feces

Summary

Summary: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. pmc A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing
    Junjie Qin
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Nature 464:59-65. 2010
  2. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
  3. pmc Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
    Paul B Eckburg
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room S 169, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford CA 94305 5107, USA
    Science 308:1635-8. 2005
  4. pmc Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome
    Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 473:174-80. 2011
  5. pmc Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes
    Gary D Wu
    Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 334:105-8. 2011
  6. pmc Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time
    Elizabeth K Costello
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Science 326:1694-7. 2009
  7. pmc Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa
    Carlotta De Filippo
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, 50139 Firenze, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14691-6. 2010
  8. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
  9. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
  10. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008

Research Grants

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprevention: NRF2 Signaling
    Thomas W Kensler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  2. Ibis T-6,000 Biosensor System
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. Quantitation of Tocopherol Metabolism in Humans
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
  4. NITRIC OXIDE INTERACTION WITH INSECT NITROPHORINS
    FRANCES ANN WALKER; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. Evo-epidemiology of Scistosoma mansoni in children in Kenya
    ERIC SAMUEL LOKER; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. Quantitation of In Vivo Human Lutein Metabolism
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Role of Bile Acids and Gut Bacteria in GI Diseases
    Phillip B Hylemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Bartonella: dissecting niche-specific adaptation in a human pathogen
    Jane E Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Targeted screening for Taenia solium tapeworms
    SETH E O'NEAL; Fiscal Year: 2011
  10. Training in Hantavirus Ecology, Virology & Clinical Investigation in the Americas
    GREGORY JAMES MERTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications256 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing
    Junjie Qin
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Nature 464:59-65. 2010
    ..We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively...
  2. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
    ....
  3. pmc Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora
    Paul B Eckburg
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Room S 169, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford CA 94305 5107, USA
    Science 308:1635-8. 2005
    ..We examined 13,355 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences from multiple colonic mucosal sites and feces of healthy subjects to improve our understanding of gut microbial diversity...
  4. pmc Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome
    Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 473:174-80. 2011
    ..For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers...
  5. pmc Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes
    Gary D Wu
    Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 334:105-8. 2011
    ..Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet...
  6. pmc Bacterial community variation in human body habitats across space and time
    Elizabeth K Costello
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Science 326:1694-7. 2009
    ..These results indicate that our microbiota, although personalized, varies systematically across body habitats and time; such trends may ultimately reveal how microbiome changes cause or prevent disease...
  7. pmc Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa
    Carlotta De Filippo
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, 50139 Firenze, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14691-6. 2010
    ....
  8. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
    ..Thus, humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes...
  9. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
    ....
  10. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008
    ..The rapid return to the pretreatment community composition is indicative of factors promoting community resilience, the nature of which deserves future investigation...
  11. pmc Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota
    Chana Palmer
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e177. 2007
    ..By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract...
  12. pmc Reduced diversity of faecal microbiota in Crohn's disease revealed by a metagenomic approach
    C Manichanh
    Unité d Ecologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, INRA UEPSD, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Gut 55:205-11. 2006
    ..However, investigation of such a complex ecosystem is difficult, even with culture independent molecular approaches...
  13. ncbi Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile
    Els Van Nood
    Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 368:407-15. 2013
    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection.
  14. pmc Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome
    Jeremy E Koenig
    Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4578-85. 2011
    ..This study revealed that seemingly chaotic shifts in the microbiome are associated with life events; however, additional experiments ought to be conducted to assess how different infants respond to similar life events...
  15. pmc Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults
    Nadja Larsen
    Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 5:e9085. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...
  16. pmc Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4554-61. 2011
    ..Antibiotic perturbation may cause a shift to an alternative stable state, the full consequences of which remain unknown...
  17. pmc Dominant and diet-responsive groups of bacteria within the human colonic microbiota
    Alan W Walker
    Pathogen Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK
    ISME J 5:220-30. 2011
    ..Dietary non-digestible carbohydrate can produce marked changes in the gut microbiota, but these depend on the initial composition of an individual's gut microbiota...
  18. ncbi Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects
    Andreas Schwiertz
    Institute of Microecology, Auf den Lüppen 8, Herborn, Germany
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:190-5. 2010
    ..However, our results contradict previous reports with regard to the contribution of various bacterial groups to the development of obesity and this issue remains controversial...
  19. pmc Development and application of the human intestinal tract chip, a phylogenetic microarray: analysis of universally conserved phylotypes in the abundant microbiota of young and elderly adults
    Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Environ Microbiol 11:1736-51. 2009
    ....
  20. pmc Evaluation of the bacterial diversity in the feces of cattle using 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)
    Scot E Dowd
    USDA ARS Livestock Issues Research Unit, Lubbock, TX 79403, USA
    BMC Microbiol 8:125. 2008
    ..We have evaluated the microbiome from the feces of 20 commercial, lactating dairy cows.
  21. ncbi Development of an extensive set of 16S rDNA-targeted primers for quantification of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria in faecal samples by real-time PCR
    T Rinttilä
    Section of Microbiology, Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland
    J Appl Microbiol 97:1166-77. 2004
    ..We report the design and optimization of an extensive set of 16S rDNA-targeted species- and group-specific primers for more accurate quantification of bacteria from faecal samples with real-time PCR...
