Summary: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Obesity alters gut microbial ecology
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genomes Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11070-5. 2005
  2. ncbi Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 307:1915-20. 2005
  3. ncbi Single Lgr5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche
    Toshiro Sato
    Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nature 459:262-5. 2009
  4. pmc The human microbiome project
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 449:804-10. 2007
  5. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
  6. pmc Paneth cells constitute the niche for Lgr5 stem cells in intestinal crypts
    Toshiro Sato
    Hubrecht Institute, KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nature 469:415-8. 2011
  7. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008
  8. pmc Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of Type 1 diabetes
    Li Wen
    Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 455:1109-13. 2008
  9. pmc Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota
    Chana Palmer
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e177. 2007
  10. pmc The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease
    June L Round
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:313-23. 2009

Detail Information

Publications320 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Obesity alters gut microbial ecology
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genomes Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11070-5. 2005
    ..The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database [accession nos. DQ 014552--DQ 015671 (mothers) and AY 989911--AY 993908 (offspring)]...
  2. ncbi Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 307:1915-20. 2005
    ..We are also starting to understand how certain keystone members of the microbiota operate to maintain the stability and functional adaptability of this microbial organ...
  3. ncbi Single Lgr5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche
    Toshiro Sato
    Hubrecht Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nature 459:262-5. 2009
    ..We conclude that intestinal cryptvillus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial cellular niche...
  4. pmc The human microbiome project
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 449:804-10. 2007
    ..A strategy to understand the microbial components of the human genetic and metabolic landscape and how they contribute to normal physiology and predisposition to disease...
  5. pmc Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome
    Steven R Gill
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 312:1355-9. 2006
    ..Thus, humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes...
  6. pmc Paneth cells constitute the niche for Lgr5 stem cells in intestinal crypts
    Toshiro Sato
    Hubrecht Institute, KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nature 469:415-8. 2011
    ..In colon crypts, CD24(+) cells residing between Lgr5 stem cells may represent the Paneth cell equivalents. We conclude that Lgr5 stem cells compete for essential niche signals provided by a specialized daughter cell, the Paneth cell...
  7. pmc The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 6:e280. 2008
    ..The rapid return to the pretreatment community composition is indicative of factors promoting community resilience, the nature of which deserves future investigation...
  8. pmc Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of Type 1 diabetes
    Li Wen
    Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 455:1109-13. 2008
    ..Together, these findings indicate that interaction of the intestinal microbes with the innate immune system is a critical epigenetic factor modifying T1D predisposition...
  9. pmc Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota
    Chana Palmer
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 5:e177. 2007
    ..By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract...
  10. pmc The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease
    June L Round
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 9:313-23. 2009
    ..This raises the possibility that the mammalian immune system, which seems to be designed to control microorganisms, is in fact controlled by microorganisms...
  11. ncbi Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Cell 124:837-48. 2006
    ..The ecological rules that govern the shape of microbial diversity in the gut apply to mutualists and pathogens alike...
  12. ncbi Interleukin-10-deficient mice develop chronic enterocolitis
    R Kuhn
    Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 75:263-74. 1993
    ..These results indicate that the bowel inflammation in the mutants originates from uncontrolled immune responses stimulated by enteric antigens and that IL-10 is an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract...
  13. pmc Regulation of inflammatory responses by gut microbiota and chemoattractant receptor GPR43
    Kendle M Maslowski
    Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia
    Nature 461:1282-6. 2009
    ..GPR43 binding of SCFAs potentially provides a molecular link between diet, gastrointestinal bacterial metabolism, and immune and inflammatory responses...
  14. pmc Comparative analysis of human gut microbiota by barcoded pyrosequencing
    Anders F Andersson
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 3:e2836. 2008
    ..Here we applied the technique to analyze microbial communities in throat, stomach and fecal samples. Our results demonstrate the applicability of barcoded pyrosequencing as a high-throughput method for comparative microbial ecology...
  15. pmc Pretreatment of mice with streptomycin provides a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colitis model that allows analysis of both pathogen and host
    Manja Barthel
    Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
    Infect Immun 71:2839-58. 2003
    ..Our results demonstrate that streptomycin-pretreated mice offer a unique infection model that allows for the first time to use mutants of both the pathogen and the host to study the molecular mechanisms of enteric salmonellosis...
  16. ncbi Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5
    Matam Vijay-Kumar
    Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 328:228-31. 2010
    ..These results support the emerging view that the gut microbiota contributes to metabolic disease and suggest that malfunction of the innate immune system may promote the development of metabolic syndrome...
  17. pmc Inducible Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell development by a commensal bacterium of the intestinal microbiota
    June L Round
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12204-9. 2010
    ..Our results therefore demonstrate that B. fragilis co-opts the Treg lineage differentiation pathway in the gut to actively induce mucosal tolerance...
  18. ncbi Retinoic acid imprints gut-homing specificity on T cells
    Makoto Iwata
    Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences, 11 Minamiooya, Machida shi, Tokyo 194 8511, Japan
    Immunity 21:527-38. 2004
    ..These findings revealed a novel role for retinoic acid in the imprinting of gut-homing specificity on T cells...
  19. ncbi Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects
    Andreas Schwiertz
    Institute of Microecology, Auf den Lüppen 8, Herborn, Germany
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:190-5. 2010
    ..However, our results contradict previous reports with regard to the contribution of various bacterial groups to the development of obesity and this issue remains controversial...
  20. pmc Viruses in the faecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers
    Alejandro Reyes
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 466:334-8. 2010
    ..These results indicate that a predatory viral-microbial dynamic, manifest in a number of other characterized environmental ecosystems, is notably absent in the very distal intestine...
