extracellular space


Summary: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase regulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps
    Venizelos Papayannopoulos
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    J Cell Biol 191:677-91. 2010
  2. ncbi Beneficial suicide: why neutrophils die to make NETs
    Volker Brinkmann
    Microscopy Core Facility, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:577-82. 2007
  3. ncbi An endonuclease allows Streptococcus pneumoniae to escape from neutrophil extracellular traps
    Katharina Beiter
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna SE 171 82, Sweden
    Curr Biol 16:401-7. 2006
  4. pmc Myeloperoxidase is required for neutrophil extracellular trap formation: implications for innate immunity
    Kathleen D Metzler
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    Blood 117:953-9. 2011
  5. pmc Diffusion in brain extracellular space
    Eva Sykova
    Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Physiol Rev 88:1277-340. 2008
  6. pmc Nuclease expression by Staphylococcus aureus facilitates escape from neutrophil extracellular traps
    Evelien T M Berends
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Innate Immun 2:576-86. 2010
  7. ncbi The (pro)renin receptor is cleaved by ADAM19 in the Golgi leading to its secretion into extracellular space
    Ayumu Yoshikawa
    Department of Pharmacology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan
    Hypertens Res 34:599-605. 2011
  8. pmc Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps
    Anderson B Guimarães-Costa
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco I, 21941 902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6748-53. 2009
  9. ncbi Intracellular versus extracellular granzyme B in immunity and disease: challenging the dogma
    Wendy Anne Boivin
    UBC James Hogg Research Laboratory, Providence Heart and Lung Institute at St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
    Lab Invest 89:1195-220. 2009
  10. ncbi Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation
    Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
    Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
    Blood 111:3070-80. 2008

Detail Information

Publications294 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase regulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps
    Venizelos Papayannopoulos
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    J Cell Biol 191:677-91. 2010
  2. ncbi Beneficial suicide: why neutrophils die to make NETs
    Volker Brinkmann
    Microscopy Core Facility, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Chariteplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:577-82. 2007
    ..This Progress article gives an overview of the structure, function and generation of NETs, and their role in infections...
  3. ncbi An endonuclease allows Streptococcus pneumoniae to escape from neutrophil extracellular traps
    Katharina Beiter
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna SE 171 82, Sweden
    Curr Biol 16:401-7. 2006
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that escaping NETs promotes spreading of pneumococci from the upper airways to the lungs and from the lungs into the bloodstream during pneumonia...
  4. pmc Myeloperoxidase is required for neutrophil extracellular trap formation: implications for innate immunity
    Kathleen D Metzler
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    Blood 117:953-9. 2011
    ..Finally, NET-dependent inhibition of Candida albicans growth is compromised in MPO-deficient neutrophils. The inability to form NETs may contribute in part to the host defense defects observed in completely MPO-deficient individuals...
  5. pmc Diffusion in brain extracellular space
    Eva Sykova
    Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic
    Physiol Rev 88:1277-340. 2008
    Diffusion in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is constrained by the volume fraction and the tortuosity and a modified diffusion equation represents the transport behavior of many molecules in the brain...
  6. pmc Nuclease expression by Staphylococcus aureus facilitates escape from neutrophil extracellular traps
    Evelien T M Berends
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    J Innate Immun 2:576-86. 2010
    ..In conclusion, this study shows that S. aureus nuclease promotes resistance against NET-mediated antimicrobial activity of neutrophils and contributes to disease pathogenesis in vivo...
  7. ncbi The (pro)renin receptor is cleaved by ADAM19 in the Golgi leading to its secretion into extracellular space
    Ayumu Yoshikawa
    Department of Pharmacology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan
    Hypertens Res 34:599-605. 2011
    ..The secreted NTF-(P)RR induced the renin activity of prorenin in the extracellular space. We describe that (P)RR is mainly localized in the subcellular organelles, such as the ER and Golgi, and (P)..
  8. pmc Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps
    Anderson B Guimarães-Costa
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco I, 21941 902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6748-53. 2009
    ..Meshes composed of DNA and elastase were evidenced in biopsies of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. NET is an innate response that might contribute to diminish parasite burden in the Leishmania inoculation site...
  9. ncbi Intracellular versus extracellular granzyme B in immunity and disease: challenging the dogma
    Wendy Anne Boivin
    UBC James Hogg Research Laboratory, Providence Heart and Lung Institute at St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
    Lab Invest 89:1195-220. 2009
    ..This review examines, for the first time, the multiple roles of GrB in disease pathogenesis...
  10. ncbi Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation
    Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
    Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany
    Blood 111:3070-80. 2008
    ..Our study provides the first experimental evidence of antimicrobial extracellular traps formation by an immune cell population other than neutrophils...
  11. ncbi CXCR2 mediates NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation in cystic fibrosis airway inflammation
    Veronica Marcos
    Research Center, Children s Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Nat Med 16:1018-23. 2010
    ..These studies establish CXCR2 as a receptor mediating NADPH oxidase-independent NET formation and provide evidence that this GPCR pathway is operative and druggable in cystic fibrosis lung disease...
  12. ncbi Capsule and D-alanylated lipoteichoic acids protect Streptococcus pneumoniae against neutrophil extracellular traps
    Florian Wartha
    Department of Bacteriology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden
    Cell Microbiol 9:1162-71. 2007
    ..This suggests a non-redundant role for LTA alanylation in pneumococcal virulence at the early stage of invasive disease when capsule expression has been shown to be low...
  13. ncbi Induction of genes mediating interferon-dependent extracellular trap formation during neutrophil differentiation
    Sibylla Martinelli
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bern, CH 3010, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:44123-32. 2004
    ..These data contribute to our understanding regarding changes of gene expression during neutrophil differentiation and IFN-mediated anti-bacterial defense mechanisms...
  14. pmc Neutrophil elastase enhances sputum solubilization in cystic fibrosis patients receiving DNase therapy
    Venizelos Papayannopoulos
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e28526. 2011
    ..The beneficial role of NE in CF sputum solubilization may have important implications for the development of CF therapies targeting NE...
  15. pmc Astrocytic mechanisms explaining neural-activity-induced shrinkage of extraneuronal space
    Ivar Østby
    Centre for Integrative Genetics, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, As, Norway
    PLoS Comput Biol 5:e1000272. 2009
    Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions...
