Summary: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Genomic surveys by methylation-sensitive SNP analysis identify sequence-dependent allele-specific DNA methylation
    Kristi Kerkel
    Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Genet 40:904-8. 2008
  2. ncbi Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia
    Christopher W Redman
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Science 308:1592-4. 2005
  3. ncbi Concise review: isolation and characterization of cells from human term placenta: outcome of the first international Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells
    Ornella Parolini
    Centro di Ricerca E Menni, Fondazione Poliambulanza, Istituto Ospedaliero, Via Bissolati 57, 25124 Brescia, Italy
    Stem Cells 26:300-11. 2008
  4. ncbi On the cytoadhesion of Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes
    Bruna O Carvalho
    Departamento de Genetica, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
    J Infect Dis 202:638-47. 2010
  5. ncbi The pathogenic basis of malaria
    Louis H Miller
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 415:673-9. 2002
  6. ncbi Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals
    W J Murphy
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Nature 409:614-8. 2001
  7. pmc Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta
    Anne Gabory
    INRA, UMR1198 Biologie du Développement et Reproduction, Jouy en Josas, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e47986. 2012
  8. pmc Endogenous retroviruses function as species-specific enhancer elements in the placenta
    Edward B Chuong
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Genet 45:325-9. 2013
  9. ncbi Endovascular trophoblast invasion: implications for the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia
    Peter Kaufmann
    Department of Anatomy II, University of Technology Aachen, D 52057 Aachen, Germany
    Biol Reprod 69:1-7. 2003
  10. ncbi Placental development: lessons from mouse mutants
    J Rossant
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X5
    Nat Rev Genet 2:538-48. 2001

Detail Information

Publications392 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Genomic surveys by methylation-sensitive SNP analysis identify sequence-dependent allele-specific DNA methylation
    Kristi Kerkel
    Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Genet 40:904-8. 2008
    ..This recurrent phenomenon of sequence-dependent ASM has practical implications for mapping and interpreting associations of noncoding SNPs and haplotypes with human phenotypes...
  2. ncbi Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia
    Christopher W Redman
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Science 308:1592-4. 2005
    Preeclampsia is a relatively common pregnancy disorder that originates in the placenta and causes variable maternal and fetal problems. In the worst cases, it may threaten the survival of both mother and baby...
  3. ncbi Concise review: isolation and characterization of cells from human term placenta: outcome of the first international Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells
    Ornella Parolini
    Centro di Ricerca E Menni, Fondazione Poliambulanza, Istituto Ospedaliero, Via Bissolati 57, 25124 Brescia, Italy
    Stem Cells 26:300-11. 2008
    ..Furthermore, placenta, which is involved in maintaining fetal tolerance, contains cells that display immunomodulatory properties...
  4. ncbi On the cytoadhesion of Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes
    Bruna O Carvalho
    Departamento de Genetica, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
    J Infect Dis 202:638-47. 2010
    ..vivax. The increasing number of severe manifestations of P. vivax infections, similar to those observed for severe falciparum malaria, suggests that key pathogenic mechanisms (eg, cytoadherence) might be shared by the 2 parasites...
  5. ncbi The pathogenic basis of malaria
    Louis H Miller
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 415:673-9. 2002
    ..The inability of many countries to fund expensive campaigns and antimalarial treatment requires these tools to be highly effective and affordable...
  6. ncbi Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals
    W J Murphy
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Nature 409:614-8. 2001
    ..Our results provide new insight into the pattern of the early placental mammal radiation...
  7. pmc Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta
    Anne Gabory
    INRA, UMR1198 Biologie du Développement et Reproduction, Jouy en Josas, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e47986. 2012
    ..b>Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes...
  8. pmc Endogenous retroviruses function as species-specific enhancer elements in the placenta
    Edward B Chuong
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Nat Genet 45:325-9. 2013
    The mammalian placenta is remarkably distinct between species, suggesting a history of rapid evolutionary diversification...
  9. ncbi Endovascular trophoblast invasion: implications for the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia
    Peter Kaufmann
    Department of Anatomy II, University of Technology Aachen, D 52057 Aachen, Germany
    Biol Reprod 69:1-7. 2003
    ..e., the placental bed...
  10. ncbi Placental development: lessons from mouse mutants
    J Rossant
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X5
    Nat Rev Genet 2:538-48. 2001
    The placenta is the first organ to form during mammalian embryogenesis. Problems in its formation and function underlie many aspects of early pregnancy loss and pregnancy complications in humans...
  11. ncbi Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells of fetal or maternal origin from human placenta
    Pieternella S In 't Anker
    Department of Obstetrics, Lieden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Stem Cells 22:1338-45. 2004
    ..In addition, different parts of the human placenta were studied for the presence of either fetal or maternal MSCs...
  12. pmc A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast
    Anne Dupressoir
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8122, and Unité de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E1164-73. 2011
    In most mammalian species, a critical step of placenta development is the fusion of trophoblast cells into a multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer fulfilling essential fetomaternal exchange functions...
  13. doi Placental origins of preeclampsia: challenging the current hypothesis
    Berthold Huppertz
    Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Center of Molecular Medicine, Medical University Graz, Harrachgasse 21 7, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Hypertension 51:970-5. 2008
  14. pmc Critical growth factors and signalling pathways controlling human trophoblast invasion
    Martin Knöfler
    Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Maternal Medicine, Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Int J Dev Biol 54:269-80. 2010
    ..Due to their remarkable plasticity invasive trophoblasts fulfil numerous functions, i.e. anchorage of the placenta, secretion of hormones, modulation of decidual angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis and remodelling of maternal spiral ..
  15. ncbi Placental-specific IGF-II is a major modulator of placental and fetal growth
    Miguel Constancia
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, Developmental Genetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    Nature 417:945-8. 2002
    ..The insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf2) is paternally expressed in the fetus and placenta. Here we show that deletion from the Igf2 gene of a transcript (P0) specifically expressed in the labyrinthine ..
  16. ncbi Immunology of pre-eclampsia
    Christopher W G Redman
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Am J Reprod Immunol 63:534-43. 2010
    ..For the first time, the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia can be related to defined immune mechanisms that are appropriate to the fetomaternal frontier. Now, the challenge is to prove the detail...