  22. pmc Through ageing, and beyond: gut microbiota and inflammatory status in seniors and centenarians
    Elena Biagi
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e10667. 2010
    ....
  23. ncbi Global and deep molecular analysis of microbiota signatures in fecal samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome
    Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Gastroenterology 141:1792-801. 2011
    ..We aimed to define microbial populations that can be used discriminate the fecal microbiota of patients with IBS from that of healthy subjects and correlate these with IBS intestinal symptom scores...
  24. ncbi Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time
    S J Lewis
    University Dept of Medicine, Bristol Royal Infirmary, UK
    Scand J Gastroenterol 32:920-4. 1997
    ..We set out to assess the responsiveness of the Bristol stool form scale to change in transit time...
  25. pmc Organismal, genetic, and transcriptional variation in the deeply sequenced gut microbiomes of identical twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7503-8. 2010
    ..g., predicted cellulases, dockerins), and transcriptional activities. These results provide an expanded perspective about features that make each of us unique life forms and directions for future characterization of our gut ecosystems...
  26. pmc Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly
    Marcus J Claesson
    Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4586-91. 2011
    ..We conclude that the fecal microbiota of the elderly shows temporal stability over limited time in the majority of subjects but is characterized by unusual phylum proportions and extreme variability...
  27. pmc Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths in the era of preventive chemotherapy: effect of multiple stool sampling and use of different diagnostic techniques
    Stefanie Knopp
    Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e331. 2008
    ..In this study, we focused on schoolchildren on Unguja Island, Zanzibar, an area where anthelminthic drugs have been repeatedly administered over the past decade...
  28. ncbi Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy
    John Penders
    Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
    Pediatrics 118:511-21. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of external influences to the gut microbiotic composition in early infancy...
  29. pmc Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms
    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    PLoS ONE 6:e23035. 2011
    ..The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point...
  30. ncbi Low counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in colitis microbiota
    H Sokol
    UEPSD, INRA, Jouy en Josas, France
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 15:1183-9. 2009
    ..The aim was to compare the fecal microbiota composition of patients with colitis to that of healthy subjects (HS)...
  31. pmc Metagenomic analyses of an uncultured viral community from human feces
    Mya Breitbart
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:6220-3. 2003
    Here we present the first metagenomic analyses of an uncultured viral community from human feces, using partial shotgun sequencing. Most of the sequences were unrelated to anything previously reported...
  32. pmc Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces
    Erwin G Zoetendal
    Wageningen Centre for Food Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3401-7. 2002
    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex community of bacterial cells in the mucosa, lumen, and feces. Since most attention has been focused on bacteria present in feces, knowledge about the mucosa-associated bacterial ..
  33. ncbi Towards the human intestinal microbiota phylogenetic core
    Julien Tap
    INRA, UEPSD, UR910, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Environ Microbiol 11:2574-84. 2009
    ..Its role in human health deserves further study...
  34. ncbi Comparative analysis of fecal DNA extraction methods with phylogenetic microarray: effective recovery of bacterial and archaeal DNA using mechanical cell lysis
    Anne Salonen
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, P O Box 66, FI 00014, Helsinki, Finland
    J Microbiol Methods 81:127-34. 2010
    ..The assessment of performance differences between different methodologies serves as a concrete step towards the comparison and reliable meta-analysis of the results obtained in different laboratories...
  35. ncbi Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota
    Cecilia Jernberg
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    ISME J 1:56-66. 2007
    ....
  36. pmc Comparing diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate, ether-concentration, and FLOTAC for Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths
    Dominik Glinz
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e754. 2010
    ..Accurate diagnosis is crucial for patient management, drug efficacy evaluations, and monitoring of large-scale community-based control programs...
  37. pmc The fecal viral flora of wild rodents
    Tung G Phan
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002218. 2011
    ..in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat) collected in California and Virginia...
  38. pmc Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients
    Fabrice Armougom
    URMITE UMR CNRS 6236, IRD 3R198, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine, and Nutrition and Diabetology Department, University Hospital Sainte Marguerite, Marseille, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e7125. 2009
    ..Determining the variations of microbial communities in feces may be beneficial for the identification of specific profiles in patients with abnormal weights...
  39. ncbi Composition and energy harvesting capacity of the gut microbiota: relationship to diet, obesity and time in mouse models
    E F Murphy
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
    Gut 59:1635-42. 2010
    ..Therefore, we explored the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet and genetically determined obesity (ob/ob) for changes in microbiota and energy harvesting capacity over time...
  40. pmc Bat guano virome: predominance of dietary viruses from insects and plants plus novel mammalian viruses
    Linlin Li
    Blood Systems Research Institute 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 84:6955-65. 2010
    ..Viral metagenomics is a useful tool for genetically characterizing viruses present in animals with the known capability of direct or indirect viral zoonosis to humans...
  41. pmc An in-depth analysis of a piece of shit: distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in human stool
    Stefanie J Krauth
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1969. 2012
    ..However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed ..
  42. ncbi Development of a real-time PCR method for Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in faeces and its application to quantify intestinal population of obese and lean pigs
    X Guo
    Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, Sichuan, China
    Lett Appl Microbiol 47:367-73. 2008
    ..To investigate whether the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions in pigs is different between obese and lean animals...