  21. pmc Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium exploits inflammation to compete with the intestinal microbiota
    Bärbel Stecher
    Institute of Microbiology, Swiss Institute of Technology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Biol 5:2177-89. 2007
    ..Triggering the host's immune defence can shift the balance between the protective microbiota and the pathogen in favour of the pathogen...
  22. pmc Cytokine/Jak/Stat signaling mediates regeneration and homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut
    Huaqi Jiang
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Cell 137:1343-55. 2009
    ..Hence, cytokine-mediated feedback enables stem cells to replace spent progeny as they are lost, thereby establishing gut homeostasis...
  23. ncbi Immune adaptations that maintain homeostasis with the intestinal microbiota
    Lora V Hooper
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and The Department of Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:159-69. 2010
    ..In this Review, we discuss the unique adaptations of the intestinal immune system that maintain homeostatic interactions with a diverse resident microbiota...
  24. pmc Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology
    Nita H Salzman
    Division of Gastroenterology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:76-83. 2010
    ..Our data ascribe a new homeostatic role to alpha-defensins in regulating the makeup of the commensal microbiota...
  25. ncbi Interactions between commensal intestinal bacteria and the immune system
    Andrew J Macpherson
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, Universitatsspital, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Immunol 4:478-85. 2004
  26. pmc Altered modes of stem cell division drive adaptive intestinal growth
    Lucy Erin O'Brien
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Cell 147:603-14. 2011
    ..Thus, tissue renewal programs are not committed to maintain cellular equilibrium; stem cells can remodel organs in response to physiological triggers...
  27. ncbi Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy
    John Penders
    Department of Epidemiology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
    Pediatrics 118:511-21. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of external influences to the gut microbiotic composition in early infancy...
  28. pmc Bmi1 is expressed in vivo in intestinal stem cells
    Eugenio Sangiorgi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    Nat Genet 40:915-20. 2008
    ..Unexpectedly, the distribution of Bmi1-expressing stem cells along the length of the small intestine suggested that mammals use more than one molecularly distinguishable adult stem cell subpopulation to maintain organ homeostasis...
  29. pmc Individuality in gut microbiota composition is a complex polygenic trait shaped by multiple environmental and host genetic factors
    Andrew K Benson
    Department of Food Science and Technology and Core for Applied Genomics and Ecology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583 0919, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18933-8. 2010
  30. pmc Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass
    Husen Zhang
    Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2365-70. 2009
    ..The large bacterial population shift seen in the post-gastric-bypass individuals may reflect the double impact of the gut alteration caused by the surgical procedure and the consequent changes in food ingestion and digestion...
  31. pmc Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly
    Marcus J Claesson
    Department of Microbiology, University College, Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4586-91. 2011
    ..We conclude that the fecal microbiota of the elderly shows temporal stability over limited time in the majority of subjects but is characterized by unusual phylum proportions and extreme variability...
  32. ncbi How host-microbial interactions shape the nutrient environment of the mammalian intestine
    Lora V Hooper
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 22:283-307. 2002
    ..These and other studies underscore the importance of understanding precisely how nutrient metabolism serves to establish and sustain symbiotic relationships between mammals and their bacterial partners...
  33. ncbi Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite
    Falk Warnecke
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA
    Nature 450:560-5. 2007
    ..Our results underscore how complex even a 1-microl environment can be...
  34. pmc Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine
    Marcus J Claesson
    Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    PLoS ONE 4:e6669. 2009
    ..Here we compare two such methods, pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic array, and evaluate classifications based on two variable 16S rRNA gene regions...
  35. ncbi Organizing cell renewal in the intestine: stem cells, signals and combinatorial control
    Cecile Crosnier
    Vertebrate Development Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 7:349-59. 2006
  36. ncbi The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells
    Benjamin Ohlstein
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 3520 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    Nature 439:470-4. 2006
    ..In contrast, stem cells have not been described in the intestines of flies, and Drosophila intestinal cells have been thought to be relatively stable...
  37. ncbi The key role of segmented filamentous bacteria in the coordinated maturation of gut helper T cell responses
    Valerie Gaboriau-Routhiau
    INRA, U910, Unité Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Immunity 31:677-89. 2009
    ..This bacterium, already known as a potent inducer of mucosal IgA, likely plays a unique role in the postnatal maturation of gut immune functions. Changes in the infant flora may thus influence the development of host immune responses...
  38. pmc Gut-residing segmented filamentous bacteria drive autoimmune arthritis via T helper 17 cells
    Hsin Jung Wu
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunity 32:815-27. 2010
    ..Thus, a single commensal microbe, via its ability to promote a specific Th cell subset, can drive an autoimmune disease...
  39. ncbi Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria
    Jason M Ridlon
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
    J Lipid Res 47:241-59. 2006
  40. ncbi Tissue-specific activities of C. elegans DAF-16 in the regulation of lifespan
    Nataliya Libina
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Mission Bay Genentech Hall, 600 16th Street, Room S312D, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Cell 115:489-502. 2003
    ..We suggest that this network of tissue interactions and feedback regulation allows the tissues to equilibrate and fine-tune their expression of downstream genes, which, in turn, coordinates their rates of aging within the animal...
  41. pmc Disease phenotype and genotype are associated with shifts in intestinal-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases
    Daniel N Frank
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80045, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 17:179-84. 2011
    ..We hypothesize that NOD2 and ATG16L1 risk alleles may be associated with these alterations...
  42. pmc Has the microbiota played a critical role in the evolution of the adaptive immune system?
    Yun Kyung Lee
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 330:1768-73. 2010
  43. pmc High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity
    Marie A Hildebrandt
    Division of Gastroenterology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Gastroenterology 137:1716-24.e1-2. 2009
    ..The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors...