  17. ncbi Telocytes in human term placenta: morphology and phenotype
    Laura Suciu
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
    Cells Tissues Organs 192:325-39. 2010
    ..To support the hypothesis that TC may also be present in human placenta and add to the information already available, we provide evidence on the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, ..
  18. ncbi Soluble endoglin contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia
    Shivalingappa Venkatesha
    Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Med 12:642-9. 2006
    ..Maternal endothelial dysfunction mediated by excess placenta-derived soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFR1 or sFlt1) is emerging as a prominent component in disease pathogenesis...
  19. ncbi Review: Sex and the human placenta: mediating differential strategies of fetal growth and survival
    V L Clifton
    Robinson Institute, Department of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical North, Level 6, Frome Road, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
    Placenta 31:S33-9. 2010
    ..Current evidence suggests sex specific adaptation of the placenta may be central to the differences in fetal growth and survival...
  20. ncbi Role of insulin-like growth factors in embryonic and postnatal growth
    J Baker
    Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
    Cell 75:73-82. 1993
  21. ncbi Differential placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia
    V Sitras
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Northern Norway, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
    Placenta 30:424-33. 2009
    ..Placental gene expression is different between early- and late-onset preeclampsia, suggesting differences in pathophysiology...
  22. ncbi Oxidative stress in the placenta
    Leslie Myatt
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, PO Box 670526, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0526, USA
    Histochem Cell Biol 122:369-82. 2004
    ..The placenta also produces other ROS including nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and peroxynitrite which have pronounced effects ..
  23. ncbi Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity
    Stephen J Rogerson
    Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:105-17. 2007
    ..was recently advanced by the discovery that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum accumulate in the placenta through adhesion to molecules such as chondroitin sulphate A...
  24. pmc The discovery of placenta growth factor and its biological activity
    Sandro De Falco
    Angiogenesis Laboratory and Stem Cell Fate Laboratory, Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Napoli, Italy
    Exp Mol Med 44:1-9. 2012
    ..Among the several molecular players involved in angiogenesis, some members of VEGF family, VEGF-A, VEGF-B and placenta growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1, also known as Flt-1) and VEGF receptor ..
  25. ncbi Dnmt3L cooperates with the Dnmt3 family of de novo DNA methyltransferases to establish maternal imprints in mice
    Kenichiro Hata
    Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Development 129:1983-93. 2002
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Dnmt3L may cooperate with Dnmt3 family methyltransferases to carry out de novo methylation of maternally imprinted genes in oocytes...
  26. ncbi Glucocorticoids, prenatal stress and the programming of disease
    Anjanette Harris
    University of Edinburgh, Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen s Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK
    Horm Behav 59:279-89. 2011
    ..Intriguingly, the effects of a challenged pregnancy appear to be transmitted possibly to one or two subsequent generations, suggesting that these epigenetic effects persist...
  27. ncbi Global DNA methylation patterns in placenta and its association with maternal hypertension in pre-eclampsia
    Asmita Kulkarni
    Department of Nutritional Medicine, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune, India
    DNA Cell Biol 30:79-84. 2011
    ..Exchange of nutrients and other vital molecules between the mother and fetus takes place across the placenta and hence may play direct role in fetal programming...
  28. pmc Epigenetic effects of prenatal stress on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 in the placenta and fetal brain
    Catherine Jensen Peña
    Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e39791. 2012
    ..stress (chronic restraint stress during gestational days 14-20) in Long Evans rats on HSD11B2 mRNA in the placenta and fetal brain (E20) and assessed the role of epigenetic mechanisms in these stress-induced effects...
  29. pmc Preeclampsia up-regulates angiogenesis-associated microRNA (i.e., miR-17, -20a, and -20b) that target ephrin-B2 and EPHB4 in human placenta
    Wen Wang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E1051-9. 2012
    ..MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of noncoding 21- to 25-nucleotide RNA that negatively regulate gene expression posttranscriptionly...
  30. ncbi Retroviruses and the placenta
    David Haig
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 22:R609-13. 2012
    Retroviruses are often expressed in the placenta. Placental expression probably evolved to facilitate retroviral transmission from mother to offspring and from offspring to mother...
  31. pmc Placental apoptosis in health and disease
    Andrew N Sharp
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Am J Reprod Immunol 64:159-69. 2010
    ..A clearer understanding of placental apoptosis and its regulation may provide new insights into placental pathologies, potentially suggesting therapeutic targets...
  32. ncbi Placental mTOR links maternal nutrient availability to fetal growth
    Sara Roos
    Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, P O Box 432, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Biochem Soc Trans 37:295-8. 2009
    ..a key mechanism linking maternal nutrient and growth factor concentrations to amino acid transport in the human placenta. Since fetal growth is critically dependent on placental nutrient transport, placental mTOR signalling plays an ..
  33. pmc Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors
    Boris Novakovic
    Cancer, Disease and Developmental Epigenetics, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    BMC Genomics 12:529. 2011
    The human placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients, gas and waste between the fetal and maternal circulations. It also protects the fetus from the maternal immune response...
  34. ncbi Engraftment potential of human amnion and chorion cells derived from term placenta
    Marco Bailo
    Centro Ricerche Parco Scientifico E Menni, Ospedale Poliambulanza, Via Romiglia, 4, I 25124 Brescia, Italy
    Transplantation 78:1439-48. 2004
    ..which may entail progenitor potential. The immunologic reactivity and the transplantation potential of amnion and chorion cells, however, remain to be elucidated...
  35. pmc Evaluation of the antigenic diversity of placenta-binding Plasmodium falciparum variants and the antibody repertoire among pregnant women
    Mirja Hommel
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Infect Immun 78:1963-78. 2010
    Pregnant women are infected by specific variants of Plasmodium falciparum that adhere and accumulate in the placenta. Using serological and molecular approaches, we assessed the global antigenic diversity of surface antigens expressed by ..
  36. pmc Expression profile of microRNAs and mRNAs in human placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and preterm labor
    Kathleen Mayor-Lynn
    Department of Ob Gyn, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    Reprod Sci 18:46-56. 2011
  37. ncbi Malaria in pregnancy: small babies, big problem
    Alexandra J Umbers
    Department of Medicine Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Post Office Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia
    Trends Parasitol 27:168-75. 2011
    ..Together, these strategies aim to decrease the burden of FGR associated with malaria in pregnancy...
