressive craniectomy cases. Our surgical team uses custom-made hydroxyapatite implants for large and/or complex defects...
- MT1-MMP-dependent, apoptotic remodeling of unmineralized cartilage: a critical process in skeletal growthKenn Holmbeck
Matrix Metalloproteinase Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Cell Biol 163:661-71. 2003..The coordinated apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase-directed cartilage dissolution is akin to metamorphosis and may thus represent its evolutionary legacy in mammals...
- Evidence for modular evolution in a long-tailed pterosaur with a pterodactyloid skullJunchang Lü
Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, People s Republic of China
Proc Biol Sci 277:383-9. 2010..Darwinopterus exhibits a remarkable 'modular' combination of characters: the skull and neck are typically pterodactyloid, exhibiting numerous derived character states, while the remainder of the ..
- The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogeneticsAdam S Smith
School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland
Naturwissenschaften 95:975-80. 2008..In this paper, we describe the three dimensionally preserved skull of the giant Jurassic pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni...
- Cutaneous skull metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case reportNikolaos Barbetakis
Thoracic Surgery Department, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, A Simeonidi 2, Thessaloniki, 54007, Greece
World J Surg Oncol 7:45. 2009..Cutaneous metastases in the facial region occur in less than 0.5% of patients with metastatic cancer...
- Craniofacial development in marsupial mammals: developmental origins of evolutionary changeKathleen K Smith
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
Dev Dyn 235:1181-93. 2006..Finally, the implications of these results for hypotheses on the genetic modulation of craniofacial patterning are presented...
- Genetic analysis of skull shape variation and morphological integration in the mouse using interspecific recombinant congenic strains between C57BL/6 and mice of the mus spretus speciesGaétan Burgio
Unité postulante de Génétique fonctionnelle de la Souris, CNRS URA 2578, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Evolution 63:2668-86. 2009To assess the genetic basis of the skull shape variation and morphological integration in mice, we have used a tool based on the cross between the distantly related mouse species Mus spretus (SEG/Pas strain) and the laboratory strain ..
- Landmark-based shape analysis of the archaic Homo calvarium from Ceprano (Italy)Emiliano Bruner
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell Uomo, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Am J Phys Anthropol 132:355-66. 2007..In fact, despite the fact that the skull appears partially distorted by diagenetic pressures (thus precluding a comprehensive landmark-based analysis), ..
- New insights into craniofacial morphogenesisJill A Helms
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Development 132:851-61. 2005..Changes in craniofacial architecture also lie at the heart of evolutionary adaptation, as new studies in fish and fowl attest. Together, these findings reveal much about molecular and tissue interactions behind craniofacial development...
- Use of bone SPECT in the evaluation of fibrous dysplasia of the skullTadaki Nakahara
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
Clin Nucl Med 29:554-9. 2004
- Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic nichesW James Cooper
Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
BMC Evol Biol 9:24. 2009..were used to describe patterns of morphological diversity and determine positions of functional groups in a skull morphospace...
- Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skullM Moazen
Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull, UK
J Anat 213:499-508. 2008Lizard skulls vary greatly in shape and construction, and radical changes in skull form during evolution have made this an intriguing subject of research...
- Activation of p38 MAPK pathway in the skull abnormalities of Apert syndrome Fgfr2(+P253R) miceYingli Wang
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
BMC Dev Biol 10:22. 2010..We previously reported an inbred transgenic mouse model with the Fgfr2 +/S252W mutation on the C57BL/6J background for Apert syndrome. Here we present a mouse model for the Fgfr2+/P253R mutation...
- Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularityAbby Grace Drake
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Am Nat 175:289-301. 2010..We use geometric morphometrics to quantify the diversity of skull shape in 106 breeds of domestic dog, in three wild canid species, and across the order Carnivora...
- Endocranial shape asymmetries in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla assessed via skull based landmark analysisAntoine Balzeau
Equipe de Paléontologie Humaine, CNRS, UMR 7194, Département de Préhistoire du Muséum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
J Hum Evol 59:54-69. 2010..Moreover, the detailed analysis of the 3D structure of these petalias reveals shared features, as well as features that are unique to the different great ape species...
- Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysisKaren Moreno
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australia
J Anat 212:736-46. 2008..Its delicate 'space-frame' skull morphology differs greatly from that apparent in most living large prey specialists and is suggestive of a high ..
- Controversies in skull reconstructionJames E Zins
Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
J Craniofac Surg 21:1755-60. 2010In the early 1980s, it was shown that bone from the skull (membranous bone) maintained its volume to a significantly greater extent than bone from the rib and iliac crest regions (endochondral bone)...