  16. pmc Extracellular calcium controls background current and neuronal excitability via an UNC79-UNC80-NALCN cation channel complex
    Boxun Lu
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuron 68:488-99. 2010
    ..Therefore, extracellular Ca(2+) influences neuronal excitability through the UNC79-UNC80-NALCN complex in a G protein-dependent fashion...
  17. pmc Cells release prions in association with exosomes
    Benoit Fevrier
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 144, Institut Curie, 75005 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9683-8. 2004
    ..Furthermore, we found that exosomes bearing PrPsc are infectious. Our data suggest that exosomes may contribute to intercellular membrane exchange and the spread of prions throughout the organism...
  18. pmc The humoral pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is stored in neutrophil granules and localizes in extracellular traps
    Sebastien Jaillon
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Equipe Avenir, Unité 564, University Hospital of Angers, University of Angers, Angers 49933, France
    J Exp Med 204:793-804. 2007
    ..Thus, neutrophils serve as a reservoir, ready for rapid release, of the long PTX3, a key component of humoral innate immunity with opsonic activity...
  19. ncbi Neutrophil extracellular traps are induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Victoria Ramos-Kichik
    Depto de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, I P N, Carpio y Plan de Ayala s n Col Santo Tomás, Mexico, D F, Mexico
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:29-37. 2009
    ..NETs trapped mycobacteria but were unable to kill them. NETs formation induced by M. tuberculosis could help understand the early stages of mycobacterial pathogenesis...
  20. pmc Hsp60 is actively secreted by human tumor cells
    Anna M Merendino
    Dipartimento di Biomedicina Sperimentale e Neuroscienze Cliniche, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    PLoS ONE 5:e9247. 2010
    ..These questions are particularly relevant for cancer biology since it is believed that extracellular chaperones, like Hsp70, may play an active role in tumor growth and dissemination...
  21. ncbi Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extracellular space inhibits cell spreading
    Ryoichi Yamaji
    Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 5998531, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1726:261-71. 2005
    The occurrence and the novel function of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the extracellular space were studied...
  22. pmc LytA, major autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae, requires access to nascent peptidoglycan
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor, and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 287:11018-29. 2012
  23. pmc Microparticles as a source of extracellular DNA
    David S Pisetsky
    Medical Research Service, Durham VAMC, 151G, 508 Fulton Street, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Immunol Res 49:227-34. 2011
    ..This DNA is antigenically active and can bind to lupus anti-DNA autoantibodies. These findings suggest that microparticles are an important source of extracellular DNA to serve as an autoantigen and autoadjuvant in SLE...
  24. pmc Adenosine: an old drug newly discovered
    Holger K Eltzschig
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 E 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Anesthesiology 111:904-15. 2009
    ..If these laboratory studies can be translated into clinical practice, adenosine receptor-based therapeutics may become an integral pharmacological component of daily anesthesiology practice...
  25. pmc The exosome secretory pathway transports amyloid precursor protein carboxyl-terminal fragments from the cell into the brain extracellular space
    Rocío Pérez-González
    Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:43108-15. 2012
    ..To this end, we developed a novel protocol designed to isolate exosomes secreted into mouse brain extracellular space. Exosomes with typical morphology were isolated from freshly removed mouse brains and from frozen mouse and ..
  26. ncbi Extracellular hsp70 levels in children with septic shock
    Derek S Wheeler
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 6:308-11. 2005
    ..To determine whether hsp70 is elevated in the plasma of children with septic shock...
  27. ncbi Extracellular calcium antagonizes forskolin-induced aquaporin 2 trafficking in collecting duct cells
    Giuseppe Procino
    Department of General and Environmental Physiology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    Kidney Int 66:2245-55. 2004
  28. ncbi Equilibrium water exchange between the intra- and extracellular spaces of mammalian brain
    James D Quirk
    Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Magn Reson Med 50:493-9. 2003
    ..resolved in the longitudinal relaxation domain following administration of an MR relaxation agent into the extracellular space. The estimated intracellular water content fraction was 81% +/- 8%, and the intra- to extracellular ..
  29. ncbi Release of podocalyxin into the extracellular space. Role of metalloproteinases
    Darío Fernández
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Centro de Investigaciones, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1813:1504-10. 2011
    ..Based on this antecedent, we aimed at investigating whether PODXL could be cleaved and released into the extracellular space as a soluble peptide...
  30. ncbi Model-based analysis of cortical recording with silicon microelectrodes
    Michael A Moffitt
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Lerner Research Institute, ND 20, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:2240-50. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to use computational modeling to better understand factors that impact neural recordings with silicon microelectrodes used in brain-machine interfaces...
  31. ncbi Tricellulin forms homomeric and heteromeric tight junctional complexes
    Julie K Westphal
    Institute of Biochemistry II, Jena University Hospital, Nonnenplan 2, 07743, Jena, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:2057-68. 2010
    ..is of central importance for epithelia and endothelia to function as efficient barriers between the extracellular space and the inner milieu...
  32. ncbi Acute hyperoxia increases lipid peroxidation and induces plasma membrane blebbing in human U87 glioblastoma cells
    D P D'Agostino
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Hyperbaric Biomedical Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, MDC 8, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Neuroscience 159:1011-22. 2009
    ..We hypothesize that membrane blebbing is an ultrastructural correlate of MLP resulting from hyperoxia. Furthermore, AFM is a powerful technique for resolving nanoscopic changes in the plasma membrane that result from oxidative damage...
  33. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
  34. ncbi Increased seizure duration and slowed potassium kinetics in mice lacking aquaporin-4 water channels
    Devin K Binder
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 94110, USA
    Glia 53:631-6. 2006
    ..5 +/- 0.1 and 6.6 +/- 0.7 s, respectively). These results implicate AQP4 in the expression and termination of seizure activity and support the hypothesis that AQP4 is coupled to potassium homeostasis in vivo...
  35. ncbi Metabolic footprinting in microbiology: methods and applications in functional genomics and biotechnology
    Valeria Mapelli
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Trends Biotechnol 26:490-7. 2008
    ..Hereby, we state that integrative information from metabolic footprinting can assist in further interpretation of metabolic networks...
