trophoblasts

Summary

Summary: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia
    Christopher W Redman
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Science 308:1592-4. 2005
  2. ncbi Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis
    S Mi
    Genetics Institute, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    Nature 403:785-9. 2000
  3. pmc Critical growth factors and signalling pathways controlling human trophoblast invasion
    Martin Knöfler
    Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Maternal Medicine, Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Int J Dev Biol 54:269-80. 2010
  4. ncbi Blastocyst lineage formation, early embryonic asymmetries and axis patterning in the mouse
    Janet Rossant
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and Departments of Molecular Genetics, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Development 136:701-13. 2009
  5. pmc A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast
    Anne Dupressoir
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8122, and Unité de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E1164-73. 2011
  6. ncbi Human villous trophoblasts express and secrete placenta-specific microRNAs into maternal circulation via exosomes
    Shan Shun Luo
    Departments of Molecular Medicine and Anatomy, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
    Biol Reprod 81:717-29. 2009
  7. pmc Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function
    Ariel A Avilion
    Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Genes Dev 17:126-40. 2003
  8. ncbi Factors regulating trophoblast migration and invasiveness: possible derangements contributing to pre-eclampsia and fetal injury
    P K Lala
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, N6A 5C1, London, Canada
    Placenta 24:575-87. 2003
  9. pmc Hepatocyte growth factor regulates human trophoblast motility and invasion: a role for nitric oxide
    J E Cartwright
    Department of Biochemistry, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 ORE
    Br J Pharmacol 128:181-9. 1999
  10. ncbi Impaired cytotrophoblast cell-cell fusion is associated with reduced Syncytin and increased apoptosis in patients with placental dysfunction
    Manuela Langbein
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Erlangen, Germany
    Mol Reprod Dev 75:175-83. 2008

Detail Information

Publications377 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia
    Christopher W Redman
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Science 308:1592-4. 2005
    ..This brief review on preeclampsia does not cover all aspects of this intriguing condition but focuses on some new and interesting findings...
  2. ncbi Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis
    S Mi
    Genetics Institute, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140, USA
    Nature 403:785-9. 2000
    ..sites of syncytin expression are placental syncytiotrophoblasts, multinucleated cells that originate from fetal trophoblasts. We show that expression of recombinant syncytin in a wide variety of cell types induces the formation of giant ..
  3. pmc Critical growth factors and signalling pathways controlling human trophoblast invasion
    Martin Knöfler
    Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Maternal Medicine, Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Int J Dev Biol 54:269-80. 2010
    Invasion of placental trophoblasts into uterine tissue and vessels is an essential process of human pregnancy and fetal development. Due to their remarkable plasticity invasive trophoblasts fulfil numerous functions, i.e...
  4. ncbi Blastocyst lineage formation, early embryonic asymmetries and axis patterning in the mouse
    Janet Rossant
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children and Departments of Molecular Genetics, and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Development 136:701-13. 2009
    ..We also discuss the continuing debate that surrounds the relative impacts of early lineage bias versus the stochastic allocation of cells with respect to the events that pattern the blastocyst and initiate its later asymmetries...
  5. pmc A pair of co-opted retroviral envelope syncytin genes is required for formation of the two-layered murine placental syncytiotrophoblast
    Anne Dupressoir
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8122, and Unité de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E1164-73. 2011
    ..Although some are absolutely required for completion of pregnancy, others are still amenable to "epigenetic" compensations, thus illustrating the complexity of the molecular machinery that developed during placental evolution...
  6. ncbi Human villous trophoblasts express and secrete placenta-specific microRNAs into maternal circulation via exosomes
    Shan Shun Luo
    Departments of Molecular Medicine and Anatomy, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
    Biol Reprod 81:717-29. 2009
    ..Subsequent validation by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that villous trophoblasts express placenta-specific miRNAs...
  7. pmc Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function
    Ariel A Avilion
    Division of Developmental Genetics, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Genes Dev 17:126-40. 2003
    ..5 days postcoitum. Our data suggest that maternal components could be involved in establishing early cell fate decisions and that a combinatorial code, requiring SOX2 and OCT4, specifies the first three lineages present at implantation...
  8. ncbi Factors regulating trophoblast migration and invasiveness: possible derangements contributing to pre-eclampsia and fetal injury
    P K Lala
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, N6A 5C1, London, Canada
    Placenta 24:575-87. 2003
    ..An emphasis is placed on the need for longitudinal studies in order to identify predictive serum markers which may help strategies for prevention or amelioration of fetal injury and pre-eclampsia...
  9. pmc Hepatocyte growth factor regulates human trophoblast motility and invasion: a role for nitric oxide
    J E Cartwright
    Department of Biochemistry, St George s Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 ORE
    Br J Pharmacol 128:181-9. 1999
    ..However neither exogenous NO nor activation of cyclic GMP-dependent pathways alone are sufficient to stimulate trophoblast cell motility...
  10. ncbi Impaired cytotrophoblast cell-cell fusion is associated with reduced Syncytin and increased apoptosis in patients with placental dysfunction
    Manuela Langbein
    Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Erlangen, Germany
    Mol Reprod Dev 75:175-83. 2008
    ..These processes could contribute to the development and severity of PE and HELLP-associated IUGR...
  11. ncbi Signalling pathways regulating the invasive differentiation of human trophoblasts: a review
    J Pollheimer
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Placenta 26:S21-30. 2005
    The invasive differentiation pathway of trophoblasts is an indispensable physiological process of early human placental development...
  12. ncbi Decidual NK cells regulate key developmental processes at the human fetal-maternal interface
    Jacob Hanna
    The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Nat Med 12:1065-74. 2006
    ..NK cells accumulate in the maternal decidua during pregnancy and are found in direct contact with fetal trophoblasts. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the inability of NK cells to kill the semiallogeneic fetal ..
  13. ncbi Placental defect and embryonic lethality in mice lacking hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor
    Y Uehara
    Institute for Liver Research, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan
    Nature 373:702-5. 1995
    ..These findings suggest that HGF/SF is an essential mediator of allantoic mesenchyme-trophoblastic epithelia interaction required for placental organogenesis...