  43. pmc Characterization of bacterial communities in feces from healthy elderly volunteers and hospitalized elderly patients by using real-time PCR and effects of antibiotic treatment on the fecal microbiota
    Sabine Bartosch
    MRC Microbiology and Gut Biology Group, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3575-81. 2004
    ..primer sets targeting 16S rRNA genes were used to quantitate intestinal bacteria by using DNA extracted from feces and real-time PCR...
  44. ncbi Improved extraction of PCR-quality community DNA from digesta and fecal samples
    Zhongtang Yu
    Dept of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, 2027 Coffey Road, OH 43210, USA
    Biotechniques 36:808-12. 2004
    ....
  45. pmc Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens
    W Allan Nix
    Polio and Picornavirus Laboratory Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2698-704. 2006
    ....
  46. ncbi Dysbiosis of the faecal microbiota in patients with Crohn's disease and their unaffected relatives
    Marie Joossens
    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
    Gut 60:631-7. 2011
    ..Whether dysbiosis is present in relatives of patients CD was also examined...
  47. ncbi A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes
    Ben P Willing
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Gastroenterology 139:1844-1854.e1. 2010
    ..Interindividual variation and an inability to detect less abundant bacteria have made it difficult to correlate specific bacteria with disease...
  48. ncbi Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection
    Thomas J Louie
    University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
    N Engl J Med 364:422-31. 2011
    ..This phase 3 clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin with those of vancomycin in treating C. difficile infection...
  49. pmc The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
    Jan S Suchodolski
    Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e51907. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders...
  50. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the viral flora of pine marten and European badger feces
    Judith M A van den Brand
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 86:2360-5. 2012
    ..In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected...
  51. pmc Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut
    Regina Lamendella
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    BMC Microbiol 11:103. 2011
    ..importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available.
  52. ncbi Interplay between weight loss and gut microbiota composition in overweight adolescents
    Arlette Santacruz
    Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos CSIC, Valencia, Spain
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1906-15. 2009
    ..These findings indicate that calorie restriction and physical activity have an impact on gut microbiota composition related to body weight loss, which also seem to be influenced by the individual's microbiota...
  53. ncbi Micro-eukaryotic diversity of the human distal gut microbiota: qualitative assessment using culture-dependent and -independent analysis of faeces
    Pauline D Scanlan
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    ISME J 2:1183-93. 2008
    ....
  54. pmc Diagnosis, clinical features, and self-reported morbidity of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm infection in a Co-endemic setting
    Sören L Becker
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1292. 2011
    ..Moreover, clinical data on symptomatology and typical recognition patterns mainly originate from Western travel clinics...
  55. pmc 16S rRNA gene-based analysis of fecal microbiota from preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis
    Yunwei Wang
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    ISME J 3:944-54. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that NEC is associated with severe lack of microbiota diversity that may accentuate the impact of single dominant microorganisms favored by empiric and widespread use of antibiotics...
  56. ncbi Molecular characterisation of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission
    Lihua Xiao
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Int J Parasitol 38:1239-55. 2008
    ..As molecular data accumulate, our understanding of the role of zoonotic transmission in epidemiology and clinical manifestations is becoming clearer...
  57. pmc High throughput multiplex PCR and probe-based detection with Luminex beads for seven intestinal parasites
    Mami Taniuchi
    Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA22908, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:332-7. 2011
    ..In conclusion, this multiplex PCR-bead protocol provides a sensitive diagnostic screen for a large panel of intestinal parasites...
  58. ncbi Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institut fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie der Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Infect Dis 185:74-84. 2002
    ..stx2c-positive STEC isolates can cause HUS, but the presence of stx2d or stx2e may predict a milder disease with a minimal risk of HUS...
  59. pmc Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire
    Jean T Coulibaly
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1384. 2011
    ..We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A) and an experimental formulation (CCA-B) for S. mansoni diagnosis...
  60. pmc Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut
    A Suau
    Laboratoire d Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4799-807. 1999
    ..Although this microbiota has been studied in great detail by culture techniques, microscopic counts on human feces suggest that 60 to 80% of the observable bacteria cannot be cultivated...
  61. pmc Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic
    Jozef Vercruysse
    Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Merelbeke, Belgium
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e948. 2011
    ..The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol...
  62. ncbi Synbiotic modulation of gut flora: effect on minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis
    Qing Liu
    Artificial Liver Treatment and Training Center, Beijing Youan Hospital and Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
    Hepatology 39:1441-9. 2004
    ..In conclusion, treatment with synbiotics or fermentable fiber is an alternative to lactulose for the management of MHE in patients with cirrhosis...
  63. pmc Characterization of the fecal microbiome from non-human wild primates reveals species specific microbial communities
    Suleyman Yildirim
    The Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e13963. 2010
    ..Here we present a comparative analysis of gastrointestinal microbial communities from three different species of Old World wild monkeys...
  64. ncbi Effect of inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
    Carlett Ramirez-Farias
    Microbial Ecology Group, Gut Health Division, Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    Br J Nutr 101:541-50. 2009
    ..89 to 3.9% of the total microbiota (P=0.001). B. bifidum was increased from 0.22 to 0.63% (P<0.001) for the five volunteers for whom this species was present...
  65. ncbi Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome after bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    Alexander Khoruts
    Department of Medicine, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55108, USA
    J Clin Gastroenterol 44:354-60. 2010
    ....
