Genomes and Genes
Summary: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Publications341 found, 100 shown here
- Interleukin-17-positive mast cells contribute to synovial inflammation in spondylarthritisTroy Noordenbos
Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Arthritis Rheum 64:99-109. 2012..Recent observations have indicated a marked synovial mast cell infiltration in psoriatic SpA. We therefore undertook the present study to investigate the potential contribution of mast cells to synovial inflammation in SpA...
- Expression levels and association of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13 with VEGF in synovial fluid of patients with arthritisKyoung Soo Kim
East West Bone and Joint Research Institute, East West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, 149 Sangil dong, Gangdong gu, Seoul 134 727, Republic of Korea
Rheumatol Int 31:543-7. 2011..Our results indirectly suggest that in RA and OA, MMP-9 and MMP-13 may play a more important role in angiogenesis than MMP-2 and MMP-1...
- Leptin enhances MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 production in human osteoarthritic cartilage and correlates with MMP-1 and MMP-3 in synovial fluid from OA patientsAnna Koskinen
The Immunopharmacology Research Group, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Clin Exp Rheumatol 29:57-64. 2011..In addition, the correlations between leptin and MMP concentrations in synovial fluid from OA patients were studied.
- Plasma and synovial fluid microRNAs as potential biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisKoichi Murata
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara cho, Shogoin, Sakyo, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
Arthritis Res Ther 12:R86. 2010..In this study, we investigated whether miRNAs are also stably present in synovial fluids and whether plasma and synovial fluid miRNAs could be biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).
- Expression and activity of citrullinating peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes in monocytes and macrophagesE R Vossenaar
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Ann Rheum Dis 63:373-81. 2004..Peptidylcitrulline can be generated by post-translational conversion of arginine residues. This process, citrullination, is catalysed by a group of calcium dependent peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes...
- IL-17 in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesisS Kotake
The Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo 162 0054, Japan
J Clin Invest 103:1345-52. 1999....
- Changes in serum and synovial fluid biomarkers after acute injury (NCT00332254)Jonathan B Catterall
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Genome Science Research Building I, 905 South LaSalle Street, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Arthritis Res Ther 12:R229. 2010..In this study, to better understand the early biological changes which occur after acute injury, we investigated synovial fluid and serum biomarkers.
- High abundance synovial fluid proteome: distinct profiles in health and osteoarthritisReuben Gobezie
The Case Center for Proteomics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
Arthritis Res Ther 9:R36. 2007..The purpose of this study was to determine protein expression profiles of high-abundance synovial fluid (SF) proteins in health and in the prevalent joint disease osteoarthritis (OA)...
- Association of citrullinated proteins with synovial exosomesK Skriner
Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
Arthritis Rheum 54:3809-14. 2006..The aim of this study was to identify the nature of synovial exosomes from patients with different rheumatic diseases and to examine their potential autoantigenic content, which may be involved in the induction of an autoimmune response...
- Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin levels in synovial fluid correlate with disease severity of knee osteoarthritisMasahiro Hasegawa
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 174 Edobashi, Tsu City, Mie 514 8507, Japan
J Rheumatol 38:129-34. 2011..Presence of the thrombin-cleaved form of OPN is well correlated with various inflammatory diseases. We examined whether thrombin-cleaved OPN in synovial fluid (SF) and synovium could be associated with the severity of knee OA.
- Serum amyloid A-induced IL-6 production by rheumatoid synoviocytesTomohiro Koga
Clinical Research Center and Department of Rheumatology, NHO Nagasaki Medical Center, Omura, Japan
FEBS Lett 582:579-85. 2008..Our findings demonstrate that SAA is a significant inducer of IL-6, which is critically involved in RA pathogenesis...
- Identification of a cytokine network sustaining neutrophil and Th17 activation in untreated early rheumatoid arthritisRita Cascão
Rheumatology Research Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Edificio Egas Moniz, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Av Professor Egas Moniz, Lisboa 1649 028, Portugal
Arthritis Res Ther 12:R196. 2010..The main goal of this work was to determine whether cytokines driving neutrophil and Th17 activation are dysregulated in very early rheumatoid arthritis patients with less than 6 weeks of disease duration and before treatment (VERA)...
- Glycan profiling of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies isolated from human serum and synovial fluidHans U Scherer
Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Arthritis Rheum 62:1620-9. 2010..We undertook this study to analyze Fc glycosylation of IgG1 ACPA in serum and synovial fluid (SF) in order to further characterize the immune response to citrullinated antigens.
- Lubrication at physiological pressures by polyzwitterionic brushesMeng Chen
Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK
Science 323:1698-701. 2009....