  14. ncbi Molecular circuits shared by placental and cancer cells, and their implications in the proliferative, invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts
    C Ferretti
    UMR 8149 CNRS, IFR 71, Universite Rene Descartes, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques de Paris, Paris, France
    Hum Reprod Update 13:121-41. 2007
    ....
  15. pmc Trophoblast differentiation during embryo implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface
    Kristy Red-Horse
    Department of Stomatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0512, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:744-54. 2004
    b>Trophoblasts, the specialized cells of the placenta, play a major role in implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface...
  16. ncbi The uterine spiral arteries in human pregnancy: facts and controversies
    R Pijnenborg
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Placenta 27:939-58. 2006
    ..Several features of the human placental bed are mirrored by processes in other species with haemochorial placentation, and studying such models may help to illuminate poorly understood aspects of human placentation...
  17. pmc Intrauterine growth restriction, human placental development and trophoblast cell death
    Christina M Scifres
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8064, 4566 Scott Avenue, St Louis, MO 63141, USA
    J Physiol 587:3453-8. 2009
    ..We predict that a better understanding of placental dysfunction in IUGR will lead to targeted therapeutic options for this important clinical condition...
  18. ncbi Elevated levels of hypoxia-inducible microRNA-210 in pre-eclampsia: new insights into molecular mechanisms for the disease
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Medical Genetics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
    J Cell Mol Med 16:249-59. 2012
    ..Taken together, our study implicates an important role for mir-210 in the molecular mechanism of pre-eclampsia...
  19. ncbi Adhesion molecules in human trophoblast - a review. I. Villous trophoblast
    J D Aplin
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    Placenta 30:293-8. 2009
    ..There is a wide gulf to be filled between molecular anatomy and functional studies, with much to be learned about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating villous epithelial integrity, homeostasis and growth...
  20. ncbi Macrophage-induced apoptosis limits endovascular trophoblast invasion in the uterine wall of preeclamptic women
    F Reister
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Technology, Aachen, Germany
    Lab Invest 81:1143-52. 2001
    ..The mechanisms by which macrophages are activated and recruited to the placental bed are presently unknown but are likely central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia...
  21. ncbi Activated macrophages inhibit human cytotrophoblast invasiveness in vitro
    Stephen J Renaud
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
    Biol Reprod 73:237-43. 2005
    ..Thus, the presence of activated macrophages may be important in the etiology of pre-eclampsia...
  22. ncbi Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4
    J Nichols
    Centre for Genome Research, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Cell 95:379-91. 1998
    ..Expansion of trophoblast precursors is restored, however, by an Oct4 target gene product, fibroblast growth factor-4. Therefore, Oct4 also determines paracrine growth factor signaling from stem cells to the trophectoderm...
  23. ncbi Models for study of human embryo implantation: choice of cell lines?
    Natalie J Hannan
    Prince Henry s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Biol Reprod 82:235-45. 2010
    ..This brief review summarizes the known phenotypes of the most widely used cell lines and indicates which might be the most appropriate for individual studies...
  24. ncbi Expansion of human trophoblastic spheroids is promoted by decidualized endometrial stromal cells and enhanced by heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and interleukin-1 β
    Marina González
    Endokrinologikum Hamburg, Falkenried 88, 20251 Hamburg, Germany
    Mol Hum Reprod 17:421-33. 2011
    ..We suggest that decidualized ESC support trophoblast invasion by paracrine signals that may include HB-EGF, IL-1β and LIF...
  25. pmc Nodal signals through activin receptor-like kinase 7 to inhibit trophoblast migration and invasion: implication in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia
    Lubna Nadeem
    Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Pathol 178:1177-89. 2011
    ..cell invasion into the uterus is an essential process for successful pregnancy, and shallow invasion of trophoblasts into the maternal decidua is linked to preeclampsia...
  26. ncbi A role for TLRs in the regulation of immune cell migration by first trimester trophoblast cells
    Vikki M Abrahams
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Immunol 175:8096-104. 2005
    ..the presence of these leukocytes was due to an immune response toward paternal Ags expressed by the invading trophoblasts. Instead, we and others postulate that these innate immune cells are necessary for successful implantation and ..
  27. pmc Activation of the canonical wingless/T-cell factor signaling pathway promotes invasive differentiation of human trophoblast
    Jürgen Pollheimer
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Am J Pathol 168:1134-47. 2006
    The molecular mechanisms governing invasive differentiation of human trophoblasts remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt-beta-catenin-T-cell factor (TCF) signaling in this process...
  28. ncbi Trophoblast invasion: assessment of cellular models using gene expression signatures
    M Bilban
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Placenta 31:989-96. 2010
    Invasive, extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) of the human placenta are critically involved in successful pregnancy outcome since they remodel the uterine spiral arteries to increase blood flow and oxygen delivery to the placenta and the ..
  29. ncbi Fetal tolerance in human pregnancy--a crucial balance between acceptance and limitation of trophoblast invasion
    Ulrike von Rango
    Department of Anatomy und Reproductive Biology, Medical School, RWTH University Aachen, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Immunol Lett 115:21-32. 2008
    ..Together these data suggest that the mother extends her "definition of self" for 9 months on the foreign antigens of the fetus...
  30. ncbi Effects of oxygen on cell turnover and expression of regulators of apoptosis in human placental trophoblast
    A E P Heazell
    University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    Placenta 29:175-86. 2008
    ..The potential role of the p53-pathway in the control of cell turnover in villous trophoblast and the regulation of p53 by altered O(2) tension merits further investigation...
  31. pmc Implantation of the human embryo requires Rac1-dependent endometrial stromal cell migration
    Seema Grewal
    Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oxford, Level 3, Women s Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16189-94. 2008
    ..These results reveal embryo-induced and localized endometrial responses that may govern implantation of the human embryo...
  32. ncbi Apoptosis and its role in the trophoblast
    Berthold Huppertz
    Department of Anatomy II, University Hospital RWTH, Aachen, Germany
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:29-39. 2006
    ..This review summarizes recent findings on trophoblast apoptosis in normal and pathologic pregnancies...
