cytotoxic t lymphocytes

Summary

Summary: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma
    P van der Bruggen
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels, Belgium
    Science 254:1643-7. 1991
  2. ncbi Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly impaired in perforin-deficient mice
    D Kagi
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 369:31-7. 1994
  3. ncbi Distinct effects of T-bet in TH1 lineage commitment and IFN-gamma production in CD4 and CD8 T cells
    Susanne J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 295:338-42. 2002
  4. ncbi Help for cytotoxic-T-cell responses is mediated by CD40 signalling
    S R Bennett
    Immunology Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, PO The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Nature 393:478-80. 1998
  5. pmc Cytotoxic T lymphocytes established by seasonal human influenza cross-react against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus
    Wenwei Tu
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Room L7 58, 7 F Laboratory Block, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong
    J Virol 84:6527-35. 2010
  6. ncbi Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the formation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but not activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes or natural killer cells
    Ida Rasmusson
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Transplantation 76:1208-13. 2003
  7. ncbi Evolutionary and immunological implications of contemporary HIV-1 variation
    B Korber
    Division of Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 98545, USA
    Br Med Bull 58:19-42. 2001
  8. ncbi The Fas death factor
    S Nagata
    Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan
    Science 267:1449-56. 1995
  9. ncbi Epidermal viral immunity induced by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells but not by Langerhans cells
    Rhys S Allan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Science 301:1925-8. 2003
  10. pmc Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes
    Hung T Khong
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:999-1005. 2002

Detail Information

Publications340 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma
    P van der Bruggen
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels, Belgium
    Science 254:1643-7. 1991
    ..Thus, precisely targeted immunotherapy directed against antigen MZ2-E could be provided to individuals identified by HLA typing and analysis of the RNA of a small tumor sample...
  2. ncbi Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly impaired in perforin-deficient mice
    D Kagi
    Department of Pathology, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Nature 369:31-7. 1994
    ..The mice fail to clear lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and they eliminate fibrosarcoma tumour cells with reduced efficiency. Perforin is therefore a key effector molecule for T-cell- and natural killer-cell-mediated cytolysis...
  3. ncbi Distinct effects of T-bet in TH1 lineage commitment and IFN-gamma production in CD4 and CD8 T cells
    Susanne J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 295:338-42. 2002
    ..This difference is also apparent in the function of these cell subsets. Thus, the regulation of a single cytokine, IFN-gamma, is controlled by distinct transcriptional mechanisms within the T cell lineage...
  4. ncbi Help for cytotoxic-T-cell responses is mediated by CD40 signalling
    S R Bennett
    Immunology Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, PO The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Nature 393:478-80. 1998
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which carry the CD8 antigen recognize antigens that are presented on target cells by the class I major histocompatibility complex...
  5. pmc Cytotoxic T lymphocytes established by seasonal human influenza cross-react against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus
    Wenwei Tu
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Room L7 58, 7 F Laboratory Block, Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong
    J Virol 84:6527-35. 2010
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that the bulk memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) established by seasonal influenza viruses from healthy individuals who have not been exposed to ..
  6. ncbi Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the formation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but not activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes or natural killer cells
    Ida Rasmusson
    Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Transplantation 76:1208-13. 2003
    ..There are no publications on the effect that MSCs have on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells vital for the graft-versus-leukemia effect.
  7. ncbi Evolutionary and immunological implications of contemporary HIV-1 variation
    B Korber
    Division of Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 98545, USA
    Br Med Bull 58:19-42. 2001
    ..The impact of HIV-1 variation on host immune response is reviewed in this context...
  8. ncbi The Fas death factor
    S Nagata
    Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan
    Science 267:1449-56. 1995
    ..Malfunction of the Fas system causes lymphoproliferative disorders and accelerates autoimmune diseases, whereas its exacerbation may cause tissue destruction...
  9. ncbi Epidermal viral immunity induced by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells but not by Langerhans cells
    Rhys S Allan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Science 301:1925-8. 2003
    ..infection of murine epidermis by herpes simplex virus did not result in the priming of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by Langerhans cells. Rather, the priming response required a distinct CD8alpha+ dendritic cell subset...
  10. pmc Natural selection of tumor variants in the generation of "tumor escape" phenotypes
    Hung T Khong
    National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:999-1005. 2002
    ..Tumor escape variants are likely to emerge after treatment with increasingly effective immunotherapies...
  11. ncbi A conditioned dendritic cell can be a temporal bridge between a CD4+ T-helper and a T-killer cell
    J P Ridge
    Ghost Lab, Section on T cell Tolerance and Memory, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, NIAID NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 393:474-8. 1998
    ....
  12. ncbi Sublethal irradiation of human tumor cells modulates phenotype resulting in enhanced killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Charlie T Garnett
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1750, USA
    Cancer Res 64:7985-94. 2004
    ....
  13. ncbi A prospective study demonstrates an association between JC virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the early control of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Renaud A Du Pasquier
    Division of ViralPathogenesis Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Brain 127:1970-8. 2004
    ..In previous studies, we showed that JCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (JCV-specific CTL) were associated with a favourable outcome in patients with PML...
  14. ncbi Vaccination with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells elicits antigen-specific, cytotoxic T-cells in patients with malignant glioma
    John S Yu
    Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8631 West Third Street, Suite 800E, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
    Cancer Res 64:4973-9. 2004
    ..We demonstrate for the first time the ability of an active immunotherapy strategy to generate antigen-specific cytotoxicity in brain tumor patients...
  15. ncbi Idiotype-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in multiple myeloma: evidence for their capacity to lyse autologous primary tumor cells
    Y J Wen
    Myeloma and Transplantation Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Blood 97:1750-5. 2001
    ..Taken together, these findings represent the first demonstration that Id-specific CTLs are able to lyse autologous tumor cells in MM and, thus, provide a rationale for Id-based immunotherapy in the disease...
