th2 cells

Summary

Summary: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
  2. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:23-35. 2003
  3. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
  4. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
  5. ncbi A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment
    S J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 100:655-69. 2000
  6. ncbi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
  7. ncbi Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
    Judith E Allen
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011
  8. ncbi Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages
    Laurie E Harrington
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:1123-32. 2005
  9. pmc CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 112:1557-69. 2008
  10. pmc The many paths to asthma: phenotype shaped by innate and adaptive immunity
    Hye Young Kim
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:577-84. 2010

Detail Information

Publications362 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
    Estelle Bettelli
    Center for Neurologic Diseases, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 441:235-8. 2006
    ..Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury...
  2. ncbi Alternative activation of macrophages
    Siamon Gordon
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:23-35. 2003
    ..In this review, I assess the evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation in the light of macrophage heterogeneity, and define its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions...
  3. ncbi IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines
    Jochen Schmitz
    Schering Plough Biopharma Formerly DNAX Research, Inc, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Immunity 23:479-90. 2005
    ..In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs...
  4. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
    ..Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity...
  5. ncbi A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment
    S J Szabo
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 100:655-69. 2000
    ..Thus, T-bet initiates Th1 lineage development from naive Thp cells both by activating Th1 genetic programs and by repressing the opposing Th2 programs...
  6. ncbi Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells
    Kazuyo Moro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Nature 463:540-4. 2010
    ..Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'...
  7. ncbi Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths
    Judith E Allen
    Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:375-88. 2011
    ..Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity...
  8. ncbi Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages
    Laurie E Harrington
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:1123-32. 2005
    ..These findings provide a basis for understanding how inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling enhances development of pathogenic T(H)-17 effector cells that can exacerbate autoimmunity...
  9. pmc CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults
    Jinfang Zhu
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 112:1557-69. 2008
    In 1986, Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions...
  10. pmc The many paths to asthma: phenotype shaped by innate and adaptive immunity
    Hye Young Kim
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:577-84. 2010
    ..Further study of these many pathways to asthma will greatly increase understanding of the distinct asthma phenotypes, and such studies may lead to new therapies for this important public health problem...
  11. pmc Helminth secretions induce de novo T cell Foxp3 expression and regulatory function through the TGF-β pathway
    John R Grainger
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 207:2331-41. 2010
    ..We have therefore identified a novel pathway through which helminth parasites may stimulate T reg cells, which is likely to be a key part of the parasite's immunological relationship with the host...
  12. ncbi Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage
    Paul R Mangan
    Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 2170, USA
    Nature 441:231-4. 2006
    ..The action of TGF-beta on naive T cells is antagonized by interferon-gamma and IL-4, thus providing a mechanism for divergence of the T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 lineages...
  13. pmc IL25 elicits a multipotent progenitor cell population that promotes T(H)2 cytokine responses
    Steven A Saenz
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 464:1362-6. 2010
    ....
  14. pmc MHC class II-dependent basophil-CD4+ T cell interactions promote T(H)2 cytokine-dependent immunity
    Jacqueline G Perrigoue
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Nat Immunol 10:697-705. 2009
    ..Collectively, our studies suggest that major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent interactions between basophils and CD4+ T cells promote T helper type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to helminth infection...
  15. ncbi The biology of NKT cells
    Albert Bendelac
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Committee on Immunology, Department of Pathology University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:297-336. 2007
    ....
  16. pmc CD11c depletion severely disrupts Th2 induction and development in vivo
    Alexander T Phythian-Adams
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 207:2089-96. 2010
    ....
  17. pmc Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cells
    Mubeccel Akdis
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, Obere Strasse 22, CH 7270 Davos
    J Exp Med 199:1567-75. 2004
    ..These results indicate that the balance between allergen-specific Tr1 cells and Th2 cells may be decisive in the development of allergy.
  18. ncbi The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:845-58. 2002
    ..major-resistant mice have revealed complexities in the mechanisms responsible for acquired immunity, which necessitate the redesign of vaccines against Leishmania and other pathogens that require sustained cell-mediated immune responses...