  33. ncbi The Hippo signaling pathway components Lats and Yap pattern Tead4 activity to distinguish mouse trophectoderm from inner cell mass
    Noriyuki Nishioka
    Laboratory for Embryonic Induction, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, 2 2 3 Minatojima minamimachi, Chuo Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650 0047, Japan
    Dev Cell 16:398-410. 2009
    ..Thus, differential signaling between inside and outside cell populations leads to changes in cell fate specification during TE formation...
  34. ncbi Immunology of placentation in eutherian mammals
    Ashley Moffett
    King s College, Cambridge CB2 1ST, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:584-94. 2006
    ..At the implantation site, cells from the mother and the fetus intermingle during pregnancy. Unravelling what happens here is crucial to our understanding of why some human pregnancies are successful whereas others are not...
  35. ncbi MicroRNA-155 is involved in the remodelling of human-trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells induced by lipopolysaccharides
    Yimin Dai
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    Hum Reprod 26:1882-91. 2011
    ..Our goal was to investigate the association of miR-155 with pre-eclampsia and the pathways involved using human-trophoblast-derived cell line (HTR-8/SVneo) stimulated with LPS...
  36. pmc Blastocysts don't go it alone. Extrinsic signals fine-tune the intrinsic developmental program of trophoblast cells
    D Randall Armant
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, C S Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 1415, USA
    Dev Biol 280:260-80. 2005
    ..Biochemical events that regulate trophoblast adhesion to fibronectin are presented to illustrate a developmental strategy employed by the peri-implantation blastocyst...
  37. ncbi HLA-G and immune tolerance in pregnancy
    Joan S Hunt
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160 7400, USA
    FASEB J 19:681-93. 2005
    ....
  38. ncbi Cytotrophoblasts infected with a pathogenic human cytomegalovirus strain dysregulate cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion molecules: a quantitative analysis
    T Tabata
    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0512, USA
    Placenta 28:527-37. 2007
    ..CMV replication in late gestation placentas with considerable reserves could deplete cytotrophoblast progenitors, thereby impairing syncytiotrophoblast development and increasing the risk of virus transmission to fetal blood vessels...
  39. pmc Distinct histone modifications in stem cell lines and tissue lineages from the early mouse embryo
    Peter J Rugg-Gunn
    Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10783-90. 2010
    ..These studies indicate that histone modification mechanisms may differ between early embryo lineages and emphasize the importance of examining in vivo and in vitro progenitor cells...
  40. ncbi The proprotein convertase furin in human trophoblast: Possible role in promoting trophoblast cell migration and invasion
    Z Zhou
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
    Placenta 30:929-38. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that furin may play an important role in the invasion and migration of human trophoblast cells during early pregnancy...
  41. pmc IFPA Award in Placentology lecture: molecular regulation of human trophoblast invasion
    M Knöfler
    Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Maternal Medicine, Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, Vienna, Austria
    Placenta 33:S55-62. 2012
    ..Whereas endovascular trophoblasts migrate into the maternal spiral arteries, interstitial trophoblasts invade the decidual stroma, colonize the ..
  42. pmc Wingless (Wnt)-3A induces trophoblast migration and matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion through canonical Wnt signaling and protein kinase B/AKT activation
    Stefan Sonderegger
    Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Maternal Medicine, Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Endocrinology 151:211-20. 2010
    Invasion of human trophoblasts is promoted through activation of wingless (Wnt) signaling, suggesting a role of the pathway in placental development and morphogenesis...
  43. pmc Human trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation: the role of PECAM-1 in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction
    F Lyall
    Maternal and Fetal Medicine Section, Institute of Medical Genetics, Yorkhill, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 158:1713-21. 2001
    ..was expressed on endothelium of vessels in the placenta and placental bed but not by villous or extravillous trophoblasts in normal or pathological samples...
  44. pmc Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene
    Anne Dupressoir
    Unité des rétrovirus endogènes et éléments rétroïdes des eucaryotes supérieurs, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8122, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, and Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12127-32. 2009
    ....
  45. pmc Epidermal growth factor-stimulated extravillous cytotrophoblast motility is mediated by the activation of PI3-K, Akt and both p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases
    Heather L LaMarca
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA
    Hum Reprod 23:1733-41. 2008
    ..Evidence suggests that the potent mitogen epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates cytotrophoblast (CTB) differentiation and invasion during early pregnancy...
  46. ncbi Decidualized endometrial stromal cell derived factors promote trophoblast invasion
    Geeta Godbole
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai, India
    Fertil Steril 95:1278-83. 2011
    ..To evaluate the effects of decidua-derived factors on trophoblast invasion...
  47. ncbi Regulation of trophoblast invasion: from normal implantation to pre-eclampsia
    Debra Goldman-Wohl
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt Scopus, 91240, Jerusalem, Israel
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 187:233-8. 2002
    ..This process is apparently dependent on the invasion by trophoblasts of the sub-endometrial area and the spiral arteries...
  48. pmc Direct involvement of HERV-W Env glycoprotein in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation
    Jean Louis Frendo
    Unité INSERM 427, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Rene Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
    Mol Cell Biol 23:3566-74. 2003
    ..Taken together, these results strongly support a direct role for Env-W in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation...
  49. ncbi Development of cytotrophoblast columns from explanted first-trimester human placental villi: role of fibronectin and integrin alpha5beta1
    J D Aplin
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 60:828-38. 1999
    ..We suggest that as the developing placenta ramifies, new sites of anchorage form whenever peripheral villi contact decidua. This process is predicted to contribute to the stability of the placental-decidual interface...
  50. ncbi Expression of TGF-beta signaling genes in the normal, premalignant, and malignant human trophoblast: loss of smad3 in choriocarcinoma cells
    G Xu
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:47-55. 2001
    ..To identify signaling defects responsible for TGF-beta resistance in premalignant and malignant trophoblasts, we have compared the expression of TGF-beta signaling molecules in a normal trophoblast cell line (HTR-8), its ..
  51. ncbi Effects of trophoblast invasion on the distribution of leukocytes in uterine and tubal implantation sites
    U von Rango
    Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology, School of Medicine, RWTH University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany
    Fertil Steril 76:116-24. 2001
    ..To distinguish endocrine and paracrine influences on leukocyte subpopulations at uterine and tubal implantation sites...