- Local expression of acute phase serum amyloid A mRNA in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and cellsY Kumon
2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Kochi Medical School, Japan
J Rheumatol 26:785-90. 1999Serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a bioactive protein produced during inflammation, is present in synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
- Correlation of plasma and synovial fluid adiponectin with knee osteoarthritis severitySittisak Honsawek
Department of Biochemistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
Arch Med Res 41:593-8. 2010..The purposes of this study were to measure adiponectin concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with knee OA and to analyze the correlation of adiponectin levels with disease severity.
- Fractalkine: a novel angiogenic chemokine in rheumatoid arthritisM V Volin
Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Am J Pathol 159:1521-30. 2001..05). We identified HMVEC expression of the fkn receptor, CX(3)CR1. Next, we determined if RA synovial fluid (SF)-induced angiogenesis was fkn-dependent...
- A key role for G-CSF-induced neutrophil production and trafficking during inflammatory arthritisJo L Eyles
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Blood 112:5193-201. 2008....
- Synovial fluid proteomic fingerprint: S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 proteins discriminate rheumatoid arthritis from other inflammatory joint diseasesAthan Baillet
GREPI CNRS UMR 5525, Grenoble University, Grenoble, France
Rheumatology (Oxford) 49:671-82. 2010..We investigated SF and serum proteomic fingerprints of patients suffering from RA, OA and other miscellaneous inflammatory arthritides (MIAs) in order to identify RA-specific biomarkers...
- The secreted glycoprotein lubricin protects cartilage surfaces and inhibits synovial cell overgrowthDavid K Rhee
Department of Genetics, Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Clin Invest 115:622-31. 2005..We conclude that lubricin has multiple functions in articulating joints and tendons that include the protection of surfaces and the control of synovial cell growth...
- Synovial fluid mesenchymal stem cells in health and early osteoarthritis: detection and functional evaluation at the single-cell levelElena A Jones
University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Arthritis Rheum 58:1731-40. 2008Arthritic synovial fluid (SF) contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which could simply reflect their shedding from diseased joint structures...
- Changes in synovial fluid and serum biomarkers with exercise and early osteoarthritis in horsesD D Frisbie
Orthopaedic Research Center, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake, Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:1196-204. 2008..To discriminate between changes in biomarkers with exercise compared to changes in biomarkers with osteoarthritis (OA) in exercising horses...
- Increased levels of interleukin 33 in sera and synovial fluid from patients with active rheumatoid arthritisYasushi Matsuyama
Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan
J Rheumatol 37:18-25. 2010To determine levels of interleukin 33 (IL-33) in serum and synovial fluid (SF) and their clinical associations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
- Evidence for a cross-talk between human neutrophils and Th17 cellsMartin Pelletier
Department of Pathology, Section of General Pathology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Blood 115:335-43. 2010..with this reciprocal recruitment, neutrophils and Th17 cells were found in gut tissue from Crohn disease and synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients...
- In vivo activated monocytes from the site of inflammation in humans specifically promote Th17 responsesHayley G Evans
Department of Immunobiology, King s College London School of Medicine at Guy s, King s College and St Thomas Hospitals, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6232-7. 2009..Our data also suggest that different pathways may be utilized for the generation of Th17 responses in situ depending on the site or route of accessory cell activation...
- Clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intra-articular administration of autologous conditioned serum in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritisDavid D Frisbie
Equine Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Am J Vet Res 68:290-6. 2007..To assess the clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intra-articular administration of autologous conditioned serum (ACS) in the treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses...
- TH-17 cells in rheumatoid arthritisShiva Shahrara
Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University 240 E Huron, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Arthritis Res Ther 10:R93. 2008The aim of this study was to quantify the number of T-helper (TH)-17 cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid (SF) and to determine the level of interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine in RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal synovial ..
- Rheological properties of synovial fluidsH Fam
Human Mobility Research Centre, Queen s University, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada
Biorheology 44:59-74. 2007b>Synovial fluid is the joint lubricant and shock absorber [Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 32 (2002), 10-37] as well as the source of nutrition for articular cartilage...
- IL-17 receptor and its functional significance in psoriatic arthritisSiba P Raychaudhuri
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California Davis School of Medicine and VA Medical Center Sacramento, 1911 Geneva Place, Davis, CA 95618, USA
Mol Cell Biochem 359:419-29. 2012..Mononuclear cells from blood and synovial fluid (SF) were obtained from PsA (n=20), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=20) and osteoarthritis (OA, n=20) patients...
- Interleukin 13 in synovial fluid and serum of patients with psoriatic arthritisA Spadaro
Department of Medical Therapy, Rheumatology Unit, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy
Ann Rheum Dis 61:174-6. 2002To compare the pattern of interleukin (IL) 13 production in synovial fluid (SF) and serum of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with that in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), investigating its relation ..
