th2 cells

Summary

Summary: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
  2. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:23-35. 2003
  3. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
  4. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
  5. ncbi A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment
    S J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 100:655-69. 2000
  6. doi Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
    Judith E Allen
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011
  7. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
  8. ncbi Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages
    Laurie E Harrington
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:1123-32. 2005
  9. doi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
  10. pmc IL25 elicits a multipotent progenitor cell population that promotes T(H)2 cytokine responses
    Steven A Saenz
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 464:1362-6. 2010

Research Grants

  1. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. TIM Family of Genes: Role in T Cell Immunity and Tolerance
    Vijay Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Functional cloning of S. mansoni egg-specific Th2 cells
    Markus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL10 THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL10 THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2000
  6. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 1999
  7. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 2001
  8. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 2000
  9. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence Turka; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence Turka; Fiscal Year: 2009

Detail Information

Publications336 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
  2. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:23-35. 2003
    ..In this review, I assess the evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation in the light of macrophage heterogeneity, and define its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions...
  3. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs...
  4. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
    ..Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity...
  5. ncbi A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment
    S J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 100:655-69. 2000
    ..Thus, T-bet initiates Th1 lineage development from naive Thp cells both by activating Th1 genetic programs and by repressing the opposing Th2 programs...
  6. doi Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
    Judith E Allen
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011
    ..Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity...
  7. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
    ..Finally, we show that basophils were directly activated by protease allergens and produced TH2-inducing cytokines, including interleukin 4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which are involved in TH2 differentiation in vivo...
  8. ncbi Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages
    Laurie E Harrington
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:1123-32. 2005
    ..These findings provide a basis for understanding how inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling enhances development of pathogenic T(H)-17 effector cells that can exacerbate autoimmunity...
  9. doi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
    ..Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'...
  10. pmc IL25 elicits a multipotent progenitor cell population that promotes T(H)2 cytokine responses
    Steven A Saenz
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 464:1362-6. 2010
    ....
  11. doi Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subset
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nat Immunol 9:1341-6. 2008
    ..Thus, transforming growth factor-beta constitutes a regulatory 'switch' that in combination with other cytokines can 'reprogram' effector T cell differentiation along different pathways...
  12. pmc CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 112:1557-69. 2008
    In 1986, Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions...
  13. pmc TSLP promotes interleukin-3-independent basophil haematopoiesis and type 2 inflammation
    Mark C Siracusa
    Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 477:229-33. 2011
    ....
  14. ncbi The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:845-58. 2002
    ..major-resistant mice have revealed complexities in the mechanisms responsible for acquired immunity, which necessitate the redesign of vaccines against Leishmania and other pathogens that require sustained cell-mediated immune responses...
  15. ncbi Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage
    Paul R Mangan
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 2170, USA
    Nature 441:231-4. 2006
    ..The action of TGF-beta on naive T cells is antagonized by interferon-gamma and IL-4, thus providing a mechanism for divergence of the T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 lineages...
  16. pmc CD11c depletion severely disrupts Th2 induction and development in vivo
    Alexander T Phythian-Adams
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 207:2089-96. 2010
    ....
  17. pmc MHC class II-dependent basophil-CD4+ T cell interactions promote T(H)2 cytokine-dependent immunity
    Jacqueline G Perrigoue
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Immunol 10:697-705. 2009
    ..Collectively, our studies suggest that major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent interactions between basophils and CD4+ T cells promote T helper type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to helminth infection...
  18. ncbi The biology of NKT cells
    Albert Bendelac
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Committee on Immunology, Department of Pathology University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:297-336. 2007
    ....
  19. doi Basophils orchestrate chronic allergic dermatitis and protective immunity against helminths
    Caspar Ohnmacht
    Institute for Immunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Immunity 33:364-74. 2010
    ..Differentiation and accumulation of Th2 cells, induction of eosinophilia, and increase in serum IgE or IgG1 induced by allergens or by infection with the ..
  20. pmc Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection
    Robert M Anthony
    The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 7:975-87. 2007
    ..In this Review, we examine recent findings regarding the mechanisms of protection in helminth infections that have been elucidated in murine models and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of future therapies...
  21. ncbi Alternative macrophage activation is essential for survival during schistosomiasis and downmodulates T helper 1 responses and immunopathology
    De Broski R Herbert
    University of Cape Town, Health Sciences Faculty, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
    Immunity 20:623-35. 2004
    ..Together, this shows that alternative macrophages are essential during schistosomiasis for protection against organ injury through downregulation of egg-induced inflammation...
  22. ncbi IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo
    M M Fort
    DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Immunity 15:985-95. 2001
    We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression...
  23. pmc Arginase-1-expressing macrophages suppress Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and fibrosis
    John T Pesce
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000371. 2009
    ....
  24. pmc Inflammatory dendritic cells--not basophils--are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen
    Hamida Hammad
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Exp Med 207:2097-111. 2010
    ..Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen...
  25. ncbi Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses
    M Schnare
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:947-50. 2001
    ..These results suggest that distinct pathways of the innate immune system control activation of the two effector arms of adaptive immunity...
  26. ncbi Human epithelial cells trigger dendritic cell mediated allergic inflammation by producing TSLP
    Vassili Soumelis
    DNAX, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:673-80. 2002
    ..TSLP expression was associated with Langerhans cell migration and activation in situ. These findings shed new light on the function of human TSLP and the role played by epithelial cells and DCs in initiating allergic inflammation...
  27. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
    ..and in vivo evidence that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibit the differentiation and functions of both Th1 and Th2 cells. Importantly, CD4+CD25+ T cells suppressed the disease development of Leishmania major infection in SCID mice ..
