pineal gland

Summary

Summary: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other biogenic amines, and neuropeptides.

Top Publications

  1. doi A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases
    Jorg H Stehle
    Institute of Anatomy III Cellular and Molecular Anatomy, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
    J Pineal Res 51:17-43. 2011
  2. ncbi Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters
    Valerie Simonneaux
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Rythmes, UMR 7518 CNRS ULP, 12, rue de l université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Pharmacol Rev 55:325-95. 2003
  3. ncbi Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: "the Timezyme"
    David C Klein
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Office of Scientific Director, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:4233-7. 2007
  4. doi TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway
    Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    J Pineal Res 49:183-92. 2010
  5. ncbi Bidirectional communication between the pineal gland and the immune system
    Krystyna Skwarlo-Sonta
    Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Poland
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 81:342-9. 2003
  6. ncbi Biology of mammalian photoperiodism and the critical role of the pineal gland and melatonin
    B Malpaux
    UMR 6073 INRA CNRS Université François Rabelais, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Nouzilly, France
    J Biol Rhythms 16:336-47. 2001
  7. ncbi Otx5 regulates genes that show circadian expression in the zebrafish pineal complex
    Joshua T Gamse
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland, 21210 USA
    Nat Genet 30:117-21. 2002
  8. ncbi Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing
    Pedro A C M Fernandes
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 41:344-50. 2006
  9. ncbi Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland
    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari Garcia
    University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1524, 1st Floor, Room 118, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508 900, Brazil
    Life Sci 82:108-14. 2008
  10. doi Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains
    Araceli Gómez-Corvera
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The School of Medicine, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    J Pineal Res 47:15-22. 2009

Detail Information

Publications283 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases
    Jorg H Stehle
    Institute of Anatomy III Cellular and Molecular Anatomy, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
    J Pineal Res 51:17-43. 2011
    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain...
  2. ncbi Generation of the melatonin endocrine message in mammals: a review of the complex regulation of melatonin synthesis by norepinephrine, peptides, and other pineal transmitters
    Valerie Simonneaux
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Rythmes, UMR 7518 CNRS ULP, 12, rue de l université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Pharmacol Rev 55:325-95. 2003
    Melatonin, the major hormone produced by the pineal gland, displays characteristic daily and seasonal patterns of secretion...
  3. ncbi Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: "the Timezyme"
    David C Klein
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Office of Scientific Director, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:4233-7. 2007
    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase controls daily changes in melatonin production by the pineal gland and thereby plays a unique role in biological timing in vertebrates...
  4. doi TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway
    Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    J Pineal Res 49:183-92. 2010
    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor ..
  5. ncbi Bidirectional communication between the pineal gland and the immune system
    Krystyna Skwarlo-Sonta
    Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Poland
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 81:342-9. 2003
    The pineal gland is a vertebrate neuroendocrine organ converting environmental photoperiodic information into a biochemical message (melatonin) that subsequently regulates the activity of numerous target tissues after its release into the ..
  6. ncbi Biology of mammalian photoperiodism and the critical role of the pineal gland and melatonin
    B Malpaux
    UMR 6073 INRA CNRS Université François Rabelais, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Nouzilly, France
    J Biol Rhythms 16:336-47. 2001
    In mammals, photoperiodic information is transformed into a melatonin secretory rhythm in the pineal gland (high levels at night, low levels during the day)...
  7. ncbi Otx5 regulates genes that show circadian expression in the zebrafish pineal complex
    Joshua T Gamse
    Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland, 21210 USA
    Nat Genet 30:117-21. 2002
    ..Our results indicate that Otx5 rather than Crx regulates genes that show circadian expression in the zebrafish pineal complex...
  8. ncbi Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing
    Pedro A C M Fernandes
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Pineal Res 41:344-50. 2006
    ..However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available...
  9. ncbi Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland
    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari Garcia
    University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1524, 1st Floor, Room 118, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05508 900, Brazil
    Life Sci 82:108-14. 2008
    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase...
  10. doi Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains
    Araceli Gómez-Corvera
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The School of Medicine, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
    J Pineal Res 47:15-22. 2009
    ..For the pineal gland, both the wild type and the mutant isoforms were present in all mice strains although in different proportions...
  11. ncbi Melatonin in immunity: comparative aspects
    Krystyna Skwarlo-Sonta
    Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 23:61-6. 2002
    b>Pineal gland, by the diurnal rhythm of synthesis and release of its principal hormone, melatonin (MEL), is involved in reciprocal relationships between neuroendocrine and immune systems, responsible for keeping internal homeostasis in ..
  12. ncbi Nocturnal melatonin concentration is correlated with illness severity in patients with septic disease
    Boris Perras
    Intensive Care Med 32:624-5. 2006
  13. ncbi Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland
    Anthony K Ho
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Neurochem 112:321-31. 2010
    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the ..
  14. doi Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland
    Erik Maronde
    Institute of Anatomy III, Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Pineal Res 51:145-55. 2011
    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime...
  15. doi Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland
    Erika Cecon
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Bioscience, University of Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 900, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Chronobiol Int 27:52-67. 2010
    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system...
  16. pmc Role of a pineal cAMP-operated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase/14-3-3-binding switch in melatonin synthesis
    S Ganguly
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 4480, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:8083-8. 2001
    ..Similar switches could play a role in cAMP signal transduction in other biological systems...
  17. ncbi Molecular analysis of avian circadian clock genes
    T Yoshimura
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 78:207-15. 2000
    ..was expressed throughout the day, while qPer2 and qPer3 showed robust circadian oscillation in the eye and the pineal gland. All three genes were expressed in various tissues...