- FOXP3 expression in blood, synovial fluid and synovial tissue during inflammatory arthritis and intra-articular corticosteroid treatmentS Raghavan
Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine at Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institute, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
Ann Rheum Dis 68:1908-15. 2009To analyse the distribution of FOXP3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood, synovial fluid and tissue of patients with rheumatic disease during relapse and after local treatment.
- The synovial fluid adiponectin-leptin ratio predicts pain with knee osteoarthritisRajiv Gandhi
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst Street, East Wing 1 439, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada
Clin Rheumatol 29:1223-8. 2010..Form McGill Pain scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores, and synovial fluid (SF) samples from 60 consecutive patients with severe knee OA at the time of joint replacement surgery...
- Disease-specific proteins from rheumatoid arthritis patientsChoong Won Kim
Department of Biochemistry and RINS, College of Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea
J Korean Med Sci 21:478-84. 2006..Also, expression of peroxiredoxin 2 was up-regulated in RA. On the contrary, expression of vimentin was severely suppressed in RA synoviocytes. Such findings might give some insights into understanding of pathological mechanism in RA...
- Synovial fluid leukocyte count and differential for the diagnosis of prosthetic knee infectionAndrej Trampuz
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Am J Med 117:556-62. 2004Criteria for the interpretation of synovial fluid are well established for native joint disorders but lacking for the evaluation of prosthetic joint failure...
- Dickkopf-1 is a master regulator of joint remodelingDanielle Diarra
Department of Internal Medicine 3 and Institute for Clinical Immunology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Krankenhausstrasse 12, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Nat Med 13:156-63. 2007..We identified tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) as a key inducer of DKK-1 in the mouse inflammatory arthritis model and in human rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that the Wnt pathway is a key regulator of joint remodeling...
- Interleukin (IL)-23 p19 expression induced by IL-1beta in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes with rheumatoid arthritis via active nuclear factor-kappaB and AP-1 dependent pathwayF L Liu
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Tri Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Rheumatology (Oxford) 46:1266-73. 2007....
- Biochemical markers in the synovial fluid of glenohumeral joints from patients with rotator cuff tearY Yoshihara
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
J Orthop Res 19:573-9. 2001..Our purpose was to elucidate the pathology with this condition. Thirty-two synovial fluid (SF) samples aspirated from the glenohumeral joints of patients with rotator cuff tears, including 7 with ..
- Effects of nimesulide on pain and on synovial fluid concentrations of substance P, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with celecoxibM Bianchi
Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Milan, and Unit of Rheumatology, A O Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy
Int J Clin Pract 61:1270-7. 2007..In patients with joint effusion, the effects of these non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on synovial fluid concentrations of substance P (SP), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 also were evaluated.
- Temporomandibular joint pain: relationship to internal derangement type, osteoarthrosis, and synovial fluid mediator level of tumor necrosis factor-alphaR Emshoff
University of Innsbruck, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Austria
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 90:442-9. 2000..pain classified as capsulitis/synovitis may be linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of internal derangement, osteoarthrosis, or the synovial fluid aspirate findings of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level.
- Mass spectrometric proteome analyses of synovial fluids and plasmas from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and comparison to reactive arthritis or osteoarthritisAndrea Sinz
Proteome Center Rostock, Medical Faculty, University of Rostock, Germany
Electrophoresis 23:3445-56. 2002....
- Modulation of STAT-3 in rheumatoid synovial T cells suppresses Th17 differentiation and increases the proportion of Treg cellsJi Hyeon Ju
Seoul St Mary s Hospital, Republic of Korea
Arthritis Rheum 64:3543-52. 2012..To investigate the impact of STAT-3-mediated regulation on Th17 differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
- Serum and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-17 in correlation with disease activity in patients with RASiham Ali Metawi
Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Clin Rheumatol 30:1201-7. 2011..This may highlight the usefulness of IL-17 (especially serum level) as a possible marker for more aggressive joint involvement and damage...
- Correlation between synovial fluid and serum IL-1beta levels after ACL surgery-preliminary reportNikica Darabos
Department of General Surgery and Traumatology, General Hospital Varazdin, Varazdin, Croatia
Int Orthop 33:413-8. 2009The possibility of controlling the harmful intra-articular influence of elevated interleukin (IL)-1beta synovial fluid concentration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery could be useful...
- Natural killer-22 cells in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are an innate source of interleukin 22 and tumor necrosis factor-αJie Ren
Department of Rheumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People s Republic of China
J Rheumatol 38:2112-8. 2011..To determine the role of natural killer (NK)-22 cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
- Selective elimination of pathogenic synovial fluid T-cells from rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis by targeted activation of Fas-apoptotic signalingEdwin Bremer
Department of Surgery, Surgical Research Laboratory, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Immunol Lett 138:161-8. 2011..designated scFvCD7:sFasL, proved to be the most potent, with significant pro-apoptotic activity towards synovial fluid T-cells in all patient samples tested (RA; n=22: JIA; n=6)...
