adrenal glands

Summary

Summary: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
    X Luo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Cell 77:481-90. 1994
  2. pmc Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20970-5. 2008
  3. ncbi Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release
    Atsushi Ishida
    Division of Molecular Brain Science, Department of Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Cell Metab 2:297-307. 2005
  4. ncbi Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases
    Y Ikeda
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Mol Endocrinol 8:654-62. 1994
  5. ncbi The chromaffin cell and its development
    Klaus Unsicker
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences IZN and Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Neurochem Res 30:921-5. 2005
  6. ncbi Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT
    Elaine M Caoili
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 9723, USA
    Radiology 222:629-33. 2002
  7. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation contributes to the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone in rats by modulating adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1128-35. 2006
  8. doi Circadian rhythms in the fetus
    Maria Seron-Ferre
    Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:68-75. 2012
  9. pmc Heterozygous missense mutations in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) are associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development with normal adrenal function
    Lin Lin
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:991-9. 2007
  10. pmc Mice deficient in the orphan receptor steroidogenic factor 1 lack adrenal glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme in the placenta and have normal embryonic serum levels of corticosteroids
    Y Sadovsky
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:10939-43. 1995

Detail Information

Publications328 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
    X Luo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Cell 77:481-90. 1994
    ..Despite normal survival in utero, all Ftz-F1 null animals died by postnatal day 8; these animals lacked adrenal glands and gonads and were severely deficient in corticosterone, supporting adrenocortical insufficiency as the ..
  2. pmc Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20970-5. 2008
    ..We conclude that the adrenal peripheral clock plays an essential role in harmonizing the mammalian circadian timing system by generating a robust circadian GC rhythm...
  3. ncbi Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release
    Atsushi Ishida
    Division of Molecular Brain Science, Department of Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Cell Metab 2:297-307. 2005
    ..The magnitude of corticostereone response is dose dependently correlated with the light intensity. The light-induced clock-dependent secretion of glucocorticoids adjusts cellular metabolisms to the new light-on environment...
  4. ncbi Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases
    Y Ikeda
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Mol Endocrinol 8:654-62. 1994
    ..Additionally, SF-1 is expressed in the embryonic forebrain, implying a role in neural development...
  5. ncbi The chromaffin cell and its development
    Klaus Unsicker
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences IZN and Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Neurochem Res 30:921-5. 2005
    ..Such molecules may be candidates for triggering the distinct developmental pathway of chromaffin cells, as opposed to sympathetic neurons...
  6. ncbi Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT
    Elaine M Caoili
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 9723, USA
    Radiology 222:629-33. 2002
    ..To assess the accuracy of a dedicated adrenal computed tomographic (CT) protocol...
  7. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation contributes to the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone in rats by modulating adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1128-35. 2006
    ....
  8. doi Circadian rhythms in the fetus
    Maria Seron-Ferre
    Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:68-75. 2012
    ..Following birth, it will allow for postnatal integration of the scattered fetal circadian clocks into an adult-like circadian system commanded by the SCN...
  9. pmc Heterozygous missense mutations in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) are associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development with normal adrenal function
    Lin Lin
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:991-9. 2007
    ..Consistent with the murine phenotype, human mutations in SF1 were described initially in two 46,XY individuals with female external genitalia, Müllerian structures (uterus), and primary adrenal failure...
  10. pmc Mice deficient in the orphan receptor steroidogenic factor 1 lack adrenal glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme in the placenta and have normal embryonic serum levels of corticosteroids
    Y Sadovsky
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:10939-43. 1995
    ..We examined the role of SF-1 in the adrenal glands and gonads in vivo by a targeted disruption of the mouse SF-1 gene...
  11. ncbi Identification of a novel population of adrenal-like cells in the mammalian testis
    Pierre Val
    Section of Gene Function and Regulation, Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
    Dev Biol 299:250-6. 2006
    ..These studies reveal the complex nature of steroidogenic cell differentiation during urogenital development...
  12. ncbi Sequence and expression levels in human tissues of a new member of the aldo-keto reductase family
    D J Hyndman
    Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1399:198-202. 1998
    ..It is also strongly expressed in the intestinal tract and has been called human small intestine reductase...