  38. ncbi Weights of placentae from small-for-gestational age infants revisited
    S Heinonen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Kuopio, Finland
    Placenta 22:399-404. 2001
    ..infants had smaller placentae than the controls, suggesting that fetal growth depends on the actual weight of the placenta. Future studies should evaluate whether growth restriction could be reversed by therapeutic approaches increasing ..
  39. ncbi Differential expression of microRNAs in the placentae of Chinese patients with severe pre-eclampsia
    Yali Hu
    The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, PR China
    Clin Chem Lab Med 47:923-9. 2009
    The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE) is incompletely understood. The placenta is considered to play a key role in this disease. Recent research showed that many microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in human placenta...
  40. pmc Sex- and diet-specific changes of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse placenta under a high-fat diet
    Catherine Gallou-Kabani
    INSERM, AP HP, Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Medecine, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, U781, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e14398. 2010
    Changes in imprinted gene dosage in the placenta may compromise the prenatal control of nutritional resources...
  41. ncbi Obesity in pregnancy stimulates macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the placenta
    J C Challier
    University Paris 6, UPRESA 2796, France
    Placenta 29:274-81. 2008
    ..Based on the similarity between the inflammatory transcriptomes of adipose tissue and placenta, we hypothesized that the placenta develops exaggerated inflammation in response to obesity...
  42. pmc Pathogens and the placental fortress
    Jennifer R Robbins
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Curr Opin Microbiol 15:36-43. 2012 two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: firstly, maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine ..
  43. pmc Transcriptome landscape of the human placenta
    Jinsil Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA52242, USA
    BMC Genomics 13:115. 2012
    The placenta is a key component in understanding the physiological processes involved in pregnancy...
  44. pmc MIR-210 modulates mitochondrial respiration in placenta with preeclampsia
    S Muralimanoharan
    Center for Pregnancy and Newborn Research, Dept of Ob Gyn, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
    Placenta 33:816-23. 2012
    ..These data collectively suggest that miR-210 overexpression during PE could be responsible for placental mitochondria dysfunction...
  45. ncbi Intra-uterine growth restriction is associated with increased apoptosis and altered expression of proteins in the p53 pathway in villous trophoblast
    Alexander E P Heazell
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, St Mary s Hospital, University of Manchester, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    Apoptosis 16:135-44. 2011
    ..associated with altered cell turnover in the villous trophoblast, an essential functional cell type of the human placenta. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, particularly p53, is important in regulating placental cell turnover in ..
  46. ncbi Development of structures and transport functions in the mouse placenta
    Erica D Watson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Physiology (Bethesda) 20:180-93. 2005
    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus during gestation, and defects in its function result in fetal growth restriction or, if more severe, fetal death...
  47. ncbi Human placenta-derived cells have mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell potential
    Yumi Fukuchi
    Division of Cellular Therapy, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Minato ku, 108 8639, Japan
    Stem Cells 22:649-58. 2004
    ..Here we tried to identify cells with MSC-like potency in human placenta. We isolated adherent cells from trypsin-digested term placentas and established two clones by limiting dilution...
  48. ncbi Human amnion epithelial cell transplantation abrogates lung fibrosis and augments repair
    Yuben Moodley
    F R A C P School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, 50 Murray Street, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:643-51. 2010
    ..Cellular therapies that could restore pneumocytes and reduce inflammation and fibrosis would be a major advance in management...
  49. pmc DNA methylation-mediated down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) is coincident with, but not essential for, global hypomethylation in human placenta
    Boris Novakovic
    Developmental Epigenetics, Murdoch Children s Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    J Biol Chem 285:9583-93. 2010
    The genome of extraembryonic tissue, such as the placenta, is hypomethylated relative to that in somatic tissues. However, the origin and role of this hypomethylation remains unclear...
  50. pmc Full-length extracellular region of the var2CSA variant of PfEMP1 is required for specific, high-affinity binding to CSA
    Anand Srivastava
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Biologie des Interactions Hôte Parasite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité de Recherche Associée 2581, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, F 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4884-9. 2010
    ..PAM) is a serious consequence of sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes (PE) in the placenta through adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) present on placental proteoglycans...
  51. ncbi The adverse effects of maternal smoking on the human placenta: a review
    T Zdravkovic
    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0512, USA
    Placenta 26:S81-6. 2005
    ..These observations suggest that tobacco constituents exert direct effects on CTB proliferation and differentiation and help to explain the mechanisms by which smoking negatively effects human pregnancy outcome...
  52. ncbi Extending the host range of Listeria monocytogenes by rational protein design
    Thomas Wollert
    Molecular Host Pathogen Interactions, Division of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstr 7, D 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
    Cell 129:891-902. 2007
    ..By rationally adapting a single protein, we thus create a versatile murine model of human listeriosis...
  53. pmc Boys live dangerously in the womb
    Johan G Eriksson
    Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsingin yliopisto, Finland
    Am J Hum Biol 22:330-5. 2010
    The growth of every human fetus is constrained by the limited capacity of the mother and placenta to deliver nutrients to it. At birth, boys tend to be longer than girls at any placental weight...
  54. pmc Arsenic-associated oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune disruption in human placenta and cord blood
    Sultan Ahmed
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Environ Health Perspect 119:258-64. 2011
    ..Arsenic (As) exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and increases the risk of fetal loss and low birth weight...
  55. pmc Onset of maternal arterial blood flow and placental oxidative stress. A possible factor in human early pregnancy failure
    E Jauniaux
    Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 157:2111-22. 2000
    The aim was to measure changes in the oxygen tension within the human placenta associated with onset of the maternal arterial circulation at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, and the impact on placental tissues...
  56. ncbi The evolution, regulation, and function of placenta-specific genes
    Saara M Rawn
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and the Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:159-81. 2008
    A number of placenta-specific genes (e.g., Tpbp, Plac1, Syncytin, and retrotransposon-associated genes such as Peg10, Rtl1, Endothelin B receptor, Insl4, Leptin, Midline1, and Pleiotrophin), enhancer elements (e.g...
  57. ncbi Impaired cytotrophoblast cell-cell fusion is associated with reduced Syncytin and increased apoptosis in patients with placental dysfunction
    Manuela Langbein
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Erlangen, Germany
    Mol Reprod Dev 75:175-83. 2008 both cultured cytotrophoblasts and primary tissues from pathological placentas supports an intrinsic placenta-specific deregulation of cell-cell fusion in the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts leading to increased apoptosis...