- Allometry and performance: the evolution of skull form and function in felidsG J Slater
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA90095 1606, USA
J Evol Biol 22:2278-87. 2009Allometric patterns of skull-shape variation can have significant impacts on cranial mechanics and feeding performance, but have received little attention in previous studies...
- Skull deformitiesEmily B Ridgway
Department of Neurological Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, 317 East 34 th Street, New York, NY 10016, USA
Pediatr Clin North Am 51:359-87. 2004..Because the most common causes of distortion or asymmetry are craniosynostosis or deformation, these abnormalities are the primary subjects of this article...
- A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, ChinaJonah N Choiniere
Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
Science 327:571-4. 2010..The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb...
- Homeotic transformation of the occipital bones of the skull by ectopic expression of a homeobox geneT Lufkin
Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Eucaryotes du CNRS, Institut de Chimie Biologique, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg, France
Nature 359:835-41. 1992..2. These results are similar to the homeotic posteriorization phenomenon generated in Drosophila by ectopic expression of genes of the homeotic complex HOM-C (refs 7-10; reviewed in ref. 3)...
- Evaluation of inverse methods and head models for EEG source localization using a human skull phantomS Baillet
Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain Imaging Laboratory, CNRS UPR640 LENA, H pital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France
Phys Med Biol 46:77-96. 2001We used a real-skull phantom head to investigate the performances of representative methods for EEG source localization when considering various head models...
- A cranium for the earliest Europeans: phylogenetic position of the hominid from Ceprano, ItalyG Manzi
Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana, Rome, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:10011-6. 2001..Alternatively, a new species-ancestral to later European and African hominines-should be named to accommodate such a unique fossil specimen...
- Fgfr mRNA isoforms in craniofacial bone developmentD P C Rice
Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Bone 33:14-27. 2003..Fgfr4 transcripts were found in developing muscles. These data help to explain the disturbances in craniofacial growth exhibited by both patients and the growing number of transgenic mice carrying mutations in genes encoding FGFRs/Fgfrs...
- The giant crocodyliform Sarcosuchus from the Cretaceous of AfricaP C Sereno
Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Science 294:1516-9. 2001..The skull has an expansive narial bulla and elongate jaws studded with stout, smooth crowns that do not interlock...
- A basal troodontid from the Early Cretaceous of ChinaXing Xu
Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
Nature 415:780-4. 2002..The discovery of Sinovenator and the examination of character distributions along the maniraptoran lineage indicate that principal structural modifications toward avians were acquired in the early stages of maniraptoran evolution...
- Epigenetic control of skull morphogenesis by histone deacetylase 8Michael Haberland
Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
Genes Dev 23:1625-30. 2009..Here we provide evidence that Hdac8 specifically controls patterning of the skull by repressing a subset of transcription factors in cranial neural crest cells...
- Differences in matrix composition between calvaria and long bone in mice suggest differences in biomechanical properties and resorption: Special emphasis on collagenT Van den Bos
Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam, Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Bone 43:459-68. 2008..Our data demonstrate considerable differences in protein composition of flat and long bones and strongly suggest functional differences in formation, resorption, and mechanical properties of these bone types...
- Frontal sinuses and head-butting in goats: a finite element analysisAndrew A Farke
Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 8081, USA
J Exp Biol 211:3085-94. 2008..This is consistent with the hypothesis that sinuses result at least in part from the removal of mechanically unnecessary bone...
- Cioclovina (Romania): affinities of an early modern EuropeanKaterina Harvati
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
J Hum Evol 53:732-46. 2007..Our results show Cioclovina to be entirely modern in its cranial shape, and do not support the hypothesis that it represents a hybrid...
- On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, GermanyD Dean
Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Hum Evol 34:485-508. 1998..Biache 1), which present greater platycephaly, a reduced mastoid process, an enlarged juxtamastoid eminence, and true "en-bombe" (parieto-occipital form), and Weichsel Stage 4 "Neandertals" (sensu stricto, i.e., "classic" Neandertals)...
- SOX3 activity during pharyngeal segmentation is required for craniofacial morphogenesisKarine Rizzoti
Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
Development 134:3437-48. 2007..They also give insight into the formation of pharyngeal pouches, of which little is known in vertebrates. Finally, this work introduces two new players in craniofacial development - SOX3 and SOX2...
- MT1-MMP-deficient mice develop dwarfism, osteopenia, arthritis, and connective tissue disease due to inadequate collagen turnoverK Holmbeck
MMP Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Cell 99:81-92. 1999....