  16. pmc JC virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in individuals with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    I J Koralnik
    Department of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:3483-7. 2001
    ..These cells were therefore cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  17. ncbi Cross-presentation: underlying mechanisms and role in immune surveillance
    Kenneth L Rock
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Immunol Rev 207:166-83. 2005
    ..In addition to the critical role of cross-presentation in normal immune physiology, this pathway has considerable potential for being exploited for developing subunit vaccines that elicit both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell immunity...
  18. ncbi Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus
    S Cooper
    Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5400, USA
    Immunity 10:439-49. 1999
    ..Every specificity shown during acute hepatitis persisted in normal liver tissue more than 1 yr after resolution. These results suggest that CD8+CTL are better correlated with protection against HCV infection than antibodies...
  19. ncbi DNAM-1, a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes
    A Shibuya
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Human Immunology, Palo Alto, California 94304 1104, USA
    Immunity 4:573-81. 1996
    ..In addition, DNAM-1 is a tyrosine-phosphorylated signal-transducing molecule that participates in primary adhesion during cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity...
  20. ncbi CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes
    Edith M Janssen
    Division of Cellular Immunology and Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    Nature 421:852-6. 2003
    ..Our results demonstrate that T-cell help is 'programmed' into CD8+ T cells during priming, conferring on these cells a hallmark of immune response memory: the capacity for functional expansion on re-encounter with antigen...
  21. ncbi T cell receptor recognition of a 'super-bulged' major histocompatibility complex class I-bound peptide
    Fleur E Tynan
    The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nat Immunol 6:1114-22. 2005
    ..Thus our findings simultaneously demonstrate the considerable adaptability of the TCR and the 'shape' of MHC restriction...
  22. ncbi Melanoma cell expression of Fas(Apo-1/CD95) ligand: implications for tumor immune escape
    M Hahne
    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, CH 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Science 274:1363-6. 1996
    ..In contrast, tumorigenesis was delayed in Fas-deficient lpr mutant mice in which immune effector cells cannot be killed by FasL. Thus, FasL may contribute to the immune privilege of tumors...
  23. doi Role of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the control of viral diseases and cancer
    Debora Martorelli
    Cancer Bioimmunotherapy Unit, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, IRCCS National Cancer Institute, Aviano PN, Italy
    Int Rev Immunol 29:371-402. 2010
    ..This review summarizes available data supporting the functional and therapeutic relevance of cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells, with a particular focus on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disorders...
  24. ncbi Perforin gene defects in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
    S E Stepp
    Department of Pathology and the Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
    Science 286:1957-9. 1999
    ..Thus, defects in perforin are responsible for 10q21-22-linked FHL. Perforin-based effector systems are, therefore, involved not only in the lysis of abnormal cells but also in the down-regulation of cellular immune activation...
  25. ncbi Reversible HLA multimers (Streptamers) for the isolation of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes functionally active against tumor- and virus-derived antigens
    Julia Neudorfer
    Department of Hematology Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Germany
    J Immunol Methods 320:119-31. 2007
    ....
  26. pmc Structural and functional constraints limit options for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape in the immunodominant HLA-B27-restricted epitope in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid
    Arne Schneidewind
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 82:5594-605. 2008
    ....
  27. ncbi A structural basis for the selection of dominant alphabeta T cell receptors in antiviral immunity
    Lars Kjer-Nielsen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Immunity 18:53-64. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that TCR immunodominance is associated with structural properties conferring receptor specificity and suggest a novel structural link between TCR ligation and intracellular signaling...
  28. ncbi Cell therapy of stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma with autologous Epstein-Barr virus-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Patrizia Comoli
    Laboratorio di Ricerca Area Trapianti e Oncoematologia Pediatrica, IRCCS Policlinico S Matteo, V le Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia, Italy
    J Clin Oncol 23:8942-9. 2005
    ..We conducted a clinical trial of EBV-targeted cell therapy with autologous virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for NPC refractory to conventional treatments.
  29. pmc Distinct migrating and nonmigrating dendritic cell populations are involved in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation after lung infection with virus
    Gabrielle T Belz
    Division of Immunology, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8670-5. 2004
    ..Presentation by a nonairway-derived DC population argues that cytotoxic T lymphocyte priming may involve interplay between different DC subsets, not all of which originate within the site of infection...
  30. ncbi In vivo high resolution three-dimensional imaging of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte trafficking to tumors
    Moritz F Kircher
    Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Cancer Res 63:6838-46. 2003
    ..CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes labeled with CLIO-HD were detectable via MRI with a detection threshold of 2 cells/voxel in vitro and ..
  31. ncbi Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in autoimmune and degenerative CNS diseases
    Harald Neumann
    Neuroimmunology Unit, European Neuroscience Institute Göttingen, Waldweg 33, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    Trends Neurosci 25:313-9. 2002
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with a CD8(+) phenotype have the potential to recognize and attack major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-expressing brain cells...
  32. ncbi HIV-1 viral escape in infancy followed by emergence of a variant-specific CTL response
    Margaret E Feeney
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Immunol 174:7524-30. 2005
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that the developing immune system of children may exhibit greater plasticity in responding to a continually evolving chronic viral infection...
  33. ncbi Differential T cell costimulatory requirements in CD28-deficient mice
    A Shahinian
    Department of Medical Biophysics and Immunology, University of Toronto, Canada
    Science 261:609-12. 1993
    ..Thus, CD28 is not required for all T cell responses in vivo, suggesting that alternative costimulatory pathways may exist...
  34. ncbi Regulatory T cells reversibly suppress cytotoxic T cell function independent of effector differentiation
    Thorsten R Mempel
    CBR Institute for Biomedical Research and Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 25:129-41. 2006
    ..using multiphoton intravital microscopy in lymph nodes (LNs) of anesthetized mice, we have analyzed how cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) interact with antigen-presenting target cells in the presence or absence of activated T(reg) cells...
  35. ncbi Phase I study of adoptive T-cell therapy using antigen-specific CD8+ T cells for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma
    Andreas Mackensen
    Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Regensburg, Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, D 93042 Regensburg, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 24:5060-9. 2006
    The adoptive transfer of in vitro generated tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) provides a promising approach to the immunotherapy of cancer...