  13. ncbi Persistent neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of a novel, etiologically relevant mouse paradigm for chronic social stress during adolescence
    M V Schmidt
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, RG Molecular Stress Physiology, Kraepelinstr 2 10, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 32:417-29. 2007
    ..Moreover, this paradigm allows to investigate the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors...
  14. pmc Odd-skipped related 1 (Odd 1) is an essential regulator of heart and urogenital development
    Qingru Wang
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 611, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Biol 288:582-94. 2005
    ..Furthermore, homozygous Odd 1(-/-) mutant embryos exhibit complete agenesis of adrenal glands, metanephric kidneys, gonads, and defects in pericardium formation...
  15. pmc Effects of nocturnal light on (clock) gene expression in peripheral organs: a role for the autonomic innervation of the liver
    Cathy Cailotto
    Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e5650. 2009
    ..In addition, we investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure...
  16. ncbi Calcium signaling and exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells
    Antonio G Garcia
    Instituto Teofilo Hernando, Departamento de Farmacologia y Terapeutica, and Servicio de Farmacología Clínica e Instituto Universitario de Investigación Gerontológica y Metabólica, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain
    Physiol Rev 86:1093-131. 2006
    ..We propose that chromaffin cells have developed functional triads that are formed by calcium channels, the ER, and the mitochondria and locally control the [Ca2+]c that regulate the early and late steps of exocytosis...
  17. doi Electroacupuncture downregulates TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after surgical trauma stress without adrenal glands involvement
    Jun Wang
    Dept of Integrative Medicine Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, China
    Brain Res Bull 80:89-94. 2009
    ..EA inhibits TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines to produce an anti-inflammatory effect in a surgical trauma stress model, without adrenal gland involvement...
  18. pmc Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery
    Naoyoshi Onoda
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    JSLS 12:420-5. 2008
    ..We report a case of left adrenal schwannoma in a 62-year-old man, incidentally discovered on an abdominal computed tomography. It was successfully treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy...
  19. ncbi Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland
    Hans G Richter
    Instituto de Anatomia, Histologia, y Patologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla P O Box 567, Valdivia, Chile
    Endocrinology 149:995-1003. 2008
    ..It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm...
  20. ncbi Gonadal determination and adrenal development are regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1, in a dose-dependent manner
    John C Achermann
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1829-33. 2002
    ..In addition, these patients reveal the exquisite sensitivity of SF-1-dependent developmental pathways to gene dosage and function in humans...
  21. ncbi Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and sympatho-adrenal axis
    Siok L Dun
    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Peptides 27:1949-55. 2006
    ....
  22. doi Androgen synthesis in adrenarche
    Walter L Miller
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Room 672 S, San Francisco, CA 94143 0978, USA
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 10:3-17. 2009
    ....
  23. doi Melatonin exerts direct inhibitory actions on ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland
    C Campino
    Departamento de Endocrinologia, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Horm Metab Res 43:337-42. 2011
    ..Melatonin inhibited these ACTH effects. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, direct inhibitory effects of melatonin upon several ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland...
  24. ncbi Mouse Polycomb M33 is required for splenic vascular and adrenal gland formation through regulating Ad4BP/SF1 expression
    Yuko Katoh-Fukui
    Division for Sex Differentiation, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5 1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Blood 106:1612-20. 2005
    ..Moreover, the adrenal glands of M33-KO and Ad4BP/SF1 heterozygous KO mice were smaller than those of the wild-type mice...
  25. doi Adrenal function is related to prognosis in moderate community-acquired pneumonia
    M Kolditz
    Dept of Pulmonology, Medical Clinic 1, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstr 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Eur Respir J 36:615-21. 2010
    ..Adrenal function is related to the prognosis of CAP. The diagnostic accuracy of serum cortisol equals that of the PSI score. Serum cortisol should be evaluated within clinical prediction scores on larger studies...
  26. ncbi Maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland
    Claudia Torres-Farfan
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla, Santiago, Chile
    J Pineal Res 41:58-66. 2006
    ..Collectively, the effects of maternal melatonin suppression and their reversion by maternal melatonin replacement suggest that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland...
  27. ncbi Differential regulation of the human adrenocorticotropin receptor [melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R)] by human MC2R accessory protein isoforms alpha and beta in isogenic human embryonic kidney 293 cells
    Simon Roy
    Service d endocrinologie, Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Mol Endocrinol 21:1656-69. 2007
    ....