  44. ncbi Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota
    Cecilia Jernberg
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    ISME J 1:56-66. 2007
  45. pmc Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus domination of intestinal microbiota is enabled by antibiotic treatment in mice and precedes bloodstream invasion in humans
    Carles Ubeda
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:4332-41. 2010
    ..Thus, high-throughput DNA sequencing of the intestinal microbiota could identify patients at high risk of developing bacterial sepsis...
  46. ncbi Towards the human intestinal microbiota phylogenetic core
    Julien Tap
    INRA, UEPSD, UR910, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    Environ Microbiol 11:2574-84. 2009
    ..Its role in human health deserves further study...
  47. ncbi Innate immune homeostasis by the homeobox gene caudal and commensal-gut mutualism in Drosophila
    Ji Hwan Ryu
    Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Woman s University and National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Science 319:777-82. 2008
    ..These results reveal that a specific genetic deficiency within a host can profoundly influence the gut commensal microbial community and host physiology...
  48. ncbi A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease
    Sarkis K Mazmanian
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nature 453:620-5. 2008
    ..Harnessing the immunomodulatory capacity of symbiosis factors such as PSA might potentially provide therapeutics for human inflammatory disorders on the basis of entirely novel biological principles...
  49. ncbi Endothelial apoptosis as the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage in mice
    F Paris
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction and, Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 293:293-7. 2001
    ..This study provides a basis for new approaches to prevent radiation damage to the bowel...
  50. ncbi Notch signals control the fate of immature progenitor cells in the intestine
    Silvia Fre
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 435:964-8. 2005
    ..We conclude that Notch activity is required for the maintenance of proliferating crypt cells in the intestinal epithelium...
  51. pmc Small intestinal CD103+ dendritic cells display unique functional properties that are conserved between mice and humans
    Elin Jaensson
    Immunology Section, BMC D14, 221 84 Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Exp Med 205:2139-49. 2008
    ..Thus, small intestinal CD103(+) DCs represent a potential novel target for regulating human intestinal inflammatory responses...
  52. pmc Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients
    Fabrice Armougom
    URMITE UMR CNRS 6236, IRD 3R198, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine, and Nutrition and Diabetology Department, University Hospital Sainte Marguerite, Marseille, France
    PLoS ONE 4:e7125. 2009
    ..The roles of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii and Lactobacillus species have not been described in these studies...
  53. ncbi A genomic view of the human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron symbiosis
    Jian Xu
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 299:2074-6. 2003
    ..These and other expanded paralogous groups shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying symbiotic host-bacterial relationships in our intestine...
  54. pmc Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults
    Nadja Larsen
    Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
    PLoS ONE 5:e9085. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control...
  55. ncbi Human intestinal bacteria as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes
    Abigail A Salyers
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Trends Microbiol 12:412-6. 2004
  56. pmc Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila
    Nicolas Buchon
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Genes Dev 23:2333-44. 2009
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
  57. ncbi Generation of gut-homing IgA-secreting B cells by intestinal dendritic cells
    J Rodrigo Mora
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 314:1157-60. 2006
    ..Thus, GALT-DC shape mucosal immunity by modulating B cell migration and effector activity through synergistically acting mediators...
  58. ncbi BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling
    Xi C He
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 E 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
    Nat Genet 36:1117-21. 2004
    ..Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number...
  59. pmc Differences between tissue-associated intestinal microfloras of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
    Uri Gophna
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, The George S Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4136-41. 2006
    ..Imbalance in flora in Crohn's disease is probably not sufficient to cause inflammation, since microbiotas from inflamed and noninflamed tissues were of similar compositions within the same individual...
  60. pmc JNK activity in somatic stem cells causes loss of tissue homeostasis in the aging Drosophila gut
    Benoit Biteau
    Department of Biology, University of Rochester, River Campus Box 270211, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Cell Stem Cell 3:442-55. 2008
    ..Interestingly, this function of JNK contributes to the loss of tissue homeostasis in old and stressed intestines by promoting the accumulation of misdifferentiated ISC daughter cells...
  61. ncbi Fibroblast growth factor 15 functions as an enterohepatic signal to regulate bile acid homeostasis
    Takeshi Inagaki
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Cell Metab 2:217-25. 2005
    ..These studies define FGF15 and FGFR4 as components of a gut-liver signaling pathway that synergizes with SHP to regulate bile acid synthesis...
  62. pmc Microbial dysbiosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients
    Iradj Sobhani
    Department of Gastroenterology and LIC EA4393, APHP and UPEC Université Paris Est Créteil, Creteil, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e16393. 2011
    ..The composition of the human intestinal microbiota is linked to health status. The aim was to analyze the microbiota of normal and colon cancer patients in order to establish cancer-related dysbiosis...
  63. ncbi Host-mediated inflammation disrupts the intestinal microbiota and promotes the overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae
    Claudia Lupp
    Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Cell Host Microbe 2:119-29. 2007
    ..These findings underscore the importance of intestinal microbial ecosystems in infectious colitis and noninfectious intestinal inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease...
  64. ncbi Apoptotic cell death in patients with sepsis, shock, and multiple organ dysfunction
    R S Hotchkiss
    Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Crit Care Med 27:1230-51. 1999
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether apoptosis is a major mechanism of cell death in patients with sepsis. The activities of caspase-3 and the antiapoptotic protein, BCL-2, were investigated also...
  65. pmc Comparative metagenomics revealed commonly enriched gene sets in human gut microbiomes
    Ken Kurokawa
    Laboratory of Comparative Genomics, Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan
    DNA Res 14:169-81. 2007
    ..In addition, we discovered a conjugative transposon family explosively amplified in human gut microbiomes, which strongly suggests that the intestine is a 'hot spot' for horizontal gene transfer between microbes...