  18. ncbi The mammalian pineal gland: known facts, unknown facets
    Erik Maronde
    Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Institute of Anatomy III, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 18:142-9. 2007
    In the mammalian pineal gland, information on environmental lighting conditions that is neuronally encoded by the retina is converted into nocturnally elevated synthesis of the hormone melatonin...
  19. pmc Circadian genomics of the chick pineal gland in vitro
    Stephen P Karaganis
    Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3258, USA
    BMC Genomics 9:206. 2008
    ....
  20. ncbi Diurnal variation in p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the rat pineal gland
    A K Ho
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, 7 26 Medical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta, Canada T6G 2H7
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 208:23-30. 2003
    ..there was a diurnal difference in mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44(MAPK)) phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland. Under a lighting regimen with 12h of darkness, there was a two- to four-fold increase in phosphorylated levels ..
  21. ncbi Circadian clock system in the pineal gland
    Yoshitaka Fukada
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo and JST, CREST, Japan
    Mol Neurobiol 25:19-30. 2002
    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that functions as a central circadian oscillator in a variety of nonmammalian vertebrates...
  22. pmc Glutamate transporter-mediated glutamate secretion in the mammalian pineal gland
    Mean Hwan Kim
    Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Kyungbuk 790 784, Republic of Korea
    J Neurosci 28:10852-63. 2008
    ..we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently downregulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland.
  23. pmc Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland
    Sergio Gonzalez
    Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001347. 2012
    The role of the pineal gland is to translate the rhythmic cycles of night and day encoded by the retina into hormonal signals that are transmitted to the rest of the neuronal system in the form of serotonin and melatonin synthesis and ..
  24. ncbi Microglia play a role in mediating the effects of cytokines on the structure and function of the rat pineal gland
    S Y Tsai
    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, Loyola University Medical Center, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Cell Tissue Res 303:423-31. 2001
    The role of the pineal gland in regulating immune function has been extensively investigated. However, there is little information about possible feedback mechanisms of immunological factors on pineal gland neuroendocrine functions...
  25. pmc Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)
    Jong So Kim
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Program on Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 314:128-35. 2010
    ..Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues,..
  26. ncbi Pineal gland (melatonin) affects the parturition time, but not luteal function and fetal growth, in pregnant rats
    Hisako Takayama
    Reproductive, Pediatric and Infectious Science, Perinatal Care Center, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1 1 1, Minami Kogushi, Ube 755 8505 Japan
    Endocr J 50:37-43. 2003
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of pineal gland (melatonin) on parturition time, luteal function, and fetal growth in pregnant rats...
  27. ncbi Circadian rhythms in isolated brain regions
    Michikazu Abe
    National Science Foundation Center for Biological Timing and Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA
    J Neurosci 22:350-6. 2002
    ..The phasing of these oscillators to one another may play a critical role in coordinating brain activity and its adjustment to changes in the light cycle...
  28. ncbi Functional development of the zebrafish pineal gland: light-induced expression of period2 is required for onset of the circadian clock
    L Ziv
    Department of Zoology, The George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    J Neuroendocrinol 17:314-20. 2005
    In zebrafish, the pineal gland is a photoreceptive organ that contains an intrinsic circadian oscillator and exhibits rhythmic arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (zfaanat2) mRNA expression...
  29. ncbi The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function
    Renato Couto-Moraes
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Bioscience, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1153:193-202. 2009
    ..light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway...
  30. pmc Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork
    Adi Tovin
    Department of Neurobiology, George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    PLoS Genet 8:e1003116. 2012
    ..RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master ..
  31. ncbi Genetic control of melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland of the mouse
    S Ebihara
    Science 231:491-3. 1986
    ..Synthesis of melatonin from serotonin in the pineal gland requires the enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT)...
  32. ncbi The rat arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene promoter. cAMP activation via a cAMP-responsive element-CCAAT complex
    R Baler
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:6979-85. 1997
    ..3.1.87) controls the rhythm in melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. In some mammals, including the rat, the high nocturnal level of AA-NAT activity is preceded by an ..
  33. doi Pineal projections in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): overlap with retinal and cerebellar projections
    J Yanez
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira, E 15008 A Coruña, Spain
    Neuroscience 164:1712-20. 2009
    ....
  34. doi Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus
    Nozomi Sugama
    Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Motobu, Okinawa, Japan
    J Pineal Res 45:133-41. 2008
    ..in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland. The partially-cloned rfPer2 cDNA (2933 bp) was highly homologous (72%) to zebrafish Per2...
  35. ncbi Cloning and expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltranferase-2 during early development and metamorphosis in the sole Solea senegalensis
    Esther Isorna
    Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, E 11510, Puerto Real, Espana, Spain
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 161:97-102. 2009
    ..These studies allowed us to demonstrate a specific signal in the pineal gland of sole larvae from 2 days post-fertilization (dpf), which was evident until post-metamorphosis...
  36. pmc Novel functions for Period 3 and Exo-rhodopsin in rhythmic transcription and melatonin biosynthesis within the zebrafish pineal organ
    Lain X Pierce
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Brain Res 1223:11-24. 2008
    ..This work identifies novel roles for Exorh and Per3, and gives insight into potential interactions between the sensory and circadian systems within the pineal...
  37. doi Structural and functional evolution of the pineal melatonin system in vertebrates
    Jack Falcon
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls sur Mer, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1163:101-11. 2009
    ..This review summarizes anatomical, structural, and molecular aspects of the evolution of the melatonin-producing system in vertebrates...