  28. doi Natural course of small adrenal lesions in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: an endoscopic ultrasound imaging study
    S Schaefer
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Philipp s University, D 35033 Marburg, Germany EU
    Eur J Endocrinol 158:699-704. 2008
    ....
  29. ncbi Targeted insertion of the Cre-recombinase gene at the phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase locus: a new model for studying the developmental distribution of adrenergic cells
    Steven N Ebert
    Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Dev Dyn 231:849-58. 2004
    ....
  30. pmc CBP/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich C-terminal domain, 2, and pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 in human adrenal development and disease
    Bruno Ferraz-de-Souza
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University College London Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:678-83. 2009
    ..Disorders of adrenal development result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular basis of human adrenal development, and many forms of disease, is still poorly understood...
  31. ncbi Differential requirement for steroidogenic factor-1 gene dosage in adrenal development versus endocrine function
    Michelle L Bland
    Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, Box 0444, San Francisco, CA 94143 0444, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 18:941-52. 2004
    ..Our findings underscore the need for full SF-1 gene dosage early in adrenal development, but not in the adult adrenal, where compensatory mechanisms restore near normal function...
  32. ncbi Maternal melatonin effects on clock gene expression in a nonhuman primate fetus
    C Torres-Farfan
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114D, Santiago, Chile
    Endocrinology 147:4618-26. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that maternal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the fetal SCN but probably not for the adrenal gland...
  33. pmc Adrenal glucocorticoids have a key role in circadian resynchronization in a mouse model of jet lag
    Silke Kiessling
    Department Genes and Behavior, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Clin Invest 120:2600-9. 2010
    ..This key role of adrenal glucocorticoid phasing for resetting of the circadian system provides what we believe to be a novel mechanism-based approach for possible therapies for jet lag and jet lag-associated diseases...
  34. ncbi Insm1 (IA-1) is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that controls differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage
    Hendrik Wildner
    Max Delbrück Centrum for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Development 135:473-81. 2008
    ..We demonstrate that the fetal lethality of Insm1 mutant mice is caused by catecholamine deficiency, which highlights the importance of Insm1 in the development of the sympatho-adrenal lineage...
  35. ncbi A microdeletion in the ligand binding domain of human steroidogenic factor 1 causes XY sex reversal without adrenal insufficiency
    Rafaela V Correa
    Developmental Endocrinology Unit, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade Medicina Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403 900, Brazil
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1767-72. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi Transcriptional profiling in the adrenal gland reveals circadian regulation of hormone biosynthesis genes and nucleosome assembly genes
    Henrik Oster
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    J Biol Rhythms 21:350-61. 2006
    ..Among these organs, the adrenal glands hold a prime position because of their regulatory influence on numerous physiological functions via rhythmic ..
  37. ncbi A prospective study of the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in 1,125 hypertensive patients
    Gian Paolo Rossi
    For a list of author affiliations, please see the
    J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2293-300. 2006
    ..We prospectively investigated the prevalence of curable forms of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients...
  38. doi Diurnal rhythmicity of the canonical clock genes Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the rat adrenal gland is unaltered after hypophysectomy
    J Fahrenkrug
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:323-9. 2008
    ..Rhythmic expression of clock genes in the adrenal glands has previously been reported...
  39. ncbi Human fetal chromaffin cells: a potential tool for cell pain therapy
    Suzanne Jozan
    Laboratory of Pain and Cell Therapy EA 3039, Rangueil Medical School, Histology Embryology Department, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France
    Exp Neurol 205:525-35. 2007
    ..This strategy is under investigation in our laboratory...
  40. ncbi Tissue growth and remodeling of the embryonic and adult adrenal gland
    Michelle L Bland
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0444, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 995:59-72. 2003
    ..In addition, we will review the most current data on how extracellular signaling pathways are coupled to the function of these important regulators of adrenal development and function...
  41. ncbi CART peptide analysis by Western blotting
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Synapse 33:163-71. 1999
    ..The higher molecular weight species are likely to include preproCART and proCART, while lower molecular weight peptides may be CART 55-102 and 62-102, physiologically active fragments...
  42. doi Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal
    C Torres-Farfan
    Facultad de Medicina, Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Endocrinology 150:2717-22. 2009
    ..Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH...