  52. ncbi Chemokine CXCL12 promotes the cross-talk between trophoblasts and decidual stromal cells in human first-trimester pregnancy
    Wen Hui Zhou
    Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai MedicalCollege, Shanghai 200011, PR China
    Hum Reprod 23:2669-79. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in the interaction of trophoblasts and decidual stromal cells (DSCs).
  53. ncbi IL-10 selectively induces HLA-G expression in human trophoblasts and monocytes
    P Moreau
    CEA, Service de Recherches en Hemato Immunologie, DSV DRM, Hopital Saint Louis, Centre Hayem, 1 avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France
    Int Immunol 11:803-11. 1999
    ..The factors that allow tissue-specific activation of HLA-G gene expression in trophoblasts remain to be characterized...
  54. ncbi Trophoblast apoptosis from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction is associated with enhanced p53 expression
    Roni Levy
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:1056-61. 2002
    We tested the hypothesis that apoptotic trophoblasts from pregnancies associated with fetal growth restriction caused by preeclampsia or cigarette use exhibit enhanced expression of the proapoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and diminished ..
  55. ncbi Glucocorticoids stimulate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in cultured human placental trophoblast cells
    Jonathan P van Beek
    Canadian Institutes of Health Research Group in Fetal and Neonatal Health and Development, Child Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4G5
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5614-21. 2004
    ..b>Trophoblasts were isolated from uncomplicated term placentas and treated with glucocorticoids...
  56. pmc Autoantibody from women with preeclampsia induces soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 production via angiotensin type 1 receptor and calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells signaling
    Cissy Chenyi Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom
    Hypertension 51:1010-9. 2008
    ..These autoantibodies represent potentially important targets for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention...
  57. pmc Review: Oxygen and trophoblast biology--a source of controversy
    M G Tuuli
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Placenta 32:S109-18. 2011
    ..We then describe our studies that show cultured villous trophoblasts undergo apoptosis and autophagy with phenotype-related differences in response to hypoxia.
  58. ncbi Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta
    Dong Hu
    Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Int J Dev Biol 54:341-54. 2010
    ..The large number of mouse mutants with defects in TGC development and function are giving us significant new insights into the biology of these fascinating cells...
  59. ncbi CXCL12 expression by invasive trophoblasts induces the specific migration of CD16- human natural killer cells
    Jacob Hanna
    The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel
    Blood 102:1569-77. 2003
    ..killer (NK) cells, characterized by lack of CD16, are found in direct contact with the fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs)...
  60. ncbi Placental nutrient supply and fetal growth
    Michelle Desforges
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Manchester, St Marys Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Int J Dev Biol 54:377-90. 2010
    ....
  61. ncbi Activation of cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor due to the absence of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
    Yiran Zhou
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States
    Biochemistry 50:2850-9. 2011
    ..Therefore, the absence of PARG may provide a strategy for specifically inducing an alternative apoptotic pathway...
  62. pmc miR-210 targets iron-sulfur cluster scaffold homologue in human trophoblast cell lines: siderosis of interstitial trophoblasts as a novel pathology of preterm preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancies
    Deug Chan Lee
    Department of Health and Human Services, Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Am J Pathol 179:590-602. 2011
    ..Perls' reaction (n = 229) and electron microscopy (n = 3) were conducted to verify siderosis of trophoblasts. miR-210 expression was increased in preeclampsia and SGA cases and was decreased with birth weight and ..
  63. ncbi Hypoxia inhibits invasion of extravillous trophoblast cells through reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activation in the early first trimester of human pregnancy
    A Onogi
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nara Medical University, 840, Shijo cho, Kashihara City, 6348521 Nara, Japan
    Placenta 32:665-70. 2011
    ..Decrease in TIMP2 production may reduce the MMP2/TIMP2/MT1-MMP complex and lead to this unique behavior of EVT cells under hypoxic conditions...
  64. ncbi Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivates transforming growth factor-beta3 in trophoblast
    Hirotaka Nishi
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tokyo Medical University, 6 7 1 Nishishinjuku Shinjuku, Tokyo 160 0023, Japan
    Endocrinology 145:4113-8. 2004
    ..Our results provide evidence that regulation of TGF-beta3 promoter activity by HIF-1 represents a mechanism for trophoblast differentiation during hypoxia...
  65. ncbi IFPA Award in Placentology Lecture: Biology of the placental syncytiotrophoblast--myths and facts
    B Huppertz
    Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21 7, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Placenta 31:S75-81. 2010
    ..Finally, different modes of release of trophoblast fragments such as apoptotic, aponecrotic and necrotic are discussed as being responsible for the maternal inflammatory response during pre-eclampsia...
  66. ncbi Involvement of MAPK signalling in human villous trophoblast differentiation
    C Vaillancourt
    INRS Institut Armand Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada
    Mini Rev Med Chem 9:962-73. 2009
    ..In this review, we present an overview of the role of MAPKs signalling in morphological and functional differentiation of villous trophoblast...
  67. pmc STOX1: Key player in trophoblast dysfunction underlying early onset preeclampsia with growth retardation
    Marie van Dijk
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Pregnancy 2011:521826. 2011
    ..Finally, we propose a model in which we combine the cell type-specific and allele-specific effects of STOX1. This includes intrinsic effects (differential CpG island methylation) and extrinsic effects (regulation of effector genes)...
  68. ncbi Activation of Toll-like receptor 5 decreases the attachment of human trophoblast cells to endometrial cells in vitro
    Wedad Aboussahoud
    Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, The University of Sheffield, Level 4, Jessop Wing, Tree Root Walk, Sheffield S10 2SF, UK
    Hum Reprod 25:2217-28. 2010
    ....
  69. pmc Establishment of human trophoblast progenitor cell lines from the chorion
    Olga Genbacev
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Stem Cells 29:1427-36. 2011
    Placental trophoblasts are key determinants of in utero development. Mouse trophoblast (TB) stem cells, which were first derived over a decade ago, are a powerful cell culture model for studying their self-renewal or differentiation...