  19. ncbi Basophils orchestrate chronic allergic dermatitis and protective immunity against helminths
    Caspar Ohnmacht
    Institute for Immunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Immunity 33:364-74. 2010
    ..Differentiation and accumulation of Th2 cells, induction of eosinophilia, and increase in serum IgE or IgG1 induced by allergens or by infection with the ..
  20. ncbi IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo
    M M Fort
    DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Immunity 15:985-95. 2001
    We have characterized a cytokine produced by Th2 cells, designated as IL-25. Infusion of mice with IL-25 induced IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression...
  21. pmc Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection
    Robert M Anthony
    The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 7:975-87. 2007
    ..In this Review, we examine recent findings regarding the mechanisms of protection in helminth infections that have been elucidated in murine models and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of future therapies...
  22. pmc TH17 cells mediate steroid-resistant airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice
    Laura McKinley
    Department of Pediatrics, Lung Immunology and Host Defense Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Immunol 181:4089-97. 2008
    ..Both T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells are able to induce AHR, whereas T(H)17 cell-mediated airway inflammation and AHR are steroid resistant, indicating a potential role for T(H)17 cells in steroid-resistant asthma...
  23. ncbi TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Immunity 24:179-89. 2006
    ..Our data indicate that, in the presence of IL-6, TGFbeta1 subverts Th1 and Th2 differentiation for the generation of IL-17-producing T cells...
  24. ncbi Alternative macrophage activation is essential for survival during schistosomiasis and downmodulates T helper 1 responses and immunopathology
    De Broski R Herbert
    University of Cape Town, Health Sciences Faculty, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
    Immunity 20:623-35. 2004
    ..Together, this shows that alternative macrophages are essential during schistosomiasis for protection against organ injury through downregulation of egg-induced inflammation...
  25. pmc New paradigms in type 2 immunity
    Bali Pulendran
    Department of Pathology, Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Science 337:431-5. 2012
    ....
  26. pmc Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s
    R Bonecchi
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, I 20157 Milan, Italy
    J Exp Med 187:129-34. 1998
    ..It may also determine different susceptibility of Th1s and Th2s to human immunodeficiency virus strains using different fusion coreceptors...
  27. pmc Arginase-1-expressing macrophages suppress Th2 cytokine-driven inflammation and fibrosis
    John T Pesce
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000371. 2009
    ....
  28. pmc Requirement for IL-13 independently of IL-4 in experimental asthma
    G Grunig
    Department of Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Science 282:2261-3. 1998
    ..This pathway may underlie the genetic associations of asthma with both the human 5q31 locus and the IL-4 receptor...
  29. pmc Regulatory T-cell suppressor program co-opts transcription factor IRF4 to control T(H)2 responses
    Ye Zheng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nature 458:351-6. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that T(reg) cells use components of the transcriptional machinery, promoting a particular type of effector CD4(+) T cell differentiation, to efficiently restrain the corresponding type of the immune response...
  30. ncbi Lung natural helper cells are a critical source of Th2 cell-type cytokines in protease allergen-induced airway inflammation
    Timotheus Y F Halim
    Terry Fox Laboratory, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
    Immunity 36:451-63. 2012
    ..Treatment of lung explants with papain induced IL-33 and TSLP production by stroma cells and IL-5 and IL-13 production by LNH cells. Thus, LNH cells are critical for protease allergen-induced airway inflammation...
  31. ncbi Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses
    M Schnare
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Nat Immunol 2:947-50. 2001
    ..These results suggest that distinct pathways of the innate immune system control activation of the two effector arms of adaptive immunity...
  32. ncbi Human epithelial cells trigger dendritic cell mediated allergic inflammation by producing TSLP
    Vassili Soumelis
    DNAX, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:673-80. 2002
    ..TSLP expression was associated with Langerhans cell migration and activation in situ. These findings shed new light on the function of human TSLP and the role played by epithelial cells and DCs in initiating allergic inflammation...