  28. pmc Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses
    Bart Everts
    Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands
    J Exp Med 206:1673-80. 2009
    ..Collectively, we identify omega-1, a single component of SEA, as a potent inducer of Th2 responses...
  29. pmc TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce an inflammatory T helper type 2 cell response through OX40 ligand
    Tomoki Ito
    Center for Cancer Immunology Research, Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1213-23. 2005
    ..properties of OX40L: (a) OX40L selectively promoted TNF-alpha, but inhibited IL-10 production in developing Th2 cells; (b) OX40L lost the ability to polarize Th2 cells in the presence of IL-12; and (c) OX40L exacerbated IL-12-..
  30. ncbi 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 has a direct effect on naive CD4(+) T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells
    A Boonstra
    Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 167:4974-80. 2001
    ....
  31. pmc How are T(H)2-type immune responses initiated and amplified?
    William E Paul
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:225-35. 2010
    ....
  32. doi Interferons direct Th2 cell reprogramming to generate a stable GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) cell subset with combined Th2 and Th1 cell functions
    Ahmed N Hegazy
    Experimental Immunology, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Immunity 32:116-28. 2010
    ..Th1 cell-promoting lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) reprogrammed otherwise stably committed GATA-3(+) Th2 cells to adopt a GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) and interleukin-4(+)interferon-gamma(+) "Th2+1" phenotype that was maintained in ..
  33. pmc T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens
    Arielle Glatman Zaretsky
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 206:991-9. 2009
    ..The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5(-) PD-1(-) IL-4/GFP(+) CD4(+) T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo...
  34. pmc Regulation of pathogenesis and immunity in helminth infections
    Rick M Maizels
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 206:2059-66. 2009
    ..A recent international meeting focused on how these parasites modulate host immunity and how control of parasitic and immunopathological disease might be achieved...
  35. pmc IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells
    Irah L King
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1001-7. 2009
    ..IL-4 not only promotes the differentiation of Th2 cells but is also critical for immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE isotype-switched antibody responses...
  36. ncbi Interleukin-18 regulates both Th1 and Th2 responses
    K Nakanishi
    Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, Institute for Advanced Medical Sciences, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
    Annu Rev Immunol 19:423-74. 2001
    ..Therefore, the functions of IL-18 in vivo are very heterogeneous and complicated. In principle, IL-18 enhances the IL-12-driven Th1 immune responses, but it can also stimulate Th2 immune responses in the absence of IL-12...
  37. ncbi The two faces of IL-6 on Th1/Th2 differentiation
    Sean Diehl
    Immunobiology Program, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Given Medical Building D305, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Mol Immunol 39:531-6. 2002
    ..T cells (NFAT) leading to production of IL-4 by nai;ve CD4(+) T cells and their differentiation into effector Th2 cells. While the induction of Th2 differentiation by IL-6 is dependent upon endogenous IL-4, inhibition of Th1 ..
  38. ncbi TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Immunity 24:179-89. 2006
    ..Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells...
  39. pmc Antagonism of microRNA-126 suppresses the effector function of TH2 cells and the development of allergic airways disease
    Joerg Mattes
    Faculty of Health, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Children s Hospital, Callaghan, NSW 2300, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18704-9. 2009
    ..In summary, this study presents a functional connection between miRNA expression and asthma pathogenesis, and our data suggest that targeting miRNA in the airways may lead to anti-inflammatory treatments for allergic asthma...
  40. ncbi Asthma: an epidemic of dysregulated immunity
    Dale T Umetsu
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5208, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:715-20. 2002
    ..In the absence of such infections, T(H)2 cells--which are developmentally related to T(R) cells--develop instead and coordinate the development of asthmatic inflammation...
  41. pmc Pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by a Th2 immune response
    Eleen Daley
    St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10019, USA
    J Exp Med 205:361-72. 2008
    ....
  42. pmc IL-10 blocks the development of resistance to re-infection with Schistosoma mansoni
    Mark S Wilson
    Immunopathogensis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Marlyand, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002171. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates that blocking IL-10 signalling during PZQ treatment can facilitate the development of protective immunity and provide a highly effective strategy to protect against reinfection with S. mansoni...
  43. pmc The potential role of interleukin-17 in severe asthma
    Yui Hsi Wang
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 11:388-94. 2011
    ..Understanding the biology of IL-17 in the context of allergic inflammation may be informative in the development of novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of asthma...
  44. pmc Echinococcus granulosus antigen B impairs human dendritic cell differentiation and polarizes immature dendritic cell maturation towards a Th2 cell response
    Rachele Riganò
    Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Parassitarie ed Immunomediate, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Infect Immun 75:1667-78. 2007
    ..granulosus-stimulated DC maturation. These results suggest that E. granulosus escapes host immunosurveillance in two ways: by interfering with monocyte differentiation and by modulating DC maturation...
  45. doi Endogenous IL-33 enhances Th2 cytokine production and T-cell responses during allergic airway inflammation
    Jennifer Louten
    Department of Immunology, Merck Research Laboratories formerly Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Int Immunol 23:307-15. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that IL-33 is sufficient and required for severe allergic inflammation in the lung and support the concept of IL-33 as a therapeutic target in allergic lung inflammation...
  46. doi Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants
    Bart N Lambrecht
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Ghent, De Pintelaan, Belgium
    Curr Opin Immunol 21:23-9. 2009
    ..How exactly these pathways interact remains to be determined...
  47. pmc The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses
    Hideaki Kouzaki
    Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Immunol 186:4375-87. 2011
    ....