  70. ncbi Proteases at the endometrial-trophoblast interface: their role in implantation
    Lois A Salamonsen
    Prince Henry s Institute of Medical Research, PO Box 5152, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 3:133-43. 2002
  71. ncbi Role of a fetal defence mechanism against oxidative stress in the aetiology of preeclampsia
    Christoph Jan Wruck
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
    Histopathology 55:102-6. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to elucidate the placental defence mechanisms employed against oxidative stress and, in particular, the specific role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
  72. ncbi Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CALCA) is a proangiogenic growth factor in the human placental development
    Yuan Lin Dong
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 1062, USA
    Biol Reprod 76:892-9. 2007
    ..Our studies demonstrated that both protein and mRNA for CALCA were expressed by the villous and extravillous trophoblasts and decidual cells in the first-trimester villous tissues...
  73. ncbi PPARγ and human trophoblast differentiation
    Thierry Fournier
    INSERM, U767, 4 avenue de l Observatoire, Paris F 75006, France
    J Reprod Immunol 90:41-9. 2011
    ....
  74. ncbi Mash2 acts cell autonomously in mouse spongiotrophoblast development
    M Tanaka
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Biol 190:55-65. 1997
    ....
  75. pmc Trophoblast stem cells
    R Michael Roberts
    Division of Animal Sciences, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Biol Reprod 84:412-21. 2011
    ..Recent derivation of TSC from blastocysts of the rhesus monkey suggests that isolation of the human equivalents may be possible and will reveal the extent to which mechanisms uncovered by using animal models are true in our own species...
  76. pmc Antiphospholipid antibodies induce a pro-inflammatory response in first trimester trophoblast via the TLR4/MyD88 pathway
    Melissa J Mulla
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Am J Reprod Immunol 62:96-111. 2009
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effects of aPL on trophoblast function and the mechanisms involved...
  77. pmc Decidual endothelial cells express surface-bound C1q as a molecular bridge between endovascular trophoblast and decidual endothelium
    Roberta Bulla
    Department of Physiology and Pathology, University of Trieste, Via Fleming 22, 34127, Trieste, Italy
    Mol Immunol 45:2629-40. 2008
    ....
  78. pmc A role for Notch signaling in trophoblast endovascular invasion and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia
    Nathan M Hunkapiller
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 138:2987-98. 2011
    Placental trophoblasts (TBs) invade and remodel uterine vessels with an arterial bias. This process, which involves vascular mimicry, re-routes maternal blood to the placenta, but fails in pre-eclampsia...
  79. ncbi Abortion is associated with increased expression of FasL in decidual leukocytes and apoptosis of extravillous trophoblasts: a role for CRH and urocortin
    V Minas
    Laboratory of Human Reproduction, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
    Mol Hum Reprod 13:663-73. 2007
    ..contrast to normal pregnancy, abortive deciduas contain leukocytes that are positive for FasL and extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs), which show increased expression of Fas and increased rates of apoptosis...
  80. ncbi Endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates enhanced apoptosis of cultured villous trophoblasts from intrauterine growth-restricted placentae
    R T Kilani
    University of Alberta Perinatal Research Centre, Edmonton, Canada
    Reproduction 133:257-64. 2007
    ..at physiological (35-50 mmHg) oxygen tensions, the production of TNFalpha stimulates the apoptosis of placental trophoblasts associated with infants that are intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR)...
  81. ncbi Pregenesys pre-eclampsia markers consensus meeting: What do we require from markers, risk assessment and model systems to tailor preventive strategies?
    I Cetin
    Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L Sacco and Centre for Fetal Research Giorgio Pardi, University of Milan, 20157 Milano, Italy
    Placenta 32:S4-16. 2011
    ....
  82. pmc Paracrine and epigenetic control of trophectoderm differentiation from human embryonic stem cells: the role of bone morphogenic protein 4 and histone deacetylases
    Teresa M Erb
    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee Women s Hospital of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Stem Cells Dev 20:1601-14. 2011
    ..Since blastocyst development is synchronized to uterine receptivity, epigenetic regulators of TE differentiation might adversely affect implantation in vivo...
  83. ncbi Trophoblast cells exhibit differential responses to laminin isoforms
    Erin J Klaffky
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA
    Dev Biol 292:277-289. 2006
    ....
  84. ncbi The tumor suppressor gene Brca1 is required for embryonic cellular proliferation in the mouse
    R Hakem
    Amgen Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cell 85:1009-23. 1996
    ..Thus, the death of Brca1(5-6) mutant embryos prior to gastrulation may be due to a failure of the proliferative burst required for the development of the different germ layers...
  85. ncbi Identification of multipotent cytotrophoblast cells from human first trimester chorionic villi
    Paola Spitalieri
    Department of Biopathology, Genetics Unit, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Via Montpellier, Italy
    Cloning Stem Cells 11:535-56. 2009
    ..These cells may be a safe and convenient source of cells for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for in utero fetal gene therapy...
  86. pmc Decidual hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis in pre-eclampsia
    Charles J Lockwood
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Semin Thromb Hemost 37:158-64. 2011
    Invasion of the decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) is accompanied by thrombin generation from decidual cell (DC)-expressed tissue factor (TF)...
  87. ncbi Corticotropin-releasing hormone promotes blastocyst implantation and early maternal tolerance
    A Makrigiannakis
    School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71110, Greece
    Nat Immunol 2:1018-24. 2001
    ..These findings suggested that locally produced CRH promotes implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy primarily by killing activated T cells...
  88. ncbi Transcriptomic signature of trophoblast differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell model
    Mélanie Marchand
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, USA
    Biol Reprod 84:1258-71. 2011
    ..This work provides an in vitro functional genomic model with which to identify genes involved in trophoblast development...
  89. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinase 1 in pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction: reduced gene expression in decidual tissue and protein expression in extravillous trophoblasts
    I A Lian
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Olav Kyrres gate 11, Trondheim, Norway
    Placenta 31:615-20. 2010
    Superficial invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) and impaired spiral artery remodelling are characterizing phenomena in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR)...