  33. ncbi T-bet is a STAT1-induced regulator of IL-12R expression in naïve CD4+ T cells
    Maryam Afkarian
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, Box 8118, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:549-57. 2002
    ..Thus, T-bet is induced by IFN-gamma and STAT1 signaling during T cell activation. In addition, T-bet mediates STAT1-dependent processes of T(H)1 development, including the induction of IL-12Rbeta2...
  34. pmc Human interleukin 17-producing cells originate from a CD161+CD4+ T cell precursor
    Lorenzo Cosmi
    Department of Internal Medicine and DENOTHE Center, University of Florence, Florence 50134, Italy
    J Exp Med 205:1903-16. 2008
    ..These findings implicate CD161 as a novel surface marker for human Th17 cells and demonstrate the exclusive origin of these cells from a CD161(+)CD4(+) T cell progenitor...
  35. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
    ..and in vivo evidence that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibit the differentiation and functions of both Th1 and Th2 cells. Importantly, CD4+CD25+ T cells suppressed the disease development of Leishmania major infection in SCID mice ..
  36. pmc Complement-mediated regulation of the IL-17A axis is a central genetic determinant of the severity of experimental allergic asthma
    Stephane Lajoie
    Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:928-35. 2010
    ..The opposing effects of C3a and C5a were mediated through their reciprocal regulation of IL-23 production. These data demonstrate a critical role for complement-mediated regulation of the IL-23-T(H)17 axis in severe asthma...
  37. pmc A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
    ..Finally, we show that basophils were directly activated by protease allergens and produced TH2-inducing cytokines, including interleukin 4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which are involved in TH2 differentiation in vivo...
  38. ncbi IL-33 amplifies both Th1- and Th2-type responses through its activity on human basophils, allergen-reactive Th2 cells, iNKT and NK cells
    Molly D Smithgall
    Department of Inflammation Research, Amgen Inc, 1201 Amgen Court West, Seattle, WA, USA
    Int Immunol 20:1019-30. 2008
    ..Moreover, the nature of the responses elicited by IL-33 suggests that this axis may amplify both T(h)1- and T(h)2-oriented immune responses...
  39. pmc T-helper type 2-driven inflammation defines major subphenotypes of asthma
    Prescott G Woodruff
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0111, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:388-95. 2009
    ..However, clinical studies increasingly suggest that asthma is heterogeneous...
  40. pmc How are T(H)2-type immune responses initiated and amplified?
    William E Paul
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 10:225-35. 2010
    ....
  41. ncbi Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells
    M H Kaplan
    Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Immunity 4:313-9. 1996
    ..In addition, Stat6-deficient T lymphocytes fail to differentiate into Th2 cells in response to either IL-4 or Il-13...
  42. pmc TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce an inflammatory T helper type 2 cell response through OX40 ligand
    Tomoki Ito
    Center for Cancer Immunology Research, Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 77030, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1213-23. 2005
    ..properties of OX40L: (a) OX40L selectively promoted TNF-alpha, but inhibited IL-10 production in developing Th2 cells; (b) OX40L lost the ability to polarize Th2 cells in the presence of IL-12; and (c) OX40L exacerbated IL-12-..
  43. pmc The major component in schistosome eggs responsible for conditioning dendritic cells for Th2 polarization is a T2 ribonuclease (omega-1)
    Svenja Steinfelder
    Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1681-90. 2009
    ..Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that S. mansoni omega-1 acts by limiting the interaction of DCs with CD4(+) T lymphocytes, thereby lowering the strength of the activation signal delivered...
  44. pmc Muc5ac: a critical component mediating the rejection of enteric nematodes
    Sumaira Z Hasnain
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Matrix Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, England, UK
    J Exp Med 208:893-900. 2011
    ..Thus, for the first time, we identify a single mucin, Muc5ac, as a direct and critical mediator of resistance during intestinal nematode infection...
  45. ncbi Interferons direct Th2 cell reprogramming to generate a stable GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) cell subset with combined Th2 and Th1 cell functions
    Ahmed N Hegazy
    Experimental Immunology, Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Immunity 32:116-28. 2010
    ..Th1 cell-promoting lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) reprogrammed otherwise stably committed GATA-3(+) Th2 cells to adopt a GATA-3(+)T-bet(+) and interleukin-4(+)interferon-gamma(+) "Th2+1" phenotype that was maintained in ..