  36. doi Prospects for an influenza vaccine that induces cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Lorena E Brown
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 87:300-8. 2009
    ..and those with the potential to cause a pandemic share amino acid sequences that form the targets of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  37. doi Adenovirus-based vaccines generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to epitopes of NS1 from dengue virus that are present in all major serotypes
    Guangping Gao
    Vaccine Research Institute, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, China
    Hum Gene Ther 19:927-36. 2008
    ....
  38. pmc Cytotoxic T lymphocytes directed to the preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) target chronic myeloid leukemia
    Concetta Quintarelli
    Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital and Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Blood 112:1876-85. 2008
    ..We therefore tested whether functional PRAME-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (PRAME CTLs) could be generated and expanded from healthy donors and CML patients, or whether the limited ..
  39. ncbi T-cell help for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is mediated by CD40-CD40L interactions
    S P Schoenberger
    Department of Immunohematology and Blood Bank, University Hospital Leiden, The Netherlands
    Nature 393:480-3. 1998
    Although in vivo priming of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generally requires the participation of CD4+ T-helper lymphocytes, the nature of the 'help' provided to CTLs is unknown...
  40. ncbi Cytotoxic lymphocytes; instigators of dramatic target cell death
    Nigel J Waterhouse
    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Locked Bag 1, A Beckett St, Melbourne, VIC 8006, Australia
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:1033-40. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi Secretory cytotoxic granule maturation and exocytosis require the effector protein hMunc13-4
    Mickaël M Ménager
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 768, Laboratoire du Développement Normal et Pathologique du Système Immunitaire, Paris F 75015 France
    Nat Immunol 8:257-67. 2007
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells exert their cytotoxic activity through the polarized secretion of cytotoxic granules at the immunological synapse...
  42. ncbi HLA-A2 and -A24-restricted glypican-3-derived peptide vaccine induces specific CTLs: preclinical study using mice
    Yutaka Motomura
    Cancer Immunotherapy Project, Investigative Treatment Division, Research Center for Innovative Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa 277 8577, Japan
    Int J Oncol 32:985-90. 2008
    ..The results of this study suggested that IFA is one of the indispensable adjuvants for peptide-based immunotherapy, and that the immunological effect of peptide vaccines depends on the dose of peptide injected...
  43. ncbi Cytotoxic lymphocytes require granzyme B for the rapid induction of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in allogeneic target cells
    J W Heusel
    Department of Medicine, Jewish Hospital, St Louis, Missouri 63110
    Cell 76:977-87. 1994
    ..Gzm B-/- mice develop normally and have normal hematopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. In vitro, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) derived from gzm B-/- animals are able to induce 51Cr release from allotarget cells, but with ..
  44. ncbi HLA-A*26, HLA-B*4002, HLA-B*4006, and HLA-B*4801 alleles predispose to adult T cell leukemia: the limited recognition of HTLV type 1 tax peptide anchor motifs and epitopes to generate anti-HTLV type 1 tax CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    S Yashiki
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890 8520, Japan
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:1047-61. 2001
    ..anchor motifs of HTLV-1 peptides binding to HLA class I molecules, using 291 lines of anti-HTLV-1 CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro with a total of 165 synthetic peptides for HTLV-1 Tax and Env proteins...
  45. ncbi Circulating donor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes with high avidity for donor human leukocyte antigens in pediatric and adult cardiac allograft valved conduit recipients
    F B Oei
    Departments of Thoracic Surgery, Internal Medicine I and Heart Valve Bank Rotterdam, Room BD158, University Hospital Rotterdam, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA, The, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 18:466-72. 2000
    ..Rejection of heart and corneal allografts is preceded by an increase in the fraction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with high avidity for donor human leukocyte antigens (HLA) circulating in both peripheral blood and ..
  46. pmc Generation of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes resistant to the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus (FK506)
    Biagio De Angelis
    Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital and Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Blood 114:4784-91. 2009
    Adoptive transfer of autologous Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (EBV-CTLs) to solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients has been shown safe and effective for the treatment of EBV-associated posttransplantation ..
  47. ncbi Characterization of an antigen that is recognized on a melanoma showing partial HLA loss by CTL expressing an NK inhibitory receptor
    H Ikeda
    Cellular Genetics Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Immunity 6:199-208. 1997
    ....
  48. ncbi Highly efficient gene delivery by mRNA electroporation in human hematopoietic cells: superiority to lipofection and passive pulsing of mRNA and to electroporation of plasmid cDNA for tumor antigen loading of dendritic cells
    V F Van Tendeloo
    Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Blood 98:49-56. 2001
    ..Therefore, electroporation of mRNA-encoding tumor antigens is a powerful technique to charge human dendritic cells with tumor antigens and could serve applications in future DC-based tumor vaccines...
  49. ncbi Tumor lysate-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in multiple myeloma: promising effector cells for immunotherapy
    Yue Jin Wen
    Myeloma and Transplantation Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Little Rock 72205, USA
    Blood 99:3280-5. 2002
    ..immunotherapy, the current study was undertaken to generate and examine the function of myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by using dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with myeloma cell lysates as stimulating cells...
  50. ncbi Ex vivo induction of multiple myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Toshiaki Hayashi
    Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Blood 102:1435-42. 2003
    ..sera inhibiting autologous anti-MM immunity and developed an ex vivo strategy for inducing MM-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
  51. pmc HV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and breast milk HIV-1 transmission
    Grace C John-Stewart
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
    J Infect Dis 199:889-98. 2009
    ....
  52. ncbi Induction of HM1.24 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by using peripheral-blood stem-cell harvests in patients with multiple myeloma
    Ali Jalili
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Sciences, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Japan
    Blood 106:3538-45. 2005
    ..The ability of these peptides to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was examined in 20 healthy donors and 6 patients with MM by a reverse immunologic approach...