  66. pmc Evaluation of urine CCA assays for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Western Kenya
    Hillary L Shane
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e951. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that urine-based assays for CCA may be valuable in screening for S. mansoni infections...
  67. pmc Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice
    Andrew L Goodman
    Center for Genome Science and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:6252-7. 2011
    ....
  68. ncbi Decreased diversity of the fecal Microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    Ju Young Chang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:435-8. 2008
    ..Preservation and restoration of the microbial diversity could represent novel strategies for prevention and treatment of recurrent CDAD, which is often recalcitrant to existing therapies...
  69. pmc Metagenomic analyses of viruses in stool samples from children with acute flaccid paralysis
    Joseph G Victoria
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Virol 83:4642-51. 2009
    ....
  70. pmc Fecal microbiota in premature infants prior to necrotizing enterocolitis
    Volker Mai
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Sciences and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e20647. 2011
    ..Our observations suggest that abnormal patterns of microbiota and potentially a novel pathogen contribute to the etiology of NEC...
  71. ncbi Human colonic microbiota associated with diet, obesity and weight loss
    S H Duncan
    Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:1720-4. 2008
    ..It has been proposed that the development of obesity in humans is influenced by the relative proportions of the two major phyla of bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) present in the large intestine...
  72. ncbi Analysis of the fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls with real-time PCR
    Erja Malinen
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Section of Microbiology, P O Box 66, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Gastroenterol 100:373-82. 2005
    ..The gut microbiota may contribute to the onset and maintenance of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, the microbiotas of patients suffering from IBS were compared with a control group devoid of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms...
  73. ncbi Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight
    Marko Kalliomaki
    Functional Foods Forum and Program on Health Biosciences and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:534-8. 2008
    ..Experimental studies suggest that gut microbiota deviations predispose toward energy storage and obesity...
  74. ncbi Molecular characterisation of the faecal microbiota in patients with type II diabetes
    Xiaokang Wu
    Department of Immunology and Pathogenic Biology, Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Xi an Jiaotong University, 710061, Xi an, Shaanxi Province, People s Republic of China
    Curr Microbiol 61:69-78. 2010
    ..Taken together, in this work we observed the characterisation of gut microbiota in diabetic patients, which suggests that the gut microbiota of diabetes patients have some changes associated with occurrence and development of diabetes...
  75. pmc Fecal MicroRNAs as novel biomarkers for colon cancer screening
    Alexander Link
    Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Laboratory, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75246, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19:1766-74. 2010
    ..MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in a wide array of biological processes and are commonly dysregulated in neoplasia. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of fecal miRNAs as biomarkers for colorectal neoplasia screening...
  76. pmc Molecular identification of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase genes from Enterobacteriaceae isolated from healthy human carriers in Switzerland
    Nadine Geser
    Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1609-12. 2012
    ..One strain produced SHV-12 ESBL. Of the 34 isolates, 15 produced additional TEM-1 broad-spectrum β-lactamases. By serotyping, a high degree of diversity among the strains was found...
  77. ncbi Shotgun metaproteomics of the human distal gut microbiota
    Nathan C Verberkmoes
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chemical and Life Sciences Divisions, Oak Ridge, TN, USA
    ISME J 3:179-89. 2009
    ..Several unknown proteins represented previously undescribed microbial pathways or host immune responses, revealing a novel complex interplay between the human host and its associated microbes...
  78. pmc Human bocaviruses are highly diverse, dispersed, recombination prone, and prevalent in enteric infections
    Amit Kapoor
    Blood Systems Research Institute, and Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1633-43. 2010
    A new species of parvovirus, tentatively named human bocavirus 4 (HBoV4), was genetically characterized. Among 641 feces samples obtained from children and adults, the most commonly detected bocavirus species were, in descending order, ..
  79. pmc Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations
    Orin C Shanks
    U S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Dr, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:2992-3001. 2011
    ....
  80. ncbi FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans
    Giuseppe Cringoli
    Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, CREMOPAR Regione Campania, Naples, Italy
    Nat Protoc 5:503-15. 2010
    ..All FLOTAC techniques can be performed on fresh fecal material as well as preserved stool samples, and require approximately 12-15 min of preparation time before microscopic analysis...
  81. ncbi Commensal Escherichia coli of healthy humans: a reservoir for antibiotic-resistance determinants
    Jannine K Bailey
    School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    J Med Microbiol 59:1331-9. 2010
    ..coli of healthy humans represent an important reservoir for numerous antibiotic-resistance genes in many combinations. However, measuring the true extent of resistance carriage in commensal E. coli requires in-depth analysis...
  82. ncbi A new macrocyclic antibiotic, fidaxomicin (OPT-80), causes less alteration to the bowel microbiota of Clostridium difficile-infected patients than does vancomycin
    Gerald W Tannock
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Microbiology 156:3354-9. 2010
    ..These findings help to explain the substantially reduced rates of relapse following treatment of CDI with fidaxomicin in recent clinical trials...
  83. ncbi The influence of sampling effort and the performance of the Kato-Katz technique in diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm co-infections in rural Côte d'Ivoire
    M Booth
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    Parasitology 127:525-31. 2003
    ..If confirmed in other settings, these findings have implications for estimating the prevalence of multiple species helminth infections, and hence the design and implementation of efficacious and cost-effective control programmes...