  46. pmc Regulation of pathogenesis and immunity in helminth infections
    Rick M Maizels
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 206:2059-66. 2009
    ..A recent international meeting focused on how these parasites modulate host immunity and how control of parasitic and immunopathological disease might be achieved...
  47. pmc T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens
    Arielle Glatman Zaretsky
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 206:991-9. 2009
    ..The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5(-) PD-1(-) IL-4/GFP(+) CD4(+) T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo...
  48. pmc Inflammatory dendritic cells--not basophils--are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen
    Hamida Hammad
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Ghent, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    J Exp Med 207:2097-111. 2010
    ..Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen...
  49. ncbi An unexpected role for uric acid as an inducer of T helper 2 cell immunity to inhaled antigens and inflammatory mediator of allergic asthma
    Mirjam Kool
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Ghent, Ghent 9000, Belgium
    Immunity 34:527-40. 2011
    ..These findings provide further molecular insight into Th2 cell development and identify UA as an essential initiator and amplifier of allergic inflammation...
  50. pmc TSLP regulates intestinal immunity and inflammation in mouse models of helminth infection and colitis
    Betsy C Taylor
    Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 206:655-67. 2009
    ....
  51. ncbi T helper cell fate specified by kinase-mediated interaction of T-bet with GATA-3
    Eun Sook Hwang
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 307:430-3. 2005
    ..These results provide a novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation of a transcription factor in specifying alternate fates of a common progenitor cell...
  52. pmc T1/ST2-deficient mice demonstrate the importance of T1/ST2 in developing primary T helper cell type 2 responses
    M J Townsend
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 191:1069-76. 2000
    ..These data clearly demonstrate that T1/ST2 expression plays a role in the development of Th2-like cytokine responses and indicate that effector functions are inhibited in its absence...
  53. pmc Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses
    Bart Everts
    Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands
    J Exp Med 206:1673-80. 2009
    ..Collectively, we identify omega-1, a single component of SEA, as a potent inducer of Th2 responses...
  54. pmc The transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 control alternative pathways of T-cell differentiation through a shared set of target genes
    Richard G Jenner
    MRC UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17876-81. 2009
    ..GATA-3 occupies genes in both Th1 and Th2 cells and, unexpectedly, shares a large proportion of targets with T-bet...
  55. ncbi A critical role for eosinophils in allergic airways remodeling
    Alison A Humbles
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 305:1776-9. 2004
    ..These data suggest that eosinophils contribute substantially to airway remodeling but are not obligatory for allergen-induced lung dysfunction, and support an important role for eosinophil-targeted therapies in chronic asthma...
  56. ncbi Interleukin-18 regulates both Th1 and Th2 responses
    K Nakanishi
    Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, Institute for Advanced Medical Sciences, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663 8501, Japan
    Annu Rev Immunol 19:423-74. 2001
    ..Therefore, the functions of IL-18 in vivo are very heterogeneous and complicated. In principle, IL-18 enhances the IL-12-driven Th1 immune responses, but it can also stimulate Th2 immune responses in the absence of IL-12...
  57. ncbi The two faces of IL-6 on Th1/Th2 differentiation
    Sean Diehl
    Immunobiology Program, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Given Medical Building D305, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Mol Immunol 39:531-6. 2002
    ..T cells (NFAT) leading to production of IL-4 by nai;ve CD4(+) T cells and their differentiation into effector Th2 cells. While the induction of Th2 differentiation by IL-6 is dependent upon endogenous IL-4, inhibition of Th1 ..
  58. pmc IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells
    Irah L King
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1001-7. 2009
    ..IL-4 not only promotes the differentiation of Th2 cells but is also critical for immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgE isotype-switched antibody responses...