  43. pmc MRAP and MRAP2 are bidirectional regulators of the melanocortin receptor family
    Li F Chan
    Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6146-51. 2009
    ..Collectively, our data identify MRAP and MRAP2 as unique bidirectional regulators of the MCR family...
  44. doi Adrenal imaging: from Addison to algorithms
    Giles W L Boland
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, White Building 270C, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Radiol Clin North Am 49:511-28, vii. 2011
    Despite their small size, pathologic condition of the adrenal glands is often far from insignificant...
  45. doi Fetal adrenal gland alterations in a rat model of adverse intrauterine environment
    Karine Bibeau
    Research Centre, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste Catherine, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1C5
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R899-911. 2010
    ..to evaluate the expression of proteins and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis and catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands from IUGR fetuses...
  46. doi Risk factors and outcome of changes in adrenal response to ACTH in the course of critical illness
    Margriet Fleur Charlotte de Jong
    Department of Intensive Care and Institute for Cardiovascular Research, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Intensive Care Med 27:37-44. 2012
    ....
  47. doi Adrenal imaging
    Giles W L Boland
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA
    Abdom Imaging 36:472-82. 2011
    ..Imagers should be familiar with these techniques to expedite treatment, especially in cancer patients and so prevent unnecessary biopsies, costs, and anxiety...
  48. ncbi Social stress and T cell maturation in male rats: transient and persistent alterations in thymic function
    Harald Engler
    Department of Animal Physiology, University of Bayreuth, D 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:951-69. 2003
    ....
  49. ncbi Mice, melatonin and the circadian system
    H W Korf
    Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Fachbereich Medizin, J W Goethe Universitat, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 252:57-68. 2006
    ..In conclusion, melatonin may serve the synchronization of peripheral oscillators by interacting with other neuroactive substances. A stress-reducing potency of melatonin needs to be explored in further studies...
  50. ncbi Neurotrophin and GDNF expression increases in rat adrenal glands during experimental colitis
    G Flämig
    Department of Medicine I, University of Ulm, Germany
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 22:461-6. 2001
    ..Neurotrophins and GDNF have been recently recognized as important local regulators of inflammatory processes of the gut...
  51. ncbi Sympathoadrenal system differentially affects photoperiodic changes in humoral immunity of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)
    G E Demas
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA
    J Neuroendocrinol 14:29-35. 2002
    ..NE content was markedly reduced in denervated hamsters compared to sham-operated hamsters. Collectively, these results suggest that the sympathoadrenal system is associated with photoperiodic changes in immune function...
  52. ncbi Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging
    T D Barwick
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, London, UK
    Clin Radiol 60:953-9. 2005
    An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent...
  53. ncbi Role of ovary and adrenal glands in hyperandrogenemia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
    N Kamel
    Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, Turkey
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 113:115-21. 2005
    Ovary is the main source of the hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adrenal glands may also be involved in the pathogenesis of the development of PCOS...
  54. doi Molecular genetics of the stress-responsive adrenocortical axis
    Eva E Redei
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, The Asher Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA
    Ann Med 40:139-48. 2008
    ..The significance of individual variations in the glucocorticoid stress-responsiveness, with particular attention to their potential role in the recent explosion of obesity and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome X, is commented upon...
  55. ncbi A case of ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia successfully treated by subtotal resection of the adrenal glands: four-year follow-up
    Yukio Kageyama
    Department of Urology and Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    Endocr J 49:227-9. 2002
    ..Subtotal resection of the adrenal glands preserving lower one third of the left side was performed, considering the unfavorable effects of total ..
  56. doi Comparative effect of FGF2, synthetic peptides 1-28 N-POMC and ACTH on proliferation in rat adrenal cell primary cultures
    Gabriele E Mattos
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Cell Tissue Res 345:343-56. 2011
    ..Further elucidation of 1-28 POMC signal transduction is of interest, and primary cultures of adrenal cells were found to be useful for examining the trophic activity of this peptide...
  57. ncbi Reduced adrenal response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in interleukin-6-deficient mice
    F H van Enckevort
    Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Endocrinol Invest 24:786-95. 2001
    ..The reduced adrenal response after LPS administration found in IL-6 -/- mice indicates a distinct role for IL-6 in the activation of the HPA axis by LPS...