  38. ncbi Expression of pineal ultraviolet- and green-like opsins in the pineal organ and retina of teleosts
    J Forsell
    Department of Zoology, University of Lund, Sweden
    J Exp Biol 204:2517-25. 2001
    ..In the other teleosts studied, although both pineal and retinal photoreceptors seem to utilise a green-like opsin from the larval stage, ultraviolet photoreception appears to be restricted to the retina...
  39. ncbi The immune-pineal axis: a shuttle between endocrine and paracrine melatonin sources
    Regina P Markus
    Laboratory of Chronopharmacology, Department of Physiology, Institute of Bioscience, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil
    Neuroimmunomodulation 14:126-33. 2007
    ..In the present review, we put together recent data that show that the pineal gland is a player in bidirectional control of the inflammatory response...
  40. ncbi Circadian clock genes and photoperiodism: Comprehensive analysis of clock gene expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and the pineal gland of Japanese Quail under various light schedules
    Shinobu Yasuo
    Division of Biomodeling, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Endocrinology 144:3742-8. 2003
    ..we show expression patterns of circadian clock genes in the MBH, putative suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and pineal gland, which constitute the circadian pacemaker under various light schedules...
  41. ncbi Adrenergic signals direct rhythmic expression of transcriptional repressor CREM in the pineal gland
    J H Stehle
    CNRS URA 1332, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Nature 365:314-20. 1993
    ..Rhythmic adrenergic signals originated by the clock direct ICER expression by stimulation of the cAMP signal transduction pathway...
  42. ncbi Parapinopsin, a novel catfish opsin localized to the parapineal organ, defines a new gene family
    S Blackshaw
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Neurosci 17:8083-92. 1997
    ..These data imply that phototransduction in these sites of extraretinal photoreception must be mediated by novel opsins...
  43. ncbi Pineal gland hormone melatonin binds and activates an orphan of the nuclear receptor superfamily
    M Becker-Andre
    Glaxo Institute for Molecular Biology, Plan les Ouates, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 269:28531-4. 1994
    ..We found RZR beta expression in the rat brain nearly coincident with binding sites for the pineal gland hormone melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine)...
  44. pmc Photoperiodic information acquired and stored in vivo is retained in vitro by a circadian oscillator, the avian pineal gland
    R Brandstatter
    Research Centre for Ornithology of the Max Planck Society, Von der Tann Strasse 7, D 82346 Erling Andechs, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:12324-8. 2000
    ..during in vivo synchronization can be maintained as an internal representation of time within the isolated pineal gland. Hence, the pineal gland, as one of the most significant components of the songbird circadian pacemaker, not ..
  45. ncbi Complex circadian regulation of pineal melatonin and wheel-running in Syrian hamsters
    J A Elliott
    Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA 93950
    J Comp Physiol A 174:469-84. 1994
    ..This two-oscillator control of melatonin peak width is integral to the circadian mechanism of hamster photoperiodic time measurement...
  46. pmc The effects of pineal gland transplantation on the production of spinal deformity and serum melatonin level following pinealectomy in the chicken
    Mehmet Turgut
    Department of Neurosurgery, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, Turkey
    Eur Spine J 12:487-94. 2003
    ..Thirty-six chickens (2 days of age) were divided into three equal groups. While the removal of the pineal gland was performed in groups B and C, a pineal body autograft was surgically implanted into the body wall ..
  47. doi Degree of pineal calcification (DOC) is associated with polysomnographic sleep measures in primary insomnia patients
    Richard Mahlberg
    Department of Physiology, Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, D 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Sleep Med 10:439-45. 2009
    ..The aim of our study was, therefore, to determine the relationship between the degree of pineal calcification (DOC) and a range of sleep parameters measured objectively using polysomnography (PSG)...
  48. ncbi Melatonin synthesis: analysis of the more than 150-fold nocturnal increase in serotonin N-acetyltransferase messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat pineal gland
    P H Roseboom
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4480
    Endocrinology 137:3033-45. 1996
    ..We have discovered that expression of the AA-NAT gene in the rat pineal gland is essentially turned off during the day and turned on at night, resulting in a more than 150-fold rhythm...
  49. ncbi Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on daily expression of per2 and dbp in the heart and liver and melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland of Wistar rat
    Iveta Herichova
    Department of Animal Physiology and Ethology, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Mol Cell Biochem 270:223-9. 2005
    ..Changes in per2 and dbp expression in the heart and liver imply alterations in input pathway or peripheral oscillators with possible consequences on function of analysed organs...
  50. ncbi A novel rod-like opsin isolated from the extra-retinal photoreceptors of teleost fish
    A R Philp
    Department of Biology, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    FEBS Lett 468:181-8. 2000
    ..We speculate that the differences between retinal rod-opsins and ERrod-like opsins have arisen from their differing photosensory roles and/or genetic drift after the gene duplication event in the Triassic...
  51. ncbi Fusaric acid in Fusarium moniliforme cultures, corn, and feeds toxic to livestock and the neurochemical effects in the brain and pineal gland of rats
    J K Porter
    Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA ARS, Richard B Russell Agricultural Research Center, Athens, GA 30605 5677, USA
    Nat Toxins 3:91-100. 1995
    ..43 to 12.39 micrograms/g sample. Also, fusaric acid was tested for its neurochemical effects in the brain and pineal gland of rats...
  52. pmc Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome
    Louise Rovsing
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neurochem 119:262-74. 2011
    ..factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy ..