- Rigid-body analysis of a lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickiiM Moazen
Centre for Medical Engineering and Technology, University of Hull, Hull, East Yorkshire HU6 7RX, UK
J Biomech 41:1274-80. 2008..Theoretical models and practical studies have posited a definite relationship between skull morphology and bite performance, but this can be difficult to demonstrate in vivo...
- Effect of measurement noise and electrode density on the spatial resolution of cortical potential distribution with different resistivity values for the skullOuti R M Ryynänen
Ragnar Granit Institute, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:1851-8. 2006..noise and the number of electrodes on the spatial resolution with different resistivity ratios for the scalp, skull and brain...
- Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skullN Curtis
Department of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull HU67RX, United Kingdom
J Biomech 43:2804-9. 2010..Here, using a sophisticated multi-body computer model of a reptile skull (the rhynchocephalian Sphenodon), we assess the accuracy of muscle force predictions by comparing predicted bite ..
- Skeletal height reconstruction from measurements of the skull in indigenous South AfricansI Ryan
School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
Forensic Sci Int 167:16-21. 2007..these bones are not always available for forensic analysis, it became necessary to use other bones such as the skull for stature estimation...
- Longitudinal and shear mode ultrasound propagation in human skull boneP J White
Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1085-96. 2006..the idea of the longitudinal mode being the only significant mode of ultrasound energy transport through the skull bone...
- Major cranial changes during Triceratops ontogenyJohn R Horner
Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 0040, USA
Proc Biol Sci 273:2757-61. 2006..Our analysis is based on a growth series of 10 skulls, ranging from a 38 cm long baby skull to about 2 m long adult skulls...
- Pediatric Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation Clinical Validation & ImplementationRobert F Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2010..PCI reduces CI surgery to a single pass of a drill from the lateral skull base to the cochlea...
- Perceptions of Social Risk in Medical Child Abuse EvaluationHeather T Keenan; Fiscal Year: 2010..will both submit and review cases of three injury types (traumatic brain injury, long-bone fracture, and skull fracture) using a web-based template. Physicians will rate their perceptions of social risk for each injury case...
- Combination drug treatment to inhibit multiple cell death pathways after TBIALAN FADEN; Fiscal Year: 2009..associated with a decreased level of consciousness, amnesia, other neurologic or neuropsychological abnormalities, skull fracture, intracranial lesions, or death...
- Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Tool for Infant Head Injuries from FalSUSAN SHEPS contact MARGULIES; Fiscal Year: 2010..Mechanical responses from the model (cortical displacement relative to skull and peak cortical tissue strain) are statistically correlated with the actual occurrence of extra- axial ..
- Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Tool for Infant Head Injuries from FalSusan Margulies; Fiscal Year: 2009..Mechanical responses from the model (cortical displacement relative to skull and peak cortical tissue strain) are statistically correlated with the actual occurrence of extra- axial ..
- Graves' Disease Therapy Risks to Mother and FetusScott A Rivkees; Fiscal Year: 2010..In murine models, we observed that PTU exposure during embryogenesis (E7.5 to 10.5) is associated with skull and cardiac defects, whereas we do not observe malformations in embryos of dams treated with MMI or high doses of ..
- Delivery of Soluble FGFR3 as a Treatment for AchondroplasiaSteven C Ghivizzani; Fiscal Year: 2010..Affected children suffer from abnormal long bone development and deformations of the vertebrae and bones in the skull. There is no cure for achondroplasia, and existing treatments only address some of the complications...
- Genetic Architecture of the Mammalian (Canid) SkeletonKARL LARK; Fiscal Year: 2007..Dogs are genotyped using microsatellite markers and phenotyped from five x-rays comprising the skull, fore- and hind limbs and pelvis...
- Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic UltrasoundThilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2010..be repeated to optimize US transmit parameters now insonating through intervening wet human cadaveric temporal skull bone. Insonation through bone is limited by sound absorption, scattering and phase aberration...
- Transcranial Sonothrombolysis with Diagnostic UltrasoundThilo Hoelscher; Fiscal Year: 2009..be repeated to optimize US transmit parameters now insonating through intervening wet human cadaveric temporal skull bone. Insonation through bone is limited by sound absorption, scattering and phase aberration...
- COLLAGEN GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSIONBjorn Reino Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2010..that include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment and midline defects in bones of the skull;some patients have imaging abnormalities in the brain suggesting defects in neuronal migration...
- COLLAGEN GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSIONBjorn Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2009..that include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment and midline defects in bones of the skull; some patients have imaging abnormalities in the brain suggesting defects in neuronal migration...
