adrenal glands

Summary

Summary: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology of human steroidogenesis and its disorders
    Walter L Miller
    Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0978, USA
    Endocr Rev 32:81-151. 2011
  2. ncbi A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
    X Luo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Cell 77:481-90. 1994
  3. ncbi Circadian rhythms in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
    A Kalsbeek
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:20-9. 2012
  4. pmc Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20970-5. 2008
  5. ncbi Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release
    Atsushi Ishida
    Division of Molecular Brain Science, Department of Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Cell Metab 2:297-307. 2005
  6. ncbi Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases
    Y Ikeda
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Mol Endocrinol 8:654-62. 1994
  7. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation modulates adrenal cortical responses to dehydration stress in rats
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, USA
    Neuroendocrinology 76:79-92. 2002
  8. ncbi Circadian rhythms in the fetus
    Maria Seron-Ferre
    Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:68-75. 2012
  9. ncbi Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT
    Elaine M Caoili
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 9723, USA
    Radiology 222:629-33. 2002
  10. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation contributes to the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone in rats by modulating adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1128-35. 2006

Detail Information

Publications340 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology of human steroidogenesis and its disorders
    Walter L Miller
    Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0978, USA
    Endocr Rev 32:81-151. 2011
    ..Understanding steroidogenesis is of fundamental importance to understanding disorders of sexual differentiation, reproduction, fertility, hypertension, obesity, and physiological homeostasis...
  2. ncbi A cell-specific nuclear receptor is essential for adrenal and gonadal development and sexual differentiation
    X Luo
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Cell 77:481-90. 1994
    ..Despite normal survival in utero, all Ftz-F1 null animals died by postnatal day 8; these animals lacked adrenal glands and gonads and were severely deficient in corticosterone, supporting adrenocortical insufficiency as the ..
  3. ncbi Circadian rhythms in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
    A Kalsbeek
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:20-9. 2012
    ..The HPA-axis thus still is an excellent model for studying the transmission of circadian information in the body...
  4. pmc Adrenal peripheral clock controls the autonomous circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid by causing rhythmic steroid production
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:20970-5. 2008
    ..We conclude that the adrenal peripheral clock plays an essential role in harmonizing the mammalian circadian timing system by generating a robust circadian GC rhythm...
  5. ncbi Light activates the adrenal gland: timing of gene expression and glucocorticoid release
    Atsushi Ishida
    Division of Molecular Brain Science, Department of Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    Cell Metab 2:297-307. 2005
    ..The magnitude of corticostereone response is dose dependently correlated with the light intensity. The light-induced clock-dependent secretion of glucocorticoids adjusts cellular metabolisms to the new light-on environment...
  6. ncbi Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases
    Y Ikeda
    Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
    Mol Endocrinol 8:654-62. 1994
    ..Additionally, SF-1 is expressed in the embryonic forebrain, implying a role in neural development...
  7. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation modulates adrenal cortical responses to dehydration stress in rats
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455, USA
    Neuroendocrinology 76:79-92. 2002
    ..were water deprived for 48 h or given free access to water, and then sacrificed for collection of plasma and adrenal glands. Water deprivation resulted in consistent, robust increases in plasma corticosterone that were attenuated by ..
  8. ncbi Circadian rhythms in the fetus
    Maria Seron-Ferre
    Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 349:68-75. 2012
    ..Following birth, it will allow for postnatal integration of the scattered fetal circadian clocks into an adult-like circadian system commanded by the SCN...
  9. ncbi Adrenal masses: characterization with combined unenhanced and delayed enhanced CT
    Elaine M Caoili
    Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 9723, USA
    Radiology 222:629-33. 2002
    ..To assess the accuracy of a dedicated adrenal computed tomographic (CT) protocol...
  10. ncbi Adrenal splanchnic innervation contributes to the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone in rats by modulating adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1128-35. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi The chromaffin cell and its development
    Klaus Unsicker
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences IZN and Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, D 69120, Heidelberg, Germany
    Neurochem Res 30:921-5. 2005
    ..Such molecules may be candidates for triggering the distinct developmental pathway of chromaffin cells, as opposed to sympathetic neurons...
  12. ncbi New signaling pathways for hormones and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate action in endocrine cells
    J S Richards
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030 3498, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 15:209-18. 2001
    ..Thus, FSH and TSH activation of PKB and Sgk may occur via this alternative cAMP pathway that involves cAMP-GEFs and the activation of the PI3-K/PDK1 pathway...
  13. pmc Mice deficient in the orphan receptor steroidogenic factor 1 lack adrenal glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme in the placenta and have normal embryonic serum levels of corticosteroids
    Y Sadovsky
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:10939-43. 1995
    ..We examined the role of SF-1 in the adrenal glands and gonads in vivo by a targeted disruption of the mouse SF-1 gene...
  14. pmc Heterozygous missense mutations in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/Ad4BP, NR5A1) are associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development with normal adrenal function
    Lin Lin
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:991-9. 2007
    ..Consistent with the murine phenotype, human mutations in SF1 were described initially in two 46,XY individuals with female external genitalia, Müllerian structures (uterus), and primary adrenal failure...
  15. ncbi Identification of a novel population of adrenal-like cells in the mammalian testis
    Pierre Val
    Section of Gene Function and Regulation, Institute of Cancer Research, London SW3 6JB, UK
    Dev Biol 299:250-6. 2006
    ..These studies reveal the complex nature of steroidogenic cell differentiation during urogenital development...
  16. ncbi Persistent neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of a novel, etiologically relevant mouse paradigm for chronic social stress during adolescence
    M V Schmidt
    Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, RG Molecular Stress Physiology, Kraepelinstr 2 10, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 32:417-29. 2007
    ..Moreover, this paradigm allows to investigate the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors...