  36. pmc Non-synaptic receptors and transporters involved in brain functions and targets of drug treatment
    E S Vizi
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Br J Pharmacol 160:785-809. 2010
    ..They are able to send chemical messages by means of diffusion to target cells via the extracellular space, provided that the target neurons are equipped with high-affinity receptors...
  37. pmc BcsKC is an essential protein for the type VI secretion system activity in Burkholderia cenocepacia that forms an outer membrane complex with BcsLB
    Daniel Aubert
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Siebens Drake Medical Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:35988-98. 2010
    ..Together, our data show that BcsK(C)/BcsL(B) interaction is essential for the T6SS activity in B. cenocepacia...
  38. ncbi Aquaporin-4 regulates extracellular space volume dynamics during high-frequency synaptic stimulation: a gene deletion study in mouse hippocampus
    Nadia Nabil Haj-Yasein
    Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Glia 60:867-74. 2012
    ..pattern of expression, we predicted that AQP4 could be involved in controlling water fluxes and changes in extracellular space (ECS) volume that are associated with activation of excitatory pathways...
  39. ncbi Neurons produce FGF2 and VEGF and secrete them at least in part by shedding extracellular vesicles
    Gabriella Schiera
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    J Cell Mol Med 11:1384-94. 2007
    ..Shedding of extracellular vesicles by neurons was also confirmed by scanner electron microscopy...
  40. ncbi Analytic assessment of the various bioimpedance methods used to estimate body water
    J Matthie
    Medical Department, Xitron Technologies, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 84:1801-16. 1998
    ..At all other frequencies there are other effects...
  41. pmc The rat extracellular superoxide dismutase dimer is converted to a tetramer by the exchange of a single amino acid
    L M Carlsson
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Umea University Hospital, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5219-22. 1996
    ..These results also suggest that tetrameric EC-SODs are not symmetrical tetrahedrons, but composed of two interacting dimers, further supporting an evolutionary relationship with the dimeric cytosolic Cu and Zn-containing SODs...
  42. ncbi The role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease
    Ulf Andersson
    Department of Women s and Children s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital at Solna, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1799:141-8. 2010
    ..This review summarizes selected aspects of HMGB1 biology relevant for induction and propagation of some autoimmune conditions...
  43. pmc Reconstruction and validation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae iND750, a fully compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic model
    Natalie C Duarte
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0412, USA
    Genome Res 14:1298-309. 2004
    ..model are both elementally and charge balanced and have been assigned to one of eight cellular locations (extracellular space, cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or vacuole)...
  44. ncbi Antibody neutralization of the extracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus
    M Law
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Virology 280:132-42. 2001
    ..Using an antibody specific to B5R protein and B5R mutants with consecutive short consensus repeat (SCR) domains deleted, the neutralization epitopes on B5R were mapped to within the SCR domain 1...
  45. pmc Activity-dependent release of precursor nerve growth factor, conversion to mature nerve growth factor, and its degradation by a protease cascade
    Martin A Bruno
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1Y6
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6735-40. 2006
    ..report, we provide direct demonstration that the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) is released in the extracellular space in an activity-dependent manner in its precursor form (proNGF) and that it is in this compartment that its ..
  46. pmc Extracellular export of sphingosine kinase-1a contributes to the vascular S1P gradient
    Krishnan Venkataraman
    Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 3501, USA
    Biochem J 397:461-71. 2006
    ..These results suggest that export of Sphk-1a occurs under physiological conditions and may contribute to the establishment of the vascular S1P gradient...
  47. pmc Extracellular superoxide dismutase in human tissues and human cell lines
    S L Marklund
    J Clin Invest 74:1398-403. 1984
    ..19 human cultured cell lines were found to be devoid of or to contain very little extracellular-superoxide dismutase. Most tissues contained more extracellular-superoxide dismutase than did the investigated cell lines...
  48. pmc Macroscopic models of local field potentials and the apparent 1/f noise in brain activity
    Claude Bédard
    Integrative and Computational Neuroscience Unit UNIC, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Biophys J 96:2589-603. 2009
    ..Finally, we suggest a measurement method to reveal the frequency dependence of current propagation in biological tissue, and which could be used to directly test the predictions of this formalism...
  49. pmc Extracellular superoxide dismutase in the airways of transgenic mice reduces inflammation and attenuates lung toxicity following hyperoxia
    R J Folz
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, 27710, USA
    J Clin Invest 103:1055-66. 1999
  50. pmc Extracellular ATP is a pro-angiogenic factor for pulmonary artery vasa vasorum endothelial cells
    Evgenia V Gerasimovskaya
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, B131, 4200 East 9th Ave, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Angiogenesis 11:169-82. 2008
    ..Collectively, our data support the idea that extracellular ATP participates in the expansion of the vasa vasorum that can be observed in hypoxic conditions...
  51. pmc Proteomics characterization of extracellular space components in the human aorta
    Athanasios Didangelos
    King s British Heart Foundation Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
    Mol Cell Proteomics 9:2048-62. 2010
  52. ncbi Diffusion of epidermal growth factor in rat brain extracellular space measured by integrative optical imaging
    Robert G Thorne
    Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurophysiol 92:3471-81. 2004
    ..Tortuosity (lambda), a parameter representing the hindrance imposed on EGF by the convoluted brain extracellular space (ECS), was 1.8, the lowest yet measured by IOI for a protein in brain...
  53. ncbi Extracellular recombinant protein production from Escherichia coli
    Ye Ni
    The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 214122, Wuxi, China
    Biotechnol Lett 31:1661-70. 2009
    ..This review provides an overview of recent developments in engineering E. coli for extracellular production of recombinant proteins and an analysis of pros and cons of each strategy...
  54. pmc Binding of heat shock protein 70 to extracellular phosphatidylserine promotes killing of normoxic and hypoxic tumor cells
    Daniela Schilling
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaningerstrasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
    FASEB J 23:2467-77. 2009
  55. ncbi On the origin of the extracellular action potential waveform: A modeling study
    Carl Gold
    Computation and Neural Systems, Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    J Neurophysiol 95:3113-28. 2006
    ..Interestingly, each cell's dendritic morphology had very little impact on the EAP waveform. The model also demonstrates that the varied composition of ionic currents in different cells is reflected in the features of the EAP...