  84. ncbi Gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome: present state and perspectives
    Anne Salonen
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Veterinary Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 66, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Microbiology 156:3205-15. 2010
    ..Finally, we discuss the future outlook for research avenues and candidate microbial biomarkers that may eventually be used in IBS diagnosis...
  85. ncbi Relative contribution of day-to-day and intra-specimen variation in faecal egg counts of Schistosoma mansoni before and after treatment with praziquantel
    J Utzinger
    Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel
    Parasitology 122:537-44. 2001
    ..We conclude that diagnostic sensitivity in high transmission areas is maximized by making several stool readings on several days, but examining 1 stool specimen several times can make reasonable estimates of infection intensity...
  86. pmc Enterobacteriaceae act in concert with the gut microbiota to induce spontaneous and maternally transmitted colitis
    Wendy S Garrett
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:292-300. 2010
    ..Cross-fostering experiments indicated a role for these organisms in maternal transmission of disease. Our findings illustrate how gut microbial communities work in concert with specific culturable colitogenic agents to cause IBD...
  87. pmc A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminths
    Madihah Basuni
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia USM, Penang, Malaysia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:338-43. 2011
    ..05). In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay described in this study provides a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of these four helminth species in epidemiological studies and monitoring of treatment programs...
  88. ncbi The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects
    Anna Kassinen
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Gastroenterology 133:24-33. 2007
    ..Our objective was to characterize putative differences in gastrointestinal microbiota between patients with IBS and control subjects. These differences could potentially have a causal relationship with the syndrome...
  89. pmc Prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for Campylobacters
    J Engberg
    Department of Gastrointestinal Infections, Division of Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    J Clin Microbiol 38:286-91. 2000
    ..This paper provides evidence for the existence of S. wadsworthensis in human feces from clinical cases of gastrointestinal disorders and in feces from a healthy individual. Furthermore, C...
  90. ncbi Altered profiles of intestinal microbiota and organic acids may be the origin of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome
    C Tana
    Department of Behavioral Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 22:512-9, e114-5. 2010
    ..We hypothesized in this study that altered GI microbiota contribute to IBS symptoms through increased levels of organic acids...
  91. ncbi Albendazole and mebendazole administered alone or in combination with ivermectin against Trichuris trichiura: a randomized controlled trial
    Stefanie Knopp
    Departments of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1420-8. 2010
    ..Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole show limited efficacy in the treatment of trichuriasis. The combination of albendazole with ivermectin improves efficacy, but a mebendazole-ivermectin combination has not been previously investigated...
  92. ncbi Characterization of the fecal bacteria communities of forage-fed horses by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA V4 gene amplicons
    Megan L Shepherd
    Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 326:62-8. 2012
    ..fecal bacterial richness was higher than that reported in humans, but lower than that reported in either cattle feces or soil. Bacterial classified sequences were assigned to 16 phyla, of which 10 were present in all samples...
  93. ncbi Dysbiosis of fecal microbiota in Crohn's disease patients as revealed by a custom phylogenetic microarray
    Seungha Kang
    Preventative Health National Research Flagship, CSIRO, St Lucia, QLD, Australia
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 16:2034-42. 2010
    ....
  94. ncbi Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles
    Liam O'Mahony
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Gastroenterology 128:541-51. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the response of symptoms and cytokine ratios in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with ingestion of probiotic preparations containing a lactobacillus or bifidobacterium strain...
  95. pmc Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study
    John Penders
    Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Gut 56:661-7. 2007
    ..We examined gut microbiota composition in early infancy and the subsequent development of atopic manifestations and sensitisation...
  96. ncbi The burden of polyparasitism among primary schoolchildren in rural and farming areas in Zimbabwe
    N Midzi
    National Institute of Health Research, Box CY 573, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1039-45. 2008
    ....
  97. pmc Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates
    Christine F Favier
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:219-26. 2002
    ..Clone libraries of amplified 16S rDNA fragments from baby feces were constructed, and these libraries allowed identification of the bacterial types by comparative DNA sequence ..
  98. pmc Estimating the sensitivity and specificity of Kato-Katz stool examination technique for detection of hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections in humans in the absence of a 'gold standard'
    M R Tarafder
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Int J Parasitol 40:399-404. 2010
    ..lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Low sensitivity of the Kato-Katz for detection of hookworm infection may be related to rapid degeneration of delicate hookworm eggs with time...
  99. pmc Microbial community analysis reveals high level phylogenetic alterations in the overall gastrointestinal microbiota of diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome sufferers
    Lotta Krogius-Kurikka
    Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PO Box 66, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Gastroenterol 9:95. 2009
    ..The method allowed microbial community analysis on all levels of microbial genomic guanine plus cytosine (G+C) content, including high G+C bacteria...
  100. pmc Real-time PCR quantitation of clostridia in feces of autistic children
    Yuli Song
    Research Service, VA Medical Center West Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90073, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:6459-65. 2004
    ..8 x 10(8) CFU/g in controls; respectively). More subjects need to be studied. The assay is a rapid and reliable method, and it should have great potential for quantitation of other bacteria in the intestinal tract...
  101. ncbi The microbiology of butyrate formation in the human colon
    Susan E Pryde
    Rowett Research Institute, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 217:133-9. 2002
    ....