  53. ncbi Photoreception and circadian clock system of the chicken pineal gland
    T Okano
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
    Microsc Res Tech 53:72-80. 2001
    ..Even under cultured conditions of isolated pineal gland or dissociated pinealocytes, the input-oscillator-output functions are well maintained...
  54. ncbi Involvement of NF-Y and Sp1 in basal and cAMP-stimulated transcriptional activation of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH ) gene in the pineal gland
    F Cote
    Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire de la Neurotransmission et des Processus Neurodegeneratifs, CNRS, UMR 7091, Batiment CERVI, Hopital de la Pitie Salpetriere, 83 Boulevard de l hopital, 75013 Paris, France
    J Neurochem 81:673-85. 2002
    ..In the pineal gland, transcription of the gene is activated in response to an intracellular circadian increase of the cAMP ..
  55. ncbi The role of pineal gland in breast cancer development
    Vladimir N Anisimov
    Department of Carcinogenesis and Oncogerontology, N N Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, Pesochny 2, 197758, St Petersburg, Russia
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 46:221-34. 2003
    The role of the modulation of the pineal gland function in development of breast cancer is discussed in this review...
  56. ncbi Seasonality of pineal gland activity and immune functions in chickens
    Paweł Majewski
    Department of Vertebrate Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland
    J Pineal Res 39:66-72. 2005
    ..These two aspects of the immune response were correlated with the diurnal rhythm of pineal gland function, measured by the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis...
  57. pmc Establishment and persistence of photoperiodic memory in hamsters
    B J Prendergast
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5586-91. 2000
    ..These findings indicate that hamsters are influenced only by relatively recent day lengths and melatonin signals and ignore earlier ones that might cause them to misinterpret the salience of current day lengths...
  58. ncbi Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats
    Celine A Feillet
    Department of Neurobiology of Rhythms, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Eur J Neurosci 28:2451-8. 2008
    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)...
  59. ncbi Retinopathy and attenuated circadian entrainment in Crx-deficient mice
    T Furukawa
    Department of Genetics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 23:466-70. 1999
    ..homeobox gene, is expressed specifically in the photoreceptors of the retina and the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. Crx has been proposed to have a role in the regulation of photoreceptor-specific genes in the eye and of ..
  60. pmc Probing pineal-specific gene expression with transgenic zebrafish
    Daisuke Kojima
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Photochem Photobiol 84:1011-5. 2008
    The pineal gland of zebrafish (Danio rerio) contains light-sensitive photoreceptor cells and plays an important role in the neuroendocrine system...
  61. ncbi ROS-GC subfamily membrane guanylate cyclase-linked transduction systems: taste, pineal gland and hippocampus
    Rameshwar K Sharma
    Research Divisions of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Unit of Regulatory and Molecular Biology, Salus University, Elkins Park, PA 19027, USA
    Mol Cell Biochem 334:199-206. 2010
    ....
  62. doi Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression
    D M Price
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7
    Endocrinology 150:2334-41. 2009
    ..Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3...
  63. ncbi Pineal volume and circadian melatonin profile in healthy volunteers: an interdisciplinary approach
    Ingo Nolte
    Department of Neuroradiology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the University of Heidelberg, Germany
    J Magn Reson Imaging 30:499-505. 2009
    ..To correlate pineal parenchyma volume (PP) to circadian melatonin profiles and to determine the 24-hour melatonin per volume of pineal tissue (MLPV). Furthermore, we compared melatonin profiles of cystic and solid glands...
  64. ncbi Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1-linked stimulatory and inhibitory calcium signaling systems in the pineal gland: biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical evidence
    V Venkataraman
    The Unit of Regulatory and Molecular Biology, Departments of Cell Biology and Ophthalmology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, New Jersey 08084, USA
    Biochemistry 39:6042-52. 2000
    ..receptor (alpha(2D/A)-AR) linked membrane guanylate cyclase signal transduction system in the pineal gland. This system operates via a Ca(2+)-driven rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC)...
  65. ncbi Insulin temporal sensitivity and its signaling pathway in the rat pineal gland
    Rodrigo A Peliciari-Garcia
    University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Biomedical Sciences I, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Life Sci 87:169-74. 2010
    ..A second question raised was whether windows of sensitivity to insulin exist in the pineal gland due to insulin rhythmic secretion pattern.
  66. pmc β-arrestin functionally regulates the non-bleaching pigment parapinopsin in lamprey pineal
    Emi Kawano-Yamashita
    Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e16402. 2011
    ..Such changes would have followed the evolution of vertebrate visual pigments, which generate unstable photoproducts that independently decay by chromophore dissociation...
  67. ncbi Structural organization of the human S-antigen gene. cDNA, amino acid, intron, exon, promoter, in vitro transcription, retina, and pineal gland
    K Yamaki
    Molecular Biology Section, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 265:20757-62. 1990
    ..Our results indicate that the sequence of S-Ag promoter differs from other known promoters and may, perhaps, be specific for photoreceptor rod cells and pinealocytes...
  68. ncbi Computed tomography of the human pineal gland for study of the sleep-wake rhythm: reproducibility of a semi-quantitative approach
    S A Schmitz
    Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
    Acta Radiol 47:865-71. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi Opsin photoisomerases in the chick retina and pineal gland: characterization, localization, and circadian regulation
    Michael J Bailey
    Center for Biological Clocks Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:769-75. 2004
    The chick retina and pineal gland exhibit circadian oscillations in biochemical and physiological processes in vivo and in vitro, which entrain to 24-hour light-dark cycles...