  90. ncbi Cytomegalovirus infection in the human placenta: maternal immunity and developmentally regulated receptors on trophoblasts converge
    L Pereira
    Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus, C 734, Box 0640, San Francisco, 94143, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 325:383-95. 2008
    ..Reduced invasiveness of infected cells could impair remodeling of the uterine vasculature, restrict maternal blood flow and access of the fetus to nutrients causing intrauterine growth restriction...
  91. pmc Trophoblast- and vascular smooth muscle cell-derived MMP-12 mediates elastolysis during uterine spiral artery remodeling
    Lynda K Harris
    Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 177:2103-15. 2010
    ..9% and 23.3 ± 8.7% of control levels, respectively. MMP-12 is expressed by both interstitial and endovascular trophoblasts in the first-trimester placental bed and by vascular SMCs (VSMCs) in remodeling spiral arteries...
  92. pmc Examination of transcriptional networks reveals an important role for TCFAP2C, SMARCA4, and EOMES in trophoblast stem cell maintenance
    Benjamin L Kidder
    EMD Serono Research Institute, Inc, Rockland, MA 02370, USA
    Genome Res 20:458-72. 2010
    ..Through genome-wide mapping and global expression analysis of five TF target genes, our data provide a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional networks that regulate TS cell self-renewal...
  93. ncbi The expression of Argonaute2 and related microRNA biogenesis proteins in normal and hypoxic trophoblasts
    Rogier B Donker
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Hum Reprod 13:273-9. 2007
    ..to analyse the expression of the key RNAi enzyme Argonaute2 (Ago2) and other miRNA biogenesis proteins in human trophoblasts during differentiation and in hypoxic environment...
  94. ncbi Review: LIF and IL11 in trophoblast-endometrial interactions during the establishment of pregnancy
    E Dimitriadis
    Prince Henry s Institute of Medical Research, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
    Placenta 31:S99-104. 2010
    ..This review focuses on the role of these cytokines in trophoblast-endometrial interactions during the establishment of human pregnancy...
  95. ncbi Bi-potential behaviour of cytotrophoblasts in first trimester chorionic villi
    D Baczyk
    Development and Fetal Health, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada
    Placenta 27:367-74. 2006
    ..We suggest bipotential trophoblast progenitor cells persist during first trimester human placental development...
  96. ncbi Placenta trophoblast fusion
    Berthold Huppertz
    Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Center of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
    Methods Mol Biol 475:135-47. 2008
    ..Finally, we speculate on why trophoblast cells fuse in vitro and deal with in vitro models of trophoblast fusion and how their fusion rates can be quantified...
  97. ncbi Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy
    A Trundley
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Tissue Antigens 63:1-12. 2004
    ..Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of ..
  98. ncbi Regulation of early trophoblast differentiation - lessons from the mouse
    C E Senner
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK
    Placenta 31:944-50. 2010
    ..These advances will facilitate the investigation of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on early trophoblast differentiation in normal as well as in pathological conditions...
  99. ncbi Hyperglycosylated hCG is a marker of early human trophoblast invasion
    J Guibourdenche
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche 767, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E240-4. 2010
    ..hCG is mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast covering the chorionic villi, but little is known about the source of hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-H) production...
  100. ncbi Expression of AT1R, AT2R and AT4R and their roles in extravillous trophoblast invasion in the human
    P J Williams
    School of Clinical Sciences, University of Nottingham, City Hospital Nottingham, Nottingham NG5 1PB, United Kingdom
    Placenta 31:448-55. 2010
    ..This study has characterised expression of AT4R and AT1R and AT2R in human placenta throughout normal pregnancy and in PE. Both AngIV and AngII may play an important role in normal pregnancy...
  101. ncbi Expression of folate transporters in human placenta and implications for homocysteine metabolism
    N Solanky
    School of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester, UK
    Placenta 31:134-43. 2010
    ..These data support the concept that placental folate transport is established early in pregnancy, providing folate for utilisation in placental Hcy metabolism...

Research Grants74

  1. Protein Nitration in the Placenta
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  2. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synthase 2 (PTGS2), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and redox- sensitive genes in human placental trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo cell line)...
  3. Pluripotent human stem cells as models for normal and diseased trophoblast
    ROBERT MICHAEL ROBERTS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also by generating such pluripotent cells from umbilical cords of babies born to mothers that developed pre-eclampsia, we hope to recreate the cell type that caused the disease in the first place. ..
  4. Trophoblast MHC-I: Trigger for Immune-Mediated Rejection of Cloned Bovine Fetuses
    Kenneth L White; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  5. Human Decidual Leukocytes and Their Placental Ligands
    JACK STROMINGER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..They interact with placental trophoblasts that attach to and invade the decidua (implantation) and that express an unusual Class I MHC protein of unknown ..
  6. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Modeling syncytiotrophoblast development and pathogenesis
    Danny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will test this hypothesis in vitro using iPSCs derived from the umbilical cords of babies born to mothers with severe preeclampsia and gestational age-matched control iPSCs. ..
  7. The role of NLRP7 and related genes in hydatidiform moles and reproductive failur
    Ignatia Van den Veyver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This project has the potential to result in new understanding of genetic imprinting disorders and causes of obstetrics complications and pregnancy loss in general. ..
  8. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin system in placental insufficiency
    Eugenia Mata-Greenwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, the outcomes of this proposal will shed light into the role of RAS genetics in pregnancy outcomes and will provide the scientific community with a novel animal model to study the genetics of placental insufficiency and PE. ..
  9. Functional significance of Siglec-6, a novel leptin receptor, in human placental
    Virginia Winn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For the baby, PE can cause growth failure or stillbirth. Those babies that do survive have an increased risk of disorders as adults including diabetes and heart disease. ..
  10. Role of SATB in placental development
    Mohammad A K Rumi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Revealing the fundamental regulators of TS cells will greatly expand our understanding of placental morphogenesis and the pathophysiology of placenta-associated disorders. ..
  11. Adverse Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Genetics or Epigenetics?
    Margareta Pisarska; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This enables us to examine first trimester trophoblasts obtained during the period in which placentation occurs, in ongoing pregnancies which can be followed to term ..
  12. Placental Treg Activation and Pregnancy Outcome in the FIV-infected Cat Model
    GREGORY TODD PHARR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunosuppressive enzyme produced by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and trophoblasts, cytokines INF-c, TNF-", IL-1b, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12, produced by APCs, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells...