- The redox states of serum and synovial fluid of patients with temporomandibular joint disordersMihoko Tomida
Department of Physiology, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, 162 8666 Japan
Jpn J Physiol 53:351-5. 2003The redox states of albumin in serum and synovial fluid (SF) were analyzed in 35 female patients with temporomandibular joint disorders and 9 asymptomatic female healthy volunteers by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) ..
- IL-17 contributes to angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritisSarah R Pickens
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
J Immunol 184:3233-41. 2010..RA synovial fluids or IL-17 receptor C on HMVECs significantly reduces the induction of HMVEC migration by RA synovial fluid. Finally, RA synovial fluid immunoneutralized with anti-IL-17 and antivascular endothelial growth factor does ..
- Stratification and monitoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients by synovial proteome analysisDavid S Gibson
Arthritis Research Group, Microbiology Building RVH, Queen s University Belfast, United Kingdom
J Proteome Res 8:5601-9. 2009..We investigated whether profiling of the synovial fluid (SF) proteome by a fluorescent dye based, two-dimensional gel (DIGE) approach could distinguish patients in ..
- Synovial fluid cytokines and eicosanoids as markers of joint disease in horsesA L Bertone
Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1089, USA
Vet Surg 30:528-38. 2001OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of various synovial fluid cytokines and eicosanoids to diagnose joint disease or categories of joint disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective acquisition of clinicopathologic data...
- Chemerin induces CCL2 and TLR4 in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisKristina Eisinger
Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Hospital, D 93042 Regensburg, Germany
Exp Mol Pathol 92:90-6. 2012..Here, we analyzed whether synovial fibroblasts express chemerin and its receptor CMKLR1. Further, the role of chemerin in synovial fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, insulin response and release of inflammatory proteins was studied...
- Effect of interleukin-32gamma on differentiation of osteoclasts from CD14+ monocytesYong Gil Kim
University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Arthritis Rheum 62:515-23. 2010..This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of IL-32gamma, the most biologically active isoform, on the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts...
- Synovial fluid is a site of citrullination of autoantigens in inflammatory arthritisAndrew Kinloch
Imperial College London, London, UK
Arthritis Rheum 58:2287-95. 2008To examine synovial fluid as a site for generating citrullinated antigens, including the candidate autoantigen citrullinated alpha-enolase, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Expression of interleukin-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in serum, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritisXue Ting Shao
State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China
Clin Exp Med 9:215-21. 2009..to investigate the expression of IL-18 and its receptor (IL-18R) and IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in serum, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue of patients with RA, and to identify the pathological role of IL-18 in RA...
- Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of synovial fluid: method for detecting candidate protein markers for osteoarthritisHiroshi Yamagiwa
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
J Orthop Sci 8:482-90. 2003b>Synovial fluid (SF) is a dynamic reservoir for proteins originating from serum, synovial tissue, and cartilage...
- Activating and inhibitory receptors on synovial fluid natural killer cells of arthritis patients: role of CD94/NKG2A in control of cytokine secretionCristina Teixeira de Matos
Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Immunology 122:291-301. 2007..To further understand the role for NK cells in inflammation, we investigated the phenotype and function of synovial fluid (SF) NK cells from patients with chronic joint inflammation, as well as from patients with transient ..
- Adsorption, lubrication, and wear of lubricin on model surfaces: polymer brush-like behavior of a glycoproteinBruno Zappone
Materials Department and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA
Biophys J 92:1693-708. 2007..These results support recent suggestions that boundary lubrication and wear protection in articular joints are due to the presence of a biological polyelectrolyte on the cartilage surfaces...
- Adiponectin may contribute to synovitis and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes more than proinHyun Mi Choi
East West Bone and Joint Research Institute, East West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, 149 Sangil dong, Gangdong gu, Seoul, 134 727, Republic of Korea
Arthritis Res Ther 11:R161. 2009....
- Proteolytic activation of alternative CCR1 ligands in inflammationRobert D Berahovich
ChemoCentryx, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
J Immunol 174:7341-51. 2005..These data suggest that alternative CCR1 ligands are converted into potent chemoattractants by proteases released during inflammatory responses in vivo...
- Altered expression and glycosylation of plasma proteins in rheumatoid arthritisSunil K Raghav
Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi University Campus, Mall Road, Delhi, 110 007, India
Glycoconj J 23:167-73. 2006..The present study, therefore, enunciates the role of carbohydrates as well as that of the acute phase response in the disease pathogenesis...