  48. doi IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation
    Anne Gaelle Besnard
    University of Orleans, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, Orleans, France
    Eur J Immunol 41:1675-86. 2011
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-33 activates DCs during antigen presentation and thereby drives a Th2-type response in allergic lung inflammation...
  49. pmc Preexisting helminth infection induces inhibition of innate pulmonary anti-tuberculosis defense by engaging the IL-4 receptor pathway
    Julius A Potian
    Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
    J Exp Med 208:1863-74. 2011
    ..The Th2 response can thus enhance the intracellular persistence of Mtb, in part by mediating the alternative activation of macrophages via the IL-4Rα signaling pathway...
  50. pmc Human interleukin 17-producing cells originate from a CD161+CD4+ T cell precursor
    Lorenzo Cosmi
    Department of Internal Medicine and DENOTHE Center, University of Florence, Florence 50134, Italy
    J Exp Med 205:1903-16. 2008
    ..These findings implicate CD161 as a novel surface marker for human Th17 cells and demonstrate the exclusive origin of these cells from a CD161(+)CD4(+) T cell progenitor...
  51. ncbi The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more
    T R Mosmann
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Immunol Today 17:138-46. 1996
    ....
  52. pmc Welcome to the neighborhood: epithelial cell-derived cytokines license innate and adaptive immune responses at mucosal sites
    Steven A Saenz
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4539, USA
    Immunol Rev 226:172-90. 2008
    ....
  53. doi Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell paradigm in pregnancy
    Shigeru Saito
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Am J Reprod Immunol 63:601-10. 2010
    ..Here, we will review the immunological environment in normal pregnancy and complicated pregnancy, such as implantation failure, abortion, preterm labor, and preeclampsia from the viewpoint of the new Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigms...
  54. ncbi Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms
    Rick M Maizels
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:733-44. 2003
    ..Long-lived parasites such as the helminths, however, are more remarkable for their ability to downregulate host immunity, protecting themselves from elimination and minimizing severe pathology in the host...
  55. ncbi IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice
    P Launois
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Immunity 6:541-9. 1997
    ..Thus, the IL-4 required for Th2 development and susceptibility to L. major is produced by a restricted population of V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells after cognate interaction with a single antigen from this complex organism...
  56. ncbi Thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression is increased in asthmatic airways and correlates with expression of Th2-attracting chemokines and disease severity
    Sun Ying
    Department of Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Science, Guy s, King s and St Thomas GKT School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:8183-90. 2005
    ..Our data implicate TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10 in asthma pathogenesis. These may act partly through selective development and retention, or recruitment of Th2 cells bearing their receptors.
  57. doi Biology of lung dendritic cells at the origin of asthma
    Bart N Lambrecht
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, University Hospital Gent, Gent 9000, Belgium
    Immunity 31:412-24. 2009
    ..This review summarizes the recent progress on our understanding how DCs control Th2 cell immunity in the lung...
  58. ncbi Type 1/Type 2 immunity in infectious diseases
    B Spellberg
    Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:76-102. 2001
    ..Conversely, Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 and stimulate type 2 immunity, which is characterized by high ..
  59. pmc Resolution of allergic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity is dependent upon disruption of the T1/ST2-IL-33 pathway
    Jennifer Kearley
    Leukocyte Biology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:772-81. 2009
    ..This represents an important consideration because failure to resolve allergen driven inflammation potentially leads to irreversible airway remodeling, characteristic of chronic asthma...
  60. pmc Conversion of Th2 memory cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppressing Th2-mediated allergic asthma
    Byung Seok Kim
    Laboratory of Immunology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8742-7. 2010
    ..Our findings reveal the plasticity of Th2 memory cells and provide a strategy for adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases...
  61. pmc Cutting edge: basophils are transiently recruited into the draining lymph nodes during helminth infection via IL-3, but infection-induced Th2 immunity can develop without basophil lymph node recruitment or IL-3
    Sohee Kim
    Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Immunol 184:1143-7. 2010
    ..Our results reveal a previously unknown role of IL-3 in recruiting basophils to the LN and demonstrate that basophils are not necessarily associated with the development of Th2 immunity during parasite infection...
  62. ncbi New IL-17 family members promote Th1 or Th2 responses in the lung: in vivo function of the novel cytokine IL-25
    Stephen D Hurst
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 169:443-53. 2002
    ..Further, these data demonstrate the heterogeneity of function within the IL-17 cytokine family and suggest that IL-25 may be an important mediator of allergic disease via production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin...
  63. pmc Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2
    H Hirai
    R and D Center, BML, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Exp Med 193:255-61. 2001
    ..In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Galphai-dependent manner...
  64. pmc T1/ST2-deficient mice demonstrate the importance of T1/ST2 in developing primary T helper cell type 2 responses
    M J Townsend
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 191:1069-76. 2000
    ..These data clearly demonstrate that T1/ST2 expression plays a role in the development of Th2-like cytokine responses and indicate that effector functions are inhibited in its absence...
  65. pmc At homeostasis filarial infections have expanded adaptive T regulatory but not classical Th2 cells
    Simon Metenou
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 184:5375-82. 2010
    ..Interestingly, frequencies of Th17 and aTreg/Tr1s but not classical Th1 or Th2 cells were significantly increased in Fil(+) compared to Fil(-) individuals...
  66. ncbi TSLP: an epithelial cell cytokine that regulates T cell differentiation by conditioning dendritic cell maturation
    Yong Jun Liu
    Department of Immunology, Center of Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:193-219. 2007
    ..We review recent progress on how TSLP expressed within thymus and peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated central tolerance, peripheral T cell homeostasis, and inflammatory Th2 responses...