  66. pmc Homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine
    Wendy S Garrett
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 140:859-70. 2010
    ..In this Review, we consider the many cellular and molecular methods by which inflammatory responses are regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and the disease states that can ensue when this balance is lost...
  67. pmc Proinflammatory T-cell responses to gut microbiota promote experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Yun Kyung Lee
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4615-22. 2011
  68. ncbi The commensal microbiota and enteropathogens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases
    Benoit Chassaing
    Clermont Universite, Universite d Auvergne, Jeune Equipe JE 2526, Clermont Ferrand, France
    Gastroenterology 140:1720-28. 2011
  69. pmc Occludin: a novel integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions
    M Furuse
    Department of Information Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Aichi, Japan
    J Cell Biol 123:1777-88. 1993
    ..These findings revealed that an integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions is now identified, which we designated as "occludin."..
  70. pmc Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota
    John F Rawls
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4596-601. 2004
    ..Together, these studies establish gnotobiotic zebrafish as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract...
  71. pmc Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine
    Dong Eun Chang
    Advanced Center for Genome Technology, Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 0245, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7427-32. 2004
    ..Because humans are presumably colonized with different commensal strains, differences in nutrient availability may provide an open niche for infecting E. coli pathogens in some individuals and a barrier to infection in others...
  72. pmc Microbial colonization induces dynamic temporal and spatial patterns of NF-κB activation in the zebrafish digestive tract
    Michelle Kanther
    Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Gastroenterology 141:197-207. 2011
    ..We used in vivo imaging and molecular approaches to analyze NF-κB activation in response to the commensal microbiota in transparent gnotobiotic zebrafish...
  73. pmc Fecal microbiota in premature infants prior to necrotizing enterocolitis
    Volker Mai
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Sciences and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e20647. 2011
    ..Our observations suggest that abnormal patterns of microbiota and potentially a novel pathogen contribute to the etiology of NEC...
  74. ncbi Inflammatory bowel disease: cause and immunobiology
    Daniel C Baumgart
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Charité Medical Centre, Virchow Hospital, Medical School of the Humboldt University of Berlin, 13344 Berlin, Germany
    Lancet 369:1627-40. 2007
    ..Implications for novel therapies, which are discussed in detail in the second paper in this Series, are covered briefly...
  75. pmc Characterizing a model human gut microbiota composed of members of its two dominant bacterial phyla
    Michael A Mahowald
    Center for Genome Sciences and Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5859-64. 2009
  76. pmc Antibiotic-induced perturbations of the intestinal microbiota alter host susceptibility to enteric infection
    Inna Sekirov
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Infect Immun 76:4726-36. 2008
  77. ncbi Spindle orientation bias in gut epithelial stem cell compartments is lost in precancerous tissue
    Aaron J Quyn
    Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK
    Cell Stem Cell 6:175-81. 2010
    ..This loss correlates with cell shape changes specifically in the stem cell compartment. Our data suggest that loss of asymmetric division in stem cells might contribute to the oncogenic effect of Apc mutations in gut epithelium...
  78. ncbi Use of axenic animals in studying the adaptation of mammals to their commensal intestinal microbiota
    Karen Smith
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Semin Immunol 19:59-69. 2007
  79. ncbi Negative regulation by amidase PGRPs shapes the Drosophila antibacterial response and protects the fly from innocuous infection
    Juan C Paredes
    Global Health Institute, Station 19, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Immunity 35:770-9. 2011
    ..Analysis of the immune phenotype of flies lacking all catalytic PGRPs and the Imd regulator Pirk reveals that the Imd-mediated immune response is highly constrained by the existence of multiple negative feedbacks...
  80. pmc Probiotics modulate intestinal expression of nuclear receptor and provide counter-regulatory signals to inflammation-driven adipose tissue activation
    Andrea Mencarelli
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Perugia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Via Gerardo Dottori n 1 S Andrea delle Fratte, Perugia, Italy
    PLoS ONE 6:e22978. 2011
  81. pmc Interactions between the host innate immune system and microbes in inflammatory bowel disease
    Clara Abraham
    Department of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Gastroenterology 140:1729-37. 2011
    ..We review the cell populations and mechanisms that mediate interactions between host defense and tolerance and how the dysregulation of host-microbe interactions leads to intestinal inflammation and IBD...
  82. pmc Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria
    Bärbel Stecher
    Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000711. 2010
    ..This might be of relevance for human enteropathogen infections as well as therapeutic use of probiotic commensal bacteria...
  83. pmc Prevalence of Campylobacter species in adult Crohn's disease and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine
    Vikneswari Mahendran
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e25417. 2011
    ..In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls...
  84. ncbi A new macrocyclic antibiotic, fidaxomicin (OPT-80), causes less alteration to the bowel microbiota of Clostridium difficile-infected patients than does vancomycin
    Gerald W Tannock
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Microbiology 156:3354-9. 2010
    ..These findings help to explain the substantially reduced rates of relapse following treatment of CDI with fidaxomicin in recent clinical trials...
  85. pmc Commensal DNA limits regulatory T cell conversion and is a natural adjuvant of intestinal immune responses
    Jason A Hall
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 29:637-49. 2008
    ..Together, these data point to gfDNA as a natural adjuvant for priming intestinal responses via modulation of Treg/Teff cell equilibrium...
  86. pmc The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition
    A Vrieze
    Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, Room F4 159 2, 1105, AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Diabetologia 53:606-13. 2010
    ..This review discusses the relationships between the following: composition of gut microbiota, energy extracted from diet, synthesis of gut hormones involved in energy homeostasis, production of butyrate and the regulation of fat storage...