Research Grants63

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Chemoprevention: NRF2 Signaling
    Thomas W Kensler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for the quantitation of aflatoxin biomarkers in liver, blood, urine and feces in order to develop for the first time a comprehensive mass balance for the fate of the ultimate carcinogen, exo-..
  2. Ibis T-6,000 Biosensor System
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bacteria, viruses, fungi) in original, complex human or animal specimens including respiratory secretions and feces. The platform can be customized making it highly adaptable to individual research projects and it is the only ..
  3. Quantitation of Tocopherol Metabolism in Humans
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets will also be separated. Urine and feces will be collected until 30 days post dose...
  4. NITRIC OXIDE INTERACTION WITH INSECT NITROPHORINS
    FRANCES ANN WALKER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in obtaining an ample blood meal, and thus make more likely the transmission of the trypanosome from the insect feces to humans...
  5. Evo-epidemiology of Scistosoma mansoni in children in Kenya
    ERIC SAMUEL LOKER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..increases with subject age (aged 6 to 14) and infection intensity (ranging from 1 to >400 eggs/gram of feces), and whether worm populations exhibit signs of clonality as a result of restricted opportunities for infection...
  6. Quantitation of In Vivo Human Lutein Metabolism
    ANDREW JOSEPH CLIFFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The five lipoprotein classes will be separated from plasma in a single ultracentrifugation. Urine and feces will be collected until 21 days post dose...
  7. Role of Bile Acids and Gut Bacteria in GI Diseases
    Phillip B Hylemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The human colon harbors one of the most densely populated bacterial ecosystems known (>1011 bacteria/g feces)...
  8. Bartonella: dissecting niche-specific adaptation in a human pathogen
    Jane E Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BQ is transmitted to humans by the body louse;humans become infected when the BQ bacteria in the louse feces are introduced into the louse bite wound by scratching...
  9. Targeted screening for Taenia solium tapeworms
    SETH E O'NEAL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..It occurs when someone ingests Taenia solium eggs passed in the feces of a pork tapeworm carrier...
  10. Training in Hantavirus Ecology, Virology & Clinical Investigation in the Americas
    GREGORY JAMES MERTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..are harbored by specific rodent species and are transmitted to man via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent feces and urine...
  11. IMMUNITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF A NOVEL NOROVIRUS
    Herbert W Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Interestingly, certain MNV strains persistently replicate in intestine of WT mice and are shed in feces for weeks despite a significant immune response...
  12. Cholesterol Ester Hydrolysis and Cholesterol Efflux
    Shobha Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..enhanced the flux of cholesterol from macrophages to liver for the final elimination as bile acids into bile and feces providing direct evidence that enhanced CEH-mediated intracellular CE hydrolysis is anti-atherogenic...
  13. Identification of Antigens for Anti-HIV Broadly Neutralizing Responses
    Steven L Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to identify, via the barcodes, the members of the library that show decreased relative abundance in mouse feces over time, which we would take as initial evidence of the induction of a mucosal immune response directed against ..
  14. Fecal Bacteriotherapy for Relapsing Clostridium difficile Infection
    COLLEEN RENEE KELLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves administration of feces from a healthy individual into a patient with relapsing CDI to promote recolonization with missing components of ..
  15. One Health;Epidemiology of natural and deliberate contaminants (infectious and t
    Susan Sanchez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pet treats as well as engaging in an epidemiological study looking at the prevalence of Salmonella in dog and cat feces (1U8FD004318-01) and the potential risk factors for Salmonella carriage...
  16. NOC in processed meat as a likely cause of colon cancer
    Sidney S Mirvish; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ANC prepared from hot dog patties manufactured under standard conditions and those giving minimum ANC levels, from feces of rats fed NaNO2 or hot dogs, and from the reaction of glucose with glycine and other amino acids...
  17. The role of hepatic insulin resistance on SR-BI dependant HDL cholesterol uptake
    DENEYS REM VAN DER WESTHUYZEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..whether reduced SR-BI function diminishes THCE of HDL-C, b) determining whether hepatic IR decreases macrophage to feces RCT in an SR-BI dependent manner, and c) examining whether changes in HDL particle composition disrupt THCE of HDL-..
  18. Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets
    Timothy S Frana; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Salmonella can be present in many different environments, including water, soil, insects, feces, wild and farm raised animals, raw foods, surfaces and animal feeds...
  19. The MHC of wild chimpanzees: genetic variation, disease and reproductive success
    EMILY ELIZABETH WROBLEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..genotyped at MHC class I (A, B, C) and class II (DR, DQ, DP) classical loci using DNA isolated non-invasively from feces. Genetic variation will be characterized within chimpanzees and will also be compared to that of comparable human ..
  20. Development of Mental Health Treatment for Obstetric Fistula Patients
    Melissa H Watt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..when obstructed labor is not relieved by cesarean section and results in uncontrollable leaking of urine and/or feces. The only cure for obstetric fistula is surgical repair...
  21. Evolution of Cryptococcus neoformans strains from patients with HIV/AIDS
    John R Perfect; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..most genotypes were equally prevalent in both patients and the predominant non-African ecological niche, pigeon feces, although one genotype (A2) was highly prevalent in the environment but never isolated from patients...