  67. pmc Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis
    A Munitz
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7240-5. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R...
  68. pmc Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s
    R Bonecchi
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, I 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Exp Med 187:129-34. 1998
    ..It may also determine different susceptibility of Th1s and Th2s to human immunodeficiency virus strains using different fusion coreceptors...
  69. doi IL-33 amplifies both Th1- and Th2-type responses through its activity on human basophils, allergen-reactive Th2 cells, iNKT and NK cells
    Molly D Smithgall
    Department of Inflammation Research, Amgen Inc, 1201 Amgen Court West, Seattle, WA, USA
    Int Immunol 20:1019-30. 2008
    ..Moreover, the nature of the responses elicited by IL-33 suggests that this axis may amplify both T(h)1- and T(h)2-oriented immune responses...
  70. ncbi Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells
    M H Kaplan
    Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 4:313-9. 1996
    ..In addition, Stat6-deficient T lymphocytes fail to differentiate into Th2 cells in response to either IL-4 or Il-13...
  71. pmc Biochemical and functional characterization of three activated macrophage populations
    Justin P Edwards
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1298-307. 2006
    ..produce IL-12 and give rise to Th1 cells, whereas Mphi-II produce high levels of IL-10 and thus, give rise to Th2 cells secreting IL-4 and IL-10. Mphi-II express two markers that may be used to identify them in tissue...
  72. pmc IL-25 augments type 2 immune responses by enhancing the expansion and functions of TSLP-DC-activated Th2 memory cells
    Yui Hsi Wang
    Department of Immunology and Center of Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1837-47. 2007
    ..Our results provide a plausible explanation that IL-25 produced by innate effector eosinophils and basophils may augment the allergic inflammation by enhancing the maintenance and functions of adaptive Th2 memory cells...
  73. pmc Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced, toll-like receptor 4-dependent T helper cell type 2 responses to inhaled antigen
    Stephanie C Eisenbarth
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1645-51. 2002
    ..These studies suggest that the level of LPS exposure can determine the type of inflammatory response generated and provide a potential mechanistic explanation of epidemiological data on endotoxin exposure and asthma prevalence...
  74. ncbi Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express low levels of ST2L at the cell surface
    Sandrine Lécart
    INSERM U454, CHU Arnaud de Villeneuve, 371 Avenue Doyen Gaston Giraud, F 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France
    Eur J Immunol 32:2979-87. 2002
    ..expression of ST2L/ST2 transcripts was also found in short-term in vitro differentiated, activated CD4(+) Th2 cells. No expression of ST2L or ST2 mRNA was detected in any of the resting T cell subsets...
  75. ncbi Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy
    R Raghupathy
    Dept of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
    Immunol Today 18:478-82. 1997
    ..Here, evidence from murine and human pregnancy is presented to show that, since Th1-type cytokines mediate pregnancy loss, a shift towards Th1-type immunity may help resolve 'unexplained' pregnancy failure...
  76. ncbi The mannose receptor mediates the uptake of diverse native allergens by dendritic cells and determines allergen-induced T cell polarization through modulation of IDO activity
    Pierre Joseph Royer
    School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 185:1522-31. 2010
    ..In conclusion, our work demonstrates a major role for MR in glycoallergen recognition and in the development of Th2 responses...
  77. ncbi T1/ST2 expression on Th2 cells negatively regulates allergic pulmonary inflammation
    Niamh E Mangan
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, St James s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur J Immunol 37:1302-12. 2007
    The transmembrane form of T1/ST2 (ST2) is a specific marker on murine Th2 cells that have been generated in vitro, or isolated from sites of allergic type 2 inflammation...
  78. ncbi T helper cell fate specified by kinase-mediated interaction of T-bet with GATA-3
    Eun Sook Hwang
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 307:430-3. 2005
    ..These results provide a novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation of a transcription factor in specifying alternate fates of a common progenitor cell...
  79. ncbi Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signaling
    M Mohrs
    Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 162:7302-8. 1999
    ..major, mediated by a functional IL-13 receptor...
  80. ncbi Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling
    J M Brewer
    Department of Immunology, University of Glasgow, Western Infirmary, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 163:6448-54. 1999
    ..We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant...
  81. pmc Helminth 2-Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages
    Sheila Donnelly
    Level 6, Bldg 4, University of Technology Sydney, Cnr Thomas and Harris St, Ultimo, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
    FASEB J 22:4022-32. 2008
    ..We propose that Prx activates macrophages as an initial step in the induction of Th2 responses by helminth parasites and is thereby a novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern...
  82. pmc Interleukin 2 plays a central role in Th2 differentiation
    Javier Cote-Sierra
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3880-5. 2004
    ..Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the polarization of naive CD4 T cells to the Th2 phenotype...
  83. pmc Cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis
    T A Wynn
    Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Pathol 214:199-210. 2008
    ..This review explores our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis...
  84. ncbi Stat5 activation plays a critical role in Th2 differentiation
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 19:739-48. 2003
    ..Stat5A binds to HSII and HSIII sites of the Il4 gene. Coinfection with STAT5A1*6-NGFR-RV and GATA-3-GFP-RV results in optimal Th2 priming...
  85. ncbi Defective NK cell activity and Th1 response in IL-18-deficient mice
    K Takeda
    Department of Biochemistry, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan
    Immunity 8:383-90. 1998
    ..We therefore generated mice lacking both IL-18 and IL-12. In these mice, NK activity and Th1 response were further impaired. This demonstrates the important role of both IL-18 and IL-12 in NK activity, as well as in in vivo Th1 response...