  58. ncbi Placental monocyte infiltrates in response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Stephen J Rogerson
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:115-9. 2003
    ..0001), number of ANC visits (P = 0.002), and recent febrile symptoms (P = 0.0001). Pigment-containing placental monocytes are associated with anemia and LBW due to malaria, and may have a causative role in their development...
  59. ncbi Placental transport of immunoglobulin G
    Neil E Simister
    Rosenstiel Center for Basic Biomedical Sciences and Biology Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02254 9110, USA
    Vaccine 21:3365-9. 2003
    Maternal antibodies transported across the placenta protect the newborn...
  60. pmc Sex-specific programming of offspring emotionality after stress early in pregnancy
    Bridget R Mueller
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 28:9055-65. 2008
    ..In addition, we found the core mechanism underlying male vulnerability may involve sex-specific placenta responsivity, where stress early in pregnancy significantly increased expression of PPARalpha (peroxisome ..
  61. pmc Impact of malaria at the end of pregnancy on infant mortality and morbidity
    Azucena Bardaji
    Barcelona Centre for International Health Research and Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Institut d Investigacions Biomedicas August Pi i Sunyer, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
    J Infect Dis 203:691-9. 2011
    ..There is some consensus that malaria in pregnancy may negatively affect infant's mortality and malaria morbidity, but there is less evidence concerning the factors involved...
  62. ncbi The sick placenta-the role of malaria
    B J Brabin
    Child and Reproductive Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK
    Placenta 25:359-78. 2004
    The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby...
  63. ncbi Angiogenesis in the placenta
    L P Reynolds
    Department of Animal and Range Sciences, and Cell Biology Center, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 5727, USA
    Biol Reprod 64:1033-40. 2001
    The mammalian placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the maternal and fetal systems...
  64. pmc Comparative gene expression profiling of placentas from patients with severe pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction
    Haruki Nishizawa
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 9:107. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia and unexplained FGR...
  65. ncbi Transplantation of allogeneic and xenogeneic placenta-derived cells reduces bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis
    Anna Cargnoni
    Centro di Ricerca E Menni, Fondazione Poliambulanza Istituto Ospedaliero, 25124 Brescia, Italy
    Cell Transplant 18:405-22. 2009
    ..We have recently demonstrated that cells derived from human term placenta show stem cell phenotype, high plasticity, and display low immunogenicity both in vitro and in vivo...
  66. pmc Intrauterine growth restriction, human placental development and trophoblast cell death
    Christina M Scifres
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8064, 4566 Scott Avenue, St Louis, MO 63141, USA
    J Physiol 587:3453-8. 2009
    ..Optimal placental development and the ability of the placenta to compensate for stimulus-induced injury are central in promotion of normal fetal growth...
  67. ncbi Placental defect and embryonic lethality in mice lacking hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor
    Y Uehara
    Institute for Liver Research, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 373:702-5. 1995
    ..These findings suggest that HGF/SF is an essential mediator of allantoic mesenchyme-trophoblastic epithelia interaction required for placental organogenesis...
  68. pmc Birthweight is associated with DNA promoter methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human placenta
    Amanda C Filiberto
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    Epigenetics 6:566-72. 2011
    ..Crucial to proper infant growth and development is the placenta, and alterations to placental gene function may reflect differences in the intrauterine environment which ..
  69. ncbi Malaria elicits type 1 cytokines in the human placenta: IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha associated with pregnancy outcomes
    M Fried
    U S Army Medical Research Unit, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu
    J Immunol 160:2523-30. 1998
    ..conclude that maternal malaria decreases IL-10 concentrations and elicits IFN-gamma, IL-2, and TNF-alpha in the placenta, shifting the balance toward type 1 cytokines...
  70. ncbi The primate-specific microRNA gene cluster (C19MC) is imprinted in the placenta
    Marie Noguer-Dance
    Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire Eucaryote, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse, France
    Hum Mol Genet 19:3566-82. 2010 far, is regulated by genomic imprinting with only the paternally inherited allele being expressed in the placenta. DNA methylation profiling identified a differentially methylated region (C19MC-DMR1) that overlaps an upstream ..
  71. ncbi Role of retrotransposon-derived imprinted gene, Rtl1, in the feto-maternal interface of mouse placenta
    Yoichi Sekita
    Department of Epigenetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2 3 10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 101 0062, Japan
    Nat Genet 40:243-8. 2008
    Eutherian placenta, an organ that emerged in the course of mammalian evolution, provides essential architecture, the so-called feto-maternal interface, for fetal development by exchanging nutrition, gas and waste between fetal and ..
  72. pmc Immunization with VAR2CSA-DBL5 recombinant protein elicits broadly cross-reactive antibodies to placental Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes
    Marion Avril
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, 307 Westlake Ave N, Suite 500, Seattle, WA 98109 5219, USA
    Infect Immun 78:2248-56. 2010
    ..severe clinical syndrome associated with the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta. Placental binding is mediated by VAR2CSA, a member of the large and diverse P...
  73. pmc Oxidative stress, gene expression, and protein changes induced in the human placenta during labor
    Tereza Cindrova-Davies
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Am J Pathol 171:1168-79. 2007
    Malperfusion of the placenta has been implicated as a cause of oxidative stress in complications of human pregnancy, leading to release of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-angiogenic factors into the maternal circulation...
  74. ncbi Release of proinflammatory cytokines and 8-isoprostane from placenta, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    Martha Lappas
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melboure and Mercy Perinatal Research Center, Mercy Hospital for Women, 126 Clarendon Street, East Melbourne, 3002 Victoria, Australia
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5627-33. 2004
    ..b>Placenta, sc adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle were incubated in the absence (control) or presence of lipopolysaccharide ..
  75. ncbi Epigenetics and the placenta
    Ewka C M Nelissen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Research Institute Growth and Development GROW, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, MUMC, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Hum Reprod Update 17:397-417. 2011
    The placenta is of utmost importance for intrauterine fetal development and growth. Deregulation of placentation can lead to adverse outcomes for both mother and fetus, e.g...
  76. ncbi Heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in maternal, cord blood and placenta of healthy women
    Iman Al-Saleh
    Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 214:79-101. 2011
    ..031-13.0 μg/g dry wt. Regression analyses indicated that the levels of metals in the blood and placenta were influenced by several factors...