  70. ncbi Retinal illumination phase shifts the circadian rhythm of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in the chicken pineal gland
    Jolanta B Zawilska
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, 90 151, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 360:153-6. 2004
    The pineal gland of birds, in contrast to its mammalian counterpart, is a directly photosensitive organ...
  71. doi The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system
    Marco Koch
    Institut für Anatomie II, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Pineal Res 45:351-60. 2008
    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis...
  72. doi Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland
    Lin Bai
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, RWTH Aachen, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Brain Res 1203:89-96. 2008
    The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals...
  73. ncbi Microsurgical management of pineal region lesions: personal experience with 119 patients
    Juha Hernesniemi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00260 Helsinki, Finland
    Surg Neurol 70:576-83. 2008
    ..We present the surgical approaches and techniques in a consecutive series of 119 patients treated by the senior author (J.H.) between 1980 and 2007 at 2 different neurosurgical university centers in Kuopio and Helsinki, Finland...
  74. ncbi Hypothalamic circadian organization in birds. II. Clock gene expression
    Ute Abraham
    Max Planck Research Centre for Ornithology, Andechs, Germany
    Chronobiol Int 20:657-69. 2003
    ..indicating that rhythmic pPer2 transcription in the SCN and LHN of the house sparrow are not driven by the pineal gland. Rather, they reflect the activity of autonomous hypothalamic circadian oscillators...
  75. pmc Bimodal circadian secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland in a living CBA mouse
    Daiichiro Nakahara
    Department of Psychology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1 20 1 Handayama, Hamamatsu 431 3192, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9584-9. 2003
    ..long-term monitoring of melatonin secretion by implanting a transverse microdialysis probe in or near the pineal gland in a freely moving mouse...
  76. ncbi Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats
    Andreas Gunter Bach
    Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstrasse 52, 06097 Halle Saale, Germany
    Endocrinology 151:2483-93. 2010
    ..expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats...
  77. ncbi Temporal-spatial characterization of chicken clock genes: circadian expression in retina, pineal gland, and peripheral tissues
    Nelson W Chong
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Glenfield General Hospital, Clinical Sciences Wing, University of Leicester, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK
    J Neurochem 85:851-60. 2003
    ..In two tissues which contain endogenous clocks--the pineal gland and retina--circadian fluctuations of both cBmal1 and cMOP4 mRNAs were observed to be synchronous; highest ..
  78. ncbi The pineal gland and anxiogenic-like action of fluoxetine in mice
    Tolga Uz
    The Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 West Taylor Street, MC912, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Neuroreport 15:691-4. 2004
    ..Behavioral responses to psychoactive drugs can be modified by the pineal gland. We assessed the actions of fluoxetine in the EPM in melatonin-proficient C3H mice, melatonin-deficient C57BL6 ..
  79. ncbi Pineal organs of deep-sea fish: photopigments and structure
    James K Bowmaker
    Division of Visual Science, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, EC1V 9EL, UK
    J Exp Biol 207:2379-87. 2004
    ..In one species of hatchet fish, Argyropelecus affinis, two spectral classes of pinealocyte were identified, both spectrally distinct from the retinal rod photopigment...
  80. ncbi A median third eye: pineal gland retraces evolution of vertebrate photoreceptive organs
    Hiroaki Mano
    Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Japan
    Photochem Photobiol 83:11-8. 2007
    In many vertebrates, the pineal gland serves as a photoreceptive neuroendocrine organ...
  81. ncbi Melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland: advantages, implications, and difficulties
    Katrin Ackermann
    Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Institute of Anatomy III, University Frankfurt, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Chronobiol Int 23:369-79. 2006
    ..The best characterized function of the pineal gland is the nocturnally elevated synthesis of the hormone melatonin, which provides the body with the signal of the ..
  82. ncbi The avian pineal gland
    Valer J Csernus
    Department of Anatomy, University of Pecs, Medical School and Neurohumoral Regulations Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pecs, Hungary
    Chronobiol Int 23:329-39. 2006
    The pineal gland plays a key role in the control of the daily and seasonal rhythms in most vertebrate species...
  83. ncbi Spectral sensitivity of melatonin suppression in the zebrafish pineal gland
    Limor Ziv
    Department of Zoology, The George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Exp Eye Res 84:92-9. 2007
    The pineal gland of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a clock-containing photoreceptive organ...
  84. ncbi The circadian system of ruin lizards: a seasonally changing neuroendocrine loop?
    Augusto Foá
    Dipartimento di Biologia e Centro di Neuroscienze, Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
    Chronobiol Int 23:317-27. 2006
    ..To test whether seasonal photoperiodic changes are decoded autonomously by the pineal gland, pineals explanted in summer were cultured in vitro and exposed to changes between winter and summer ..
  85. ncbi Melatonin synthesis and melatonin-membrane receptor (MT1) expression during rat thymus development: role of the pineal gland
    Silvia Jimenez-Jorge
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Seville School of Medicine and Virgen Macarena Hospital, Seville, Spain
    J Pineal Res 39:77-83. 2005
    To gain insight into the relationship between thymus and pineal gland during rat development, the melatonin content as well as the activity and expression of the two key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis, i.e...
  86. ncbi Histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland: adrenergic regulation and diurnal variation
    C L Chik
    Department of Physiology, 7 26 Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7
    Endocrinology 148:1465-72. 2007
    In this study, we investigated phosphorylation of Ser10 in histone H3 by norepinephrine (NE) in the rat pineal gland. In whole-animal studies, we demonstrated a marked increase in histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland during ..