  86. ncbi Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease
    Parris Kidd
    Altern Med Rev 8:223-46. 2003
    ..b>Th2 cells drive the type-2 pathway ("humoral immunity") and up-regulate antibody production to fight ..
  87. ncbi IL-10 and the dangers of immune polarization: excessive type 1 and type 2 cytokine responses induce distinct forms of lethal immunopathology in murine schistosomiasis
    K F Hoffmann
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 164:6406-16. 2000
    ....
  88. ncbi Accumulation of CRTH2-positive T-helper 2 and T-cytotoxic 2 cells at implantation sites of human decidua in a prostaglandin D(2)-mediated manner
    Toshihiko Michimata
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    Mol Hum Reprod 8:181-7. 2002
    ..a novel surface maker of Th2/Tc2, the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule CRTH2, which is expressed on Th2 cells, we show that CRTH2(+) Th2 cells and CRTH2(+) Tc2 cells are significantly increased at the materno-fetal ..
  89. pmc An IL-13 inhibitor blocks the development of hepatic fibrosis during a T-helper type 2-dominated inflammatory response
    M G Chiaramonte
    Schistosomiasis Immunology and Pathology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:777-85. 1999
    ..Thus, our findings provide evidence that IL-13 inhibitors may be of general therapeutic benefit in preventing damaging tissue fibrosis resulting from Th2-dominated inflammatory responses...
  90. pmc IL-13Ralpha2 and IL-10 coordinately suppress airway inflammation, airway-hyperreactivity, and fibrosis in mice
    Mark S Wilson
    Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, and Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:2941-51. 2007
    ..Thus, IL-10 and IL-13Ralpha2 are both required to control chronic Th2-driven pathological responses...
  91. ncbi The natural killer T-cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide prevents autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
    S Hong
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Nat Med 7:1052-6. 2001
    ..cells, to increase serum immunoglobulin E levels, and to promote the generation of islet autoantigen-specific Th2 cells. Because alpha-GalCer recognition by NKT cells is conserved among mice and humans, these findings indicate that ..
  92. doi Toll/IL-1 signaling is critical for house dust mite-specific helper T cell type 2 and type 17 [corrected] responses
    Simon Phipps
    Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Diseases, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW, 2300 Australia
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:883-93. 2009
    ....
  93. doi Strategies for use of IL-10 or its antagonists in human disease
    Anne O'Garra
    Division of Immunoregulation, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Immunol Rev 223:114-31. 2008
    ..This article reviews basic published studies on IL-10, which may lead to potential uses of IL-10 or its antagonists in human disease...
  94. pmc Retnla (relmalpha/fizz1) suppresses helminth-induced Th2-type immunity
    John T Pesce
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000393. 2009
    ..Thus, the Th2-inducible gene Retnla suppresses resistance to GI nematode infection, pulmonary granulomatous inflammation, and fibrosis by negatively regulating Th2-dependent responses...
  95. ncbi IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages
    Casey T Weaver
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:821-52. 2007
    ....
  96. doi Th1/Th2 balance: an important indicator of efficacy for intra-arterial chemotherapy
    Hidenari Nagai
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Toho University Medical Center, Omori Hospital, 6 11 1, Omorinishi, Ota ku, Tokyo, 143 8541, Japan
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 62:959-63. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the influence of intra-arterial combination chemotherapy on the Th1/Th2 balance in LC patients with aHCC...
  97. pmc The transcription factor STAT3 is required for T helper 2 cell development
    Gretta L Stritesky
    Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Immunity 34:39-49. 2011
    ..Thus, STAT3 cooperates with STAT6 in promoting Th2 cell development. These results demonstrate that differentiating T helper cells integrate multiple STAT protein signals during Th2 cell development...
  98. ncbi The immune response to parasitic helminths: insights from murine models
    William C Gause
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Trends Immunol 24:269-77. 2003
  99. ncbi House dust extracts have both TH2 adjuvant and tolerogenic activities
    Nicholas Ng
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0663, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:1074-81. 2006
    ....
  100. doi The role of helper and regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of vitiligo
    Pinar Y Basak
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
    J Am Acad Dermatol 60:256-60. 2009
    ..There is also a proposed role for cytokines in the depigmentation observed in vitiligo. However, previous reports on the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have been few in number...
  101. ncbi Deficiency of tenascin C attenuates allergen-induced bronchial asthma in the mouse
    Hiroki Nakahara
    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu City, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 36:3334-45. 2006
    ..These observations suggest that TN-C is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma...

Research Grants84

  1. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..treatment induced a Th2 bias that was associated with STAT6 phosphorylation, and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells that adoptively transferred protection to untreated mice...
  2. TIM Family of Genes: Role in T Cell Immunity and Tolerance
    Vijay Kuchroo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We identified Tim-3 as a molecule expressed specifically on CD4+ Th1 but not Th2 cells. The interaction of Tim-3 with its ligand, galectin-9, triggers cell death in Th1 cells, thereby dampening Th1 ..
  3. Functional cloning of S. mansoni egg-specific Th2 cells
    Markus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The abrupt emergence of Th2 cells weeks after infection of the human or murine host coincides with the deposition of S. mansoni eggs...
  4. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL10 THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..IL-10, a cytokine produced by Th2 cells and macrophages, has primarily immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties...
  5. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL10 THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..IL-10, a cytokine produced by Th2 cells and macrophages, has primarily immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties...
  6. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of particular interest because they are the major source of IL-4 for the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells. The relevance of findings in the transgenic mouse model for the pathogenesis of the human disease will be ..