  17. ncbi Sequence and expression levels in human tissues of a new member of the aldo-keto reductase family
    D J Hyndman
    Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University, Kingston, Canada
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1399:198-202. 1998
    ..It is also strongly expressed in the intestinal tract and has been called human small intestine reductase...
  18. ncbi The rise in adrenal androgen biosynthesis: adrenarche
    Jon C Havelock
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390 9032, USA
    Semin Reprod Med 22:337-47. 2004
    ..In addition, children with premature and exaggerated adrenarche may be predisposed to certain diseases later in life...
  19. ncbi NF-1C, Sp1, and Sp3 are essential for transcription of the human gene for P450c17 (steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase) in human adrenal NCI-H295A cells
    C J Lin
    Department of Pediatrics and the Metabolic Research Unit, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0978, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 15:1277-93. 2001
    ..Thus, Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the -227/-184 site and NF-1C proteins binding to the -107/-85 and the -178/-152 sites are crucial for adrenal transcription of the human gene for P450c17...
  20. ncbi Calcium signaling and exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells
    Antonio G Garcia
    Instituto Teofilo Hernando, Departamento de Farmacologia y Terapeutica, and Servicio de Farmacología Clínica e Instituto Universitario de Investigación Gerontológica y Metabólica, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain
    Physiol Rev 86:1093-131. 2006
    ..We propose that chromaffin cells have developed functional triads that are formed by calcium channels, the ER, and the mitochondria and locally control the [Ca2+]c that regulate the early and late steps of exocytosis...
  21. pmc Effects of nocturnal light on (clock) gene expression in peripheral organs: a role for the autonomic innervation of the liver
    Cathy Cailotto
    Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e5650. 2009
    ..In addition, we investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure...
  22. pmc Odd-skipped related 1 (Odd 1) is an essential regulator of heart and urogenital development
    Qingru Wang
    Center for Oral Biology and Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 611, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Dev Biol 288:582-94. 2005
    ..Furthermore, homozygous Odd 1(-/-) mutant embryos exhibit complete agenesis of adrenal glands, metanephric kidneys, gonads, and defects in pericardium formation...
  23. ncbi Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland
    Hans G Richter
    Instituto de Anatomia, Histologia, y Patologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla P O Box 567, Valdivia, Chile
    Endocrinology 149:995-1003. 2008
    ..It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm...
  24. ncbi Mouse Polycomb M33 is required for splenic vascular and adrenal gland formation through regulating Ad4BP/SF1 expression
    Yuko Katoh-Fukui
    Division for Sex Differentiation, National Institute for Basic Biology, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5 1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Blood 106:1612-20. 2005
    ..Moreover, the adrenal glands of M33-KO and Ad4BP/SF1 heterozygous KO mice were smaller than those of the wild-type mice...
  25. ncbi Androgen synthesis in adrenarche
    Walter L Miller
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Room 672 S, San Francisco, CA 94143 0978, USA
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 10:3-17. 2009
    ....
  26. pmc Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery
    Naoyoshi Onoda
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    JSLS 12:420-5. 2008
    ..We report a case of left adrenal schwannoma in a 62-year-old man, incidentally discovered on an abdominal computed tomography. It was successfully treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy...
  27. ncbi Adrenal function is related to prognosis in moderate community-acquired pneumonia
    M Kolditz
    Dept of Pulmonology, Medical Clinic 1, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstr 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Eur Respir J 36:615-21. 2010
    ..Adrenal function is related to the prognosis of CAP. The diagnostic accuracy of serum cortisol equals that of the PSI score. Serum cortisol should be evaluated within clinical prediction scores on larger studies...
  28. ncbi Electroacupuncture downregulates TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after surgical trauma stress without adrenal glands involvement
    Jun Wang
    Dept of Integrative Medicine Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture Research, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, China
    Brain Res Bull 80:89-94. 2009
    ..EA inhibits TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines to produce an anti-inflammatory effect in a surgical trauma stress model, without adrenal gland involvement...
  29. ncbi Melatonin exerts direct inhibitory actions on ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland
    C Campino
    Departamento de Endocrinologia, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Horm Metab Res 43:337-42. 2011
    ..Melatonin inhibited these ACTH effects. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, direct inhibitory effects of melatonin upon several ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland...
  30. ncbi Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and sympatho-adrenal axis
    Siok L Dun
    Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Peptides 27:1949-55. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi Maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland
    Claudia Torres-Farfan
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla, Santiago, Chile
    J Pineal Res 41:58-66. 2006
    ..Collectively, the effects of maternal melatonin suppression and their reversion by maternal melatonin replacement suggest that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland...
  32. ncbi Gonadal determination and adrenal development are regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1, in a dose-dependent manner
    John C Achermann
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1829-33. 2002
    ..In addition, these patients reveal the exquisite sensitivity of SF-1-dependent developmental pathways to gene dosage and function in humans...
  33. pmc CBP/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich C-terminal domain, 2, and pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 in human adrenal development and disease
    Bruno Ferraz-de-Souza
    Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, University College London Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:678-83. 2009
    ..Disorders of adrenal development result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular basis of human adrenal development, and many forms of disease, is still poorly understood...
  34. ncbi Natural course of small adrenal lesions in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: an endoscopic ultrasound imaging study
    S Schaefer
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Philipp s University, D 35033 Marburg, Germany EU
    Eur J Endocrinol 158:699-704. 2008
    ....