  53. pmc Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) virus-like particle L1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are equally effective as E7-specific CD8+ CTLs in killing autologous HPV-16-positive tumor cells in cervical cancer patients: implications for L1 den
    Stefania Bellone
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8063, USA
    J Virol 83:6779-89. 2009
    ..expressed strong cytolytic activity against autologous tumor cells and were as effective as E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in lysing naturally HPV-16-infected autologous tumor cells...
  54. ncbi Intratumoral balance of regulatory and cytotoxic T cells is associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection
    Qiang Gao
    Liver Cancer Institute, Zhong Shan Hospital and Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, the Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    J Clin Oncol 25:2586-93. 2007
    ..To investigate the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after resection...
  55. ncbi The generation and characterization of LMP2-specific CTLs for use as adoptive transfer from patients with relapsed EBV-positive Hodgkin disease
    Catherine M Bollard
    Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, The Methodist Hospital and Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Immunother 27:317-27. 2004
    ..The authors aimed to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from patients with relapsed HD by specifically targeting LMP2A...
  56. ncbi TGF-beta directly targets cytotoxic T cell functions during tumor evasion of immune surveillance
    Dori A Thomas
    Cancer Biology and Genetics Program and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Cancer Cell 8:369-80. 2005
    ..We demonstrate that TGF-beta acts on cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to specifically inhibit the expression of five cytolytic gene products-namely, perforin, granzyme ..
  57. pmc Identification of a gag-encoded cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope from FBL-3 leukemia shared by Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher murine leukemia virus-induced tumors
    W Chen
    Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA
    J Virol 70:7773-82. 1996
    ..Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with FBL-3 readily elicits CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of lysing FBL-3 as well as syngeneic leukemias induced by Moloney and Rauscher MuLV...
  58. ncbi Direct link between mhc polymorphism, T cell avidity, and diversity in immune defense
    Ilhem Messaoudi
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute and the Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Science 298:1797-800. 2002
    ..Thus, much of the beneficial effect of the mhc polymorphism in immune defense may be due to its critical influence on the properties of the selected CTL repertoire...
  59. ncbi Centrosome polarization delivers secretory granules to the immunological synapse
    Jane C Stinchcombe
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nature 443:462-5. 2006
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy virally infected and tumorigenic cells by releasing the contents of specialized secretory lysosomes--termed 'lytic granules'--at the immunological synapse formed between the CTL and the target...
  60. ncbi Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by improving endogenous dendritic cell function
    D I Gabrilovich
    Department of Medicine and The Vanderbilt Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 6838, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 5:2963-70. 1999
    ..This effect was associated with the induction of significant anti-p53 CTL responses only in this group of mice. These data suggest that inhibition of VEGF may be a valuable adjuvant in the immunotherapy of cancer...
  61. ncbi Two distinct pathways of specific killing revealed by perforin mutant cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    H Kojima
    Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Immunity 1:357-64. 1994
    ..the contribution of putative perforin-independent mechanism in the antigen-specific target destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes CD8+ CTL lines were established from spleen cells of chimeric mice produced by injecting perforin (-/-) ..
  62. ncbi Virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with type 1 or type 2 cytokine profile are related to different disease activity in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
    C Prezzi
    Fondazione Andrea Cesalpino, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, , Rome, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 31:894-906. 2001
    ....
  63. ncbi Evidence of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA-restricted immune responses at a population level
    Corey B Moore
    Centre for Clinical Immunology and Biomedical Statistics, Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Level 2 North Block, Royal Perth Hospital, Wellington Street, WA 6000, Australia
    Science 296:1439-43. 2002
    ..At a population level, the degree of HLA-associated selection in viral sequence was predictive of viral load. These results support a fundamental role for HLA-restricted immune responses in driving and shaping HIV-1 evolution in vivo...
  64. ncbi Assessment of the extent of variation in influenza A virus cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes by using virus-specific CD8+ T-cell clones
    E G M Berkhoff
    Department of Virology and Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Gen Virol 88:530-5. 2007
    ..6 % of all CTL clones. For some of these CTL clones, the minimal epitope and the residues responsible for abrogation of T-cell recognition were identified...
  65. pmc Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection
    S Balkow
    Max Planck Institut fur Immunbiologie, 79108 Freiburg, Universitat Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Virol 75:8781-91. 2001
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a major role in the recovery from primary viral infections and the accompanying tissue injuries...
  66. ncbi Antilung cancer effect of WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Masanori Makita
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime 791 0295, Japan
    Clin Cancer Res 8:2626-31. 2002
    ..These findings strongly suggest that WT1 is a universal tumor-associated antigen and that WT1-targeting immunotherapy offers a potentially effective treatment option for lung cancer as well as leukemia...
  67. ncbi The HLA-A,B "negative" mutant cell line C1R expresses a novel HLA-B35 allele, which also has a point mutation in the translation initiation codon
    J Zemmour
    Department of Cell Biology, Stanford University, CA 94305 5400
    J Immunol 148:1941-8. 1992
    ....
  68. ncbi Mouse homologue of a novel human oncofetal antigen, glypican-3, evokes T-cell-mediated tumor rejection without autoimmune reactions in mice
    Tetsuya Nakatsura
    Department of Immunogenetics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Clin Cancer Res 10:8630-40. 2004
    ..In this study, we attempted to identify a mouse GPC3 epitope for CTLs in BALB/c mice, and for this, we set up a preclinical study to investigate the usefulness of GPC3 as a target for cancer immunotherapy in vivo...
  69. pmc High frequency of antitumor T cells in the blood of melanoma patients before and after vaccination with tumor antigens
    Catherine Germeau
    Cellular Genetics Unit, Universite de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Exp Med 201:241-8. 2005
    ..Lurquin, C., B. Lethe, V. Corbiere, I. Theate, N. van Baren, P.G. Coulie, and T. Boon. 2004. J. Exp. Med. 201:249-257)...