- Galectin 3 and its binding protein in rheumatoid arthritisShiro Ohshima
Center of Experimental Rheumatology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
Arthritis Rheum 48:2788-95. 2003..3 binding protein (G3BP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in comparison with galectin 1, and to explore whether soluble galectin 3 and G3BP, investigated in serum, synovial fluid, or cell culture supernatant, are associated with disease.
- Use of an isolated joint model to detect early changes induced by intra-articular injection of paclitaxel-impregnated polymeric microspheresB Bragdon
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA
J Invest Surg 14:169-82. 2001..Control joints were isolated but not injected. Serial hemodynamic measurements, transsynovial fluid forces, synovial fluid analysis, synovial and capillary permeability, and oxygen metabolism were measured every 30 min during a ..
- Hyaluronic acid and autologous synovial fluid induce chondrogenic differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells: a preliminary studyA A Hegewald
Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Department of Rheumatology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Mitte, Berlin, Germany
Tissue Cell 36:431-8. 2004..Our objective was to study the effects of TGF-beta1, hyaluronic acid and synovial fluid on chondrogenic differentiation of equine MSC...
- Determination of calcium in synovial fluid samples as an aid to diagnosing osteoarthritisAlexander Yavorskyy
Bioanalytical Chemistry and Diagnostics Group, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland alexander yavorskyy dcu ie
Bioanalysis 2:189-95. 2010Microscopic inorganic crystals are commonly observed in the synovial fluid of patients suffering from arthritic diseases...
- Detection of hydrogen sulfide in plasma and knee-joint synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients: relation to clinical and laboratory measures of inflammationMatthew Whiteman
Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, St Luke s Campus, Magdalen Road, Exeter, Devon, UK
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1203:146-50. 2010..unknown whether H(2)S synthesis is perturbed in human inflammatory conditions or whether H(2)S is present in synovial fluid. We analyzed paired plasma and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n= 20) and ..
- Regulation of complement by cartilage oligomeric matrix protein allows for a novel molecular diagnostic principle in rheumatoid arthritisKaisa E Happonen
Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
Arthritis Rheum 62:3574-83. 2010..This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of COMP to regulate complement, a capacity that has previously been shown for some other cartilage proteins...
- Alterations of the CD4(+), CD8 (+) T cell subsets, interleukins-1beta, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: preliminary observationsMahmoud R Hussein
Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University and Assir Central Hospitals, Assuit, Egypt
Pathol Oncol Res 14:321-8. 2008..To accomplish this goal, peripheral blood and synovial fluid samples were obtained from 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 15 patients with osteoarthritis and six ..
- Chemokine profile of synovial fluid from normal, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients: CCL25, CXCL10 and XCL1 recruit human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cellsM Endres
TransTissue Technologies GmbH, Tucholskystrasse 2, 10117 Berlin, Germany
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 18:1458-66. 2010..b>Synovial fluid (SF) has been shown to stimulate the migration of subchondral progenitors...
- Complement contributes to inflammatory tissue destruction in a mouse model of Ross River virus-induced diseaseThomas E Morrison
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
J Virol 81:5132-43. 2007..In addition to these studies, complement activation was also detected in synovial fluid from RRV-infected patients...
- Evidence of the transient nature of the Th17 phenotype of CD4+CD161+ T cells in the synovial fluid of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritisLorenzo Cosmi
University of Florence and Excellence Centre for Research, Transfer and Higher Education on Chronic, Inflammatory, Degenerative and Neoplastic Disorders for the Development of Novel Therapies, Florence, Italy
Arthritis Rheum 63:2504-15. 2011To investigate the phenotype and function of CD4+ T cells in synovial fluid (SF) from the affected joints of children with oligoarticular-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to establish a possible link with disease activity.
- Citrullinated vimentin as an important antigen in immune complexes from synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients with antibodies against citrullinated proteinsKatleen Van Steendam
Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Arthritis Res Ther 12:R132. 2010..The presence of immune complexes (IC) in serum and synovial fluid of RA patients might contribute to this articular damage through different mechanisms, such as complement ..
- Impaired glutathione reductase activity and levels of collagenase and elastase in synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritisL Bazzichi
Rheumatic Diseases Unit, Medica Santa Chiara Hospital, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Clin Exp Rheumatol 20:761-6. 2002To test the activity of elastase, collagenase and glutathione reductase in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in patients with osteoarthritis (OA); to correlate the elastase and collagenase activity ..
- Profiling of endogenous peptides in human synovial fluid by NanoLC-MS: method validation and peptide identificationJurre J Kamphorst
Division of Analytical Biosciences, LACDR, Leiden University, P O Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
J Proteome Res 6:4388-96. 2007b>Synovial fluid potentially contains markers for early diagnosis and disease progression in degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis...