  35. ncbi Targeted insertion of the Cre-recombinase gene at the phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase locus: a new model for studying the developmental distribution of adrenergic cells
    Steven N Ebert
    Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Dev Dyn 231:849-58. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi Differential requirement for steroidogenic factor-1 gene dosage in adrenal development versus endocrine function
    Michelle L Bland
    Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, Box 0444, San Francisco, CA 94143 0444, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 18:941-52. 2004
    ..Our findings underscore the need for full SF-1 gene dosage early in adrenal development, but not in the adult adrenal, where compensatory mechanisms restore near normal function...
  37. ncbi Differential regulation of the human adrenocorticotropin receptor [melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R)] by human MC2R accessory protein isoforms alpha and beta in isogenic human embryonic kidney 293 cells
    Simon Roy
    Service d endocrinologie, Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4
    Mol Endocrinol 21:1656-69. 2007
    ....
  38. ncbi Neuropeptide Y modulates steroid production of human adrenal H295R cells through Y1 receptors
    P Kempna
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, University Children s Hospital Bern, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 314:101-9. 2010
    ..At mRNA level, NPY decreased HSD3B2 and CYP21A2 expression. However NPY revealed no effect on cell proliferation. Our data show that NPY can directly regulate human adrenal cortisol production...
  39. ncbi Maternal melatonin effects on clock gene expression in a nonhuman primate fetus
    C Torres-Farfan
    Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114D, Santiago, Chile
    Endocrinology 147:4618-26. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that maternal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the fetal SCN but probably not for the adrenal gland...
  40. pmc Adrenal glucocorticoids have a key role in circadian resynchronization in a mouse model of jet lag
    Silke Kiessling
    Department Genes and Behavior, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    J Clin Invest 120:2600-9. 2010
    ..This key role of adrenal glucocorticoid phasing for resetting of the circadian system provides what we believe to be a novel mechanism-based approach for possible therapies for jet lag and jet lag-associated diseases...
  41. ncbi A microdeletion in the ligand binding domain of human steroidogenic factor 1 causes XY sex reversal without adrenal insufficiency
    Rafaela V Correa
    Developmental Endocrinology Unit, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade Medicina Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403 900, Brazil
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1767-72. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Insm1 (IA-1) is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that controls differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage
    Hendrik Wildner
    Max Delbrück Centrum for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rossle Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    Development 135:473-81. 2008
    ..We demonstrate that the fetal lethality of Insm1 mutant mice is caused by catecholamine deficiency, which highlights the importance of Insm1 in the development of the sympatho-adrenal lineage...
  43. ncbi Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection in mice
    Eliane Correa-de-Santana
    Laboratory on Thymus Research, Department of Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ave Brasil 4365, Manguinhos 21045 900, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Neuroimmunol 173:12-22. 2006
    ..Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of pituitary and adrenal glands of infected animals revealed several alterations including vascular stasis, upregulation of the extracellular ..
  44. ncbi The orphan nuclear receptor NGFIB regulates transcription of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. implications for the control of adrenal functional zonation
    Mary H Bassett
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9032, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:37622-30. 2004
    ..In primary cultures of adrenal cells, ACTH, an activator of HSD3B2, rapidly induced expression of NGFIB. These results suggest that NGFIB plays a crucial role in adrenal zonation by regulating HSD3B2 gene transcription...
  45. ncbi Human fetal chromaffin cells: a potential tool for cell pain therapy
    Suzanne Jozan
    Laboratory of Pain and Cell Therapy EA 3039, Rangueil Medical School, Histology Embryology Department, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France
    Exp Neurol 205:525-35. 2007
    ..This strategy is under investigation in our laboratory...
  46. ncbi Diurnal rhythmicity of the canonical clock genes Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the rat adrenal gland is unaltered after hypophysectomy
    J Fahrenkrug
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:323-9. 2008
    ..Rhythmic expression of clock genes in the adrenal glands has previously been reported...
  47. ncbi Transcriptional profiling in the adrenal gland reveals circadian regulation of hormone biosynthesis genes and nucleosome assembly genes
    Henrik Oster
    Max Planck Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    J Biol Rhythms 21:350-61. 2006
    ..Among these organs, the adrenal glands hold a prime position because of their regulatory influence on numerous physiological functions via rhythmic ..
  48. ncbi A prospective study of the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in 1,125 hypertensive patients
    Gian Paolo Rossi
    For a list of author affiliations, please see the
    J Am Coll Cardiol 48:2293-300. 2006
    ..We prospectively investigated the prevalence of curable forms of primary aldosteronism (PA) in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients...
  49. ncbi Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency
    Waldemar Kanczkowski
    Department of Medicine III, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, Germany
    Neuroimmunomodulation 17:180-3. 2010
    ..TLRs are implicated in adrenal cell turnover and steroidogenesis during inflammation. Therefore, TLRs play a crucial role in the activation of adrenal inflammation mediating adrenal gland dysfunction during septicemia...
  50. ncbi Sexual dimorphism of ornithine decarboxylase in the mouse adrenal: influence of polyamine deprivation on catecholamine and corticoid levels
    Carmen M Bastida
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292:E1010-7. 2007
    ..All of these data suggest a relevant role for testosterone, ODC, and polyamines in the mouse adrenal function...
  51. pmc Inner mitochondrial translocase Tim50 interacts with 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 to regulate adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis
    Kevin J Pawlak
    Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, Georgia 31404, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:39130-40. 2011
    ..In summary, Tim50 regulates 3βHSD2 expression and activity, representing a new role for translocases in steroidogenesis...