  70. pmc Tumors induce a subset of inflammatory monocytes with immunosuppressive activity on CD8+ T cells
    Giovanna Gallina
    Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padua, Italy
    J Clin Invest 116:2777-90. 2006
    ..Moreover, our data show how the inflammatory response elicited by tumors had detrimental effects on the adaptive immune system and suggest novel approaches for the treatment of tumor-induced immune dysfunctions...
  71. ncbi Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 283:857-60. 1999
    ..These results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses...
  72. pmc Portable flanking sequences modulate CTL epitope processing
    Sylvie Le Gall
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital MGH, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:3563-75. 2007
    ..Such portable epitope processing determinants provide what we believe is a novel approach to optimizing CTL responses elicited by vaccine vectors...
  73. ncbi Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the beta chain of the interleukin-2 receptor
    K H Grabstein
    Immunex Research and Development Corporation, Seattle, WA 98101
    Science 264:965-8. 1994
    ..Monoclonal antibodies to the beta chain of the IL-2 receptor inhibited the biological activity of IL-15, and IL-15 competed for binding with IL-2, indicating that IL-15 uses components of the IL-2 receptor...
  74. ncbi Plasma cells from multiple myeloma patients express B7-H1 (PD-L1) and increase expression after stimulation with IFN-{gamma} and TLR ligands via a MyD88-, TRAF6-, and MEK-dependent pathway
    Jizhong Liu
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 837, Institut de Recherche sur le Cancer de Lille, France
    Blood 110:296-304. 2007
    ..MM plasma cells stimulated with IFN-gamma or TLR ligands inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generation and this immunosuppressive effect was inhibited by preincubation with an anti-B7-H1 ..
  75. pmc Estimation of the rate of killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo
    Roland R Regoes
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1599-603. 2007
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) help control virus infections by killing virus-infected (target) cells...
  76. pmc Noninvasive detection of therapeutic cytolytic T cells with 18F-FHBG PET in a patient with glioma
    Shahriar S Yaghoubi
    Multimodality Molecular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiology and Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Oncol 6:53-8. 2009
    ....
  77. pmc Blocking chemokine responsive to gamma-2/interferon (IFN)-gamma inducible protein and monokine induced by IFN-gamma activity in vivo reduces the pathogenetic but not the antiviral potential of hepatitis B virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    K Kakimi
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1755-66. 2001
    ..mice that replicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) at high levels in the liver as recipients of HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we showed that the chemokines responsive to gamma-2/IFN-gamma inducible protein ([Crg2]IP-10) and ..
  78. ncbi Adoptive cellular therapy for early cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation with virus-specific T-cell lines
    Karl S Peggs
    Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Lancet 362:1375-7. 2003
    ..Massive in-vivo expansions of CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were observed, resulting in reconstitution of viral immunity...
  79. ncbi Control of viremia and prevention of clinical AIDS in rhesus monkeys by cytokine-augmented DNA vaccination
    D H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 290:486-92. 2000
    With accumulating evidence indicating the importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in containing human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication in infected individuals, strategies are being pursued to elicit virus-specific CTLs ..
  80. pmc Immune escape of tumors in vivo by expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein
    J P Medema
    Department of Immunohematology and Bloodbank, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333AA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Exp Med 190:1033-8. 1999
    ....
  81. ncbi Increased CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells
    Y M Mueller
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, MCP Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19129, USA
    Immunity 15:871-82. 2001
    ..Our data suggest that the survival and differentiation of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells may be compromised by CD95/Fas apoptosis induced by FasL-expressing HIV-infected cells...
  82. ncbi The role of the proteasome in generating cytotoxic T-cell epitopes: insights obtained from improved predictions of proteasomal cleavage
    Morten Nielsen
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, BioCentrum DTU, Building 208, 2800, Lyngby, Denmark
    Immunogenetics 57:33-41. 2005
    ..e., the specificity of TAP has evolved to fit the specificity of the proteasome. This evolutionary relationship allows for a more efficient antigen presentation...
  83. pmc Critical role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in immune clearance of rickettsial infection
    D H Walker
    Department of Pathology and WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Infect Immun 69:1841-6. 2001
    ..CTLs appear to be crucial to recovery from rickettsial infection...
  84. pmc Theileria parva candidate vaccine antigens recognized by immune bovine cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Simon P Graham
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3286-91. 2006
    ..Schizont-infected cell-directed CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) constitute the dominant protective bovine immune response after a single exposure to infection...
  85. doi Human and mouse granzyme A induce a proinflammatory cytokine response
    Sunil S Metkar
    Department of Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem Research Institute, Evanston, IL 60201, USA
    Immunity 29:720-33. 2008
    ..Moreover, murine GzmA and GzmA(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) induce IL-1beta from primary mouse macrophages, and GzmA(-/-) mice resist lipopolysaccharide-..
  86. ncbi A role for the proteasome regulator PA28alpha in antigen presentation
    M Groettrup
    Institute for Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Nature 381:166-8. 1996
    ..These results demonstrate a fundamental in vivo function for PA28alpha in antigen processing...
  87. ncbi The role of CD4(+) T helper cells in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to HIV-1
    M Altfeld
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02114, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 12:375-80. 2000
    ....
  88. pmc Apoptotic pathways are selectively activated by granzyme A and/or granzyme B in CTL-mediated target cell lysis
    Julian Pardo
    Departmento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad de Zaragoza, E 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
    J Cell Biol 167:457-68. 2004
    ..The ability of gzmA and gzmB to induce multiple independent cell death pathways may be the hosts response to circumvent evasion strategies of pathogens and tumors...
  89. ncbi Cytokine production and cytolytic mechanism of CD4(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes in ex vivo expanded therapeutic Epstein-Barr virus-specific T-cell cultures
    Qi Sun
    Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
    Blood 99:3302-9. 2002
    ..A and ethyleneglycotetraacetic acid, which inhibit cytotoxicity by granule exocytosis, the CD4(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) did not express perforin, suggesting a cytotoxic mechanism independent of perforin although ..
  90. ncbi Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion
    Haidong Dong
    Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Nat Med 8:793-800. 2002
    ..These findings have implications for the design of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy...