  7. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of particular interest because they are the major source of IL-4 for the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells. The relevance of findings in the transgenic mouse model for the pathogenesis of the human disease will be ..
  8. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of particular interest because they are the major source of IL-4 for the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells. The relevance of findings in the transgenic mouse model for the pathogenesis of the human disease will be ..
  9. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence Turka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..TIM-1 is expressed by activated Th1 and Th2 cells and its expression is sustained preferentially in terminally differentiated Th2 cells...
  10. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence Turka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..TIM-1 is expressed by activated Th1 and Th2 cells and its expression is sustained preferentially in terminally differentiated Th2 cells...
  11. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence A Turka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..TIM-1 is expressed by activated Th1 and Th2 cells and its expression is sustained preferentially in terminally differentiated Th2 cells...
  12. COSTIMULATION AND CYTOKINES IN TOLERANCE
    Laurence Turka; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..TIM-1 is expressed by activated Th1 and Th2 cells and its expression is sustained preferentially in terminally differentiated Th2 cells...
  13. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL10 THERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..IL-10, a cytokine produced by Th2 cells and macrophages, has primarily immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties...
  14. ABNORMAL CYTOKINE SYNTHESES IN CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA
    Alain Rook; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In this regard, discrete subsets of murine T-helper cells that produce IL-4 and IL-5 (Th2 cells) or IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (Th1 cells) in a mutually exclusive secretion pattern have been ..
  15. Cellular & Inflammatory Pathways in Ashtma & Allergic Diseases: From IgE to Cells
    Lawrence Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Upon recognition of their cognate antigen, Th2 cells produce cytokines that regulate IgE synthesis (IL-4 and IL-13), and growth and activation of eosinophils (IL-5) ..
  16. Cellular & Inflammatory Pathways in Ashtma & Allergic Diseases: From IgE to Cells
    Lawrence Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Upon recognition of their cognate antigen, Th2 cells produce cytokines that regulate IgE synthesis (IL-4 and IL-13), and growth and activation of eosinophils (IL-5) ..
  17. Cellular & Inflammatory Pathways in Ashtma & Allergic Diseases: From IgE to Cells
    LAWRENCE BARRY SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Upon recognition of their cognate antigen, Th2 cells produce cytokines that regulate IgE synthesis (IL-4 and IL-13), and growth and activation of eosinophils (IL-5) ..
  18. Regulation of inflammatory cell migration in asthma
    Linda G Baum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have found that galectin-9 regulates migration of specific types of leukocytes, Th2 cells and eosinophils, through extracellular matrix...
  19. The Cannabinoid System and the Modulation of T Cell and Macrophage Functions
    NANCY BUCKLEY NIEVES; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..to inhibit the activity of Th1 cells (cells involved in call mediated immunity), and to enhance the activity of Th2 cells (cells involved in humoral activity). The effect of ANA and 2-AG on Th1/Th2 cell activation is still unknown...
  20. Mouse models for the functional analysis of asthma-associated human polymorphisms
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..active than wild type (WT) IL13, whereas IL13-1112C>T in the 5'block increases IL13 transcription in Th2 cells and IL13 secretion ex vivo...
  21. Mouse models for the functional analysis of asthma-associated human polymorphisms
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..active than wild type (WT) IL13, whereas IL13-1112C>T in the 5'block increases IL13 transcription in Th2 cells and IL13 secretion ex vivo...
  22. T CELLS IN LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Peter Kao; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Understanding T-cell cytokine expression and its modulation by immunosuppressant drugs and viral transactivating proteins will guide future therapies of lung inflammation. ..
  23. T CELLS IN LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Peter Kao; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Understanding T-cell cytokine expression and its modulation by immunosuppressant drugs and viral transactivating proteins will guide future therapies of lung inflammation. ..
  24. IMMUNE RESPONSE TO LEISHMANIA MAJOR
    Richard Titus; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In the murine model for CL, Lm-specific Th1 cells protect mice from infection whereas Lm-specific Th2 cells exacerbate disease. To design an effective vaccine against CL (i.e...
  25. IL-13 Associated Eosinophil Lung Responses
    Marc E Rothenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): Clinical and experimental investigations have demonstrated a strong correlation between Th2 cells, eosinophils and allergic lung disease severity suggesting an integral role for both of these cells in asthma...
  26. IL-13 Associated Eosinophil Lung Responses
    MARC ROTHENBERG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provided by applicant): Clinical and experimental investigations have demonstrated a strong correlation between Th2 cells, eosinophils and allergic lung disease severity suggesting an integral role for both of these cells in asthma...
  27. Innate Immunity in Myocarditis
    Sally Huber; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have shown that + cells selectively kill CD4+Th2 cells leaving the CD4+Th1 cells intact...
  28. Stat6 in Atopic Dermatitis
    Mark Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b>Th2 cells, T cells that secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and other cytokines are critical in the development of atopic diseases...
  29. Innate Immunity in Myocarditis
    Sally A Huber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that + cells selectively kill CD4+Th2 cells leaving the CD4+Th1 cells intact...
  30. INTERLEUKIN 5 GENE EXPRESSION AND LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Anuradha Ray; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This has led us to hypothesize that : 1. Activation of GATA-3 plays a major role in IL-5 gene expression in Th2 cells. 2...
  31. INTERLEUKIN 5 GENE EXPRESSION AND LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Anuradha Ray; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..This has led us to hypothesize that : 1. Activation of GATA-3 plays a major role in IL-5 gene expression in Th2 cells. 2...
  32. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN T CELL MEDIATED COLITIS
    James Lillard; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..T helper type l (Thl) cells secreting TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma have been emphasized in ulcerative colitis, while Th2 cells may be more closely associated with Crohn's disease...