  52. ncbi Assessment of fetal adrenal gland volume using three-dimensional ultrasound
    Chiung Hsin Chang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
    Ultrasound Med Biol 28:1383-7. 2002
    ..independent variable and adrenal gland volume as the dependent variable, the best-fit regression equation was adrenal glands volume (mL) = -0.2683 x GA + 0.0082 x GA(2) + 3.1927 (r = 0.93, n = 119, p < 0.0001)...
  53. ncbi Chronic psychosocial stress results in sensitization of the HPA axis to acute heterotypic stressors despite a reduction of adrenal in vitro ACTH responsiveness
    Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
    Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:1676-87. 2012
    ..and pharmacological doses of ACTH revealed an attenuated responsiveness of both the left and right adrenal glands following CSC, despite mRNA and/or protein expression of melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), Mc2r accessory ..
  54. ncbi Sympathoadrenal system differentially affects photoperiodic changes in humoral immunity of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)
    G E Demas
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA
    J Neuroendocrinol 14:29-35. 2002
    ..NE content was markedly reduced in denervated hamsters compared to sham-operated hamsters. Collectively, these results suggest that the sympathoadrenal system is associated with photoperiodic changes in immune function...
  55. ncbi Reduced adrenal response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in interleukin-6-deficient mice
    F H van Enckevort
    Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Endocrinol Invest 24:786-95. 2001
    ..The reduced adrenal response after LPS administration found in IL-6 -/- mice indicates a distinct role for IL-6 in the activation of the HPA axis by LPS...
  56. ncbi Social stress and T cell maturation in male rats: transient and persistent alterations in thymic function
    Harald Engler
    Department of Animal Physiology, University of Bayreuth, D 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:951-69. 2003
    ....
  57. ncbi Fetal adrenal gland alterations in a rat model of adverse intrauterine environment
    Karine Bibeau
    Research Centre, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste Catherine, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1C5
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298:R899-911. 2010
    ..to evaluate the expression of proteins and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis and catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands from IUGR fetuses...
  58. ncbi Adrenal imaging
    Giles W L Boland
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA
    Abdom Imaging 36:472-82. 2011
    ..Imagers should be familiar with these techniques to expedite treatment, especially in cancer patients and so prevent unnecessary biopsies, costs, and anxiety...
  59. ncbi Adrenal imaging: from Addison to algorithms
    Giles W L Boland
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, White Building 270C, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Radiol Clin North Am 49:511-28, vii. 2011
    Despite their small size, pathologic condition of the adrenal glands is often far from insignificant...
  60. ncbi Risk factors and outcome of changes in adrenal response to ACTH in the course of critical illness
    Margriet Fleur Charlotte de Jong
    Department of Intensive Care and Institute for Cardiovascular Research, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Intensive Care Med 27:37-44. 2012
    ....
  61. ncbi Mice, melatonin and the circadian system
    H W Korf
    Dr Senckenbergische Anatomie, Fachbereich Medizin, J W Goethe Universitat, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 252:57-68. 2006
    ..In conclusion, melatonin may serve the synchronization of peripheral oscillators by interacting with other neuroactive substances. A stress-reducing potency of melatonin needs to be explored in further studies...
  62. ncbi Severity and outcome of acute stroke in women: relation to adrenal sex steroid levels
    Theodora Pappa
    Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, Alexandra Hospital, Athens University School of Medicine, Greece
    Metabolism 61:84-91. 2012
    ..Well-designed prospective studies will further clarify their role in cerebrovascular disease...
  63. ncbi Comparative effect of FGF2, synthetic peptides 1-28 N-POMC and ACTH on proliferation in rat adrenal cell primary cultures
    Gabriele E Mattos
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Cell Tissue Res 345:343-56. 2011
    ..Further elucidation of 1-28 POMC signal transduction is of interest, and primary cultures of adrenal cells were found to be useful for examining the trophic activity of this peptide...
  64. ncbi Neurotrophin and GDNF expression increases in rat adrenal glands during experimental colitis
    G Flämig
    Department of Medicine I, University of Ulm, Germany
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 22:461-6. 2001
    ..Neurotrophins and GDNF have been recently recognized as important local regulators of inflammatory processes of the gut...
  65. ncbi Tissue growth and remodeling of the embryonic and adult adrenal gland
    Michelle L Bland
    Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0444, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 995:59-72. 2003
    ..In addition, we will review the most current data on how extracellular signaling pathways are coupled to the function of these important regulators of adrenal development and function...
  66. ncbi Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal
    C Torres-Farfan
    Facultad de Medicina, Programa de Fisiopatología, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
    Endocrinology 150:2717-22. 2009
    ..Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH...
  67. ncbi CART peptide analysis by Western blotting
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Synapse 33:163-71. 1999
    ..The higher molecular weight species are likely to include preproCART and proCART, while lower molecular weight peptides may be CART 55-102 and 62-102, physiologically active fragments...
  68. ncbi Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging
    T D Barwick
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, London, UK
    Clin Radiol 60:953-9. 2005
    An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent...
  69. ncbi Role of ovary and adrenal glands in hyperandrogenemia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
    N Kamel
    Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, Turkey
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 113:115-21. 2005
    Ovary is the main source of the hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adrenal glands may also be involved in the pathogenesis of the development of PCOS...
  70. ncbi The adrenal peripheral clock: glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system
    Gi Hoon Son
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Brain Research Center for the 21st Century Frontier Program in Neuroscience, Seoul 151 742, Republic of Korea
    Front Neuroendocrinol 32:451-65. 2011
    ..In this review, we will therefore focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the circadian regulation of adrenal GC and its functional relevance...
  71. ncbi Molecular genetics of the stress-responsive adrenocortical axis
    Eva E Redei
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, The Asher Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Chicago, IL, USA
    Ann Med 40:139-48. 2008
    ..The significance of individual variations in the glucocorticoid stress-responsiveness, with particular attention to their potential role in the recent explosion of obesity and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome X, is commented upon...