  91. ncbi Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57
    Geraldine M A Gillespie
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    AIDS 16:961-72. 2002
    ....
  92. pmc Lentiviral vectors encoding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell receptor genes efficiently convert peripheral blood CD8 T lymphocytes into cytotoxic T lymphocytes with potent in vitro and in vivo HIV-1-specific inhibitory activity
    Aviva Joseph
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Forchheimer Building, Room 408, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Virol 82:3078-89. 2008
    ....
  93. doi Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance
    Stefan Tenzer
    Institute of Immunology, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany
    Nat Immunol 10:636-46. 2009
    Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can potentially target multiple virus epitopes, the same few are recognized repeatedly...
  94. ncbi Functional significance of the perforin/granzyme cell death pathway
    Joseph A Trapani
    Cancer Immunology Laboratory, Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Locked Bag 1, A Beckett Street, Melbourne 8006, Australia
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:735-47. 2002
    ....
  95. ncbi Effector and memory CTL differentiation
    Matthew A Williams
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:171-92. 2007
    ..models have all facilitated more precise and definitive analyses of the generation and function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  96. doi Toward an AIDS vaccine
    Bruce D Walker
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Science 320:760-4. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi Characterization of CD4(+) CTLs ex vivo
    Victor Appay
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 168:5954-8. 2002
    ..The existence of CD4(+) cytotoxic T cells in vivo at relatively high levels in chronic viral infection suggests a role in the immune response...
  98. pmc In vivo depletion of CD11c+ dendritic cells abrogates priming of CD8+ T cells by exogenous cell-associated antigens
    Steffen Jung
    Molecular Pathogenesis Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
    Immunity 17:211-20. 2002
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) respond to antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules. On most cells, these peptides are exclusively of endogenous, cytosolic origin...
  99. pmc Protective immunity does not correlate with the hierarchy of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses to naturally processed peptides
    A Gallimore
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 187:1647-57. 1998
    ..This report, therefore, indicates that immunodominant epitopes should be defined, not only by the strength of the CTL response that they stimulate, but also by the ability of the CTLs to protect against infection...
  100. pmc Contrasting frequencies of antitumor and anti-vaccine T cells in metastases of a melanoma patient vaccinated with a MAGE tumor antigen
    Christophe Lurquin
    Cellular Genetics Unit, Universite de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    J Exp Med 201:249-57. 2005
    ..Naive T cells appear to be stimulated in the course of this process as new antitumor clonotypes arise after vaccination...
  101. pmc Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade
    Yoshiko Iwai
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12293-7. 2002
    ....

Research Grants92

  1. Personalized Clinical Diagnostics and Beyond: Integrated Ring Resonator Arrays
    Ryan Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This technology promises to broadly impact the landscape of the biomedical sciences, both meeting the clinical diagnostic challenges of today and pioneering the paradigm-shifting discoveries of tomorrow. ..
  2. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Several studies have shown that strong CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses may be elicited by infection or vaccine candidates, which may correlate with marginal ..
  3. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Several studies have shown that strong CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses may be elicited by infection or vaccine candidates, which may correlate with marginal ..
  4. Prevention of Acute Lung Injury by IL-6 activated STAT3
    Ana Moran; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  5. Identification of biomarkers of fatty acid intake
    Hannia Campos; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..toxicity, and efficacy of treating patients with relapsed follicular lymphomas with autologous CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which have been genetically modified to express a chimeric T cell receptor recognizing the CD20 ..
  6. Identification of biomarkers of fatty acid intake
    Hannia Campos; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..toxicity, and efficacy of treating patients with relapsed follicular lymphomas with autologous CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which have been genetically modified to express a chimeric T cell receptor recognizing the CD20 ..
  7. Synergistic vaccine adjuvants that stimulate both innate and adaptive immunities
    Chandrashekhar Pasare; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies with HIV-1 model vaccines indicate that a favorable immune protection would entail besides cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunity...
  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MURINE COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    JOHN WEIS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..participate in immune and inflammatory responses [including mast cells, basophils, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets] store a unique family of proteoglycans in an ..
  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MURINE COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    JOHN WEIS; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..participate in immune and inflammatory responses [including mast cells, basophils, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets] store a unique family of proteoglycans in an ..
  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MURINE COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS
    JOHN WEIS; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..participate in immune and inflammatory responses [including mast cells, basophils, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets] store a unique family of proteoglycans in an ..
  11. Define the role of dendritic cells in HTLV-1 associated neuroinflammatory disease
    Pooja Jain; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The progression of HAM/TSP is characterized by an intense proliferation of chronically activated CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), 90% of which are specific for the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax...
  12. Define the role of dendritic cells in HTLV-1 associated neuroinflammatory disease
    Pooja Jain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The progression of HAM/TSP is characterized by an intense proliferation of chronically activated CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), 90% of which are specific for the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax...
  13. Define the role of dendritic cells in HTLV-1 associated neuroinflammatory disease
    Pooja Jain; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The progression of HAM/TSP is characterized by an intense proliferation of chronically activated CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), 90% of which are specific for the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax...
  14. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the Applicant's Abstract): The objectives of this proposal are to determine the mechanisms of deficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ CTL) activity against influenza virus among elderly persons and how this deficiency can be ..
  15. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the Applicant's Abstract): The objectives of this proposal are to determine the mechanisms of deficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ CTL) activity against influenza virus among elderly persons and how this deficiency can be ..
  16. TH1 CYTOKINES AND IMPAIRED CD8* CTLS IN ELDERLY
    Innocent Mbawuike; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..the Applicant's Abstract): The objectives of this proposal are to determine the mechanisms of deficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ CTL) activity against influenza virus among elderly persons and how this deficiency can be ..
  17. EPITOPES RECOGNIZED BY CTL FROM EIAV CARRIER HORSES
    SHERITTA RIDGELY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD8+, class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in carrier horses and the ability of identified epitopes to induce protective immunity in horses will be ..