  58. doi Aggravation of DSS-induced colitis after chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing is partially mediated by adrenal mechanisms
    Stefan O Reber
    Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Stress 11:225-34. 2008
    ..In conclusion, exposure to chronic psycho-social stress increases the severity of acute DSS colitis, an effect which is, at least partly, mediated by adrenal mechanisms...
  59. doi Severity and outcome of acute stroke in women: relation to adrenal sex steroid levels
    Theodora Pappa
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, Athens University School of Medicine, Greece
    Metabolism 61:84-91. 2012
    ..Well-designed prospective studies will further clarify their role in cerebrovascular disease...
  60. ncbi Changes in mitochondrial and microsomal lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profiles in adrenal glands, testes, and livers from alpha-tocopherol-deficient rats
    J M Burczynski
    Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1029-35. 2001
    ..on the fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation (LP) of mitochondria and microsomes from adrenal glands, testes, and livers...
  61. doi The adrenal peripheral clock: glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Brain Research Center for the 21st Century Frontier Program in Neuroscience, Seoul 151 742, Republic of Korea
    Front Neuroendocrinol 32:451-65. 2011
    ..In this review, we will therefore focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the circadian regulation of adrenal GC and its functional relevance...
  62. doi Chronic psychosocial stress results in sensitization of the HPA axis to acute heterotypic stressors despite a reduction of adrenal in vitro ACTH responsiveness
    Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
    Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1676-87. 2012
    ..and pharmacological doses of ACTH revealed an attenuated responsiveness of both the left and right adrenal glands following CSC, despite mRNA and/or protein expression of melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), Mc2r accessory ..
  63. ncbi Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration
    Edward B Stelow
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 33:26-30. 2005
    ..from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms...
  64. doi Behavioural consequences of two chronic psychosocial stress paradigms: anxiety without depression
    David A Slattery
    Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:702-14. 2012
    ..In conclusion, both models are unique for uncovering the molecular underpinnings of anxiety-related behaviour without conflicting depression-based alterations...
  65. ncbi Corticosterone-dependent driving influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus on adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Dominique Sage
    Interactions Fonctionnelles en Neuroendocrinologie, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Institut Federatif Jean Roche, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13916 Marseille, France
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E458-65. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the SCN upregulates ACTH sensitivity of the adrenal cortex during the ascending phase of the daily CORT secretion and point to a critical role of glucocorticoids in determining SCN action...
  66. ncbi Cellular characterization of the tropism of recombinant adenovirus for the adrenal glands
    Y Wang
    Cancer Research UK, Imperial College, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Invest 33:794-8. 2003
    Recombinant adenoviruses are widely used in gene therapy clinical trials. A particular tropism for the adrenal glands has been reported but the precise cellular base for this tropism has not been determined.
  67. doi Regular exercise prevents the development of hyperglucocorticoidemia via adaptations in the brain and adrenal glands in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats
    Jonathan E Campbell
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Faculty of Health, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Canada
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R168-76. 2010
    ..Thus, the gradual elevations in glucocorticoid levels associated with the development of insulin resistance in male ZDF rats can be prevented with regular exercise, likely because of adaptations that occur primarily in the adrenal glands.
  68. pmc Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures
    Hiroyuki Okada
    Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Histochem Cytochem 60:290-300. 2012
    ..optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle...
  69. ncbi Dissociated human embryonic and fetal adrenal glands in neural stem cell culture system: open fate for neuronal, nonneuronal, and chromaffin lineages?
    Jean Claude Bes
    The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 971:563-72. 2002
  70. ncbi Role of maternal adrenal glands on the developing serotoninergic and aminoacidergic systems of the postnatal rat brain
    M L Leret
    Department of Animal Biology II Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Int J Dev Neurosci 22:87-93. 2004
    ..A sexually dimorphic response to the removal of maternal glucocorticoids was seen in terms of neurotransmitter levels, mainly in the hippocampus and hypothalamus...
  71. ncbi A family of cAMP-binding proteins that directly activate Rap1
    H Kawasaki
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA
    Science 282:2275-9. 1998
    ..Our findings suggest the need to reformulate concepts of cAMP-mediated signaling to include direct coupling to Ras superfamily signaling...