  13. The Role of Complement in the Pathogenesis of Preeclampsia
    MICHAEL PAUL TRIEBWASSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, the effect of reperfusion injury in trophoblast cultures on complement activation and trophoblast state cell fate will be quantified and followed over time. ..
  14. Functional Analysis of PAAN-AG5, the Baboon Counterpart of HLA-G5
    Daudi K Langat; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal is aimed at assessing the feasibility of using the olive baboon as a model for HLA-G in vivo experiments. ..
  15. Human Decidual Leukocytes and Their Placental Ligands
    Jack L Strominger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They interact with placental extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) that attach to and invade the decidua...
  16. CELLULAR MECHANISMS IN THE INDUCTION OF AROMATASE
    Carole R Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Specific Aim 1, cultured human trophoblasts will be used to investigate genetic and epigenetic mechanisms whereby critical transcription factors and ..
  17. Role of Maternal Platelets in the Placenta and Pregnancy Complications
    Rashmi Sood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These are much-needed investigations into platelet and coagulation activities at the feto-maternal interface with direct significance for pregnancy disorders. ..
  18. Human Population Diversity in Leukocyte Receptors
    PETER R PARHAM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will determine the variability of these genes in the human population and how these differences affect their function. ..
  19. Adiponectin, placental nutrient transport and fetal growth
    Theresa L Powell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  20. Medications Development for the Pregnant Opiate Addict
    Mahmoud S Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Placental serotonin transporter uses ERp44 and Ero1-L for maturation.
    Fusun Kilic; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our findings will provide data that could facilitate novel strategies aimed at regulating the functional efficiency of placental SERT and subsequently control 5HT-mediated embryonic development. ..
  22. Pro-inflammatory regulation of angiogenic gene expression in human trophoblast
    Donald S Torry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these functional defects are poorly understood. Trophoblasts normally produce high levels of the angiogenic growth factor, placenta growth factor (PGF)...
  23. Maternal pro-inflammatory status in obesity regulates placental function
    Theresa L Powell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This is highly relevant to public health since this new information may lead to novel intervention strategies to alleviate fetal overgrowth, which could lessen the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the next generation. ..
  24. Material Fumonisin Exposure and Pregnancy Outcome: Decoding the Sphingolipid Immu
    Janee Gelineau van Waes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  25. Immune Gene Regulation in Human Trophoblast Cells
    Shawn P Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This work also has important implications for tumor immunity, for loss of responsiveness to IFN-3 by tumor cells plays an essential role in tumor immunoevasion. ..
  26. GATA Factor Function in Trophoblast
    Soumen Paul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also determine whether GATA3 have differentiation stage specific target genes. ..
  27. Molecular and Cellular Controls of Placental Metabolism
    Yoel Sadovsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our findings may pave the way to clinical research into disease biomarkers, therapeutics and prevention. ..
  28. Genetic Analysis of Human First Trimester Trophoblast in Ongoing Pregnancies
    Michael Peter Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The methodologies developed in this investigation could eventually establish clinical tests that use TCS, providing information on the genetic status of the fetus before development has progressed beyond the first two months. ..
  29. Role of miR-210 in placental mitochondrial metabolism
    Leslie Myatt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  30. The Function of the Mia3 Gene in Murine Placentation
    Ann E Sutherland; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  31. Hamster: a unique model for studying implantation
    BIBHASH CHANDRA PARIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. FASEB Summer Research Conference on Osteopontin Biology
    Neal S Fedarko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..were initially considered to be restricted in expression to skeletal tissue, though they are also expressed in trophoblasts, certain immune cells, and active secretory cells...
  33. Endogenous Retroviruses and Placental Morphogenesis
    Thomas E Spencer; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Successful completion of the experiments is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms controlling fundamental processes essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy that are regulated by endogenous retroviruses. ..
  34. FLOW EFFECTS ON ENDOTHELIAL/TROPHOBLAST INTERACTION
    Gordon C Douglas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    In human and non-human primates, trophoblasts invade the uterus and uterine vasculature. Endovascular trophoblasts migrate against the flow of blood, reaching uterine spiral arteries which they remodel...
  35. Pregnancy specific glycoprotein 1 activates transforming growth factor beta
    Gabriela S Dveksler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will define the mechanism of action o PSG1 and address a possible novel mechanism of TGF-b1 and TGF-b2 activation. ..
  36. AMP-activated protein kinase management will improve oocyte cryopreservation
    Daniel Allen Rappolee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  37. Penn Center for Study of Epigenetics in Reproduction
    Marisa S Bartolomei; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. Modifying SF-1 Transcriptional Programs by Sumoylation
    EMILY JEAN FAIVRE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Identification of SF-1 target genes sensitive to SUMO-modification may provide insight as to how partial loss-of function mutations in human SF-1 mediate a complete loss of function phenotype. ..
  39. Modulation of the Receptive Endometrium by CG
    Asgerally T Fazleabas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We believe a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for decidualization and implantation will improve clinician's ability to detect, diagnose and treat early pregnancy loss. ..
  40. ERV3 Control of Human Placentation
    NEAL STEWART ROTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Activation of the [unreadable]-hCG promoter may occur secondary to cAMP-dependent transcription factors or directly if ERV3 Env is a transcription factor. Studies will evaluate both potential processes. ..
  41. Genetic Studies in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
    Ignatia Van den Veyver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Together these studies will benefit our understanding of the pathogenesis of CHM and the role of imprinted genes in placental function and fetal development. ..
  42. ACE2 Deficiency: A new model of maternal and fetal growth restriction.
    Liliya M Yamaleyeva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim 3 will determine whether maternal or fetal ACE2 KO is necessary for the fetal weight restriction using embryo transfer. ..
  43. Modeling human trophoblast stem cells using iPS cells derived from molar placenta
    Mana M Parast; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  44. Integrating Environmental Cues at the Maternal-Fetal Vascular Interface
    Emin Maltepe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Characterized by an inability of fetal placental cells (trophoblasts) to properly invade and remodel maternal blood vessels into low resistance conduits, it can also result in ..