- Inflammatory arthritis in caspase 1 gene-deficient mice: contribution of proteinase 3 to caspase 1-independent production of bioactive interleukin-1betaLeo A B Joosten
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Arthritis Rheum 60:3651-62. 2009..This study was undertaken to establish the relative importance of caspase 1 and serine proteases in mouse models of acute and chronic inflammatory arthritis...
- Matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in serum and synovial fluid of osteoarthritic dogsB J Salinardi
Department of Clinical Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, USA
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 19:49-55. 2006..OA, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in the synovial fluid and serum of normal and osteoarthritic dogs were examined...
- Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritisM Yazar
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harran University, Medical Faculty, 63200 Sanliurfa Turkey
Biol Trace Elem Res 106:123-32. 2005..We studied synovial fluid and plasma concentrations of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in patients with RA and OA ..
- The levels of soluble granzyme A and B are elevated in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)P P Tak
Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
Clin Exp Immunol 116:366-70. 1999..Granzyme-positive cells have been identified in synovial fluid and tissue of patients with RA, where they may play an important role as mediators of granule-mediated ..
- Comparison of pharmacokinetics of glucosamine and synovial fluid levels following administration of glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochlorideM Meulyzer
Departement des Sciences Cliniques, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, St Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:973-9. 2008To compare the pharmacokinetics of glucosamine and the synovial fluid levels attained following treatment with glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine hydrochloride in a large animal model at clinically relevant doses.
- Evidence for a protective role for adiponectin in osteoarthritisTsu Hsin Chen
Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1762:711-8. 2006..We demonstrated that adiponectin was present in OA synovial fluid (SF) and its expression level was almost 100-fold decrease compared with that in OA plasma...
- Citrullinated fibrinogen detected as a soluble citrullinated autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluidsY Takizawa
Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo, 1138655 Japan
Ann Rheum Dis 65:1013-20. 2006..Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are specifically and frequently detected in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Citrullinated fibrin or fibrinogen is a candidate autoantigen of such antibodies...
- Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in paired sera and synovial fluids of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients: relationship to inflammatory activity, MMP-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in a longitudinal studyN J Peake
Musculoskeletal Research Group, School of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Rheumatology (Oxford) 44:1383-9. 2005To measure levels of the collagenases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13 in the synovial fluid (SF) and serum of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to correlate these measurements with inflammatory activity, ..
- Synovial fluid levels and serum pharmacokinetics in a large animal model following treatment with oral glucosamine at clinically relevant dosesSheila Laverty
Faculté de Médicine Vétérinaire, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Arthritis Rheum 52:181-91. 2005To examine the concentration of glucosamine in the synovial fluid and its pharmacokinetics in serum in a large animal model following dosing with glucosamine HCl at clinically relevant levels.
- Elevated aggrecanase activity in a rat model of joint injury is attenuated by an aggrecanase specific inhibitorP S Chockalingam
Tissue Repair, BioTherapeutics Research and Development, Pfizer, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:315-23. 2011..a rat model by measuring the level of aggrecanase-generated Ala-Arg-Gly-aggrecan (ARG-aggrecan) fragments in synovial fluid, and compare with ARG-aggrecan release into joint fluid following human knee injury...
- Measurement of synovial fluid volume using ureaV B Kraus
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Osteoarthritis Cartilage 15:1217-20. 2007To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints.
- Detection of citrullinated proteins in synovial fluids derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis by proteomics-based analysisYoko Tabushi
Department of Clinical Pathology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan
Ann Clin Biochem 45:413-7. 2008..Identification of the presence of citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid synovial fluids is important for the elucidation of the aetiology of RA as well as in the differential diagnosis of rheumatic-related diseases...
- Effects of tramadol on synovial fluid concentrations of substance P and interleukin-6 in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with paracetamolM Bianchi
Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli, 32, 20129 Milan, Italy
Int Immunopharmacol 3:1901-8. 2003..The aim of this double-blind, randomised study in patients with knee OA was to compare their effects on synovial fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and substance P (SP)...
- Nerve growth factor and receptor expression in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritisChristian Barthel
Clinic for Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical School MHH, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, Hannover 30625, Germany
Arthritis Res Ther 11:R82. 2009..We previously described the presence of nerve growth factor receptors in the inflamed synovial compartment. Here we investigated the presence of the corresponding nerve growth factors, with special focus on nerve growth factor (NGF)...
- Selective lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression in the rheumatoid jointJ H Ruth
Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Arthritis Rheum 44:2750-60. 2001..CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR3, and CX3CR1 in normal (NL) peripheral blood (PB), RA PB, and RA synovial fluid (SF)...