  72. ncbi Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis
    Hitoshi Ishimoto
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0556, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1909-15. 2006
    ..A newer angiogenic factor family, the angiopoietins (Angs), also plays critical roles. Ang1 stabilizes, whereas Ang2 destabilizes vessels, increasing responsiveness to angiogenic stimuli...
  73. ncbi In vivo and in vitro screening for illegitimate receptors in adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing Cushing's syndrome: identification of two cases of gonadotropin/gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent hypercortisolism
    Jerome Bertherat
    Institut Fédératif de Recherche Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides 23, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U413, Department of Endocrinology, Hospital of Boisguillaume, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Rouen, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1302-10. 2005
    ..Our data also show a hyperresponsiveness of hyperplastic adrenal tissues to 5-HT, angiotensin II, and AVP. Finally, they reveal for the first time the presence of paracrine regulatory signals in adrenal hyperplasia tissues...
  74. ncbi Role for adrenal venous sampling in primary aldosteronism
    William F Young
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, NY 55905, USA
    Surgery 136:1227-35. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) on the management of patients with primary aldosteronism...
  75. ncbi A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia
    Anelia Horvath
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 38:794-800. 2006
    ....
  76. ncbi MR imaging of the adrenal glands
    Hero K Hussain
    Department of Radiology MRI B2B311, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 12:515-44, vii. 2004
    MR imaging is used commonly for imaging the adrenal glands. Its high-contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capability enables the detection and characterization of many adrenal masses...
  77. ncbi The transcriptional regulating protein of 132 kDa (TReP-132) enhances P450scc gene transcription through interaction with steroidogenic factor-1 in human adrenal cells
    Florence Gizard
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University, Quebec GIK 7P4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:39144-55. 2002
    ..Taken together the results in this study identify a novel function of TReP-132 as a partner in a complex with SF-1 and CBP/p300 to regulate gene transcription involved in steroidogenesis...
  78. ncbi Functions of the upstream and proximal steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)-binding sites in the CYP11A1 promoter in basal transcription and hormonal response
    M C Hu
    Institute of Molecular Biology Academia Sinica Nankang, Taipei Taiwan 115, Republic of China
    Mol Endocrinol 15:812-8. 2001
    ..These results indicate that the upstream SF-1-binding site is required for hormonal stimulation. Our experiments demonstrate the participation of both the proximal and the upstream SF-1-binding sites in hormone-responsive transcription...
  79. pmc The periphery of the human fetal adrenal gland is a site of angiogenesis: zonal differential expression and regulation of angiogenic factors
    Hitoshi Ishimoto
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2402-8. 2008
    ..Ang1 stabilizes, whereas Ang2 destabilizes, vessels, increasing responsiveness to angiogenic stimuli such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2...
  80. doi A possible role of insulin-like growth factor-II C-peptide in regulating the function of steroidogenic cells in adult frog adrenal glands
    Songül Süren Castillo
    Istanbul University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Zoology Section, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul, Turkey
    Acta Histochem 110:451-61. 2008
    ..presence of IGF receptors by which the IGF-II C-peptide could mediate its effects in the frog (Rana ridibunda) adrenal glands and to observe whether injection of IGF-II C-peptide affects the function of adrenal steroidogenic cells using ..
  81. ncbi Cushing's syndrome secondary to ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia
    Marcia Helena Soares Costa
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Centre hospitalierde l Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 51:1226-37. 2007
    ..The identification of these receptors creates the possibility of a specific pharmacological treatment isolated or associated with adrenalectomy...
  82. ncbi Analysis of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) expression in human adrenocortical hyperplasia
    Marcia Helena Soares Costa
    Unidade de Endocrinologia do Desenvolvimento, Laboratorio de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular LIM 42, Divisão de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53:326-31. 2009
    ....
  83. doi Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis
    Ping Li
    Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025, China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390:1208-13. 2009
    ..Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been ..
  84. ncbi Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands
    H Buurman
    Institute of Pathology of the Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Endocr Pathol 17:277-82. 2006
    ..The incidence and type of pathological findings in a large group of surgically removed adrenal glands were analyzed: 282 resected adrenals from the years 1995 to 2004 were examined; 242 adrenals were removed for ..