  56. pmc Ewing sarcoma cells secrete EWS/Fli-1 fusion mRNA via microvesicles
    Masanori Tsugita
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Gifu, Japan United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu, Gifu, Japan
    PLoS ONE 8:e77416. 2013
    ..These findings indicate the EWS/Fli-1 mRNA in MVs might be a new non-invasive diagnostic marker for specific cases of Ewing sarcoma...
  57. ncbi A2A adenosine receptor may allow expansion of T cells lacking effector functions in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments
    Akio Ohta
    New England Inflammation and Tissue Protection Institute, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 113 Mugar Health Sciences Building, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 183:5487-93. 2009
    ..This physiological mechanism could explain the inefficiency of antitumor T cells in the tumor microenvironment...
  58. pmc Development of a 3D finite element model of lens microcirculation
    Ehsan Vaghefi
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Auckland, Building 502, Level 4, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand
    Biomed Eng Online 11:69. 2012
    ..While effective, this approach did not fully account for all the anatomical and functional complexities of the lens. To encapsulate these complexities we have created a 3D finite element computer model of the lens...
  59. ncbi Candidate biomarkers of extravascular extracellular space: a direct comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging--derived measurement of the volume of the extravascular extracellular space in glioblastoma multiform
    S J Mills
    Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering Department, School of Cancer and Imaging Sciences, University of Manchester, Withington, Manchester, United Kingdom
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:549-53. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that areas of increased cellularity, and therefore low ADC, would be expected to have a small EES (low v(e))...
  60. pmc Aquaporin-4-deficient mice have increased extracellular space without tortuosity change
    Xiaoming Yao
    Department of Neurosurgery and Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5460-4. 2008
    ..To assess whether these channels influence brain extracellular space (ECS) under resting physiological conditions, we used the established real-time iontophoresis method with ..
  61. ncbi Extracellular acidification induces human neutrophil activation
    A S Trevani
    Laboratory of Immunology, Institute of Hematologic Research, National Academy of Medicine, Buenos Aires University School of Medicine, Argentina
    J Immunol 162:4849-57. 1999
    ..Together, our results support the notion that extracellular acidosis may intensify acute inflammatory responses by inducing neutrophil activation as well as by delaying spontaneous apoptosis and extending neutrophil functional lifespan...
  62. pmc Acetylcholine receptor gating at extracellular transmembrane domain interface: the cys-loop and M2-M3 linker
    Archana Jha
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    J Gen Physiol 130:547-58. 2007
    ..The M2-M3 linker appears to be the key moving part that couples gating motions at the base of the ECD with those in TMD. These interactions are distributed along an approximately 16-A border and involve about a dozen residues...
  63. pmc Protective immunity against tuberculosis induced by vaccination with major extracellular proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    M A Horwitz
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1530-4. 1995
    ..tuberculosis are candidate components of a subunit vaccine against tuberculosis and provides compelling support for the concept that extracellular proteins of intracellular pathogens are key immunoprotective molecules...
  64. pmc Critical role of extracellular heat shock cognate protein 70 in the myocardial inflammatory response and cardiac dysfunction after global ischemia-reperfusion
    Ning Zou
    Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294:H2805-13. 2008
    ..Thus extracellular HSC70 plays a critical role in regulating the myocardial innate immune response and cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion...
  65. ncbi Acidosis induces relaxation mediated by nitric oxide and potassium channels in rat thoracic aorta
    Andrea C Celotto
    Laboratory of Endothelial Function, Department of Surgery and Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Eur J Pharmacol 656:88-93. 2011
    ..These results suggest that extracellular acidosis promotes vasodilation mediated by NO, K(ATP) and SK(Ca), and maybe other K(+) channels in isolated rat thoracic aorta...
  66. pmc The dual nature of human extracellular superoxide dismutase: one sequence and two structures
    Steen V Petersen
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13875-80. 2003
    Human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; EC is a scavenger of superoxide anions in the extracellular space. The amino acid sequence is homologous to the intracellular counterpart, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD),..
  67. pmc Extracellular DNA-dependent biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A in response to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics
    Jeffrey B Kaplan
    Department of Oral Biology, New Jersey Dental School, Medical Science Building, Room C636, 185 S Orange Ave, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Res Microbiol 162:535-41. 2011
    ..epidermidis is both strain- and antibiotic-dependent and that S. epidermidis RP62A utilizes an extracellular DNA-dependent mechanism to form biofilms in response to sub-MIC antibiotics...
  68. ncbi Magnetic resonance and confocal imaging of solute penetration into the lens reveals a zone of restricted extracellular space diffusion
    Ehsan Vaghefi
    Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, New Zealand National Eye Centre, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302:R1250-9. 2012
    ..To visualize the extracellular space solute fluxes potentially generated by this system, bovine lenses were organ cultured in artificial aqueous ..
  69. pmc Extracellular nucleotides and apyrases regulate stomatal aperture in Arabidopsis
    Greg Clark
    Section of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Plant Physiol 156:1740-53. 2011
    ..These data favor the novel conclusion that ectoapyrases and extracellular nucleotides play key roles in regulating stomatal functions...
  70. ncbi Online detection and sorting of extracellularly recorded action potentials in human medial temporal lobe recordings, in vivo
    Ueli Rutishauser
    Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 91125, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 154:204-24. 2006
    ..This method will allow the development of "closed-loop" experiments, which immediately adapt the experimental stimuli and/or tasks to the neural response observed...
  71. pmc A 3-D model of ligand transport in a deforming extracellular space
    Nikola Kojic
    Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Biophys J 99:3517-25. 2010
  72. pmc Tau elevations in the brain extracellular space correlate with reduced amyloid-β levels and predict adverse clinical outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury
    Sandra Magnoni
    Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan University, Milano 20100, Italy
    Brain 135:1268-80. 2012
    ..Microdialysis-based measurement of tau levels in the brain extracellular space may be a useful way to assess the severity of axonal injury acutely in the intensive care unit...
  73. ncbi Secretion of active membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14) into extracellular space in microvesicular exosomes
    Juha Hakulinen
    Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    J Cell Biochem 105:1211-8. 2008
    ..The targeting of MT1-MMP in exosomes represents a novel mechanism for cancer cells to secrete membrane type metalloproteolytic activity into the extracellular space.