  59. pmc Antagonism of microRNA-126 suppresses the effector function of TH2 cells and the development of allergic airways disease
    Joerg Mattes
    Faculty of Health, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Children s Hospital, Callaghan, NSW 2300, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18704-9. 2009
    ..In summary, this study presents a functional connection between miRNA expression and asthma pathogenesis, and our data suggest that targeting miRNA in the airways may lead to anti-inflammatory treatments for allergic asthma...
  60. pmc Regulation of the interleukin (IL)-12R beta 2 subunit expression in developing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells
    S J Szabo
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 185:817-24. 1997
    ..In this report we demonstrate that extinction of IL-12 signaling in early Th2 cells results from a selective loss of IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) beta 2 subunit expression...
  61. pmc A novel subset of CD4(+) T(H)2 memory/effector cells that produce inflammatory IL-17 cytokine and promote the exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma
    Yui Hsi Wang
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2479-91. 2010
    ..Our findings highlight the plasticity of T(H)2 memory cells and suggest that IL-17-producing T(H)2 cells may represent the key pathogenic T(H)2 cells promoting the exacerbation of allergic asthma...
  62. ncbi Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subset
    Marc Veldhoen
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Nat Immunol 9:1341-6. 2008
    ..Thus, transforming growth factor-beta constitutes a regulatory 'switch' that in combination with other cytokines can 'reprogram' effector T cell differentiation along different pathways...
  63. ncbi Thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression is increased in asthmatic airways and correlates with expression of Th2-attracting chemokines and disease severity
    Sun Ying
    Department of Asthma, Allergy and Respiratory Science, Guy s, King s and St Thomas GKT School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 174:8183-90. 2005
    ..Our data implicate TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10 in asthma pathogenesis. These may act partly through selective development and retention, or recruitment of Th2 cells bearing their receptors.
  64. pmc MyD88-dependent expansion of an immature GR-1(+)CD11b(+) population induces T cell suppression and Th2 polarization in sepsis
    Matthew J Delano
    Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1463-74. 2007
    ..GR-1(+)CD11b(+) cells contribute to sepsis-induced T cell suppression and preferential Th2 polarization...
  65. pmc Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections
    Timothy Kreider
    Department of Medicine, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, MSB 639, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 19:448-53. 2007
    ..parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4(+) Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils...
  66. ncbi Th17 immunity in patients with allergic asthma
    Yang Zhao
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital and Department of Respiratory Medicine, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan, China
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 151:297-307. 2010
    ..Recently, Th17 cells have been found to participate in the development of allergic asthma in animals. However, whether Th17 immunity contributes to the systemic immune responses in allergic asthmatic patients is unclear...
  67. ncbi Asthma: an epidemic of dysregulated immunity
    Dale T Umetsu
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 5208, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:715-20. 2002
    ..In the absence of such infections, T(H)2 cells--which are developmentally related to T(R) cells--develop instead and coordinate the development of asthmatic inflammation...
  68. pmc Allergic host defences
    Noah W Palm
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    Nature 484:465-72. 2012
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments...
  69. pmc Mast cells orchestrate type 2 immunity to helminths through regulation of tissue-derived cytokines
    Matthew R Hepworth
    Institute of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University of Berlin, D 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6644-9. 2012
    ..Our data reveal an innate IgE-independent role for MCs in orchestrating type 2 immune responses via the regulation of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP...
  70. pmc Repeated exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia results in CD4+ T cell-dependent and -independent pulmonary arterial remodeling in a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 microenvironment that requires interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10
    Andrew B Shreiner
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Infect Immun 80:388-97. 2012
    ..Remodeling was completely abrogated in IL-10-/- mice, suggesting that a second, CD4+ T cell-independent, IL-10-dependent pathway was also driving pulmonary arterial remodeling in response to repeated conidial exposure...
  71. ncbi 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3 has a direct effect on naive CD4(+) T cells to enhance the development of Th2 cells
    A Boonstra
    Department of Immunology, DNAX Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 167:4974-80. 2001
    ....
  72. pmc TSLP promotes interleukin-3-independent basophil haematopoiesis and type 2 inflammation
    Mark C Siracusa
    Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 477:229-33. 2011
    ....