  87. ncbi Recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota by Nod1 enhances systemic innate immunity
    Thomas B Clarke
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Med 16:228-31. 2010
    ..These data establish a mechanism for systemic immunomodulation by the microbiota and highlight potential adverse consequences of microbiota disruption by broad-spectrum antibiotics on innate immune defense to infection...
  88. ncbi RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal homeostasis by integrating negative signals from the symbiotic microbiota
    Shinichiro Sawa
    Institut Pasteur, Lymphoid Tissue Development Unit, Paris, France
    Nat Immunol 12:320-6. 2011
    ..Our data identify a finely tuned equilibrium among intestinal symbionts, adaptive immunity and RORγt+ ILCs...
  89. pmc Direct inhibition of the longevity-promoting factor SKN-1 by insulin-like signaling in C. elegans
    Jennifer M A Tullet
    Section on Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 132:1025-38. 2008
    ..Furthermore, SKN-1 that is constitutively active increases life span independently of DAF-16. Our findings indicate that the transcription network regulated by SKN-1 promotes longevity and is an important direct target of IIS...
  90. ncbi Lymph node stromal cells support dendritic cell-induced gut-homing of T cells
    Rosalie Molenaar
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Immunol 183:6395-402. 2009
    ..Therefore, cooperation of sessile lymph node stromal cells with mobile dendritic cells warrants the imprinting of tissue specific homing receptors on activated T cells...
  91. ncbi Oleylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha
    Jin Fu
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 4625, USA
    Nature 425:90-3. 2003
    ..Our results, which show that OEA induces satiety by activating PPAR-alpha, identify an unexpected role for this nuclear receptor in regulating behaviour, and raise possibilities for the treatment of eating disorders...
  92. ncbi Skin-draining lymph nodes contain dermis-derived CD103(-) dendritic cells that constitutively produce retinoic acid and induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells
    Martin Guilliams
    Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
    Blood 115:1958-68. 2010
  93. ncbi Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut
    Eun Mi Ha
    Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul, South Korea
    Nat Immunol 10:949-57. 2009
    ..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes...
  94. pmc The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age
    D Mariat
    INRA, U910, Unité d Ecologie et du Système Digestif, Domaine de Vilvert, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France
    BMC Microbiol 9:123. 2009
    ..Applying current molecular methods is necessary to surmount the limitations of classical culturing techniques in order to obtain an accurate description of the microbiota composition...
  95. ncbi Accumulation of dietary cholesterol in sitosterolemia caused by mutations in adjacent ABC transporters
    K E Berge
    Department of Molecular Genetics and McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9046, USA
    Science 290:1771-5. 2000
    ..These data suggest that ABCG5 and ABCG8 normally cooperate to limit intestinal absorption and to promote biliary excretion of sterols, and that mutated forms of these transporters predispose to sterol accumulation and atherosclerosis...
  96. pmc Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota
    June L Round
    Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, USA
    J Autoimmun 34:J220-5. 2010
  97. ncbi Influence of antibiotic exposure in the early postnatal period on the development of intestinal microbiota
    Shigemitsu Tanaka
    Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Division of Microbial Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 56:80-7. 2009
    ..These results indicate that antibiotic exposure at the beginning of life greatly influences the development of neonatal intestinal microbiota...
  98. ncbi Assembly of the human intestinal microbiota
    Les Dethlefsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Trends Ecol Evol 21:517-23. 2006
    ..We argue here that the unique history of each community and intrinsic temporal dynamics also influence the structure of human intestinal communities...
  99. pmc Oxidative stress enzymes are required for DAF-16-mediated immunity due to generation of reactive oxygen species by Caenorhabditis elegans
    Violeta Chavez
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genetics 176:1567-77. 2007
    ..Because insulin-signaling mutants overproduce oxidative stress response enzymes, the model provides an explanation for their increased resistance to pathogens...
  100. pmc Neurogenin3 is differentially required for endocrine cell fate specification in the intestinal and gastric epithelium
    Marjorie Jenny
    INSERM U381, 3 avenue Moliere, 67200, Strasbourg, France
    EMBO J 21:6338-47. 2002
    ..Thus, ngn3 is strictly required for endocrine cell fate specification in multipotent intestinal progenitor cells, whereas gastric endocrine development is both ngn3 dependent and independent...
  101. pmc Synergy between bacterial infection and genetic predisposition in intestinal dysplasia
    Yiorgos Apidianakis
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20883-8. 2009
    ..The affected intestines develop excess layers of cells with altered apicobasal polarity reminiscent of dysplasia, suggesting that ..

Research Grants79

    A White; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cells defined in aim 1 and associated cytokines, effector molecules, and chemokines are expressed in the intestines in human cryptosporidiosis using microarray analysis of intestinal biopsies obtained before and after ..
  2. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, effector memory B cells will be evaluated and quantified in different tissues including peripheral blood, intestines, lymph nodes, BM, and BAL samples of intravenously and mucosally inoculated macaques...
  3. Analysis of gene regulation of Vibrio cholerae during infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..AphB possesses a cysteine residue that undergoes modification in response to the microoxic conditions of the intestines, leading to activation of virulence...
  4. Developing Physics-Based Virtual Simulation Technology for Natural Orifice Transl
    DANIEL BOUGERE JONES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., esophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum and vagina) based on physical experiments;(2) simulation of the interaction of flexible surgical tools ..
  5. Dietary Risk for Colon Cancer in the Mouse
    Leonard H Augenlicht; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..but significant alterations in gene expression in the flat, histologically normal mucosa of the large and small intestines that significantly overlap with alterations caused by inheritance of a mutant Apc allele, and that can be ..