- Correlation of plasma and synovial fluid osteopontin with disease severity in knee osteoarthritisSittisak Honsawek
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Clin Biochem 42:808-12. 2009The purposes of this study were to examine osteopontin levels in both plasma and synovial fluid of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to investigate their relationship with severity of the disease.
- Inflammatory cytokine profiles associated with chondral damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient kneePaul H Marks
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toronto, Orthopaedic and Arthritic Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Arthroscopy 21:1342-7. 2005....
- Antibodies to several citrullinated antigens are enriched in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patientsOmri Snir
Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet at Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
Arthritis Rheum 62:44-52. 2010..ACPAs) are frequently present in the serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but their presence in synovial fluid is less well characterized...
- Increased perivascular synovial membrane expression of myeloid-related proteins in psoriatic arthritisDavid Kane
Department of Rheumatology, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Arthritis Rheum 48:1676-85. 2003....
- Chemokine and chemokine receptor analysis reveals elevated interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP)-10/CXCL10 levels and increased number of CCR5+ and CXCR3+ CD4 T cells in synovial fluid of patients with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA)A Aggarwal
Department of Immunology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
Clin Exp Immunol 148:515-9. 2007..Blood (20) and synovial fluid (SF) (11) was collected from patients with ERA, and peripheral blood (PB) was collected from 12 patients with ..
- Lactoferrin is a survival factor for neutrophils in rheumatoid synovial fluidS H Wong
Rheumatology Research Group, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute of Biomedical Research, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK
Rheumatology (Oxford) 48:39-44. 2009..This study set out to determine whether lactoferrin can delay neutrophil apoptosis and could act as a survival factor for neutrophils in SF...
- A high interleukin 1 receptor antagonist/IL-1beta ratio occurs naturally in knee osteoarthritisPascal Richette
Universite Paris 7, UFR médicale, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France
J Rheumatol 35:1650-4. 2008To assess the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)/IL-1beta ratio in synovial fluid (SF) of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to determine a possible relation between cytokine level and disease ..
- In vivo effects of meloxicam on inflammatory mediators, MMP activity and cartilage biomarkers in equine joints with acute synovitisJ C de Grauw
Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Equine Vet J 41:693-9. 2009..Meloxicam is a commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in equine practice, but little is known about its in vivo effects on joint inflammation and cartilage turnover...
- Raman spectroscopy of synovial fluid as a tool for diagnosing osteoarthritisKaren A Esmonde-White
University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
J Biomed Opt 14:034013. 2009..has been the primary method used by researchers in rheumatology to assess the physiochemical properties of synovial fluid in both normal and osteoarthritic patients...
- Human mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid increase in the knee with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritisIchiro Sekiya
Section of Cartilage Regeneration, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
J Orthop Res 30:943-9. 2012We investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in synovial fluid (SF) increased in the knee with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritis...
- Prevalence of anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibodies in the joint synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and systemic lupus erythematosusFozia Khan
Firoz Specialist Hospital, Medical Road, Sir Syed Nagar, Aligarh 202002, U P India
Clin Chim Acta 370:100-7. 2006..3-nitrotyrosine is thought to be a relatively specific marker of nitrosative damage mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and its by-products...
- Neutrophils-derived peroxynitrite contributes to acute hyperalgesia and cell influx in zymosan arthritisMirna M Bezerra
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Sobral, Federal University of Ceara, Rua Geraldo Rangel, S N, Derby, Sobral, Ceara, Brazil
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 374:265-73. 2007..Scavenging of reactive nitrogen species (e.g. peroxynitrite) inhibits neutrophil migration and joint hyperalgesia in the acute phase of zymosan arthritis in rats...
- Tenascin-C concentration in synovial fluid correlates with radiographic progression of knee osteoarthritisMasahiro Hasegawa
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Faculty of Medicine, Mie, Japan
J Rheumatol 31:2021-6. 2004..enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using a monoclonal antibody specific for the large-splice variants of tenascin-C (TN-C) and examined whether TN-C in synovial fluid (SF) is an adequate biochemical marker of OA progression.
- Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligamentTroy N Trumble
Orthopaedic Research Center, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Am J Vet Res 65:1269-75. 2004To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective ..
- CHRONIC LYME ARTHRITIS--IS THIS AUTOIMMUNITY?Brigitte Huber; Fiscal Year: 2000..If double-reactive hybridomas are identified, the antigenic epitopes will be mapped; (b) synovial fluid T cells from chronic Lyme patients will be transformed and tested at the single-cell level for reactivity to ..
- Cytokine pathways and orofacial painKe Ren; Fiscal Year: 2006..cytokines in orofacial pain mechanisms, despite the findings that some cytokines are found in the synovial fluid of arthritic but not in healthy TMJs...