  77. pmc Oxygen, the Janus gas; its effects on human placental development and function
    Graham J Burton
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    J Anat 215:27-35. 2009
    ..a low oxygen environment that favours organogenesis in the embryo, and cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the placenta. Later in pregnancy, higher oxygen concentrations are required to support the rapid growth of the fetus...
  78. pmc A lesson for cancer research: placental microarray gene analysis in preeclampsia
    Frank Louwen
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Oncotarget 3:759-73. 2012
    ..The invasion of trophoblasts in the placenta into the uterine wall is essential for fetal development, and is thus precisely regulated...
  79. pmc The human placenta methylome
    Diane I Schroeder
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, UC Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:6037-42. 2013
    ..Here, we performed MethylC-seq in full-term human placenta and demonstrate it is the first known normal tissue showing clear evidence of PMDs...
  80. pmc Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression
    Yang Bai
    State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 7:e38875. 2012
    ..Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder...
  81. ncbi The placenta is a niche for hematopoietic stem cells
    Christos Gekas
    Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and, Childrens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 8:365-75. 2005
    ..Here, we show that the mouse placenta functions as a hematopoietic organ that harbors a large pool of pluripotent HSCs during midgestation...
  82. ncbi Cellular expression of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family in the placenta of mice
    A Nagai
    Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Placenta 31:126-33. 2010
    ..The present study examined the expression profile and subcellular localization of MCTs in the mouse placenta. An in situ hybridization survey of all MCT subtypes detected intense mRNA expressions of MCT1, MCT4, and MCT9 as ..
  83. pmc Placental 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase methylation is associated with newborn growth and a measure of neurobehavioral outcome
    Carmen J Marsit
    Department of Pharmacology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e33794. 2012
    ..environment can impact the neurodevelopment of the fetus through alterations in the functional epigenome of the placenta. In the placenta, the HSD11B2 gene encoding the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is responsible ..
  84. ncbi Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta: comparison with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    Zongning Miao
    The Stem Cell Research Lab of Wuxi, No 3 People s Hospital, East Tonghui Road, Wuxi 214041, China
    Cell Biol Int 30:681-7. 2006
    ..Here we tried to identify cells with MSC-like potency in human placenta. We isolated adherent cells from trypsin-digested term placentas and examined these cells for morphology, surface ..
  85. pmc Contrasting effects of different maternal diets on sexually dimorphic gene expression in the murine placenta
    Jiude Mao
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5557-62. 2010
    ..Because the placenta buffers the fetus from the mother, we examined the impact of diet and fetal sex on placental gene expression in ..
  86. ncbi The Hand1 bHLH transcription factor is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis
    P Riley
    Program in Development and Fetal Health, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Genet 18:271-5. 1998
    The placenta and cardiovascular system are the first organ systems to form during mammalian embryogenesis. We show here that a single gene is critical for development of both...
  87. ncbi Schistosomiasis and pregnancy
    Jennifer F Friedman
    Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, 55 Claverick Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Trends Parasitol 23:159-64. 2007
  88. pmc Transcriptionally active syncytial aggregates in the maternal circulation may contribute to circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in preeclampsia
    Augustine Rajakumar
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Hypertension 59:256-64. 2012
    ..and proteinuria that resolve with placental delivery have been linked to an extracellular protein made by the placenta, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), that injures the maternal vasculature...
  89. pmc Profiling gene expression in human placentae of different gestational ages: an OPRU Network and UW SCOR Study
    Andrei M Mikheev
    Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Reprod Sci 15:866-77. 2008
    ..Our study will serve as a reference database to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression in the developing placentae and to compare with gene expression in placentae from complicated pregnancies...
  90. ncbi The maternal diet during pregnancy programs altered expression of the glucocorticoid receptor and type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: potential molecular mechanisms underlying the programming of hypertension in utero
    C Bertram
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit and Institute of Human Nutrition, Division of the Fetal Origins of Adult Disease, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom SO16 6YD
    Endocrinology 142:2841-53. 2001
    ..Exposure to the MLP diet also resulted in markedly reduced levels of 11betaHSD2 expression in the MLP placenta on days 14 and 20 of gestation (P < 0...
  91. ncbi Loss of imprinting and aberrant methylation of IGF2 in placentas from pregnancies complicated with fetal growth restriction
    Ourania Koukoura
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Int J Mol Med 28:481-7. 2011
    ..Our results suggest the involvement of the IGF2 imprinted gene in placental function and fetal growth and the possible association of epigenetic alterations with the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction...
  92. ncbi Accumulation of cadmium in human placenta interacts with the transport of micronutrients to the fetus
    Maria Kippler
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Metals and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Toxicol Lett 192:162-8. 2010
    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, highly toxic environmental pollutant known to accumulate in human placenta. The aim of the present study was to elucidate to what extent the accumulation of Cd in human placenta interacts with the transport ..
  93. ncbi Impaired cell fusion and differentiation in placentae from patients with intrauterine growth restriction correlate with reduced levels of HERV envelope genes
    Matthias Ruebner
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, University Clinic Erlangen, Universitaetsstr 21 23, 91054, Erlangen, Germany
    J Mol Med (Berl) 88:1143-56. 2010
    ..Fusogenic and non-fusogenic envelope genes are dysregulated in IUGR placentae and may contribute to the etiology of growth restriction in utero...
  94. pmc Nodal signals through activin receptor-like kinase 7 to inhibit trophoblast migration and invasion: implication in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia
    Lubna Nadeem
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Pathol 178:1177-89. 2011
    ..In this study, we examined the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Nodal and ALK7 in human placenta from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and investigated whether Nodal regulated trophoblast migration and ..
  95. ncbi Pathogenesis of preeclampsia
    Brett C Young
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Annu Rev Pathol 5:173-92. 2010
    ..The only known cure is delivery of the placenta. Recent discoveries, however, have led to important advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the condition...
  96. pmc Immunologic activation of human syncytiotrophoblast by Plasmodium falciparum
    Naomi W Lucchi
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Malar J 7:42. 2008
    ..characterized by the sequestration of malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBC) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta, often accompanied by the infiltration of maternal mononuclear cells, causing substantial maternal and foetal/..