  33. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN T CELL MEDIATED COLITIS
    James Lillard; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..T helper type l (Thl) cells secreting TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma have been emphasized in ulcerative colitis, while Th2 cells may be more closely associated with Crohn's disease...
  34. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN T CELL MEDIATED COLITIS
    James Lillard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..T helper type l (Thl) cells secreting TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma have been emphasized in ulcerative colitis, while Th2 cells may be more closely associated with Crohn's disease...
  35. The role of CBir1 flagellin-specific Th17 and Th1 effector cells in colitis
    Yingzi Cong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..CD4+ T (Th17) cells have recently been defined as a separate effector T cell lineage distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. Both Th17 and Th1 responses are elevated in animal models of colitis and in patients with inflammatory bowel ..
  36. The role of CBir1 flagellin-specific Th17 and Th1 effector cells in colitis
    Yingzi Cong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CD4+ T (Th17) cells have recently been defined as a separate effector T cell lineage distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. Both Th17 and Th1 responses are elevated in animal models of colitis and in patients with inflammatory bowel ..
  37. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION & SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR EXPRESSION
    KENNETH BOST; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..All of these enhance Th1 responses. IL-10 is also induced by substance P and enhances Th2 cells. Another product, TGFbeta, is immunosuppressive...
  38. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION & SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR EXPRESSION
    KENNETH BOST; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..All of these enhance Th1 responses. IL-10 is also induced by substance P and enhances Th2 cells. Another product, TGFbeta, is immunosuppressive...
  39. MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION & SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR EXPRESSION
    KENNETH BOST; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..All of these enhance Th1 responses. IL-10 is also induced by substance P and enhances Th2 cells. Another product, TGFbeta, is immunosuppressive...
  40. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..treatment induced a Th2 bias that was associated with STAT6 phosphorylation, and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells that adoptively transferred protection to untreated mice...
  41. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..treatment induced a Th2 bias that was associated with STAT6 phosphorylation, and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells that adoptively transferred protection to untreated mice...
  42. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..treatment induced a Th2 bias that was associated with STAT6 phosphorylation, and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells that adoptively transferred protection to untreated mice...
  43. Chemokines and Th2 Cell Trafficking in Asthma
    Andrew D Luster; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells play a critical role in controlling the inflammation seen in asthma;however, the molecular mechanisms that ..
  44. Chemokines and Th2 Cell Trafficking in Asthma
    Andrew Luster; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells play a critical role in controlling the inflammation seen in asthma;however, the molecular mechanisms that ..
  45. Chemokines and Th2 Cell Trafficking in Asthma
    Andrew D Luster; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells play a critical role in controlling the inflammation seen in asthma;however, the molecular mechanisms that ..
  46. REGULATION OF DIABETES BY CHEMOKINES
    Linda Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..and LT are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta cells and disease onset whereas Th2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do not cause disease due to protective effects of IL-4...
  47. REGULATION OF DIABETES BY CHEMOKINES
    Linda Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and LT are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta cells and disease onset whereas Th2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do not cause disease due to protective effects of IL-4...
  48. REGULATION OF DIABETES BY CHEMOKINES
    Linda Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and LT are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta cells and disease onset whereas Th2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do not cause disease due to protective effects of IL-4...
  49. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..cells differentiate into Thl cells, which produce IFNy; in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5 & ILl0) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the ..
  50. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cells differentiate into Thl cells, which produce IFNy; in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5 & ILl0) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the ..
  51. REGULATION OF DIABETES BY CHEMOKINES
    Linda Bradley; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..and LT are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta cells and disease onset whereas Th2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do not cause disease due to protective effects of IL-4...
  52. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cells differentiate into Thl cells, which produce IFNy; in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5 & ILl0) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the ..
  53. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..cells differentiate into Thl cells, which produce IFNy; in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5 & ILl0) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the ..
  54. HUMAN IL-13 GENE REGULATION AND IMPACT OF POLYMORPHISMS
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..activity, whereas /L73-1112CT, a SNP in the IL13 promoter, leads to increased IL13 transcription in polarized Th2 cells. Furthermore, we generated a high resolution map of DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites in the IL13 locus of ..
  55. HUMAN IL-13 GENE REGULATION AND IMPACT OF POLYMORPHISMS
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..activity, whereas /L73-1112CT, a SNP in the IL13 promoter, leads to increased IL13 transcription in polarized Th2 cells. Furthermore, we generated a high resolution map of DNase I hypersensitive (HS) sites in the IL13 locus of ..
  56. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL4 IN PATIENTS WITH RA
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The Th cells can be divided into two overlapping subpopulations with important functional significance, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells secrete IL-2 and interferon- and regulate cell-mediated responses...
  57. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS
    David Lawrence; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..It is important to note that both Hg and Pb preferentially enhance the functions of Th2 cells over those of Th1 cells...
  58. PARP activity in allergic inflammation
    Shreevrat Goenka; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..IFN-??plays a major role in Th1 responses but inhibits the development of Th2 cells, while IL-4 promotes Th2 immunity and inhibits Th1 differentiation...
  59. GENE EXPRESSION IN CTCL PATIENTS IN IL 12 CLINICAL TRIAL
    Louise Showe; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..of cytokine receptor gene expression (IL-12R and IFN-gamma R) in CTCL supports the relationship of SS cells to Th2 cells in six of seven SS patients, but also suggests that patients may vary from one another in this respect depending ..