- Electroporation and transcutaneous extraction of drugsSATHYANARAYANA MURTHY; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ibuprofen levels in the dermal ECF correlated well with that in the synovial fluid. Similarly the concentration of unbound cefpodoxime in the dermal ECF correlated well with its concentration ..
- Cross-talk Between Coagulation, Inflammation, and ImmunityLawrence L Leung; Fiscal Year: 2010..We showed markedly elevated levels of OPN-R and its CPB-cleaved product, OPN-Leu (OPN-L), in synovial fluid samples from rheumatoid arthritis patients and these cleaved OPN forms affect neutrophils and fibroblast-like ..
- GAMMA DELTA T CELLS IN LYME ARTHRITISRalph C Budd; Fiscal Year: 2010..A significant proportion of the lymphocytes that accumulate in Lyme arthritis synovial fluid are gamma/delta (??? T cells of the Vd1 subset...
- GAMMA DELTA T CELLS IN LYME ARTHRITISRalph Budd; Fiscal Year: 2009..A significant proportion of the lymphocytes that accumulate in Lyme arthritis synovial fluid are gamma/delta (??? T cells of the Vd1 subset...
- IMMUNOPROBES FOR LUBRICIN FROM HUMAN SYNOVIAL FLUIDGregory Jay; Fiscal Year: 2003..use molecular techniques, standardize merchanical assays and assign clinical importance to lubrication by synovial fluid. This investigation addresses the molecular of synovial lubrication of animal joints...
- METALLOPROTEINASES IN AGING AND OSTEOARTHRITISVirginia Kraus; Fiscal Year: 2002..polarized light microscopy, urinary and plasma pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline cross-links, and synovial fluid MMP activity...
- Pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi induced arthritisLinden Hu; Fiscal Year: 2006..We have found evidence that MMPs are elevated in the synovial fluid of patients with Lyme arthritis...
- GAMMA DELTA T CELLS IN LYME ARTHRITISRalph Budd; Fiscal Year: 2005..Preliminary studies show that gamma delta T cells of the V delta 1 subset accumulate in Lyme arthritis synovial fluid (1 0-15 percent) and proliferate vigorously in response to lipidated but not delipidated Borrelia proteins in ..
- Novel Therapies and Biomarkers for the MucopolysaccharidosesCALOGERA MARIA SIMONARO; Fiscal Year: 2010..Aim 2 will explore the use of plasma and synovial fluid as sources of biomarkers for the MPS disorders by a) obtaining these materials from MPS VI cats of various ..
- Role of Stress-Response Protein gp96 in the Persistence of Rheumatoid ArthritisRichard M Pope; Fiscal Year: 2010..RA synovial M&s through TLR ligation will be greater than observed with normal M&s or those from the synovial fluid of patients with other forms of inflammatory arthritis (OIA) such as psoriatic arthritis, while the activation ..
- Role of Stress-Response Protein gp96 in the Persistence of Rheumatoid ArthritisRichard Pope; Fiscal Year: 2009..RA synovial M&s through TLR ligation will be greater than observed with normal M&s or those from the synovial fluid of patients with other forms of inflammatory arthritis (OIA) such as psoriatic arthritis, while the activation ..
- Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage LubricationRobert L Sah; Fiscal Year: 2010..mechanisms, in particular the molecular basis for boundary-mode lubrication of articular cartilage by synovial fluid. The overall hypothesis to be tested is that boundary lubrication of articular cartilage occurs via ..
- Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage LubricationRobert Sah; Fiscal Year: 2007..mechanisms, in particular the molecular basis for boundary-mode lubrication of articular cartilage by synovial fluid. The overall hypothesis to be tested is that boundary lubrication of articular cartilage occurs via ..
- OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF JOINT DISEASESANDREAS HIELSCHER; Fiscal Year: 2007..The initial hypothesis that changes in the synovial fluid provide optical contrast appeared to be true, however, the clinical results suggest a more complex scenario as ..
- NEW TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSING OSTEOARTHRITISCathy Carlson; Fiscal Year: 1999..The specific aims are: 1) to determine whether synovial fluid levels of proteoglycan epitopes that are anabolic (recognized by monoclonal antibodies 3B3 and 7D4) or ..
- NUCLEIC ACID-BASED DIAGNOSTIC PROBES FOR LYME DISEASEIra Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2004..burgdorferi in skin, blood, and synovial fluid was achieved...
- NUCLEIC ACID-BASED DIANOSTIC PROBES FOR LYME DISEASEIra Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 1993..will be sensitive enough to detect <10 spirochetes in a small volume of clinical specimen (serum, urine, synovial fluid) and also have absolute specificity for B. burgdorferi to the exclusion of other microorganisms...