- PHENOGENETICS OF SKULL AND BRAIN INTEGRATION IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSISJOAN THERESE RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2010..The skull shape in craniosynostosis can not be explained simply by the premature fusion of sutures, but involves widespread ..
- BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTIONSusan Herring; Fiscal Year: 1993..to see whether the pattern is produced by the muscle directly, by loading the jaw joint, or by twisting the skull. Aim 4 addresses the problem of how the zygomatic suture affects stress transmission by investigating the physical ..
- Clinical Validation and Testing of Percutaneous Cochlear ImplantationRobert Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2007..demonstrated the concept of percutaneous cochlear access as a single pass of a surgical drill from the lateral skull to the cochlea without injury to adjacent vital structures...
- Clinical Validation and Testing of Percutaneous Cochlear ImplantationRobert F Labadie; Fiscal Year: 2010..demonstrated the concept of percutaneous cochlear access as a single pass of a surgical drill from the lateral skull to the cochlea without injury to adjacent vital structures...
- Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Patterned Growth of the Mammalian SkullRobert E Maxson; Fiscal Year: 2010..genetic control of patterned growth during the morphogenesis of a complex, multicomponent structure, the mammalian skull vault...
- BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION, AND MUSCLE FUNCTIONSusan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2001..Major areas of interest for the next project period will be the cranial sutures, the primary loci of skull deformation during function, and the architecture of newly formed periosteal bone, an important determinant of ..
- Permanently Implantable, Intracranial Pressure SensorArye Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2006..Since the intracranial contents exist within a rigid container (skull), direct pressure measurements require neurosurgical procedures, with their attendant risks, discomforts, and ..
- Regional differences in neural crest and mesodermal derived calvarial bone healinMichael T Longaker; Fiscal Year: 2010..The paired parietal frontal bones in the anterior skull are derived from the neural crest and the paired parietal bones, positioned posteriorly, are derived from the ..
- Development of Thermoacoustic Tomography Brain ImagingMark A Anastasio; Fiscal Year: 2010..challenge in TAT brain imaging is to compensate for the distortion introduced into the TAT measurement data by the skull. The broad objective of this proposal is to make TAT brain imaging a practical, useful, and highly effective brain ..
- BONE GROWTH, PERIOSTEAL MIGRATION AND MUSCLE FUNCTIONSusan Herring; Fiscal Year: 2007..The mechanical environment influences skull growth at every level from individual cells to gross structure...
- DYSFUNCTIONAL FGFR SIGNALING IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSISRobert Friesel; Fiscal Year: 2002Craniosynostosis, an abnormality of skull development in which the sutures of the growing calvarial bones fuse prematurely, occurs with a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 live births...
- MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR COUPLING TO INOSITIDES IN CNSStephen Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2006The regulation of cell volume is of critical importance to the CNS due to the restrictions of the skull. Brain swelling, which may occur in response to a lowering of plasma osmolarity or during cytotoxic edema, is associated with a ..
- EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUEYoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 1993..The resulting SEF will be measured over the exposed intact scalp (with hairs removed), intact skull and intact dura at a measurement distance of 2 mm from each of these surfaces, using a high-resolution, 4-channel ..
- A Novel Ultrasound Phased Array and Sonication Method for Stroke TreatmentsKullervo Hynynen; Fiscal Year: 2010..It is our hypothesis that transcranial sonication using phased array applicators and patient-specific skull information derived from CT scans can better localize ultrasound energy within the brain, and that this will ..
- PHENOGENETICS OF SKULL AND BRAIN INTEGRATION IN CRANIOSYNOSTOSISJOAN RICHTSMEIER; Fiscal Year: 2009..We are testing developmental associations between skull and brain using 3D data from micro-CT and micro-MR images of the Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mouse models for ..
- EVALUATION OF MEG AS A CURRENT SOURCE IMAGING TECHNIQUEYoshio Okada; Fiscal Year: 2004..e. in the area of human neonatal brain research. Unlike the adults, the skull of the infants has fontanels and sutures which may be abnormally large in pathological cases...
- Brain Drug Delivery Using Parkinson as a Disease ModelVictor Yang; Fiscal Year: 2005The protection by the bone-structured skull, the lack of targeting or retention specificity, and the presence of the impermeable blood brain barrier (BBB) render the brain the least promising territory for drug intervention...
- MOLECULAR GENETICS OF A SYNDROME WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENTJ Post; Fiscal Year: 2004..The delineation of the panoply of genes involved in causing craniosynostosis will enhance our understanding of these diseases and suggest new therapeutic strategies. ..