  87. ncbi Development of the circadian melatonin rhythm and its responsiveness to PACAP in the embryonic chicken pineal gland
    N Faluhelyi
    Department of Anatomy, University of Pecs Medical School, and the Neurohumoral Regulations Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1040:305-9. 2005
    ..2) Exposure of the embryonic chicken pineal gland to PACAP induces a transitory increase in MT secretion and (3) a transitory increase in cyclic AMP efflux at or ..
  88. ncbi Melanopsin expression in the chick retina and pineal gland
    Michael J Bailey
    Center for Biological Clocks Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 3258, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 134:345-8. 2005
    The chick retina and pineal gland exhibit circadian oscillations in biochemical and physiological processes in vivo and in vitro and entrain to 24 h LD cycles...
  89. ncbi Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) memorizes photoperiod in the rat pineal gland
    L Engel
    Department of Anatomy, Johannes Gutenberg University, Saarstrasse 19 21, D 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Neuroscience 132:511-8. 2005
    ..hypothesis that Fra-2 expression is photoperiod-dependent and may be involved in imprinting photoperiod on the pineal gland and the body as a whole...
  90. ncbi The role of PACAP in the control of circadian expression of clock genes in the chicken pineal gland
    Andras D Nagy
    Department of Anatomy, Medical School, University of Pecs, H 7624 Pecs, Szigeti ut 12, Hungary
    Peptides 28:1767-74. 2007
    Several features of the molecular circadian oscillator of the chicken pineal gland show homology with those in the mammalian SCN...
  91. ncbi Immunohistochemical characterization of a parapinopsin-containing photoreceptor cell involved in the ultraviolet/green discrimination in the pineal organ of the river lamprey Lethenteron japonicum
    Emi Kawano-Yamashita
    Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women s University, Nara, Japan
    J Exp Biol 210:3821-9. 2007
    ....
  92. ncbi Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    Mang Hung Tsai
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
    Neurosci Res 60:233-43. 2008
    ..This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis...
  93. ncbi Mechanisms regulating the marked seasonal variation in melatonin synthesis in the European hamster pineal gland
    Marie Laure Garidou
    Neurobiologie des Rythmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7518, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R1043-52. 2003
    ..The possibility that the variation in pineal metabolism depends on a seasonal change in the suprachiasmatic nuclei clock circadian activity that is transmitted by norepinephrine is discussed...
  94. doi Delayed lateral rectus palsy following resection of a pineal cyst in sitting position: direct or indirect compressive phenomenon?
    Qualls E Stevens
    Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Bromenn Regional Medical Center, Normal, Illinois, USA
    J Child Neurol 22:1411-4. 2007
    ..This patient's symptoms manifested in a delayed fashion. Although uncommon, this complication should be considered in patients undergoing cranial or spinal surgical interventions in this position...
  95. ncbi Management of pineal region tumors
    Jaishri O Blakeley
    Brain Cancer Program, Johns Hopkins University, Cancer Research Building 2, 1550 Orleans Street, Suite 1M16, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 7:505-16. 2006
    ..Patients with tectal gliomas may undergo excision with or without postoperative radiation; however, they also may be observed with vigilant follow-up alone...
  96. ncbi Germinoma of the pineal gland
    S C Mohanty
    Neurol India 51:286-7. 2003
  97. ncbi Immunocytochemical demonstration of rod-opsin, S-antigen, and neuron-specific proteins in the human pineal gland
    S K Huang
    Institut für Anatomie und Zytobiologie, Justus Liebig Universitat, Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 267:493-8. 1992
    ....
  98. ncbi Role of photoperiod and the pineal gland in T cell-dependent humoral immune reactivity in the Siberian hamster
    S M Yellon
    Center for Perinatal Biology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, California 92350, USA
    J Pineal Res 27:243-8. 1999
    ..hypothesis that antibody production in response to xenoantigen is modulated by daylength and dependent upon the pineal gland. Alter injection of sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were 5-fold lower in ..
  99. ncbi The circadian system of reptiles: a multioscillatory and multiphotoreceptive system
    G Tosini
    Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive, SW, Atlanta, GA 30310 1495, USA
    Physiol Behav 72:461-71. 2001
    ..Another remarkable feature of this class is the redundancy of circadian photoreceptors: retinas of the lateral eyes, pineal, parietal eye, and the brain all contain photoreceptors...
  100. ncbi MRI of pineal region tumors
    Y Korogi
    Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Neurooncol 54:251-61. 2001
    The pineal region is a heterogeneous area that includes the pineal gland and several parapineal structures...
  101. ncbi Circadian organization and the role of the pineal in birds
    H Underwood
    Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 53:48-62. 2001
    ....

Research Grants78

  1. Serotonin N Acetyltransferase Mechanism and Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Peak melatonin levels appear to fall off with increasing age. Produced in the pineal gland, melatonin levels vary up to 100-fold over a 24 h day, primarily in response to external light, posture, and ..
  2. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The pineal gland hormone melatonin, which inhibits experimental human breast cancer growth, is produced during darkness; light ..
  3. Discovery of Selective MT1 Melatonin Receptor Ligands for Sleep Disorders
    Margarita L Dubocovich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted in a circadian fashion by the pineal gland, promotes sleep and regulates circadian rhythmicity by activating two membrane-bound G-protein coupled ..
  4. Discovery of Selective MT1 Melatonin Receptor Ligands for Sleep Disorders
    Margarita Dubocovich; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted in a circadian fashion by the pineal gland, promotes sleep and regulates circadian rhythmicity by activating two membrane-bound G-protein coupled ..
  5. PINEAL FUNCTION IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
    Anita Cavallo; Fiscal Year: 1990
    In spite of numerous studies, the role of the pineal gland in human puberty remains unsettled...