  72. ncbi A case of ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia successfully treated by subtotal resection of the adrenal glands: four-year follow-up
    Yukio Kageyama
    Department of Urology and Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan
    Endocr J 49:227-9. 2002
    ..Subtotal resection of the adrenal glands preserving lower one third of the left side was performed, considering the unfavorable effects of total ..
  73. ncbi Aggravation of DSS-induced colitis after chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing is partially mediated by adrenal mechanisms
    Stefan O Reber
    Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Stress 11:225-34. 2008
    ..In conclusion, exposure to chronic psycho-social stress increases the severity of acute DSS colitis, an effect which is, at least partly, mediated by adrenal mechanisms...
  74. pmc MRAP and MRAP2 are bidirectional regulators of the melanocortin receptor family
    Li F Chan
    Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6146-51. 2009
    ..Collectively, our data identify MRAP and MRAP2 as unique bidirectional regulators of the MCR family...
  75. ncbi Changes in mitochondrial and microsomal lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profiles in adrenal glands, testes, and livers from alpha-tocopherol-deficient rats
    J M Burczynski
    Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, NY 12208, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1029-35. 2001
    ..on the fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation (LP) of mitochondria and microsomes from adrenal glands, testes, and livers...
  76. ncbi Behavioural consequences of two chronic psychosocial stress paradigms: anxiety without depression
    David A Slattery
    Department of Behavioural and Molecular Neurobiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 37:702-14. 2012
    ..In conclusion, both models are unique for uncovering the molecular underpinnings of anxiety-related behaviour without conflicting depression-based alterations...
  77. ncbi Dissociated human embryonic and fetal adrenal glands in neural stem cell culture system: open fate for neuronal, nonneuronal, and chromaffin lineages?
    Jean Claude Bes
    The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 971:563-72. 2002
  78. pmc Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures
    Hiroyuki Okada
    Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Histochem Cytochem 60:290-300. 2012
    ..optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle...
  79. ncbi Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration
    Edward B Stelow
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 33:26-30. 2005
    ..from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms...
  80. ncbi Cellular characterization of the tropism of recombinant adenovirus for the adrenal glands
    Y Wang
    Cancer Research UK, Imperial College, London, UK
    Eur J Clin Invest 33:794-8. 2003
    Recombinant adenoviruses are widely used in gene therapy clinical trials. A particular tropism for the adrenal glands has been reported but the precise cellular base for this tropism has not been determined.
  81. ncbi Regular exercise prevents the development of hyperglucocorticoidemia via adaptations in the brain and adrenal glands in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats
    Jonathan E Campbell
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Faculty of Health, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Canada
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299:R168-76. 2010
    ..Thus, the gradual elevations in glucocorticoid levels associated with the development of insulin resistance in male ZDF rats can be prevented with regular exercise, likely because of adaptations that occur primarily in the adrenal glands.
  82. ncbi Corticosterone-dependent driving influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus on adrenal sensitivity to ACTH
    Dominique Sage
    Interactions Fonctionnelles en Neuroendocrinologie, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Institut Federatif Jean Roche, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13916 Marseille, France
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E458-65. 2002
    ..These results indicate that the SCN upregulates ACTH sensitivity of the adrenal cortex during the ascending phase of the daily CORT secretion and point to a critical role of glucocorticoids in determining SCN action...
  83. ncbi Role of maternal adrenal glands on the developing serotoninergic and aminoacidergic systems of the postnatal rat brain
    M L Leret
    Department of Animal Biology II Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Int J Dev Neurosci 22:87-93. 2004
    ..A sexually dimorphic response to the removal of maternal glucocorticoids was seen in terms of neurotransmitter levels, mainly in the hippocampus and hypothalamus...
  84. ncbi A family of cAMP-binding proteins that directly activate Rap1
    H Kawasaki
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA
    Science 282:2275-9. 1998
    ..Our findings suggest the need to reformulate concepts of cAMP-mediated signaling to include direct coupling to Ras superfamily signaling...
  85. ncbi MR imaging of the adrenal glands
    Hero K Hussain
    Department of Radiology MRI B2B311, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 12:515-44, vii. 2004
    MR imaging is used commonly for imaging the adrenal glands. Its high-contrast resolution and multiplanar imaging capability enables the detection and characterization of many adrenal masses...
  86. ncbi A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia
    Anelia Horvath
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Genet 38:794-800. 2006
    ....
  87. ncbi In vivo and in vitro screening for illegitimate receptors in adrenocorticotropin-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing Cushing's syndrome: identification of two cases of gonadotropin/gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent hypercortisolism
    Jerome Bertherat
    Institut Fédératif de Recherche Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides 23, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U413, Department of Endocrinology, Hospital of Boisguillaume, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Rouen, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1302-10. 2005
    ..Our data also show a hyperresponsiveness of hyperplastic adrenal tissues to 5-HT, angiotensin II, and AVP. Finally, they reveal for the first time the presence of paracrine regulatory signals in adrenal hyperplasia tissues...
  88. ncbi Role for adrenal venous sampling in primary aldosteronism
    William F Young
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, NY 55905, USA
    Surgery 136:1227-35. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) on the management of patients with primary aldosteronism...
  89. ncbi The transcriptional regulating protein of 132 kDa (TReP-132) enhances P450scc gene transcription through interaction with steroidogenic factor-1 in human adrenal cells
    Florence Gizard
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University, Quebec GIK 7P4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 277:39144-55. 2002
    ..Taken together the results in this study identify a novel function of TReP-132 as a partner in a complex with SF-1 and CBP/p300 to regulate gene transcription involved in steroidogenesis...