  45. Erk-mediated regulation of Dicer and Drosha function in C. elegans
    Swathi Arur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Given the general relevance of RAS/ERK signaling pathway and Dicer and Drosha, results from our work will likely inform multiple systems, including human oogenesis and oncogenesis. ! ..
  46. TEAD4 and Trophoblast Lineage
    Soumen Paul; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  47. Origins and Biological Consequences of Human Infertility
    Linda C Giudice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. S.japonicum and pregnancy outcomes: an RCT
    Jennifer F Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A trophoblast apoptosis assay will also be used to assess the effect of maternal serum from 32 weeks gestation on trophoblast apoptosis. ..
  49. Adrenomedullin Signaling at the Maternal-Fetal Interface
    Kathleen M Caron; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  50. HCMV infection of human placental trophoblast and hematopoietic progenitors
    LENORE PALMA PEREIRA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We also expect to gain insights into novel approaches for preventing HCMV transmission and the attendant birth defects. ..
  51. Regulation of Trophoblast Proliferation and Invasion by Pluripotency Factor LIN28
    QUINTON ALEXANDER WINGER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  52. Mechanisms Modulating the Association between the ENG Pathway and Preeclampsia
    MANDY JO SCHMELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ultimately, results from this project will improve our understanding of the pathophysiologic underpinnings of PE and may help to identify preventive, predictive, and therapeutic/modifiable targets for women at risk for PE. ..
  53. TLR Mediated Trophoblast Injury and Poor Pregnancy Outcomes in S. japonica
    Emily A McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..application is novel in its evaluation of the effect of schistosome-released soluble egg antigen (SEA) on human trophoblasts. We hypothesize that SEA will activate toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and -4 on the surface of the human ..
  54. Small RNAs at the placental maternal communication interface
    Yoel Sadovsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Having already defined differential microRNA expression and their unique function in primary human trophoblasts in normal and hypoxic conditions, we now seek to use next generation deep sequencing technology to ..
  55. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Placental Nutrient Sensing and Fetal Programming
    Thomas Jansson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the proposed work is also methodologically innovative. ..
  56. Plasma Membrane Repair Mechanisms in Placental Trophoblasts
    JOHN MITCHELL ROBINSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The focus of this project is to determine the mechanisms by which trophoblasts repair injury to their plasma membranes. Trophoblasts are cells unique to the placenta and related structures...
  57. A Novel Model for Assessing the Effects of BPA Exposures on Human Placentation
    Susan J Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These findings will enable future experiments to determine the in vivo relevance of these alterations by studying placental samples collected from women whose blood levels of BPA have been measured. ..
  58. Aptosis in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
    Juan A Arroyo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  59. The Genomic and Functional Consequences of Trophoblast Aneuploidy
    Y KATHERINE BIANCO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The plan includes a first rate mentoring team, an outstanding institutional environment, as well as the full and enthusiastic support of her Department Chair, Division Chief, and primary mentor. ..
  60. Apoptosis in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)
    Juan A Arroyo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To study apoptosis in-vitro we will determine the effects of hyperthermia and hypoxia on cultured placental BNCs. ..
  61. HIF-1 Alpha Regulation of Trophoblast Differentiation in Vivo
    Thomas L Brown; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding how oxygen sensing regulators control normal placental development will help us understand how pregnancy-associated disorders arise, can be detected, and treated. ..
  62. TRAINING IN DEVELOPMENTAL AND PERINATAL ENDOCRINOLOGY
    Stuart Handwerger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The progress of each trainee will be reviewed annually by the Executive Committee. It is anticipated that the Training Program will continue to be successful in preparing trainees for research careers in an important area of medicine. ..
  63. REGULATION OF MHC GENES IN TROPHOBLAST
    DOUGLAS ANTCZAK; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Our proposed studies of equine pregnancy are, therefore, likely to shed light on mechanisms that operate in human pregnancy. They may also have relevance to MHC gene regulation in tumor growth and transplantation biology. ..
  64. DECIDUAL CELL/PLACENTAL INTERACTIONS
    JOAN HUNT; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  65. Transcription Factors in Trophectoderm Differentiation
    Robert Roberts; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies are expected to reveal mechanisms underpinning the transition of embryonic stem cells to trophectoderm, a developmental event that immediately precedes implantation and a time when expression of hCG begins. ..
  66. The Role of Leptin in Placental Development
    Laura Schulz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Second, this project will increase our understanding of the ways in which maternal nutrition during pregnancy, may influence placental development, and even adult health.; ..
  67. O-GLYCOSYLATION OF HCG AND CANCER
    Laurence Cole; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  68. REGULATION OF OTP-1 AND HCG GENES IN OVINE TROPHOBLAST
    George Seidel; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..If (3) is negative, determine if the regulatory region of the hCG alpha gene can express hCG alpha and beta subunits in ovine trophoblast. 5)Make transgenic sheep with two promising constructs from the above studies...
  69. IMMUNE TROPHOBLAST INJURY
    Keith McCrae; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The ability of trophoblasts to invade and remodel maternal decidual and vascular tissues and maintain blood fluidity in remodeled vessels ..
  70. Trophoblast Selectins and Their Uterine Mucin Ligands
    Susan Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  71. CLASS I MHC GENES EXPRESSED BY HUMAN TROPHOBLAST CELLS
    JOAN HUNT; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..We expect the results of this research to shed considerable light on crucial issues of HLA-related fertility and reproduction. ..
  72. PREECLAMPSIA LINKAGE TO PLACENTAL IMPLANTATION-PERFUSION
    Robert Taylor; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..With these studies we hope to identify preeclamptic patients at an early stage, better understand the etiology of the disorder and provide insights which aid rational therapeutic approaches...
  73. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PREGNANCY AND HISTOCOMPATIBILITY
    DOUGLAS ANTCZAK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and maternal sensitization; 2) the means by which Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I (+) trophoblasts evade immune destruction; and 3) the cellular pathways that result in trophoblast cell death...
  74. Gap Junctions in Placental Development
    Stephen Lye; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In Aim IV, we will use primary trophoblasts and the Jeg-3 cell line (wild type or following stable transfection with connexin proteins) to investigate, in ..