  6. Melatonin: pacemaker for nocturnal periodicity of microfilarial parasites
    JEFFERSON ARCHER VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..regulates mf periodicity is the bioactive amine, melatonin, which is secreted into the blood stream from the pineal gland at a regular, circadian periodicity...
  7. Regulation of Bile Duct Growth in Bile Duct Ligated Rats
    SHANNON STROUD GLASER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..from cholangiocytes), paracrine (by administration of melatonin or anti-melatonin antibody) and central (from pineal gland) melatonin synthesis (regulated by the enzyme AANAT expressed in the liver mainly by cholangiocytes) ..
  8. 2012 Pineal Cell Biology Gordon Research ConferenceLinks to circadian clocks, sl
    Vincent M Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..2012 GRC will be to increase our understanding of the molecular networks and biochemical pathways linking the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin with the circadian clock timing system, sleep/wake processing and metabolism...
  9. Melatonin Supplementation in Complementary Breast Cancer Prevention
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The pineal gland hormone melatonin is a potent inhibitor of tumorigenesis in experimental models of breast cancer while, in humans higher and lower nocturnal melatonin blood levels are associated with lower and higher breast cancer risk, ..
  10. PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF OBESITY
    Timothy Bartness; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..weight and fat to the same environmental stimulus (daylength), mediated by the same neuroendocrine transducer (pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin). Three sets of experiments are proposed...
  11. PHOTOPERIODIC CONTROL OF OBESITY
    Timothy Bartness; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..weight and fat to the same environmental stimulus (daylength), mediated by the same neuroendocrine transducer (pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin). Three sets of experiments are proposed...
  12. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the avail pineal gland and the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which have all provided disparate pieces of a very large, ..
  13. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the avail pineal gland and the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which have all provided disparate pieces of a very large, ..
  14. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the avail pineal gland and the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which have all provided disparate pieces of a very large, ..
  15. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the avail pineal gland and the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which have all provided disparate pieces of a very large, ..
  16. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, the avail pineal gland and the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which have all provided disparate pieces of a very large, ..
  17. MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These components, whose relative roles vary among species, include the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the pineal gland and eyes, which influence circadian rhythms via the hormone melatonin...
  18. MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These components, whose relative roles vary among species, include the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the pineal gland and eyes, which influence circadian rhythms via the hormone melatonin...
  19. OCULAR AUTOIMMUNITY INVOLVING RETINA OR UVEA
    CAROLYN KALSOW; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Changes in immunoreactivity of retina and pineal gland will be monitored in animals with different forms of experimental uveitis...
  20. REGULATION OF PEPTIDE EXPRESSION IN NEURONAL CELLS
    Victor May; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The effects of appropriate SCG target cells (cells innervated by SCG), including pineal gland, salivary gland, iris and vascular smooth muscle cells, on neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression will be ..
  21. OCULAR AUTOIMMUNITY INVOLVING RETINA OR UVEA
    CAROLYN KALSOW; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Changes in immunoreactivity of retina and pineal gland will be monitored in animals with different forms of experimental uveitis...
  22. REGULATION OF PEPTIDE EXPRESSION IN NEURONAL CELLS
    Victor May; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The effects of appropriate SCG target cells (cells innervated by SCG), including pineal gland, salivary gland, iris and vascular smooth muscle cells, on neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression will be ..
  23. REGULATION OF PEPTIDE EXPRESSION IN NEURONAL CELLS
    Victor May; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The effects of appropriate SCG target cells (cells innervated by SCG), including pineal gland, salivary gland, iris and vascular smooth muscle cells, on neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression will be ..
  24. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The pineal gland hormone melatonin, which inhibits experimental human breast cancer growth, is produced during darkness; light ..
  25. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The pineal gland hormone melatonin, which inhibits experimental human breast cancer growth, is produced during darkness; light ..
  26. LIGHT DURING DARKNESS AND BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION
    David Blask; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The pineal gland hormone melatonin, which inhibits experimental human breast cancer growth, is produced during darkness; light ..
  27. Sleep Length and Circadian Regulation in Humans
    Helen Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..timing of the human circadian clock by measuring salivary melatonin, a neuroendocrine hormone released from the pineal gland, and collecting measures of sleep via actigraphy, and sleepiness, mood, gastrointestinal distress and cognitive ..
  28. Sleep Length and Circadian Regulation in Humans
    HELEN JULIA BURGESS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..timing of the human circadian clock by measuring salivary melatonin, a neuroendocrine hormone released from the pineal gland, and collecting measures of sleep via actigraphy, and sleepiness, mood, gastrointestinal distress and cognitive ..
  29. Sleep Length and Circadian Regulation in Humans
    Helen Burgess; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..timing of the human circadian clock by measuring salivary melatonin, a neuroendocrine hormone released from the pineal gland, and collecting measures of sleep via actigraphy, and sleepiness, mood, gastrointestinal distress and cognitive ..
  30. Efficacy of melatonin treatment in a phase advance model of insomnia
    CHARLES CZEISLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by investigator): Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland at night. The timing of its release is controlled by the circadian timing system...
  31. NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY OF PUBERTY
    Douglas Foster; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..rhythms by a telemetric system during the early postnatal period will facilitate understanding why the pineal gland of the neonatal lamb does not produce a pattern of melatonin that accords with the prevailing photoperiod...
  32. Efficacy of melatonin treatment in a phase advance model of insomnia
    Charles A Czeisler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by investigator): Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland at night. The timing of its release is controlled by the circadian timing system...