  90. ncbi Cushing's syndrome secondary to ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia
    Marcia Helena Soares Costa
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Centre hospitalierde l Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 51:1226-37. 2007
    ..The identification of these receptors creates the possibility of a specific pharmacological treatment isolated or associated with adrenalectomy...
  91. pmc The periphery of the human fetal adrenal gland is a site of angiogenesis: zonal differential expression and regulation of angiogenic factors
    Hitoshi Ishimoto
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0556, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2402-8. 2008
    ..Ang1 stabilizes, whereas Ang2 destabilizes, vessels, increasing responsiveness to angiogenic stimuli such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2...
  92. ncbi Analysis of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) expression in human adrenocortical hyperplasia
    Marcia Helena Soares Costa
    Unidade de Endocrinologia do Desenvolvimento, Laboratorio de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular LIM 42, Divisão de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53:326-31. 2009
    ....
  93. ncbi Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis
    Ping Li
    Ruijin Hospital, Center of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical School, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025, China
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 390:1208-13. 2009
    ..Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been ..
  94. ncbi Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands
    H Buurman
    Institute of Pathology of the Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Endocr Pathol 17:277-82. 2006
    ..The incidence and type of pathological findings in a large group of surgically removed adrenal glands were analyzed: 282 resected adrenals from the years 1995 to 2004 were examined; 242 adrenals were removed for ..
  95. ncbi Functions of the upstream and proximal steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)-binding sites in the CYP11A1 promoter in basal transcription and hormonal response
    M C Hu
    Institute of Molecular Biology Academia Sinica Nankang, Taipei Taiwan 115, Republic of China
    Mol Endocrinol 15:812-8. 2001
    ..These results indicate that the upstream SF-1-binding site is required for hormonal stimulation. Our experiments demonstrate the participation of both the proximal and the upstream SF-1-binding sites in hormone-responsive transcription...
  96. ncbi A large single-center experience of EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenal glands: diagnostic utility and impact on patient management
    Mohamad A Eloubeidi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Alabama in Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
    Gastrointest Endosc 71:745-53. 2010
    ..EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenals has been described, but data are very limited...
  97. pmc Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands
    Preetha Shridas
    Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, The Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:20031-9. 2010
    ..protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA(..
  98. ncbi A possible role of insulin-like growth factor-II C-peptide in regulating the function of steroidogenic cells in adult frog adrenal glands
    Songül Süren Castillo
    Istanbul University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Zoology Section, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul, Turkey
    Acta Histochem 110:451-61. 2008
    ..presence of IGF receptors by which the IGF-II C-peptide could mediate its effects in the frog (Rana ridibunda) adrenal glands and to observe whether injection of IGF-II C-peptide affects the function of adrenal steroidogenic cells using ..
  99. ncbi Adrenocortical development and cancer: focus on SF-1
    Enzo Lalli
    Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, Sophia Antipolis, 06560 Valbonne, France
    J Mol Endocrinol 44:301-7. 2010
    ..Here, I discuss recent data in the literature showing the implication of SF-1 and the importance of its dosage not only during development but also for adrenal cortex tumorigenesis in humans and mice...
  100. ncbi Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis
    Hitoshi Ishimoto
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0556, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1909-15. 2006
    ..A newer angiogenic factor family, the angiopoietins (Angs), also plays critical roles. Ang1 stabilizes, whereas Ang2 destabilizes vessels, increasing responsiveness to angiogenic stimuli...
  101. ncbi The effects of proopiomelanocortin deficiency on murine adrenal development and responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin
    Anthony P Coll
    Department of Medicine, Box 232, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QR, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 145:4721-7. 2004
    ..b>Adrenal glands were found in all mice, although the glands of Pomc-/- mice had markedly reduced weight compared with control ..

Research Grants62

  1. Mechanism for Reduced Adrenomedullary Epinephrine Release in Type 1 Diabetes
    BRANLY OSVALDO ORBAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Isolated adrenal glands and enzymatically- isolated chromaffin cells will be used to evaluate the contributions of nicotinic and ..
  2. TYPE II 3BETA HSD GENE--REGULATION OF DHEAS SYNTHESIS
    Peter Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In this model, human ZF cells replace the function of the animals'own adrenal glands. The ability of ZR cells to form functional vascularized tissue in this model will be tested...
  3. Image-Guided Surgery of Endocrine Glands and Their Tumors using Near-Infrared Flu
    John V Frangioni; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., insulinoma and ovarian cancer) and the avoidance of normal endocrine tissue (e.g., thyroid and adrenal glands) represent a significant unmet clinical need, with no available contrast agents...
  4. The role of glucocorticoid signaling in immune cells during excitotoxicity.
    SHAWN SORRELLS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones released from the adrenal glands during stress and are well known for their potent and pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects...
  5. The role of NDRG1 in collecting duct function.
    ANIKO NARAY FEJES TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, regulates sodium homeostasis in the body...
  6. RADIOPAQUE FLUOROCARBON IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY
    David Long; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The adrenal glands, myocardium and, to a lesser extent, the ovaries become radiodense at different times after dosing...
  7. Investigation of the Molecular Determinants of DAX-1 Mediated X-Linked Adrenal Hy
    Christina Tzagarakis Foster; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The adrenal glands are vital organs that produce and release hormones that regulate metabolism, excretion, response to stress, ..
  8. Morphine in Mammals
    MEINHART ZENK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, blood leucocytes contain morphine and adrenal glands are hypothesized to produce morphine;both this systems will be subjected to feeding of stable isotope labeled ..