  74. ncbi Enhanced bleomycin-induced pulmonary damage in mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase
    Cheryl L Fattman
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 35:763-71. 2003
  75. pmc Interactions between the L1 cell adhesion molecule and ezrin support traction-force generation and can be regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation
    Takeshi Sakurai
    Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Neurosci Res 86:2602-14. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that L1-ezrin interactions mediated by the L1 juxtamembrane region are involved in traction-force generation and can be regulated by the phosphorylation of L1...
  76. pmc Microfiberoptic measurement of extracellular space volume in brain and tumor slices based on fluorescent dye partitioning
    Hua Zhang
    Department of Medicine and Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Biophys J 99:1284-91. 2010
    The fractional volume occupied by extracellular space in tissues, termed alpha, is an important parameter of tissue architecture that affects cellular functions and drug delivery...
  77. ncbi Inhibition of presynaptic release-facilitatory kainate autoreceptors by extracellular cyclic GMP
    Chiara Cervetto
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332:210-9. 2010
    ..Endogenously synthesized cGMP might be the physiological source for the extracellular cGMP modulating the response to kainate autoreceptor activation...
  78. ncbi Extracellular ATP signaling in plants
    Kiwamu Tanaka
    Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Trends Cell Biol 20:601-8. 2010
    ..This comparison will aid our overall understanding of plant physiology and also provide details of the general fundamentals of extracellular ATP signaling in eukaryotes...
  79. ncbi In vivo measurement of brain extracellular space diffusion by cortical surface photobleaching
    Devin K Binder
    Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0521, USA
    J Neurosci 24:8049-56. 2004
    Molecular diffusion in the brain extracellular space (ECS) is an important determinant of neural function...
  80. pmc The role of perisynaptic glial sheaths in glutamate spillover and extracellular Ca(2+) depletion
    D A Rusakov
    Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    Biophys J 81:1947-59. 2001
    ..The results provide a quantitative guidance for interpretation of physiological experiments that address fast transients of neurotransmitters and small ions in the brain tissue...
  81. pmc Apyrases (nucleoside triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases) play a key role in growth control in Arabidopsis
    Jian Wu
    Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    Plant Physiol 144:961-75. 2007
    ..These results imply that APY1 and APY2, like their homologs in animals, act to reduce the concentration of extracellular nucleotides, and that this function is important for the regulation of growth in Arabidopsis...
  82. ncbi Spontaneous frequency of rabbit atrioventricular node myocytes depends on SR function
    J M Ridley
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, Bristol Heart Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK
    Cell Calcium 44:580-91. 2008
    ..These findings provide the first information on Ca(2+) handling at the sub-cellular level and link cellular Ca(2+) cycling to the genesis of spontaneous activity in the AVN...
  83. pmc A tumor cord model for doxorubicin delivery and dose optimization in solid tumors
    Steffen Eikenberry
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Theor Biol Med Model 6:16. 2009
    ..I model the delivery of a soluble drug from the vasculature to a solid tumor using a tumor cord model and examine the penetration of doxorubicin under different dosage regimes and tumor microenvironments...
  84. pmc An accessory to the 'Trinity': SR-As are essential pathogen sensors of extracellular dsRNA, mediating entry and leading to subsequent type I IFN responses
    Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000829. 2010
    ..Virally derived double stranded (ds)RNA released into the extracellular space during virus induced cell lysis acts as a powerful inducer of classical type I interferon (IFN) responses; ..
  85. ncbi The persistent sodium current generates pacemaker activities in the central pattern generator for locomotion and regulates the locomotor rhythm
    Sabrina Tazerart
    Laboratoire Plasticité et Physio Pathologie de la Motricité, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6196, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Aix Marseille, F 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    J Neurosci 28:8577-89. 2008
    ..This study provides evidence that I(NaP) generates pacemaker activities in CPG interneurons and contributes to the regulation of the locomotor activity...
  86. ncbi A novel key-lock mechanism for inactivating amino acid neurotransmitters during transit across extracellular space
    Morris H Baslow
    Center for Neurochemistry, Nathan S Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Amino Acids 38:51-5. 2010
  87. ncbi Intraperitoneal zinc administration increases extracellular zinc in the rat prefrontal cortex
    W Opoka
    Laboratory of Trace Elements Neurobiology, Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland
    J Physiol Pharmacol 59:477-87. 2008
    ..The results indicate zinc-induced fast brain penetration and may explain its rapid pharmacological effects...
  88. ncbi Intracellular features predicted by extracellular recordings in the hippocampus in vivo
    D A Henze
    Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA
    J Neurophysiol 84:390-400. 2000
    ..This theoretical maximum is in contrast to the approximately six units that are usually detected per tetrode. From this, we conclude that a large percentage of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells are silent in any given behavioral condition...
  89. pmc Statins promote the degradation of extracellular amyloid {beta}-peptide by microglia via stimulation of exosome-associated insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) secretion
    Irfan Y Tamboli
    Departments of Neurology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany
    J Biol Chem 285:37405-14. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate a novel pathway for the nonconventional secretion of IDE via exosomes. The modulation of this pathway could provide a new strategy to enhance the extracellular clearance of Aβ...
  90. pmc Decreased amounts of cell wall-associated protein A and fibronectin-binding proteins in Staphylococcus aureus sarA mutants due to up-regulation of extracellular proteases
    A Karlsson
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, S 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Infect Immun 69:4742-8. 2001
    ..As the serine protease requires aureolysin to be activated, it can thus be concluded that the serine protease is the most important protease in the release of cell-bound FnBPs and protein A...
  91. pmc Acetylcholine receptor gating: movement in the alpha-subunit extracellular domain
    Prasad Purohit
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    J Gen Physiol 130:569-79. 2007
    ..This suggests that the inner and outer sheets of the alpha-subunit beta-core do not rotate as a rigid body...
  92. pmc Extracellular K(+)-induced hyperpolarizations and dilatations of rat coronary and cerebral arteries involve inward rectifier K(+) channels
    H J Knot
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Vermont, Colchester, VT 05446 2500, USA
    J Physiol 492:419-30. 1996
    ..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that inward rectifier K(+) channels may be involved in metabolic regulation of coronary and cerebral blood flow in response to changes in [K+]o...