  33. Serotonin N Acetyltransferase Mechanism and Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Peak melatonin levels appear to fall off with increasing age. Produced in the pineal gland, melatonin levels vary up to 100-fold over a 24 h day, primarily in response to external light, posture, and ..
  34. Serotonin N-acethyltransferase Regulation & Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Melatonin is circadian rhythm hormone produced in the pineal gland that is hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of sleep-wake cycle, mood, and the process of aging...
  35. Serotonin N-acethyltransferase Regulation & Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Melatonin is circadian rhythm hormone produced in the pineal gland that is hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of sleep-wake cycle, mood, and the process of aging...
  36. Serotonin N-acethyltransferase Regulation & Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Melatonin is circadian rhythm hormone produced in the pineal gland that is hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of sleep-wake cycle, mood, and the process of aging...
  37. Serotonin N Acetyltransferase Mechanism and Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Peak melatonin levels appear to fall off with increasing age. Produced in the pineal gland, melatonin levels vary up to 100-fold over a 24 h day, primarily in response to external light, posture, and ..
  38. Serotonin N Acetyltransferase Mechanism and Inhibition
    Philip Cole; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Peak melatonin levels appear to fall off with increasing age. Produced in the pineal gland, melatonin levels vary up to 100-fold over a 24 h day, primarily in response to external light, posture, and ..
  39. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF SEASONAL WEIGHT CYCLES
    George Wade; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The effects of photoperiod on body weight are mediated by the pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin, Pinealectomized (PINX) hamsters typically do not respond to changes in photoperiod, ..
  40. RHODOPSIN KINASE--REGULATION, FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE
    Krzysztof Palczewski; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Rhodopsin kinase activity has been detected in the pineal gland and in retinoblastoma cells...
  41. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in the retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  42. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in the retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  43. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in the retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  44. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2000
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in the retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  45. METHOXYINDOLES IN RETINA--FUNCTION AND REGULATION
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the applicant's abstract): Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in the retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  46. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..be studied in 4 instructive model systems: the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, the fungus Neurospora, the chick pineal gland, and the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  47. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Deborah Bell Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..be studied in 4 instructive model systems: the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, the fungus Neurospora, the chick pineal gland, and the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  48. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Vincent Cassone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..be studied in 4 instructive model systems: the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, the fungus Neurospora, the chick pineal gland, and the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  49. HORMONE ACTIONS ON BEHAVIORS
    George Wade; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..In photoperiodic species, the pineal gland acts as a neuroendocrine transducer, converting day length information to an endocrine signal via nocturnal ..
  50. COORDINATION OF CIRCADIAN PHYSIOLOGY OF DIVERSE SPECIES
    Deborah Bell Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..be studied in 4 instructive model systems: the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, the fungus Neurospora, the chick pineal gland, and the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  51. HORMONE ACTIONS ON BEHAVIORS
    George Wade; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In photoperiodic species, the pineal gland acts as a neuroendocrine transducer, converting day length information to an endocrine signal via nocturnal ..
  52. S-ANTIGEN--STRUCTURE/FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS IN UVEITIS
    Larry Donoso; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..These MAbs have been useful in our studies concerning S-antigen in the developing retina, pineal gland and in tumors arising from these tissues. The amino acid sequence of bovine S-antigen has now been determined...
  53. MONOAMINERGIC NEURAL TRANSPLANTS IN DEPRESSION
    Jacqueline Sagen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Monoaminergic graft sources will include the pineal gland, which produces high levels of serotonin, and the adrenal medulla, which produces high levels of norepinephrine...
  54. PINEAL OPIOID RECEPTORS AND ANALGESIC ACTION OF MELATONI
    Manuchair Ebadi; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..brain, the third specific aim of this proposal are to determine the nature of dopamine transporters in bovine pineal gland by using [3H]GBB-12935 and autoradiography and to delineate the expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA ..
  55. REPRODUCTION--PINEAL GRAFTS, LH, FSH, AND PROLACTIN
    MARCIA WELSH; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This proposal addresses the question of how the pineal gland interacts with the CSF in both the intact system and in pineal grafts placed into the third ventricle...
  56. NEUROPEPTIDES RECEPTORS AND PHOTOPERIODISM
    ERIC BITTMAN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..cue which triggers these changes, and the photoperiodic signal is relayed to the neuroendocrine brain by the pineal gland. These phenomena are exemplified in the golden hamster, which will be the subject of the proposed research...
  57. PINEAL GAP JUNCTION--CHARACTERIZATION AND REGULATION
    JUAN SAEZ; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..will control for its effect on junctions formed by connexin 26, which could be relevant to function of the pineal gland as well as to regulation of gap junctions in general...
  58. 60 HZ MAGNETIC FIELD--CLOCKS & REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT
    STEVEN YELLON; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..a prepubertal levels by exposure to short days, an effect that is mediated by the circadian rhythm in pineal gland melatonin production...
  59. Methoxyindoles in Retina: Function and Regulation
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  60. Methoxyindoles in Retina: Function and Regulation
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  61. Methoxyindoles in Retina: Function and Regulation
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  62. Methoxyindoles in Retina: Function and Regulation
    P Iuvone; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized in retina and pineal gland under the influence of circadian clocks. In retina, melatonin synthesis occurs in photoreceptor cells...
  63. RECOVERY OF FUNCTION FOLLOWING NEURAL DAMAGE
    RICHARD ZIGMOND; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..recovery of function after damage to the adult nervous system, using the sympathetic innervation of the rat pineal gland as a model system...