  60. TH2 CELLS AND CYTOKINES AND ALLOGRAFT TOLERANCE
    Jeffrey Punch; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..one of two distinct phenotypes: TH1 cells that respond to IL-12 and secrete primarily IL-2 and IFN gamma, or TH2 cells that secrete primarily IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13...
  61. PARP activity in allergic inflammation
    Shreevrat Goenka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..IFN-??plays a major role in Th1 responses but inhibits the development of Th2 cells, while IL-4 promotes Th2 immunity and inhibits Th1 differentiation...
  62. GENE EXPRESSION IN CTCL PATIENTS IN IL 12 CLINICAL TRIAL
    Louise Showe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of cytokine receptor gene expression (IL-12R and IFN-gamma R) in CTCL supports the relationship of SS cells to Th2 cells in six of seven SS patients, but also suggests that patients may vary from one another in this respect depending ..
  63. TH2 CELLS AND CYTOKINES AND ALLOGRAFT TOLERANCE
    Jeffrey Punch; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..one of two distinct phenotypes: TH1 cells that respond to IL-12 and secrete primarily IL-2 and IFN gamma, or TH2 cells that secrete primarily IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13...
  64. TH2 CELLS AND CYTOKINES AND ALLOGRAFT TOLERANCE
    Jeffrey Punch; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..one of two distinct phenotypes: TH1 cells that respond to IL-12 and secrete primarily IL-2 and IFN gamma, or TH2 cells that secrete primarily IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13...
  65. TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI MUCOSAL & SYSTEMIC PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY
    DANIEL HOFT; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells (secreting IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) induce secretory IgA, protective against mucosal pathogens...
  66. TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI MUCOSAL & SYSTEMIC PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY
    DANIEL HOFT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells (secreting IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) induce secretory IgA, protective against mucosal pathogens...
  67. TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI MUCOSAL & SYSTEMIC PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY
    DANIEL HOFT; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..CD4+ Th2 cells (secreting IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) induce secretory IgA, protective against mucosal pathogens...
  68. Regulatory monocytes in CNS autoimmune disease
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..II differentiation of monocytes by GA treatment and to characterize how type II monocytes lead to induction of Th2 cells and Treg in vivo...
  69. T cell function in asthma depends on a novel signaling pathway
    Julia K L Walker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that agonist binding of CCR4 leads to activation of a arrestin-2-dependent cell signaling mechanism in Th2 cells. 2...
  70. T cell function in asthma depends on a novel signaling pathway
    Julia Walker; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that agonist binding of CCR4 leads to activation of a arrestin-2-dependent cell signaling mechanism in Th2 cells. 2...
  71. ASTHMA, ALLERGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASES COOP RES CTR
    David Chaplin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The second concerns the mechanism by which Th1 and Th2 cells synergize to establish eosinophilic inflammatory responses in experimental murine airway hypersensitivity...
  72. ASTHMA, ALLERGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASES COOP RES CTR
    David Chaplin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The second concerns the mechanism by which Th1 and Th2 cells synergize to establish eosinophilic inflammatory responses in experimental murine airway hypersensitivity...
  73. The interdependence between T and B cells in Th2 cell differentiation
    Markus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our preliminary data provide two key findings. First, IL-4R1-/- mice initiate the differentiation of Th2 cells early on, but in contrast to wt mice, their expansion and maturation is aborted...
  74. T CELL CONTROL OF AIRWAY MUCUS PRODUCTION
    Lauren Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..that lead to mucus production, using a murine system we developed to study the inflammatory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in the respiratory tract...
  75. The interdependence between T and B cells in Th2 cell differentiation
    Markus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data provide two key findings. First, IL-4R1-/- mice initiate the differentiation of Th2 cells early on, but in contrast to wt mice, their expansion and maturation is aborted...
  76. T CELL CONTROL OF AIRWAY MUCUS PRODUCTION
    Lauren Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..that lead to mucus production, using a murine system we developed to study the inflammatory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in the respiratory tract...
  77. T CELL CONTROL OF AIRWAY MUCUS PRODUCTION
    Lauren Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..that lead to mucus production, using a murine system we developed to study the inflammatory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in the respiratory tract...
  78. T CELL CONTROL OF AIRWAY MUCUS PRODUCTION
    Lauren Cohn; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..that lead to mucus production, using a murine system we developed to study the inflammatory effects of Th1 and Th2 cells in the respiratory tract...
  79. Feasibility Study of Novel Drug Target for Multiple Sclerosis
    Scott Thacher; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A novel class of T helper cell, distinct from TH1 and TH2 cells, has been implicated in the development of murine experimentally-acquired encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple ..
  80. ETOH A COFACTOR IN AIDS--MODULATION OF TH1 AND TH2 CELLS
    Shirish Barve; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Initially we will determine if EtOH affects (a) differentiation of Th cells to Th1 and Th2 cells or (b) the preexisting differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells...
  81. Immune Tolerance in the Newborn Mouse
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..10 T cells were traced with KJ1-26 antibody and their responses analyzed. We have evidence that both Th1 and Th2 cells developed upon priming with antigen on the day of birth...
  82. ETOH A COFACTOR IN AIDS--MODULATION OF TH1 AND TH2 CELLS
    Shirish Barve; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Initially we will determine if EtOH affects (a) differentiation of Th cells to Th1 and Th2 cells or (b) the preexisting differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells...
  83. SUBCUTANEOUS RHUIL4 IN PATIENTS WITH RA
    EUGENE ST CLAIR; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The Th cells can be divided into two overlapping subpopulations with important functional significance, Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells secrete IL-2 and interferon- and regulate cell-mediated responses...