  18. EPITOPES RECOGNIZED BY CTL FROM EIAV CARRIER HORSES
    SHERITTA RIDGELY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD8+, class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in carrier horses and the ability of identified epitopes to induce protective immunity in horses will be ..
  19. SECRETORY GRANULE PROTEOGLYCANS AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY
    Richard Stevens; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..participate in immune and inflammatory responses [including mast cell, basophils, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets] store a unique family of proteoglycans in an ..
  20. PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC MICE
    FRANCIS CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We recently proved that viral hepatitis has an immunologocal basis by showing that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) cause acute hepatitis when injected into HBV transgenic mice...
  21. PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC MICE
    FRANCIS CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We recently proved that viral hepatitis has an immunologocal basis by showing that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) cause acute hepatitis when injected into HBV transgenic mice...
  22. PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC MICE
    FRANCIS CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We recently proved that viral hepatitis has an immunologocal basis by showing that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) cause acute hepatitis when injected into HBV transgenic mice...
  23. PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC MICE
    FRANCIS CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We recently proved that viral hepatitis has an immunologocal basis by showing that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) cause acute hepatitis when injected into HBV transgenic mice...
  24. PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS IN TRANSGENIC MICE
    FRANCIS CHISARI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We recently proved that viral hepatitis has an immunologocal basis by showing that HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) cause acute hepatitis when injected into HBV transgenic mice...
  25. Differentiation of Glioma from Radiation Injury Using Cellular MRI
    Syed Ali; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This magnetic labeling technique will also help investigators to track the injected CTL in the body as well as in the targeted areas by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Engineered tumor-specific T cells Resist Hypoxic-Tumor Immunosuppressive Attacks.
    Patricia Yotnda; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a promising therapy for many cancers, they often fail to eliminate tumors or to provide long-..
  27. HIV-1 Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Breastmilk
    Grace John Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Some uninfected infants born to HIV-1 infected women generate HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), suggesting viral antigenic exposure sufficient to induce immunity but not to establish infection...
  28. SEQUENCING OF CLASS I MHC PEPTIDES BY MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Robert Cotter; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..on cell surfaces by Class I MHC (multiple histocompatibility [Sic ]) molecules for recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or killer T cells...
  29. GRANZYMES AND CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTIONS
    TIMOTHY LEY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The severityof GVHD wll be analysed using histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. The Applicant also plans to determine whether granzyme- deficient NK cells are capable of normal rejection of hematopoietic stem cells. ..
  30. Immunoregulation and immunotherapy of breast cancer
    Robert Vonderheide; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize peptides derived from hTERT and survivin and kill tumors cells expressing these proteins across ..
  31. Immunoregulation and immunotherapy of breast cancer
    Robert H Vonderheide; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize peptides derived from hTERT and survivin and kill tumors cells expressing these proteins across ..
  32. Using the MHC class I cytoplasmic tail to control tumor Ag presentation by DCs
    Gregory A Lizee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Immunotherapies that utilize cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have proven effective at eradicating large tumor burdens in both animal models and human cancer patients...
  33. Adoptive Transfer of AlloCTL for Immunotherapy of Recurrent Gliomas
    Linda M Liau; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have achieved both pre-clinical and clinical success with adoptive transfer of intracavitary alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (aCTL), which are sensitized to the tumor host's human leukocyte antigens (HLA)...
  34. Adoptive Transfer of AlloCTL for Immunotherapy of Recurrent Gliomas
    Linda M Liau; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have achieved both pre-clinical and clinical success with adoptive transfer of intracavitary alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (aCTL), which are sensitized to the tumor host's human leukocyte antigens (HLA)...
  35. Genome-wide Identification of Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
    Shoudan Liang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..GVL is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that recognize the minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) derived from the genetic differences ..
  36. Genome-wide Identification of Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
    Shoudan Liang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..GVL is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that recognize the minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) derived from the genetic differences ..
  37. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION
    Bruce Walker; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been shown to be an important component of protective immunity in a number of viral infections...
  38. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION
    Bruce Walker; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been shown to be an important component of protective immunity in a number of viral infections...
  39. SPECIFIC ACTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY OF HUMAN MELANOMA
    Malcolm Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..melanoma in 20% of patients, with a median response of 17 mo, associated with a rise in precursors of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (pCTL)...
  40. New Approaches to the Biology and Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
    Elihu Estey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Achievement of these goals will be facilitated by the 240 patients seen annually at M.D. Anderson and the frequency with which these patients return for follow-up. ..
  41. New Approaches to the Biology and Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
    Elihu Estey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Achievement of these goals will be facilitated by the 240 patients seen annually at M.D. Anderson and the frequency with which these patients return for follow-up. ..
  42. New Approaches to the Biology and Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
    Elihu Estey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Achievement of these goals will be facilitated by the 240 patients seen annually at M.D. Anderson and the frequency with which these patients return for follow-up. ..
  43. New Approaches to the Biology and Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
    Hagop Kantarjian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Achievement of these goals will be facilitated by the 240 patients seen annually at M.D. Anderson and the frequency with which these patients return for follow-up. ..
  44. Regulation of nucleosome positions and transcription during CTL differentiation
    MATTHEW EUGENE PIPKIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Summary Activation of naive CD8 T cells initiates their differentiation into effector and memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that control infections and tumors using the cytotoxic proteins perforin (Prf1), granzyme B (Gzmb), ..
  45. A High-throughput Screen of Lytic Granule Exocytosis
    Adam Zweifach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Target cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is critical for the immune response to viruses and tumors, is involved in transplant rejection and contributes to autoimmune disease pathogenesis...
  46. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells...
  47. PROCESSED ANTIGEN CHARACTERIZATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Donald F Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..should make it possible to extend adoptive Tcell therapy beyond melanoma to other cancers including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, pancreatic-, colorectal-, and heptocellullar adenocarcinoma and renal cancer ..
  48. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-..
  49. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-..