  97. pmc Activation of the maternal immune system induces endocrine changes in the placenta via IL-6
    Elaine Y Hsiao
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 25:604-15. 2011
    ..Here we focus on the placenta as the site of direct interaction between mother and fetus and as a principal modulator of fetal development...
  98. pmc A survey for novel imprinted genes in the mouse placenta by mRNA-seq
    Xu Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell Center for Comparative and Population Genomics, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Genetics 189:109-22. 2011
    ..5 (E17.5) mouse placenta cDNA samples from reciprocal cross F1 progeny of AKR and PWD mouse strains and quantified the allele-specific ..
  99. ncbi Molecular circuits shared by placental and cancer cells, and their implications in the proliferative, invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts
    C Ferretti
    UMR 8149 CNRS, IFR 71, Universite Rene Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Paris, Paris, France
    Hum Reprod Update 13:121-41. 2007
  100. ncbi The influence of the intrauterine environment on human placental development
    Graham J Burton
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Int J Dev Biol 54:303-12. 2010
    Development of the human placenta is modulated heavily by the intrauterine environment. During the first trimester, development takes place in a low oxygen environment supported by histiotrophic nutrition from the endometrial glands...
  101. pmc Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans
    Kesinee Chotivanich
    Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    PLoS ONE 7:e34509. 2012
    ..Cytoadherence and sequestration in the microvasculature are central to the pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the contribution of cytoadherence to pathology in other human malarias is less clear...

Research Grants75

  1. Vaccine Development for Falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women and Their Offspring
    Ian C Michelow; Fiscal Year: 2013 effective new malaria vaccine to protect infants by taking advantage of maternal antibodies that cross the placenta. Candidate vaccine proteins will be screened, confirmed and selected for clinical trials using pioneering ..
  2. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is becoming increasingly clear that the placenta plays a key role in the origin of adverse fetal outcomes resulting from maternal over- or under-nutrition...
  3. A unique approach to identify markers for congenital syphilis and neurosyphilis
    Nikhat Parveen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..burgdorferi will promote invasion and colonization of specific sites. Invasion of the placenta, which may lead to congenital transmission and of the central nervous system will be detectable in mice by an in ..
  4. Protein Nitration in the Placenta
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dependent on oxygen concentration hence the hypoxic environment or ischemia/reperfusion of the preeclamptic placenta may cause protein nitration and altered cellular respiration and placental function...
  5. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is becoming increasingly clear that the placenta plays a key role in the origin of adverse fetal outcomes resulting from maternal over- or under-nutrition...
  6. Triggers of Abruptio Placentae - A Case Crossover Study of an Ischemic Placental
    Michelle A Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Abruptio placentae (AP), the premature separation of the placenta, is a life threatening obstetric condition that complicates roughly 1-2 percent of all pregnancies...
  7. Transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors: epigenetics and physiology
    Rebecca A Simmons; Fiscal Year: 2013 loss of imprinting at two genes critical for development and obesity, Igf2 and Snrpn, in the embryo and placenta. These findings lead us to hypothesize that BPA exposure during development alters the epigenetic profile in key ..
  8. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The present project, which focuses on TCE impacts on the placenta and extraplacental membranes, is part of a larger transdisciplinary effort to investigate whether exposure to ..
  9. Complement Activation in Pregnancy and Hypertension
    Jean F Regal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ischemia during pregnancy leads to maternal hypertension and the only effective cure is early delivery of the placenta. Studies of preeclampsia have focused on mediators of hypertension including autoantibodies to angiotensin II ..
  10. Maternal nutrient restriction and nonhuman primate fetal skeletal muscle developm
    Min Du; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. maternal malnutrition, reduced placenta efficiency, adolescence pregnancy, and closely spaced pregnancy...
  11. Adiponectin and fetal programming
    Jianhua Shao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although there was no change in placenta mass, remarkably increased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expressions were observed in placentas from obese dams...
  12. Pluripotent human stem cells as models for normal and diseased trophoblast
    ROBERT MICHAEL ROBERTS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project has high significance because EVT ultimately become the invasive trophoblast (TR) cells of human placenta that penetrate maternal blood vessels and enhance blood flow...
  13. Flame Retardant and Adverse Perinatal Outcome (FRAPO)
    Morgan R Peltier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PBDEs are present in the plasma of almost all pregnant women. They have also been isolated from the placenta, umbilical chord, amniotic fluid and fetal membranes but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear...
  14. Role of Physico-chemical Properties in the Reprotoxicity of Inhaled Cd NP.
    JUDITH TERRY ZELIKOFF; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Cd: is an endocrine disruptor;reduces progesterone levels;alters placental steroidogenesis;can concentrate in the placenta;and, exposure to bulk Cd is associated with fetal instability (i.e...
  15. Maternal Obesity and Gestational Diabetes: Impact on Metabolome
    William L Lowe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..profile impacts the intrauterine milieu of the developing fetus as glucose and other molecules cross the placenta and impact fetal growth and development...
  16. Early Disease Biomarkers of PCB-exposed Human Population
    Sisir K Dutta; Fiscal Year: 2010 Transthyretin (TTR) results in selective delivery of these hormones over the blood-brain barrier and over the placenta to the fetal compartment where they produce a hypothyroid effect...
  17. PlGF-HIF1a-miRNA Axis in Sickle Pulmonary Hypertension
    Punam Malik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our studies have shown that placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic growth factor produced in high amounts by sickle erythroid cells, induces ..
  18. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Modeling syncytiotrophoblast development and pathogenesis
    Danny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A placenta allows eutherian mammals to give birth to progeny that are already developmentally advanced...
  19. Trophoblast MHC-I: Trigger for Immune-Mediated Rejection of Cloned Bovine Fetuses
    Kenneth L White; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This project will elucidate the functional genomics of the cross-talk between the placenta and uterine immune system in normal and abnormal pregnancies...
  20. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Expression of RHD in the Fetus?
    Pirooz Eghtesady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HLHS in which maternal antibodies produced in response to antecedent (and recurrent) strep infection, cross the placenta and damage the fetal heart in the susceptible host...
    Carlos M Ferrario; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..hormonal system - the renin angiotensin system in multiple tissues including the brain, heart, kidney and uterus/placenta. Understanding the regulation of this system is vital to the prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as in ..