  9. CHRONOBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF TNF AND IL-2
    William Hrushesky; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..upon both the high frequency pulsing and the circadian patterning of ACTH delivery from the pituitary to the adrenal glands. IL-1 is a centrally positioned cytokine having synergistic activities with TNF and interactive or stimulatory ..
  10. MECHANISMS OF ADRENAL CORTEX GROWTH/DIFFERENTIATION
    Gary Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..governing steroidogenesis and the development and differentiation of steroidogenic organs, namely the adrenal glands and gonads, remain a fundamental question in mammalian biology...
  11. ORPHAN NUCLEAR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE
    Gary Hammer; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Mechanisms governing steroidogenesis and the development and differentiation of steroidogenic organs, namely the adrenal glands and gonads, remain a fundamental question in mammalian biology...
  12. EXERCISE INDUCED CHANGES IN HPA ACTIVITY IN FIBROMYALGIA
    Patricia Deuster; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Thus, exercise may confer benefit in FMS by upregulating hypothalamic drive to the pituitary and adrenal glands. The overall objective of this proposal is to determine whether aerobic training benefits FMS by inducing ..
  13. CATECHOLAMINE METABOLISM AND THE HEART
    FLOYD ATKINS; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..The adrenal glands will also be assayed for norepinephrine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the ..
  14. METABOLISM AND FUNCTION IN THE AGING ADRENAL GLAND
    JEROME KOWAL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..However, the presence of LDL receptors in rat adrenal cells and the ability of rat adrenal glands to utilize LDL-cholesterol for steroidogenesis suggests that these cells can serve as a model for studying ..
  15. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY OXYGEN
    MARIA CZYZYK KRZESKA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..and determine if similar regulation occurs in the carotid body and other catecholaminergic tissues such as adrenal glands and superior cervical ganglia...
  16. BENZODIAZEPINE RECEPTOR AND ADRENAL DEVELOPMENT
    ERIC WIDMAIER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..are to elucidate the role of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in maturation of the adrenal glands, and to determine mechanisms of regulation of this receptor...
  17. Steroid As Cytoprotectants against Oxidative Toxicity
    Qin Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..provided by applicant): Stress is known to cause an increase in the synthesis of corticosteroids by the adrenal glands. Although corticosteroids have been shown to contribute to the pathophysiology of suppressed Immune response ..
  18. CHRONOBIOLOGY AND GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
    PHILIP RAYFORD; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The suprachiasmatic nucleus, the pineal gland and melatonin, adrenal glands and their secretions; and, the gonads and gonadal steroids...
  19. NUCLEAR MYOSIN I
    Primal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in the absence, but not the presence, of ATP and it is recognized by an antibody to myosin I purified from adrenal glands. Microsequencing of the 120 kDa protein has positively identified it as a member of the myosin I beta ..
  20. REGULATION OF SF 1 EXPRESSION IN THE GONADS
    LESLIE HECKERT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..factor regulates a variety of genes important to the endocrine system and is essential for formation of adrenal glands and gonads...
  21. Sexually Dimorphic Regulation Of SF-1 In Gonadogenesis
    JOAN JORGENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The SF-1 knock out mouse also has agenesis of gonads and adrenal glands. Sex-specific roles of SF-1 in gonad differentiation remain unknown because gonads in SF-1 disrupted animals ..
  22. Y CHROMOSOME AND HYPERTENSION
    Daniel Ely; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..will be determined in relevant target organs, such as, aorta, resistance 'vessels, kidney, heart and adrenal glands. Biochemical measurements of indices of the SNS will evaluate the mechanism of elevated adrenergic ..
  23. HUMAN HEPATOMA CELL SURFACE PROTEIN P50
    Mehmet Ozturk; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..p50 was undetectable in normal adult and fetal tissues except in the adrenal glands. A very similar protein has also been identified and partially purified from bovine adrenals...
  24. NON-AROMATIZING ANDROGEN 19-DESMOLASE AND 19-HYDROXYLASE
    Yoshio Osawa; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..and to isolate and characterize the non-aromatizing androgen 19-hydroxylase and 19-desmolase in mammalian adrenal glands. Specific aims are 1) identification of the new enzyme system in the dog, sheep cow and human adrenal glands, ..
  25. GROWTH AND DIFFERENTIATION OF THE PITUITARY GLAND
    DORIS WILSON; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..respect to pituitary dwarfism and related growth disorders, as well as to the formation of pituitary adenomas and to various dysplasias involving pituitary target endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and gonads.
  26. HYPOTHALAMIC REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE
    ALBERT DEBONS; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..We have also found that hypothalamic hyperphagia is dependent on the presence of the adrenal glands; adrenalectomy reduces food intake to normal. This phenomenon is being explored.
  27. Role of Src in Stress-Mediated Progression of Ovarian Cancer
    Guillermo Armaiz Pena; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Activation of the ANS results in the release of catecholamines from the sympathetic nerves and adrenal glands causing a fight-or-flight stress response that may lead to the promotion of angiogenesis, acceleration of ..
  28. STRESS, CORTISOL, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION
    PEGGY JENNINGS; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Cortisol is a steroid hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to physical or psychological stress...
  29. Fusion Proteins As Probes of P450 Structure and Function
    Richard Auchus; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, this approach might be generally applicable to structural studies of membrane-bound proteins. ..
  30. PERINATAL HYPOXIA: ADRENOCORTICAL-METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS
    Hershel Raff; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and metabolic adaptations to perinatal hypoxia can lead to new diagnostic approaches and therapies to minimize morbidity and mortality. ..