  50. PROCESSED ANTIGEN CHARACTERIZATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY
    Donald Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..should make it possible to extend adoptive Tcell therapy beyond melanoma to other cancers including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, pancreatic-, colorectal-, and heptocellullar adenocarcinoma and renal cancer ..
  51. A High-throughput Screen of Lytic Granule Exocytosis
    Adam Zweifach; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Target cell killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is critical for the immune response to viruses and tumors, is involved in transplant rejection and contributes to autoimmune disease pathogenesis...
  52. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells...
  53. CHEMOKINES IN CTL FUNCTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HIV
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2001
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in host defense against viral infections, including HIV-1. Chemokines play an important role in several aspects of CTL function as CTL both produce and respond to chemokines...
  54. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2001
    Adapted from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  55. CHEMOKINES IN CTL FUNCTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HIV
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in host defense against viral infections, including HIV-1. Chemokines play an important role in several aspects of CTL function as CTL both produce and respond to chemokines...
  56. CHEMOKINES IN CTL FUNCTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HIV
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in host defense against viral infections, including HIV-1. Chemokines play an important role in several aspects of CTL function as CTL both produce and respond to chemokines...
  57. CHEMOKINES IN CTL FUNCTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HIV
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in host defense against viral infections, including HIV-1. Chemokines play an important role in several aspects of CTL function as CTL both produce and respond to chemokines...
  58. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2003
    The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells...
  59. CHEMOKINES IN CTL FUNCTION AND TRAFFICKING IN HIV
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in host defense against viral infections, including HIV-1. Chemokines play an important role in several aspects of CTL function as CTL both produce and respond to chemokines...
  60. PEPTIDE BINDING AND EXPRESSION OF MHC CLASS I MOLECULES
    David Lee; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..with MHC class I molecules to antigen-specific, MHC class I molecule-restricted T cell receptor on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL); this interaction ultimately should result in cytolysis of the presenting or target cell by CTL...
  61. HTLV Deregulation of CD40(L) in Cancer&Neurodegeneration
    Edward Harhaj; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) plays a critical role in the identification and clearance of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells...
  62. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Adapted from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  63. HIV-1 Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Breastmilk
    Grace John Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Some uninfected infants born to HIV-1 infected women generate HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), suggesting viral antigenic exposure sufficient to induce immunity but not to establish infection...
  64. T CELL IMMUNE RESPONSE TO BREAST CARCINOMA
    Timothy Eberlein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This cytolytic activity was mediated through the T cell receptor on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that bound to antigenic peptides presented by HLA-A2 molecules expressed on the tumor cells...
  65. Adipose Stem Cell Therapy for Krabbe Disease
    Bruce Bunnell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is complicated by graft versus host disease, a severe immunological disorder characterized by engrafted cytotoxic T lymphocytes destruction of host tissues including the skin epithelium, intestinal mucosa, and kidneys...
  66. Adipose Stem Cell Therapy for Krabbe Disease
    Bruce Bunnell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is complicated by graft versus host disease, a severe immunological disorder characterized by engrafted cytotoxic T lymphocytes destruction of host tissues including the skin epithelium, intestinal mucosa, and kidneys...
  67. CTL DEVELOPMENT BY L-ORNITHINE AND POLYAMINES
    Brian Susskind; Fiscal Year: 1990
    L-Ornithine has been shown to inhibit the development of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC)...
  68. SPOTTED FEVER RICKETTSIAL ANTIGENS
    David H Walker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Excellent animal models and the available human data reveal the critical importance of IFN-gamma, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and NK cells in host protective immunity against Rickettsia...
  69. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..One mechanism by which the host attempts to induce apoptosis of infected cells is through the action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Cm)...
  70. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..One mechanism by which the host attempts to induce apoptosis of infected cells is through the action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Cm)...
  71. SPOTTED FEVER RICKETTSIAL ANTIGENS
    David Walker; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Excellent animal models and the available human data reveal the critical importance of IFN-gamma, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and NK cells in host protective immunity against Rickettsia...
  72. Nanoengineered HIV-1 Vaccines Based on Tat
    RUSSELL MUMPER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Tat is efficiently processed by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I for presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  73. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..One mechanism by which the host attempts to induce apoptosis of infected cells is through the action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Cm)...
  74. Nanoengineered HIV-1 Vaccines Based on Tat
    RUSSELL MUMPER; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Tat is efficiently processed by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I for presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  75. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..One mechanism by which the host attempts to induce apoptosis of infected cells is through the action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Cm)...
  76. Inhibition of CTL killing by HSV
    KEITH JEROME; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..One mechanism by which the host attempts to induce apoptosis of infected cells is through the action of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Cm)...
  77. ANTIGENIC DETERMINENTS ON HLA-B7 AND HLA-A2
    VICTOR ENGELHARD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..to be the nature of the antigenic determinants on human MHC class molecules that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  78. ANTIGENIC DETERMINENTS ON HLA-B7 AND HLA-A2
    VICTOR ENGELHARD; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..to be the nature of the antigenic determinants on human MHC class molecules that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  79. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON HLA-B7 AND -A2
    VICTOR ENGELHARD; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..to be the nature of the antigenic determinants on human MHC class molecules that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  80. ANTIGENIC DETERMINENTS ON HLA-B7 AND HLA-A2
    VICTOR ENGELHARD; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..to be the nature of the antigenic determinants on human MHC class molecules that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  81. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON HLA-B7 AND -A2
    VICTOR ENGELHARD; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..to be the nature of the antigenic determinants on human MHC class molecules that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
  82. ROLE OF FUCOSYLTRANSEFERASE IN ANTIVIRAL CYTOTOXICITY
    MANJUNATH SWAMY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are key immune effector cells in controlling viral infections and tumors. However, their differentiation in vivo is only partially understood...
  83. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Adapted from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  84. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Adapted from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  85. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Adapted from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  86. 2009 Antigen Cross Presentation Gordon-sponsored Meeting
    Stephen Schoenberger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Background: Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) represent a critical component of the adaptive immune response against viruses, intracellular ..