    Vincent W Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the expression of which is enriched in the terminally differentiated epithelial cells of the small and large intestines. KLF4 is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation in vitro and does so by eliciting several cell cycle ..
  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of colitis-induced changes in commensal gut microbes
    JONATHAN JAMES HANSEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disorders thought to be due to overly-aggressive immune responses to normal bacteria that typically colonize the intestines. Current treatments focus on suppressing a person's immune system, which can lead to complications such as ..
  8. Stem cell mutagenesis mediated by age and niche
    VIVIENNE ILONA REBEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Defense mechanisms are of particular importance in tissues with high cellular turnover, such as the skin, intestines, and the hematopoietic tissue, because each round of replication provides enormous opportunity to generate ..
  9. IL-22 in Thymic Regeneration
    Marcel R m van den Brink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and promotes innate immunity and homeostasis of epithelial cells in the intestines, lung and skin...
  10. Investigating the role of interleukin-22 in thymus function
    Jarrod Dudakov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and promotes innate immunity and homeostasis of epithelial cells in the intestines, lung and skin...
    Jason C Mills; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., LGR5) in the intestines and the gastric antrum, relatively little is known about the stem cells of the gastric (body) corpus epithelium...
  12. Mucosal Immunity and Microbiota in Intestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease
    Marcel R m van den Brink; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the first funding period we hypothesized that T cell trafficking to the intestines represented a therapeutic target that could significantly reduce intestinal and systemic GVHD while sparing ..
  13. Does the extreme variability of methadone metabolism have an epigenetic cause?
    Gavin R Schnitzler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..metabolism is due to the greater than 40-fold range of inter-individual expression variability, in the liver and intestines, of the drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)...
  14. A Microfluidic-platform Mini-Liver System for Human Liver Biology Studies
    HONGSEOK M NOH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the intestines, pancreas, spleen and gallbladder and exposes the liver to nutrients and toxins derived from these sources...
  15. Vibrio cholerae-host interaction at the Intestinal Interface
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that the availability of VIF- 1 and VIF-2 may vary in intestines with redundant signaling ensuring the appropriate induction of virulence genes at different intestinal locations ..
  16. NAPS2 Continuation Genome Wide Association Study of Pancreatitis
    DAVID CLEMENT WHITCOMB; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that alter bicarbonate but not chloride conductance, such that the pancreas is affected (but not lungs, skin, or intestines)...
  17. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..difficile to flourish. C. difficile produces toxins that can damage the cells that line the large intestines. One experimental treatment strategy is to block with harmful effects of the toxins with monoclonal antibodies...
  18. TSQ Vantage Bundle with Acquity UltraPerformance LC
    Nicolaas E Deutz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of 7 NIH-funded projects at the University of Arkansas for Medical Science (UAMS), are severe damage to the intestines after radiation exposure;sepsis (blood infection) coming from major infection;muscle wasting accompanying ..
  19. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole: a potential colorectal carcinogen formed in tobac
    Robert J Turesky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NADPH- cytochrome P450 reductase gene has been selectively deleted in either the liver or in the small and large intestines. Dosing will be done orally or by inhalation to assess the impact of dose routes on DNA damage in the colon...
  20. Identifying a role for commensal bacteria on the liver immune priming environment
    Jean Publicover; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is known that upon weaning, the commensal bacteria in the intestines changes dramatically in both young mice and infants...
  21. Tissue compartmentalization of human lymphocytes
    Donna L Farber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tissues (spleen, peripheral and tissue-draining lymph nodes), and mucosal tissues (lung, small and large intestines) from over 24 research-consented, previously healthy organ donors...
  22. Probiotics and Innate Intestinal Defense
    ..excessive inflammation in the developing intestine of the premature infant using a murine model of immature intestines. Future studies with genetically altered mice will elucidate the importance of TLR and ROS signaling in ..
  23. Transcriptional mechanisms of lower urinary tract development
    Gerald Mingin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A thorough understanding of the septation process may in the future enable early identification and prevention of these disabling deformities of the urinary tract and intestines.
  24. The Roles of Sodium Pump Beta Subunits in Mammalian Cells
    Jack H Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..regulation and is found exclusively in the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells of the kidney and intestines. The planned experiments will focus on the cell physiological roles of the sodium pump, focusing on the multiple ..
  25. Metabolic Engineering of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells for Production of Heparin
    Susan T Sharfstein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..attached to a core protein stored in intracellular granules of mast cells that are found in large numbers in the intestines and lungs of many animals...
  26. The role of Atg16L1 in Graft-Versus-Host-Disease
    ..We have also found that the small intestines is particularly affected by H&E sections and increased T cell infiltration in the intraepithelial cells...
  27. Imaging Nuclear Receptor LRH-1 in Functional Transcriptional Assemblies
    Robert J Fletterick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Homologue 1, termed also Pancreas Receptor Homologue 1), a critical transcription factor found in liver, intestines and pancreas...
  28. Beta-Defensins: Mediators of Gastrointestinal Inflammation
    Steven M Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additional components of the innate immune system are the epithelial cells that line the stomach and intestines. In addition to forming a physical barrier to pathogen invasion, epithelial cells also secrete small proteins, ..
  29. Redox Regulation of RhoA and Modulation of Vascular Permeability
    Amir Aghajanian; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The effects of IRI can be localized, most often in the heart, lungs, intestines, or kidneys;or manifest as systemic effects in the form of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)...
  30. Mechanisms of Action of C. perfringens Enterotoxin
    BRUCE A MC CLANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..perfringens strains in the mouse intestines;compare (by sequencing) the cpe locus organization in type A isolates vs...