  93. ncbi Mechanotransduction through growth-factor shedding into the extracellular space
    Daniel J Tschumperlin
    Physiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 429:83-6. 2004
  94. pmc Immunotoxin and Taxol synergy results from a decrease in shed mesothelin levels in the extracellular space of tumors
    Yujian Zhang
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17099-104. 2007
    ..We also show that the KB tumors have high levels of shed mesothelin in their extracellular space; these levels increase with tumor size and, after Taxol treatment, dramatically fall in the drug-sensitive ..
  95. ncbi Extracellular interactions between GluR2 and N-cadherin in spine regulation
    Laura Saglietti
    DTI Dulbecco Telethon Institute, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Italy
    Neuron 54:461-77. 2007
    ..Our data indicate that in hippocampal neurons N-cadherin and GluR2 form a synaptic complex that stimulates presynaptic development and function as well as promoting dendritic spine formation...
  96. ncbi Prokaryotic extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to biomass production and respiration in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic
    Federico Baltar
    Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus Universitario de Tafira, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
    Environ Microbiol 11:1998-2014. 2009
    ..Thus, it is apparent that the utilization of deep ocean organic matter is linked to higher cell-specific extracellular enzymatic activity and respiration and lower cell-specific PHP than in surface waters...
  97. ncbi Effects of barium, furosemide, ouabaine and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) on ionophoretically-induced changes in extracellular potassium concentration in hippocampal slices from rats and from patients with epilepsy
    Regina Jauch
    Johannes Müller Institut für Physiologie, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin, Germany
    Brain Res 925:18-27. 2002
    ..tetrapropylammonium (TPA(+))-signals in order to test for barium-induced changes of the extracellular space. Finally, we repeated the barium experiment on slices from human non-sclerotic and sclerotic hippocampal ..
  98. ncbi Body composition in renal transplant patients: bioimpedance analysis compared to isotope dilution, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometry
    E C van den Ham
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1067-79. 1999
    ..In the assessment of fat and fat free mass, the reliability of MF-BIA appears to be questionable. Method agreement between DEXA and anthropometry seems to be slightly better...
  99. ncbi Extracellular ATP is a regulator of pathogen defence in plants
    Stephen Chivasa
    Creative Gene Technology Ltd, The Integrative Cell Biology Laboratory, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Plant J 60:436-48. 2009
    ..Our study reveals a previously unsuspected role for eATP as a negative regulator of defensive signal transduction and demonstrates its importance as a key signal integrating defence and cell viability in plants...
  100. pmc Functional expression of the hyperpolarization-activated, non-selective cation current I(f) in immortalized HL-1 cardiomyocytes
    Laura Sartiani
    Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Firenze, 50139 Florence, Italy
    J Physiol 545:81-92. 2002
    ..e. more negative than the threshold potential for I(f) activation. In conclusion, HL-1 cells display a hyperpolarization-activated I(f) current which might contribute to the spontaneous contractile activity of these cells...
  101. pmc Extracellular DNA is required for root tip resistance to fungal infection
    Fushi Wen
    Department of Plant Sciences, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85713, USA
    Plant Physiol 151:820-9. 2009

Research Grants70

  1. Phosphorylation of FGF23 coordinates crosstalk between the skeleton and kidney
    ..phosphorylation of casein because they are spatially restricted from the secretory apparatus and the extracellular space. The G-CK specifically recognizes the consensus Ser-x-(Glu/pSer) (where x is any amino acid and Glu/pSer ..
  2. Astrocytic Ca2+ Signaling in the Ischemic Penumbra
    Maiken Nedergaard; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..ATP is, in the extracellular space, rapidly degraded to adenosine - anendogenous neuroprotective agent...
  3. Molecular control of differential peptide transmitter exocytosis.
    COREY B SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fusion event, characterized by a narrow, structured exocytic fusion pore between the granule lumen and the extracellular space. Under sympathetic tone, selective and modest catecholamine release plays an important role in the "rest ..
  4. White Matter Protection in Cerebral Ischemia
    Guodong Cao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NAMPT is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia15,16. In non-CNS systems, NAMPT can be found in the extracellular space (eNAMPT) and circulates systemically in the blood...
  5. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..detoxify ammonia by synthesizing glutamine (via glutamine synthetase (GS)), and export glutamine into the extracellular space and blood via specific glutamine transporters...
  6. Exploring Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Alzheimer's Disease Research
    Kuo Fen Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid plaque in the extracellular space, formation of neurofibrillary tangles in neurons, and extensive neuronal loss...
  7. Identification of key tumor cell-released factors that induce cachexia
    Yi Ping Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently, HSPs have been shown being released by certain cells, including tumor cells, into the extracellular space where they play a major role in intercellular crosstalk...
  8. Ethanol Regulates Vacuolar ATPase &PEDF
    Chuhan Chung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..v-ATPase is a highly regulated proton pump that functions to move protons into organelles and out into the extracellular space. It plays an important homeostatic function in terms of pH regulation and acidifies compartments containing ..
  9. Effects of Extravasated Serum Proteins on Human Glioblastoma Invasion
    HUNTER REEVE UNDERHILL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, there is compelling evidence that suggests the accumulation of specific serum proteins in the extracellular space due to disruption of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) may govern the proliferative versus invasive phenotype...
  10. TBI epileptogenesis: pathologic hippocampal L-glut synaptic plasticity
    John T Slevin; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..TBI produces an increase in glutamate release into the extracellular space and a concurrent decrease in the ability of excitatory amino acid transporters to reuptake glutamate that ..
  11. Disruption of Extracellular Matrix-Glial Interactions in Schizophrenia
    Sabina Berretta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in Specific Aim 2, to cause CSPG accumulation in human astrocytes and decreased CSPG secretion into the extracellular space. In Specific Aims 1, 2 and 3, a group of subjects with bipolar disorder will be included to test whether ..
  12. C. trachomatis-mediated signaling pathways required for Type I IFN responses
    JEFFREY RYAN BARKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The innate immune system is capable of detecting unique microbial components in both the extracellular space and intracellular compartments for induction of immune responses for clearance of pathogens...
  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Kir4.1 and GLT1 in Pathophysiology
    Michelle L Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the adult spinal cord and brain, dysregulated K+ and glutamate homeostasis in the extracellular space leads to neuronal hyperexcitability, changes in synaptic physiology, and plasticity...
  14. Alteration of circadian rhythm and sleep by HIV protein Tat
    Jian M Ding; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Among these viral proteins, Tat is important because it can be secreted from infected cells to the extracellular space, subsequently affecting nearby neurons...