  85. doi Adrenocortical development and cancer: focus on SF-1
    Enzo Lalli
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
    J Mol Endocrinol 44:301-7. 2010
    ..Here, I discuss recent data in the literature showing the implication of SF-1 and the importance of its dosage not only during development but also for adrenal cortex tumorigenesis in humans and mice...
  86. doi A large single-center experience of EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenal glands: diagnostic utility and impact on patient management
    Mohamad A Eloubeidi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Alabama in Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Gastrointest Endosc 71:745-53. 2010
    ..EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenals has been described, but data are very limited...
  87. pmc Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands
    Preetha Shridas
    Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, The Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:20031-9. 2010
    ..protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA(..
  88. ncbi The effects of proopiomelanocortin deficiency on murine adrenal development and responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin
    Anthony P Coll
    Department of Medicine, Box 232, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QR, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 145:4721-7. 2004
    ..b>Adrenal glands were found in all mice, although the glands of Pomc-/- mice had markedly reduced weight compared with control ..
  89. ncbi Anatomical variations in the drainage of the principal adrenal veins: the results of 88 venograms
    P Sebe
    Laboratoire d Anatomie, Faculte de Medecine, Paris, France
    Surg Radiol Anat 24:222-5. 2002
    ..These were seen with a frequency of 5% on the right and 6% on the left. On the right, we have described ectopic anastomoses with the hepatic veins. On the left, the variations were always linked to an anomaly of the renal vein...
  90. doi Adrenal vein sampling for primary aldosteronism: the assessment of selectivity and lateralization of aldosterone excess baseline and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation
    Gian Paolo Rossi
    DMCS Clinica Medica 4, University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, 35126 Padova, Italy
    J Hypertens 26:989-97. 2008
    ..Adrenal vein sampling is crucial for identifying the primary aldosteronism subtypes, but the cutoff values for ascertaining selectivity of catheterization and lateralization of aldosterone secretion remain controversial...
  91. ncbi Predicting surgically remedial primary aldosteronism: role of adrenal scanning, posture testing, and adrenal vein sampling
    E A Espiner
    Department of Endocrinology, Christchurch Hospital, Private Bag 4710, Christchurch, New Zealand
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3637-44. 2003
    ..Confirmation of the recommended diagnostic approach must now await larger prospective studies...
  92. ncbi Differential control of adrenal and sympathetic catecholamine release by alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes
    Marc Brede
    Institut fur Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universitat Wurzburg, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Endocrinol 17:1640-6. 2003
    ..Short-loop feedback inhibition of epinephrine release from the adrenal gland may represent a novel therapeutic target for diseases that arise from enhanced adrenergic stimulation...
  93. ncbi The role of Phox2B in chromaffin cell development
    Katrin Huber
    Neuroanatomy, Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Biol 279:501-8. 2005
    ..5. We conclude that Phox2B regulates very early events in the differentiation of adrenal chromaffin cells distinct to steps, which essentially require MASH-1...
  94. ncbi Should we use etomidate as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock?: a critical appraisal
    William L Jackson
    Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Critical Care Medicine Service, Building 2, Room 3M12, 6900 Georgia Ave NW, Washington, DC 20307 5001, USA
    Chest 127:1031-8. 2005
    ..The potential role for concomitant empiric steroid replacement and the comparability of alternative induction regimens are also discussed...
  95. pmc Synaptotagmin-1 and -7 are functionally overlapping Ca2+ sensors for exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells
    Jean Sébastien Schonn
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3998-4003. 2008
    ....
  96. ncbi Gonadal dysgenesis without adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XY patient heterozygous for the nonsense C16X mutation: a case of SF1 haploinsufficiency
    Delphine Mallet
    Laboratoire de biochimie endocrinienne et moléculaire, Hopital Debrousse, and EA3739, Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4829-32. 2004
    ..These data suggest that heterozygous mutation impaired adrenal development only if the two mechanisms, gene dosage and dominant negative effects occur...
  97. ncbi Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in isolated mice adrenal glands
    Karen Toska
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 971:66-8. 2002
    ..This is consistent with studies in other mammals, indicating a role of stress-activated protein kinases in TH regulation...
  98. ncbi Primary aldosteronism
    Michael Stowasser
    Hypertension Unit, University of Queensland Department of Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane 4102, Australia
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 17:591-605. 2003
    ....