  31. Intestinal Lymphocyte Trafficking
    Eugene C Butcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..small intestines (SI), and to characterize their roles in targeting effector and memory cells to mucosal immunogens...
  32. Role of Human Intestinal Microbiota on Success of Surgical Weight Loss Procedures
    BRUCE EDWARD RITTMANN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project will investigate microorganisms that live in the human intestines and how they affect success or failure of weight loss after two methods of bariatric surgery...
  33. Colorectal Cancer Prevention Through Thyroid Hormone Targets
    ADAM ROBERT BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Small and large intestines will be removed from ApcMin/+ mice with two, one, or no Klf9 alleles and tumor number and sizes will be recorded...
  34. Novel Mucosa-homing Dendritic Cell: Development, Trafficking and Function
    Eugene C Butcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Short term homing assays will determine the ability of ?DC to migrate via the blood into the intestines vs. other sites, monitoring localization by flow cytometry of recovered cells from recipient tissues...
  35. Effect of Lactoferrin on Alcohol-Induced Dysbiosis and Gut Barrier Dysfunction
    Cynthia Ju; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the hypotheses that lactoferrin can maintain the balance of gut microbiota and preserve the integrity of the intestines despite alcohol consumption, and as a result, lactoferrin prevents the transfer of endotoxin to the portal vein, ..
  36. Epithelial Glycoconjugates as Barriers against Enteric Infections
    Nicholas J Mantis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thetaiotaomicron on expression and accessibility of epithelial glycoconjugates in the small and large intestines. These aims are directly responsive to RFA HD 08-004 (Item 5) "Surveying glycoconjugates on the surface of ..
    Richard S Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 2013 poorly understood, CDId-restricted pathways;are now| known to regulate inflammation and host defense in the intestines and liver...
  38. Genetic Pathways Directing Ventral Folding Morphogenesis in Mammalian Embryos
    ELIZABETH H LACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..underlie a number of birth defects associated with incomplete body wall closure (gastroschisis, development of intestines outside the abdominal wall;ectopia cordis, location of heart outside the thoracic cavity);such aberrations of ..
  39. Immunoregulation of Schistosomiasis
    Miguel J Stadecker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and fibrosing inflammation, which in the case of the species Schistosoma mansoni, takes place in the liver and intestines. The magnitude of disease varies greatly from individual to individual...
  40. Role of the transcription factor Cdx2 in intestinal stem cells
    Adrianna K San Roman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..My analysis of Cdx2-/- intestines reveals that ISCs lacking Cdx2 are significantly impaired in replication and in the long term unable to give ..
  41. Regulation of effector T cell function by Blimp-1 in a murine model of colitis
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Unbalanced T cell responses in the intestines result in chronic inflammation of the GI tract...
  42. Anti-inflammatory promoting commensal E. coli
    CAMMIE LESSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is envisioned that these bacteria could be given to patients as a new means to treat inflammatory bowel disease where immunosuppression is limited to the intestines.
  43. Cell Biology of Enterovirus Infection in Polarized Epithelial Cells
    Jeffrey M Bergelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The intestines are lined by polarized epithelial cells, with distinct apical and basolateral surfaces;intercellular tight ..
  44. The Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Intestinal Immunity
    Liang Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..can be activated by environmental toxins and by natural compounds generated by bacteria normally living in the intestines. Therefore, identification of a role for AhR in Th17 biology would provide a fascinating link among ..
  45. Novel nanotechnology based oral influenza vaccines
    Sang Moo Kang; Fiscal Year: 2011 stabilize the vaccine antigens in the harsh environment of stomach and to target them to the immune system of intestines. Our preliminary studies provide evidence that inactivated influenza vaccines can provide heterosubtypic cross ..
  46. Role of CCBE1 in lymphangiogenesis
    DAVID RICHARD ENIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..protein recently discovered to be mutated in patients with a severe inherited form of swelling in their skin and intestines known as "Lymphedema-lymphangiectasia-mental retardation syndrome" or Hennekam Syndrome...
  47. Brain-gut circadian rhythm interactions in alcohol-induced gut leakiness
    Fred W Turek; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also show that Clock and Per2 proteins are increased in the intestines of alcohol fed rats with leaky gut. To test our hypothesis, we will take two different approaches...
  48. The Role of Intestinal Stem Cells in Response to Stress
    CAMILLA ANN RICHMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Regulated by complex and still poorly understood mechanisms, fasting has significant and rapid effects on the intestines. Increased epithelial cell apoptosis and decreased crypt cell proliferation lead to intestinal mucosal atrophy, ..
    Timothy H Moran; Fiscal Year: 2013 a dual procedure involving creation of a small gastric pouch and bypass of the remaining stomach and upper intestines such that ingested calories are rapidly delivered to more distal intestinal sites...
  50. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and intestinal inflammation
    Richard S Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 2013 defining the role of TNFa and the characterization of the gut associated lymphoid cell populations in the intestines of XBP1-deficient mice, and;(3) Define the environmental factors involved in the exacerbation or alleviation of ..
  51. The Function and Microbial Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in IBD
    Randy S Longman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..First, genetic material (i.e. RNA) from ILCs isolated from the intestines of patients with IBD (or non- IBD) donors will be defined using state-of-the-art sequencing technology...
  52. Clostridium perfringens Type B-D Virulence Plasmids
    Francisco A Uzal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..using mixed mating approaches), whether type B-D conjugative toxin plasmid transfer can occur in the intestines where this transfer may contribute to pathogenesis, whether C...
  53. The role of polysaccharide surface capsules in Bacteroides glycan degradation
    Eric C Martens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, Bt populations that are forced to rely exclusively on host glycans in the intestines of gnotobiotic mice express different CPS relative to Bt living in mice fed a diet rich in plant glycans...