  15. Autophagic Lysosomal Pathway and Glaucoma
    PALOMA LITON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..compromises the autophagic cellular function, thus promoting the secretion of autophagolysosomes into the extracellular space, which can contribute to the abnormal deposition observed in glaucoma...
  16. Role of Astrocyte Injury in Neuroprotection
    Martin A Philbert; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As injury to the astrocyte progresses, ATP is converted to adenosine and is released into the extracellular space where it can interact with A1 receptors on neurons (protective) and A2 receptors on astrocytes (injurious)...
  17. A novel biotherapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer.
    Randolph C Elble; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to be almost entirely extracellular and to undergo a cleavage that releases the 100 kDa ectodomain into the extracellular space. Our preliminary data indicate that the soluble ectodomain (sCLCA2) is preferentially cytotoxic to triple-..
  18. HTS Approach to Correction of Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Misfolding Disease
    William Balch; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to identify the small molecules that will reverse disease phenotype and promote delivery of 11AT to the extracellular space of the lung to prevent the pathophysiology of this protein misfolding disease...
  19. Role of a schistosome cysteine protease in Th response polarization
    Stephen J Davies; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..play a central role in host invasion and acquisition of nutrients and are frequently secreted into the extracellular space to fulfill these roles...
    CHRISTINA ROSE MARMAROU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will utilize sodium and potassium ion selective microelectrodes to measure the ionic changes in the extracellular space which play a major role in determining the amount of water entering brain...
  21. Excessive Lysosomal Exocytosis Triggers Pathogenic Mechanisms in Sialidosis Mice
    ALESSANDRA D'AZZO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that the excessive release of lysosomal contents into the extracellular space changes the composition of cells'plasma membranes and the extracellular matrix with deleterious ..
  22. Drosophila tracheal cytonemes in long range FGF signaling
    Sougata Roy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has long been accepted that signaling proteins like FGF diffuse in extracellular space to generate concentration gradients and that these gradients regulate growth and patterning of responding ..
    Hardy Kornfeld; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..support of this model we found that high-MOl apoptosis progresses rapidly to necrosis, releasing Mtb to the extracellular space without loss of bacillary viability...
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..biological cells, their diffusion to target cells, binding to specific receptors, and clearance from the extracellular space. Amperometry at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (with an applied potential sufficient to oxidize ..
  25. Purinergic Mechanisms in Homeostatic Sleep Control
    Radhika Basheer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The purine nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released into extracellular space as a co-transmitter and via gliotransmission during neuronal activity in wakefulness...
  26. Mechanisms of fusion and transmitter release in neurosecretion
    Manfred Lindau; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the secretory vesicles are released through a fusion pore that connects the vesicular lumen to the extracellular space. The mechanism by which the fusion pore is formed and the molecular components forming the fusion pore are ..
    Ela W Knapik; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..research shows that chondrocytes in the head skeleton of crusher mutants fail to secrete collagen in the extracellular space leading to misshaped or missing cartilages...
  28. The Mechanism of the Outer Blood-Retina Barrier Breakdown
    Zsolt Ablonczy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): A common element in several retinal diseases is the accumulation of fluid within the extracellular space of the neurosensory retina...
  29. Blood-based biomarker amplification using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU
    Tatiana Khokhlova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..targeted lysis of selected areas of the prostate that will lead to the release of cell contents into the extracellular space and increae the concentration of tissue-specific micro-RNAs in the circulation...
  30. Alterations in Glutamate Neurotransmission after Experimental Brain Injury
    JASON MICHAEL HINZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..breakdown the blood-brain-barrier and create pores in cell membranes leading to glutamate release into the extracellular space. In addition, redistribution of ions after the injury can create a massive depolarization leading to ..
    Kevin L Schey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The human lens must maintain transparency over many decades and, to do so, lens fiber cells must minimize extracellular space and preserve protein solubility...
  32. Secretion-associated dynamic of the plasma membrane
    Arun Anantharam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..When triggered by Ca2+, neuroendocrine cells release biogenic amines and neuropeptides into the extracellular space through fusion of dense core granules with the plasma membrane...
  33. Cell Signaling in Developing Epithelia
    Gregory R Dressler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..potential for developing novel therapeutic agents that inhibit TGF-beta or enhance Bmp7 activity within the extracellular space must be pursued...
  34. Hypertensive Mechanisms in Preeclampsia
    ERIC MATTHEW GEORGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by the expression of heparanase, which cleaves extracellular heparan, presumably releasing sFlt-1 into the extracellular space. This proposal seeks to test the hypothesis that the secretion of maternal sFlt-1, and thus the maternal ..
  35. Structural characterization of a human neurotransmitter transporter
    Kevin H Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These enzymes transport neurotransmitters from the extracellular space into the cell and therefore up a concentration gradient...
  36. Migratory Properties of HIV-infected T Cells in Vivo
    THORSTEN ROMAN MEMPEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..HIV, greatly increase the efficiency of viral dissemination over transfer via virion release into the extracellular space. Here we propose to use multiphoton intravital microscopy (MP-IVM) for the temporospatially resolved ..
  37. Cytoskeletal Mechanisms of Endocytosis
    Tatyana Svitkina; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One element of such communication is exchange of components between the intracellular and extracellular space. It includes two major processes, secretion and endocytosis, which are roughly equivalent to export and ..
  38. Secreted Virulence Proteins and biofilm formation in Candida
    SAMUEL AUSTIN LEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..albicans exocytosis mutants missort proteins to the extracellular space resulting in defective biofilm formation, and (ii) mutations in secretory pathway genes at key steps in ..
  39. Molecular genetic analysis of ion regulation by glia at the blood-nerve barrier
    HAIG S KESHISHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In many pathological conditions homeostatic balance is lost, leading to swelling of the extracellular space, neuronal dysfunction, and apoptosis...
  40. Biophysics and Biomechanics of the Semicircular Canals
    Richard D Rabbitt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in vivo by tracking the time-course of expression in the cupula and extracellular space around stereocilia following mechanical and aminoglycoside insults...
  41. Contribution of synaptic vesicle proteins to molecular mechanisms of amphetamine
    KATHLEEN MARIE SALERNO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DAT is responsible for DA reuptake from the extracellular space into the presynaptic terminal. VMAT2 transports cytosolic DA into synaptic vesicles...