  22. The role of NLRP7 and related genes in hydatidiform moles and reproductive failur
    Ignatia Van den Veyver; Fiscal Year: 2009 mutated in women who have rare recurrent hydatidiform moles (a severe pregnancy complication with hyperplastic placenta and absent fetus), and sometimes other pregnancy complications...
  23. DHA, Inflammation, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Pregnant Women
    Debra Krummel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..DHA, on the obese woman's metabolic status during pregnancy, the transport of nutrients to the fetus by the placenta and the size of the baby at birth...
  24. Functional significance of Siglec-6, a novel leptin receptor, in human placental
    Virginia Winn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the B lymphocytes of all studied primates express Siglec-6, only human placenta expresses Siglec-6, which is intriguing given PE is a human-specific disease dependent upon the placenta...
  25. Regulation and Function of the HCMV pp71 Tegument Protein
    Julie Kerry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, HCMV can cross the placenta and infect the fetus resulting in a high incidence of birth defects such as blindness and deafness...
  26. Prenatal stress and epigenetic programming of the HPA axis and autonomic balance
    Rosalind J Wright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..maternal stress on the infant stress response and atopic risk, we propose the collection of 3 target tissues (placenta, umbilical artery, cord white blood cells) to begin to examine these relationships...
  27. The Effects of Ethanol on Microtubules during Mouse Pre-implantation Development
    Yixian Zheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, the specific mechanisms have been proven more difficult to establish. The role of the placenta, for example, has been well established in FASD yet there is a lack of definitive biomarkers to define placental ..
  28. Regulation and Function of the Rhox8 homeobox gene in granulosa cells
    JAMES ARTHUR MACLEAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..While expression of the Rhox genes is restricted to reproductive tissues, ovary, testis, epididymis, and placenta, very few have been examined for function...
  29. Role of SATB in placental development
    Mohammad A K Rumi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The growth and development of the placenta is dependent upon expansion and lineage specific differentiation of a population of stem cells referred to as trophoblast stem (TS) cells...
  30. Angiogenic factors, abnormal placentation and adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Sarosh Rana; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The applicant intends to do in vitro (on cytotrophoblast cells derived from human placenta) and in vivo (on rodents) studies to investigate the role of sFlt1 and sEng on placental cytotrophoblast function...
  31. Targeting Glucose Metabolism in Cancer
    Sucheta Telang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..four genes (PFKFB1-4) reportedly expressed in distinct tissues: liver/skeletal muscle (PFKFB1), heart (PFKFB2), placenta (PFKFB3) and testis (PFKFB4)...
  32. Adverse Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Genetics or Epigenetics?
    Margareta Pisarska; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are at increased risk of adverse outcomes, including low birth weight, preeclampsia, placental abruption, placenta previa, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality, many of which may be attributed to abnormalities of ..
  33. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013 addition to nicotine, nicotine is of particular concern in relation to SIDS due to its ability to cross the placenta and concentrate in the fetus, and prenatal nicotine exposure impairs the ability of newborn animals to ..
  34. Modeling preeclampsia in mice with inducible placenta-specific gene expression
    Nihar R Nayak; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..local activity by placental production of sFlt-1, and its potential role in regulating sFlt-1 production in the placenta have never been examined, primarily due to lack of suitable animal models to test the placenta-specific effects ..
  35. Fetal HCMV Infection: Role of the Human Placenta
    LENORE PALMA PEREIRA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These could have clinical application in conjunction with biotherapeutic antibodies that suppress HCMV replication, prevent placental dysfunction and improve chances for a healthy baby. ..
  36. Adiponectin regulates nutrient transport in the placenta
    Theresa L Powell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..whereby maternal adiposity increases fetal growth rates are unknown but an increased nutrient delivery across the placenta is essential to support the accelerated growth rate...
  37. Regulation of Maternal Fuel Supply and Neonatal Adiposity
    LINDA ANNE BARBOUR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 2 we will determine LPL activity in maternal WAT and the placenta to assess the lipolytic activities of these tissues...
  38. Placental Treg Activation and Pregnancy Outcome in the FIV-infected Cat Model
    GREGORY TODD PHARR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Regulatory T cells (immunosuppressive T cells) in the placenta are known to support successful pregnancy by allowing maternal tolerance of the developing fetus, yet HIV can ..
  39. 2011 Cell-Cell Fusion Gordon Research Conference and Seminar
    NANCY RYAN GRAY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..such as membrane fusion and fission, egg-sperm fusion, formation of bones, muscles, eye lens, stem cells, placenta, rare genetic diseases, and the invasion of cells by pathogens will be covered in eight sessions...
    Kelan G Tantisira; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The major goal of this project is to demonstrate that IUS exposure results in epigenetic changes in the placenta and developing fetus that have downstream impact on the expression of genes crucial to normal human lung ..
  41. The Role of Complement in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia
    ..and observational studies of human placentas supports involvement of complement activation in dysfunction of the placenta. In a histopathologically similar disease, aHUS, 50-60% of cases are associated with rare (heterozygous in <1% ..
  42. Functional Analysis of PAAN-AG5, the Baboon Counterpart of HLA-G5
    Daudi K Langat; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Paan-AG5, are highly expressed by villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells in the human and baboon placenta respectively [1,4,6]...
    JUDITH SMITH MERCER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When immediate cord clamping occurs, up to 25% of the fetal-placental blood volume may be left in the placenta acutely increasing vulnerability to hypovolemia...
  44. Effects of prenatal stress exposure on childhood physical and metabolic outcomes
    Kelsey Needham Dancause; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is thought to reflect the effects of maternal stress hormones, which can cross the placenta and disrupt fetal development...
  45. Morphogenesis of mammalian gut endoderm
    Anna Katerina Hadjantonakis; Fiscal Year: 2012 establish the body axes, they contribute solely to extraembryonic structures, such as the yolk sac and placenta. The cell movements underlying the morphogenesis of the gut endoderm, the tissue that gives rise to the ..
    Carole R Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2013 catalyzed by aromatase P450 (product of hCYP19 gene), which is expressed at very high levels in human placenta. hCYP19 gene expression is markedly induced during differentiation of human placental cells in culture;..
  47. Placental shape features, gestational timing and maternal and infant health
    Carolyn M Salafia; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The development of the placenta is a principal determinant of pregnancy outcome including prematurity, preeclampsia and fetal growth/ birth weight...