  54. E. coli Growth Parameters in the Intestine
    Tyrrell Conway; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..confocal microscopy the growth status of individual bacterial cells within the mucus layer of infected mouse intestines. Alternatively we will use in situ hybridization to measure expression of these growth regulated genes in single ..
  55. The Structural Basis of Shroom-Mediated Cell Contractility
    ANDREW PAUL VANDEMARK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for a number of developmental events in vertebrates, including formation of the central nervous system, eye, and intestines. This proposal will investigate the assembly and function of this pathway at the structural, biochemical, and ..
  56. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Prevention and Prediction
    MARK ALAN UNDERWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Having more healthy bacteria in the intestines may improve growth and prevent infections in premature infants...
  57. Role of Paneth Cells in Development of Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    STEVEN JAMES MCELROY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the ileum where NEC occurs, TLR4 is expressed in the intestinal crypts. However, these studies were done in intestines that had not yet developed Paneth cells...
  58. Mechanisms of Mucosal Th17 Cell Induction By Segmented Filamentous Bacteria
    IVAYLO IVANOV IVANOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Commensal bacteria represent a diverse microbial community that permanently resides in the intestines of all mammals. As a community, commensals are known to affect multiple aspects of host immunity...
  59. The Human Microbiome in Pediatric Abdominal Pain and Intestinal Inflammation
    James Versalovic; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project will increase our understanding of the microbes that reside in the intestines of healthy children and children with various intestinal disorders...
  60. CD103+ Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T cells in Food Allergy
    Sun Sang Sung; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..more thorough understanding of the functions of this dendritic cell type in allergen responses in the intestines is warranted...
  61. Neutralization of ceramide as a novel approach to specifically inhibit acute GvHD
    Jimmy Rotolo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, associated with wasting, immunosuppression and specific damage to the intestines, liver and skin...
  62. Bacterial regulation of intestinal antimicrobial defense
    Lora V Hooper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for mammalian hosts is to maintain symbiotic relationships with the vast bacterial communities that colonize the intestines. The intestinal epithelium is the primary barrier between the intestinal microbiota and internal host tissues, ..
  63. Imaging Airway Liquid Absorption in Cystic Fibrosis
    TIMOTHY EDWARD CORCORAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CF is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the lungs, pancreas, intestines, sinuses, skin, and liver...
  64. Novel Rinse to Treat Oral Candidiasis in Cancer Patients
    Bakul Bhatt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Candida spp. exist in 40-80% of normal individuals in the mouth, intestines, and vagina. However, Candida spp...
  65. The Neonatal Microbiome and Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    Phillip Tarr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..About one-third of children die and many of the survivors are left with very little intestines. NEC is a disorder that we think might relate to the microbes in the gut...
  66. Novel Intervention for Colitis
    MICHAEL VITEK; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affects approximately 1 million Americans with inflammation of the intestines, abdominal pain, cramping and diarrhea...
    TEN CHING LEE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..g., liver. lung, and intestines, etc...
    David Elliott; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Murine schistosomiasis provides a well defined natural model system to study granulomas in the intestines and liver. Granulomas in murine schistosomiasis express SOM, SSTR2 and other aspects of the SOM circuit...
    W Walker; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Finally, using a new human fetal transplant model and organ culture/MVM preparation of surgical specimens of intestines from premature infants, we will determine if breast milk alters the mucosal surface response to enterotoxins, ..
  70. Combined Chemoprevention in Beta-Catenin Mutant Mice
    Gayle Orner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A33[delta-N-beta-cat] mice express an oncogenic form of beta-catenin in their intestines. The A33[delta-N-beta-cat] mice do not develop multiple intestinal tumors at an early age like Apc[min] mice, ..
  71. Bacterial biofilm-host interaction during Vibrio cholerae infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We thus hypothesize that upon entering upper intestines, V...
    AMMON PECK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..attention due to its important symbiotic relationship with its hosts in regulating oxalic acid absorption in the intestines as well as oxalic acid levels in plasma two factors associated with the risk to develop calcium-oxalate kidney ..
  73. Novel Puerarin Analogs with Anti-Diabetic Activity
    NICHOLAS CAIRNS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Inhibiting glucose uptake in the intestines and/or promoting glucose disposal in the tissues may be beneficial for diabetic patients to control the blood ..
    Robert Sackstein; Fiscal Year: 2003 an immunological attack by donor effector cells against recipient tissues, particularly the skin, liver and intestines. In all cell-mediated inflammatory conditions, the migration of blood-borne effector cells into the involved ..
  75. Induction of Pathogenic Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Schistosome Helmi
    MARA SHAINHEIT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..parasite eggs, which in the case of infection with Schistosoma mansoni, primarily takes place in the liver and intestines. Both in humans, as well as in a murine model, there is marked heterogeneity in the severity of disease...
    Ho Leung Fung; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..have examined the relationship between lead concentration in the mucosal bathing fluid of in vitro everted rat intestines and the flux of lead through those intestines...
    Nita Salzman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..evidence suggests that there is a significant reduction in the quantity of colonizing bacteria in the intestines of the transgenic mice, compared to wild type age matched litter mates...
    Paul Cohen; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..First, mutants of E. coli and S. typhimurium known to possess an impaired ability to colonize the large intestines of streptomycin-treated mice, relative to the parent strain, will be assayed for chemotaxis toward mucus and the ..
  79. Oxalobacter as a therapy in IBD-associated urolithiasis
    AMMON PECK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..symbiotic relationship with its hosts by regulating the absorptive and secretory pathways for oxalic acid in the intestines, thereby maintaining homeostatic levels in plasma...