  99. pmc Steroid-induced polycystic ovaries in rats: effect of electro-acupuncture on concentrations of endothelin-1 and nerve growth factor (NGF), and expression of NGF mRNA in the ovaries, the adrenal glands, and the central nervous system
    Elisabet Stener-Victorin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Göteborg University SE 413 45 Göteborg, Sweden
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 1:33. 2003
    ....
  100. ncbi Extra-adrenal production of corticosteroids
    Eleanor Davies
    Blood Pressure Group, Division of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 30:437-45. 2003
    ..This will depend on factors such as local concentration, proximity to target cells and, possibly, to tissue-specific control mechanisms...
  101. ncbi Sex differences in oestrogen receptor levels in adrenal glands of sheep during the breeding season
    E van Lier
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 25:373-87. 2003
    ..levels of ERalpha, progesterone receptor (PR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were characterised in adrenal glands and uterine tissue of adult Corriedale sheep during the breeding season...

Research Grants71

  1. TYPE II 3BETA HSD GENE--REGULATION OF DHEAS SYNTHESIS
    Peter Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In this model, human ZF cells replace the function of the animals' own adrenal glands. The ability of ZR cells to form functional vascularized tissue in this model will be tested...
  2. Image-Guided Surgery of Endocrine Glands and Their Tumors using Near-Infrared Flu
    John V Frangioni; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., insulinoma and ovarian cancer) and the avoidance of normal endocrine tissue (e.g., thyroid and adrenal glands) represent a significant unmet clinical need, with no available contrast agents...
  3. Adrenal GRKs and Adrenergic Signaling in Heart Failure
    Walter J Koch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Indeed, novel preliminary data from us show enhanced expression and activity of GRK2 in adrenal glands of multiple models of HF resulting in significant <x2AR dysregulation...
  4. Adrenal GRKs and Adrenergic Signaling in Heart Failure
    Walter Koch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Indeed, novel preliminary data from us show enhanced expression and activity of GRK2 in adrenal glands of multiple models of HF resulting in significant <x2AR dysregulation...
  5. Adrenal GRKs and Adrenergic Signaling in Heart Failure
    Walter Koch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Indeed, novel preliminary data from us show enhanced expression and activity of GRK2 in adrenal glands of multiple models of HF resulting in significant <x2AR dysregulation...
  6. NUCLEAR MYOSIN I
    Primal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in the absence, but not the presence, of ATP and it is recognized by an antibody to myosin I purified from adrenal glands. Microsequencing of the 120 kDa protein has positively identified it as a member of the myosin I beta ..
  7. HYPOTHALAMIC/PITUITARY/ADRENAL AXIS AND ALCOHOLISM
    Gary Wand; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Regulation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands will be studied after administration of CRH, Cortrosyn, naloxone and placebo in order to test: i) the ..
  8. EXERCISE INDUCED CHANGES IN HPA ACTIVITY IN FIBROMYALGIA
    Patricia Deuster; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Thus, exercise may confer benefit in FMS by upregulating hypothalamic drive to the pituitary and adrenal glands. The overall objective of this proposal is to determine whether aerobic training benefits FMS by inducing ..
  9. SMITH-LEMLI-OPITZ SYNDROME STEROIDOGENESIS
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..synthesis (7-dehydrocholesterol-7-reductase deficiency) it is likely that steroid hormone synthesis by the adrenal glands and gonads is impacted because all such compounds utilize cholesterol as precursor...
  10. The Effects of Neuroactive Steroids on Acute Ethanol Withdrawal in Mice
    KATHERINE GILILLAND; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..data has shown that removal of the peripheral sources of pregnane steroids (such as ALLO), primarily the adrenal glands in male mice and the adrenals and ovaries in females mice, increased acute ethanol withdrawal severity...
  11. Steroid As Cytoprotectants against Oxidative Toxicity
    Qin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Stress is known to cause an increase in the synthesis of corticosteroids by the adrenal glands. Although corticosteroids have been shown to contribute to the pathophysiology of suppressed Immune response and a number of psychiatric ..
  12. SF1--KEY MEDIATOR OF ENDOCRINE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION
    Keith Parker; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..SF-1 knockout mice lack adrenal glands and gonads, have impaired pituitary gonadotrope function, and lack the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH),..