  42. Engineering chaperones for extracellular amyloids
    Diego E Rincon-Limas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, no such quality control mechanism exists in the extracellular space;thus, new strategies to secrete Hsp70 present a unique therapeutic opportunity against extracellular ..
    M Carter Cornwall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..11-cis retinal partitions into intracellular disks of bleached rods from lipid binding partners in the extracellular space surrounding rods by a passive diffusion, and that the residence of opsin in intracellular disks in rods ..
    ROBERT MARK WIGHTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our approach enables delivery of known amounts of reagents into the extracellular space. A mass-transport based theory of the ejection rate and its spatial distribution is required to understand ..
  45. Inflammasome activation by cholesterol crystals
    Eicke Latz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The local saturation of free cholesterol can lead to crystal formation inside macrophages and in the extracellular space. Inflammatory immune responses in atherosclerotic lesions are key pathogenic factors for the development of ..
    Michael G Curley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The infused saline flows through the extracellular space convecting energy...
  47. Mapping pH at the surface of individual cell
    Yana K Reshetnyak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The probe will be attached to the N- or C- terminus of pHLIPs. In first case, SNARF-1 will stay in the extracellular space being tethered to the cell surface...
    Jin Moo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and [unreadable]-secretase results in the liberation of A[unreadable] which is released into the extracellular space (interstitial fluid, ISF), even in normal individuals...
  49. Acquisition of a Zeiss LSM 7 MP multiphoton microscope
    Rodney L Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is increasingly used as a tool to quickly deliver calcium and other substances intracellularly or in the extracellular space with great precision in time, location and volume...
  50. Quantitation of Simultaneous Hydrogen Peroxide and Dopamine Dynamics In Vivo
    Leslie A Sombers; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because H2O2 serves these distinct biological roles, H2O2 concentrations likely rise and fall in the extracellular space with precise spatial and temporal resolution, such that functional levels can be achieved for signaling ..
  51. Beclin 1 Neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's Disease
    Tony Wyss-Coray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice, a model for AD, results in increased accumulation of fragments of APP and AB in cells and in the extracellular space and was associated with increased inflammation...
  52. Kappa-Opioid Receptor Mediated Regulation of Dopamine Transport
    Sammanda Ramamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The dopamine transporter (DAT), a membrane protein that clears dopamine (DA) released into the extracellular space is a target of clinically used antidepressants and several drugs of abuse...
  53. Environmental Toxicants and Neurodegeneration
    Kim Tieu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal is to assess how the release of MPP+ from astrocytes (v/a OCT3) into the extracellular space would subsequently induce selective death in the nigral dopaminergic neurons...
  54. GABA transporter type 1 (GAT1) function in epilepsy
    ..2001). Classically, GABA transporters were thought to function by removing GABA from the extracellular space, thereby terminating GABA actions...
  55. Effect of Physiological Changes in Neuronal Activity AB Levels in Vivo
    ADAM WILLIAM BERO; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Data from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that synaptic activity regulates Ab levels within the extracellular space of the brain (interstitial fluid - ISF)...
  56. Novel extra cellular RNA-based combinatorial RNA inhibition therapy
    Anil K Sood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..malignant cells by enhancing their secretion as exRNAs or blocking suppressor microRNAs'delivery in extracellular space by blocking secretion mechanisms...
  57. SiRNA therapeutics: Gap junction delivery in vitro and in vivo
    Richard T Mathias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..intracellular compartments of coupled cells and allow transfer of small molecules without entry into the extracellular space. We have already established that cells that make connexins (the building block of gap junctions) can ..
  58. Regional, Synpatic, Cellular Modulation of Abeta Metabolism
    David M Holtzman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have found that synaptic activity is dynamically coupled with the release of the Abeta peptide in the extracellular space of the brain...
  59. Glutamine Synthetase and the Mechanism of Seizures in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilep
    Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..deficiency in glutamine synthetase leads to chronic high concentrations of glutamate in astrocytes and the extracellular space of the hippocampus with particularly high glutamate levels in individuals suffering from severe seizures ..
  60. 5Lipoxygenase-mediated vasculopathy in HHcy
    Domenico Pratico; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will develop in amyloid angiopathy, which is characterized by excessive Abeta deposited also in the extracellular space of the artery wall, loss of smooth muscle cells and recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells...
  61. Optical Detection of the Pre-seizure State
    Devin K Binder; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data indicate pre-seizure constriction in brain extracellular space (ECS) accompanied by reduction in near-infrared (NIR) optical scattering prior to detection of seizure by ..
  62. Extracellular ATP in biofilm formation and wound infection
    Chuanwu Xi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..previous studies in the literature found that injured epithelial cells release large amount ATP into the extracellular space, which serves as a "danger signal" and activate host innate immunity...
    BHANU JENA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Exocytosis involves the delivery of secretory products packaged in membrane-bound vesicles to the extracellular space. Exocytosis has been recognized to be stimulable, called regulated exocytosis, and occurs constitutively without ..
    Danxia Liu; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..trauma is worsened by secondary destructive processes, including the release of toxic substances into the extracellular space by the injured cells...
  65. Mechanisms of Microglial Activation and Phagocytosis in*
    Gary Landreth; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is characterized by the extensive deposition of fibrillar forms of beta-amyloid (AB) peptides into the extracellular space, and their compaction into senile plaques...
    KARL WITTRUP; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..reticulum via a process termed "quality control," ensuring that only native proteins are secreted to the extracellular space. Quality control plays a central role in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency,..
    John Shryock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..pool of A1- adenosine receptors in equilibrium with a concentration of adenosine which exceeds that in the extracellular space. Recent studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the presence of agonist-independent activity of A1-..
    Warren Lo; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The time course when the brain extracellular space increases in size as compared to when the blood-brain barrier becomes abnormally permeable; 3...
    MICHAEL FLESSNER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of convection which are potentially capable of calculating interstitial pressure forces, changes in the extracellular space, flow rates within the interstitium, and the solvent drag effect on solutes...
  70. Endogenous GABAergic Activity
    Istvan Mody; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..that is most likely generated by extrasynaptic receptors activated by ambient GABA present in the extracellular space. The central hypothesis to be tested is as follows: tonic and phasic GABAergic inhibition are separately ..