  48. Cellular Mechanisms of Amniotic Fluid Volume Regulation
    Cecilia Y Cheung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of AF water and solutes across the fetal membranes into fetal blood vessels that vascularize the surface of the placenta is the pathway where regulation occurs...
  49. Preeclampsia, IUGR and Hypertension: Targets for Treatment
    Joey P Granger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..S. Hypertension associated with PE develops during pregnancy and remits after parturition implicating the placenta as a central culprit in the disease...
  50. A Developmental And Molecular Investigation Of How Vitamin E Ameliorates Endocrin
    Krista McCoy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In fact, EDC exposure of mothers and presence of EDCs in the placenta have both been correlated with incidence of hypospadias in sons...
  51. Role of Maternal Platelets in the Placenta and Pregnancy Complications
    Rashmi Sood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Conditions that trigger prothrombotic changes in the placenta compromise blood flow and have serious consequences for both the mother and the baby...
  52. Deiodinase Activity as a Biomarker of Response to Brominated Flame Retardants
    Heather M Stapleton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During pregnancy, DI activity in placenta tissues is essential in regulating the supply of active thyroid hormones to the developing fetus...
  53. Maternal Androgen Excess: Vascular and Placental Function and Fetal Consequences
    ..Based on our preliminary data that testosterone does not cross placenta and the observation of vascular and placental defects in pregnant rats with elevated T, we hypothesize that ..
  54. Functions of MRP2 and MRP3 in Drug Disposition
    James M Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..MRP2 is localized to the same apical sites of drug uptake and elimination as is PGP (gut, hepatocytes, kidney and placenta), has the ability to transport a broad range of anticancer agents, and is known to be a factor in the ..
  55. Synthetic Oligosaccharides for Probing Infection and Innate Immunity
    Geert Jan Boons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Red blood cells infected with the parasite P. falciparum can accumulate in the placenta due to their capacity to bind CS resulting in pregnancy-associated malaria...
  56. The role of b-carotene in maternal-fetal nutrition
    Loredana Quadro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3) To investigate the mechanisms of uptake and processing of -carotene by the maternal-fetal barrier (i.e., placenta and yolk sac)...
  57. Adiponectin, placental nutrient transport and fetal growth
    Theresa L Powell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central hypothesis is that ADN binds to the AdipoR2 in the placenta and, mediated by APPL1, activates p38MAPK and PPAR-1, which inhibit the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway resulting ..
  58. Medications Development for the Pregnant Opiate Addict
    Mahmoud S Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Progesterone is an allosteric regulator of P-gp activity. BCRP expression in placenta is higher than in any other human tissue...
  59. Role of epithelial HLA-G in lung transplantation
    Steven R White; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A non-classical HLA class I molecule, HLA-G, first discovered in the fetal cells of the placenta that interact with maternal immune cells, may have a 'tolerogenic'function in heart, kidney, and liver ..
  60. Serine Protease Corin in Pregnancy-induced Hypertension
    Qingyu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unexpectedly, we found high levels of corin expression in the pregnant uterus and placenta in mice, suggesting a potential role of corin in pregnancy...
  61. Nutrient Restriction: Placental and Fetal Brain and Renal Outcomes and Mechanism
    Peter W Nathanielsz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Hypothesis: exposure of baboons to MNR adversely impacts growth and key cellular processes in placenta, F brain and F kidney...
  62. Structure and Function of Integral Membrane Enzyme Human Aromatase
    Debashis Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..crystals of the androstenedione-complex of the full-length, highly active P450arom purified from human term placenta, gathered complete diffraction data to 2.90E resolution and obtained a solution for the structure...
    CECILIA CHEUNG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We have identified a vascular pathway within the fetal membranes and fetal surface of the placenta for fluid and solute exchange between the amniotic compartment and fetal blood...
  64. NO Metabolic Control in Pregnancy
    Thomas Hintze; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..synthase in almost all vascular beds studied in the gravid female including skeletal muscle, kidney and utems or placenta. The upregulation of eNOS directly contributes to the fall in TPR which is not confined to the placenta...
    Stanley Fisher; Fiscal Year: 1999
    The human placenta, a tissue primarily of fetal origin, is the critical maternal/fetal interface. Fetal growth and development depend upon normal placental function...
  66. Immune Tolerance; Sigma Receptor as a Therapeutic Target
    Vadivel Ganapathy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is expressed in various tissues including immune cells and placenta. There is compelling evidence for an immunosuppressive role of sigma 1 receptor-specific ligands...
  67. Mouse Model For Amniotic Fluid Volume Regulation
    CECILIA CHEUNG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This pathway is constituted by a network of microvessels on the surface of the placenta and, in sheep, within the amnion and chorion as well...
  68. The human placenta as a novel source of hematopoietic stem cells
    Alicia Barcena; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The recent discovery that the mouse placenta contains a sizable pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at about the same time that the AGM is active, alters ..
    Kathleen Shiverick; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The objective of the proposed research is to investigate cellular and biochemical alterations in the placenta which are associated with exposure to cocaine during pregnancy...
    ASOK ANTONY; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..demonstrate the central role of the folate receptor (FR) in regulation of transfer of maternal folates across the placenta and of normal embryogenesis...
    MARK KRISTAL; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Recent research has demonstrated, in nonpregnant rats, that consumption of placenta or amniotic fluid significantly enhances opioid-mediated analgesia, although it does not, by itself, produce analgesia...
  72. Molecular Mechanisms of Plasmodium Falciparum Adherence to the Human Placenta
    Susan J Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the maternal blood spaces of the placenta, and (2) the cytoadherence of iRBCs to placental cells, such as syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs) that cover the ..
    Richard Rose; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..However, little has been learned concerning how vitamins are delivered to the fetus by the placenta. Efforts will be directed at understanding the transfer of nicotinic acid, Riboflavin, pantothenic acid, thiamine,..
  74. Placenta bacteriology and histology in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity
    Olaf Dammann; Fiscal Year: 2010 about potentially preventable antenatal risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) derived from placenta bacteriology and histology...
  75. Primate Endometrial Responses to Placental MHC Class I Molecules
    Thaddeus Golos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..specific monoclonal antibody to a nonpolymorphic MHC class I molecule designated Mamu-AG expressed in the rhesus placenta, homologous to HLA-G expressed in the human placenta, resulted in delay or disruption of placental development ..