  22. The Role of Hepatocyte ABCA1 in Lipid Mobilization and Transport
    John S Parks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In specific aim 2, the role of hepatic ABCA1 expression on cholesterol flux from plasma HDL to feces will be examined...
  23. Regulation of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism by Nuclear Receptors
    Yanqiao Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a process by which extra-hepatic cholesterol is transported back to the liver for secretion to the bile and feces. In this proposal, we will utilize several genetically modified mouse models in combination with molecular, ..
  24. Development of an in vivo screening technology for cancer vaccine immunogens
    Steven L Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to identify, via the barcodes, members of the library showing decreased relative abundance in the mouse feces over time, which we would take as evidence of the induction of a mucosal immune response against the chimeric ..
  25. Identifying components of Toxoplasma oocysts that confer environmental resistance
    HEATHER MICHELLE FRITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..known definitive host in which sexual replication of the parasite occurs, resulting in excretion of oocysts in feces. A single cat may shed as many as 1 billion oocysts following a primary infection...
  26. Effects of Anti-miR-33 on Atherosclerosis Regression and RCT in Nonhuman Primates
    RYAN EUGENE TEMEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..macrophage foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques is effluxed to HDL, transported to the liver, and excreted in the feces. Despite intense efforts to identify new therapeutic strategies to raise HDL, this has proven to be a challenging ..
  27. Clostridium difficile Cooperative Research Center
    Vincent B Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the first project a clinical survey will be conducted to collect clinical specimens (feces, blood and human DNA) and C...
  28. Rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella from blood, food and feces
    SHARON MEI TENNANT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a pressing need for a sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic test to detect Salmonella in blood, food and feces. This research proposal tests the hypothesis that the ultra-fast, highly sensitive microwave-accelerated metal-..
  29. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Prevention and Prediction
    MARK ALAN UNDERWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a series of in vitro experiments to (a) analyze biochemical and genetic properties of the bifidobacteria in the feces of infants receiving prebiotic oligosaccharides and/or probiotic microbes and (b) analyze the prebiotic properties ..
  30. Does ampicillin resistance or clade type determine GI colonization by E. faecium?
    KAVINDRA SINGH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Perhaps CA strains actually colonize better, explaining their vast predominance in community feces, and perhaps it is simply the antibiotic resistance of the HA clade that allows its isolates to overcome CA ..
  31. Gut Microbiota and colonic gene expression: A ligran trial in humans
    Johanna W Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..host gene expression in epithelial and stromal cells from colon biopsies and exfoliated colonocytes extracted from feces;2) gut microbial community composition, and 3) the interaction of the gut microbiome, enterolignan exposure, and ..
  32. Investigations of the role of house flies as vectors for bacterial pathogens
    Dana Nayduch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Adult house flies (Musca domestica L.) feed and breed on feces and other septic substrates...
  33. Metabolomic Biomarkers of a Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Weight Gain
    RUTH ELIZABETH GROSSMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will use NAD-targeted metabolomic analyses of urine, blood and feces to evaluate alterations in NAD metabolism associated with NR supplementation...
  34. Regulation of intestinal barrier by E. coli curli fibrils
    Cagla Tukel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..E. coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) was isolated by the army surgeon Dr. Alfred Nissle from the feces of a soldier who did not develop diarrhea during a severe Shigella outbreak during World War I...
  35. Analysis of Toxoplasma sexual development in polarized cat intestinal cells
    Laura J Knoll; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gondii is limited to the feline intestine where millions of oocysts are formed and subsequently excreted in their feces. The goal of this application is to recapitulate the T...
  36. Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets: Study for the Vet-
    Shelley Rankin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..100 fecal samples will be collected from dogs in each group. Feces will be pre-enriched in Buffered Peptone Water at 35 [unreadable]C overnight and then screened with a rapid ..
  37. PMCA Detection of CWD Infection in Cervid and Non-Cervid Species
    EDWARD ARTHUR HOOVER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that Infected deer harbor and shed high levels of infectious prions in saliva, blood, urine, and feces, and in the tissues generating those body fluids and excreta, thereby leading to facile transmission by direct ..
  38. Evaluation of Fecal Salmonella Carriage in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Dogs in t
    Timothy Baszler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of salmonellosis in humans or animals is gastrointestinal disease and Salmonella bacteria are shed via infected feces. Dogs in particular often do not show signs of salmonellosis when infected...
  39. Validation of LC-MS/MS analyses of animal tissue and feed matrices for toxicants
    CYNTHIA LYNN GASKILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such investigations require detection methods that are validated for organs and diagnostic samples such as urine, feces, and blood, which are not typical food matrices...
  40. Influenza infection of cats
    Chang Won Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Whether low pathogenicity subtypes can be transmitted horizontally in cats and/or shed in the feces has not been evaluated...
  41. CWD: A Model of Prion Transmission via Saliva and Urine
    NICHOLAS JAMES HALEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CWD PrPres has been shown to be present and transmissible in various excreta, including saliva, blood, urine and feces of infected deer, though other biological samples may also serve as routes of transmission between cervids...
  42. Evaluation of fecal salmonella in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs and cats
    KRISTIN CLOTHIER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These procedures could 9 prove useful when assessing small animal feces samples for the presence of this agent...
  43. Validation of methods for detection of Campylobacter in veterinary patients
    Shuping Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..People can be exposed to Campylobacter when handling contaminated pet food and treats or feces from infected pets...