  31. Mechanisms How Adipocytes Affect Bone in Aging Mice
    Fredric B Kraemer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  32. New Paradigms of P450-mediated Steroids Metabolism
    Alan Conley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. REGULATION OF HORMONE SENSITIVE LIPASE
    FREDRIC KRAEMER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The experiments outlined in this proposal will provide a comprehensive examination of the function and mechanisms of action of HSL in adipose tissue. ..
  34. REDUCTASE INTERACTIONS GOVERNING AROMATASE ACTIVITIES
    Alan Conley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. ANDROGEN PRODUCTION IN ADRENARCHE AND PCOS
    WALTER MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Role of CRH in skin physiology and pathology
    Andrzej Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g., melanocytes and keratinocytes, and test the role of CRH/CRH-R1 axis in the regulation of human hair growth. ..
  37. Properties of Ion Channels that Control Secretion
    JOHN ENYEART; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. A NOVEL NEURAL PATHWAY CONTROLS TESTOSTERONE RELEASE
    Catherine Rivier; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Collectively, these studies will advance our understanding of the effects of alcohol on male reproductive functions and the mechanisms that mediate them. ..
  39. Behavioral Despair and Interleukin-1
    Terrence Deak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. Multidisciplinary Program in Female and Male Reproduction
    EUGENE ALBRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The discoveries obtained in the baboon primate model are expected to translate to the human to advance knowledge of human reproductive biology. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, OBESITY & INSULIN RESISTANCE
    James Young; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..A principal tenet of this proposal is that early life events which predispose animals to become obese differ from those which promote subsequent development in insulin resistance. ..
  42. NO AND CO MEDIATE MENTAL-NEUROENDOCRINE INTERACTIONS
    Catherine Rivier; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Collectively, these results will provide novel and comprehensive information regarding the neurocircuitries through which NO or CO modulate the response of the rat HPA to a neurogenic stress. ..
  43. SMITH-LEMLI-OPITZ SYNDROME STEROIDOGENESIS
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..synthesis (7-dehydrocholesterol-7-reductase deficiency) it is likely that steroid hormone synthesis by the adrenal glands and gonads is impacted because all such compounds utilize cholesterol as precursor...
  44. ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE, SNS DEVELOPMENT AND OBESITY
    James Young; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The potential impact of changes in sympathetic activity regulated by RPa for glucose and energy metabolism will also be examined. ..
  45. Aldosterone in angiotensin II-induced hypertension
    Rudy Ortiz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Unlike previous studies, the present study will provide a more comprehensive examination of the renal effects induced by aldo antagonism. ..
  46. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with EI and CI
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g., malondialdehyde) and markers of DNA damage (incorporation of uracil). Dr Kuypers has several projects on the red cell membrane, which require profiling of fatty acids using EI GC/MS. ..
  47. Neurosteroids and Smith-Lemli-Optiz Syndrome
    Cedric Shackleton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..All studies will require high sensitivity steroid analysis by chemical ionization (CI) GC/MS and HPLC/MS. ..
  48. Identification of cocaine-regulated genes
    Aleksandra Vicentic; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Immunocytochemical studies will be conducted to identify the best antibody and to examine the tissue distribution of ania protein products. ..
  49. Effects of Maternal Diet on SNS Development in Offspring
    James Young; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Identifying connections among growth, SNS development and obesity offers a potential means for identifying obesity-prone individuals early in life with the ultimate objective of intervening in an effective and appropriate manner. ..
  50. ANDROGEN EXCESS DISORDER
    Ricardo Azziz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The institution has committed to releasing the Candidate from other duties in order for him to dedicate at least 50% of his time to the research and mentoring activities. ..
  51. ACTIVITY OF PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS IN VITRO
    Nae Dun; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Lastly, specific PACAP receptor antagonists and agonists may be targeted for new drug development in the management of cardiovascular disorders that have a neurogenic component, such as hypertension and stroke. ..
  52. GENETICS OF HEART AND KIDNEY DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSION
    Christian Deschepper; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. ENERGY RESTRICTION, CELL SIGNALING AND CANCER PREVENTION
    Diane Birt; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The dependence of the biochemical events modified in Aims 2-4 on corticosterone will be assessed by parallel studies in sham and adrenalectomized mice. ..
  54. Neurochemistry of Stress-Induced Binge Eating
    MARY BOGGIANO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By defining the neural substrates that mediate bingelike eating in this model, novel strategies that prevent, arrest, and reverse the disorder in humans can be tested. ..
  55. Glucocorticoids and Programming of the Hypertensive Vascular Phenotype
    Omid Khorram; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Measurement of Cells In Vivo: IVIS Light Imaging System
    Thomas Rosol; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Space and utilities for the instrument plus salary and benefits for the supervisor will be provided by the Department of Veterinary Biosciences and the College of Veterinary Medicine. ..
  57. Novel CRF antagonists for inflammation and pain
    MARK LINDNER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Orally active forms of a small molecule CRF receptor would provide a novel therapeutic strategy for indications of acute and chronic inflammation and inflamatory pain. ..
  58. Michigan Mentored Clinical Scholars Program
    David Schteingart; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..On the basis of these resources, we are confident we can offer an outstanding pro_am for the training of clinical research scholars. ..
  59. Hindbrain mechanisms of hypoglycemia unawarness
    Sue Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Corticosterone infusions and specific stressors with differing effects on corticosterone secretion will be examined for their ability to induce HAAF. ..
  60. Fetal Cardiac Hypertrophy: Vascular/Metabolic Adaptation
    JEFFREY SEGAR; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The end result is hoped to be that the infant with a more 'normal' heart and circulatory physiology will have improved survival with less morbidity. ..
  61. Mentored Career Development in Patient Oriented Research
    Daniel Rader; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..