  44. Creation of a tissue culture model for Toxoplasma gondii sexual development
    Laura J Knoll; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gondii is limited to the feline intestine where millions of oocysts are formed and subsequently excreted in their feces. The goal of this proposal is to recapitulate the T. gondii sexual cycle in tissue culture...
  45. Salmonella serotype distribution in pets presented to veterinary teaching and com
    Siddhartha Thakur; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Salmonella shed by companion animals in feces could constitute a major risk factor for environmental contamination and infection of humans...
  46. Hantavirus Vaccines Based On Nonreplicating Adenoviruses
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Hantaviruses are spread from infected rodents to man in dust particles derived from rodent urine, feces or saliva. Old World hantaviruses were first recognized during the Korean war, infecting thousands of U.S. troops with 10% mortality...
  47. Beyond Repair: Family and Community Reintegration after Obstetric Fistula Surgery
    Suellen Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..suffer from severe physical injuries and devastating psychological effects due to constantly leaking urine and feces. The past decade has witnessed increasing efforts to scale up fistula services, however previous research on ..
  48. ANALYSIS AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ISOFLAVONES IN SOYBEANS
    Kenneth Setchell; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..daidzein and genistein, will be administered to healthy premenopausal women, and urine, serum, bile, and feces, will be collected at timed intervals for analysis of isoflavone concentrations by mass spectrometry...
  49. Detection of Salmonella in Mouse Feces and Raw Pet Food Using ABI 7500 FAST Real-
    Seema Das; Fiscal Year: 2013
    PROJECT SUMMARY Detection of Salmonella in Mouse Feces and Raw Pet Food Using ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System A critical need exists for new and validated methods of rapidly analyzing contaminants within the pet food production and ..
  50. Gamma-tocopherol as an effective anticancer agent for colon cancer
    Qing Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A new metabolite of 3T, 13'-carboxychormanol, which is detected in significant amounts in feces, is an even stronger inhibitor of COXs and 5-LOX than 3T...
  51. Host-microbial interactions in the gut oxygen equilibrium
    Gary D Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..microbiota adherent to the human colonic mucosa is enriched for aerobic and facultative anaerobes relative to the feces where obligate anaerobes predominate...
  52. EQUIPMENT REQUEST
    DONALD MAUL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The floors are wooden slats lying directly on the sealed concrete floor so cleaning feces from between and beneath the slats, while keeping the animals clean and dry, is difficult...
  53. INFECTION IN ELBW INFANTS:PROTECTION WITH MOTHER'S MILK
    Nancy Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and excreted in the infant's urine; lactoferrin, with enhanced bacteriocidal properties, has been recaptured from feces. Thus, OMM may provide significant protection for ELBW infants; additionally, OMM is inexpensive, and facilitates ..
  54. ANAEROBIC METABOLISM OF MUTAGENS IN HUMAN FOODS
    David Kingston; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..involve synthesizing the radiolabeled carcinogens and incubating them, under controlled conditions, with human feces and cultures of the colonic flora. Any metabolic products are purified by organic extractions and TLC and HPLC...
  55. Wireless Sensor Inserts for Combating Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis
    Nicholas Prokopuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our work focuses on integrating resistive sensors that are highly selective and sensitive for urine and feces with LC-circuits for wireless communications...
  56. Parasite/Host Interactions and the Neurobiology of Fear
    Robert Sapolsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The parasite reproduces in cats, and is then excreted. Infected feces are eaten by rodents, in which Toxoplasma forms cysts in muscle and the CNS...
  57. FACILITY RENOVATION AND ANNENBERG CAGE WASH FACILITIY
    Kenneth Davis; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..has recurrent leaks onto the lower research floors, exposing personnel to hazardous waste water (primate and swine feces) from the unit and associated plumbing...
  58. REGULATION OF ENTERIC HYPEROXALURI BY OXALOBACTER
    AMMON PECK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..per gram feces and the frequency of recurrent urolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease and hyperoxaluria/nephrocalcinosis in ..
  59. BIOTIN REQUIREMENTS OF INFANTS
    Donald Mock; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..aims are 1) to accurately measure the total content of biotin and biotin analogs in infant formula, urine, and feces, 2) to determine biotin balance in normal, formula-fed infants fed formula with biotin supplementation at levels ..
  60. IMPROVING VIRTUAL COLONOSCOPY WITH COMPUTER DETECTION
    Peter Santago; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..To optimize bowel preparation with digital subtraction of opacified feces and controlled gas distention; and 4...
  61. RED CLOVER PHYTOESTROGENS EFFECTS ON ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    James Goodrich; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..LDL receptors which in turn removes cholesterol from the circulation to make bile acids that are excreted in the feces. Additionally a bile acid sequestrant such as the undigested fraction of soy protein is essential to prevent ..
  62. Impact of Fiber Fermentation on Fecal Incontinence
    Donna Bliss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Fecal incontinence (FI), the involuntary leakage of feces, is a chronic problem with debilitating effects on health and well-being...
  63. NOVEL E. COLI 0157:H7 INTESTINAL COLONIZATION FACTORS
    JAMES KAPER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Infection begins by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated with EHEC, often from contact with cattle feces, the primary reservoir of the organism. The extremely infectious dose required for disease, ca...