  73. ncbi Endogenous IL-33 enhances Th2 cytokine production and T-cell responses during allergic airway inflammation
    Jennifer Louten
    Department of Immunology, Merck Research Laboratories formerly Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Int Immunol 23:307-15. 2011
    ..Our results suggest that IL-33 is sufficient and required for severe allergic inflammation in the lung and support the concept of IL-33 as a therapeutic target in allergic lung inflammation...
  74. pmc The potential role of interleukin-17 in severe asthma
    Yui Hsi Wang
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 11:388-94. 2011
    ..Understanding the biology of IL-17 in the context of allergic inflammation may be informative in the development of novel approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of asthma...
  75. pmc IL-10 blocks the development of resistance to re-infection with Schistosoma mansoni
    Mark S Wilson
    Immunopathogensis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Marlyand, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002171. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates that blocking IL-10 signalling during PZQ treatment can facilitate the development of protective immunity and provide a highly effective strategy to protect against reinfection with S. mansoni...
  76. pmc Pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by a Th2 immune response
    Eleen Daley
    St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY 10019, USA
    J Exp Med 205:361-72. 2008
    ....
  77. pmc Echinococcus granulosus antigen B impairs human dendritic cell differentiation and polarizes immature dendritic cell maturation towards a Th2 cell response
    Rachele Riganò
    Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Parassitarie ed Immunomediate, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Infect Immun 75:1667-78. 2007
    ..granulosus-stimulated DC maturation. These results suggest that E. granulosus escapes host immunosurveillance in two ways: by interfering with monocyte differentiation and by modulating DC maturation...
  78. pmc The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses
    Hideaki Kouzaki
    Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Immunol 186:4375-87. 2011
    ....
  79. pmc Preexisting helminth infection induces inhibition of innate pulmonary anti-tuberculosis defense by engaging the IL-4 receptor pathway
    Julius A Potian
    Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
    J Exp Med 208:1863-74. 2011
    ..The Th2 response can thus enhance the intracellular persistence of Mtb, in part by mediating the alternative activation of macrophages via the IL-4Rα signaling pathway...
  80. ncbi IL-33-activated dendritic cells are critical for allergic airway inflammation
    Anne Gaelle Besnard
    University of Orleans, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, Orleans, France
    Eur J Immunol 41:1675-86. 2011
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-33 activates DCs during antigen presentation and thereby drives a Th2-type response in allergic lung inflammation...
  81. ncbi Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants
    Bart N Lambrecht
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Ghent, De Pintelaan, Belgium
    Curr Opin Immunol 21:23-9. 2009
    ..How exactly these pathways interact remains to be determined...
  82. ncbi The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more
    T R Mosmann
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Immunol Today 17:138-46. 1996
    ....
  83. ncbi Dual Role of IL-22 in allergic airway inflammation and its cross-talk with IL-17A
    Anne Gaelle Besnard
    Université de Orléans and CNRS UMR6218, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, 3B rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:1153-63. 2011
    ..IL-22 has both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory properties. Its role in allergic lung inflammation has not been explored...
  84. ncbi New IL-17 family members promote Th1 or Th2 responses in the lung: in vivo function of the novel cytokine IL-25
    Stephen D Hurst
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 169:443-53. 2002
    ..Further, these data demonstrate the heterogeneity of function within the IL-17 cytokine family and suggest that IL-25 may be an important mediator of allergic disease via production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin...
  85. ncbi Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell paradigm in pregnancy
    Shigeru Saito
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
    Am J Reprod Immunol 63:601-10. 2010
    ..Here, we will review the immunological environment in normal pregnancy and complicated pregnancy, such as implantation failure, abortion, preterm labor, and preeclampsia from the viewpoint of the new Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigms...
  86. ncbi Biology of lung dendritic cells at the origin of asthma
    Bart N Lambrecht
    Department of Respiratory Diseases, Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, University Hospital Gent, Gent 9000, Belgium
    Immunity 31:412-24. 2009
    ..This review summarizes the recent progress on our understanding how DCs control Th2 cell immunity in the lung...
  87. ncbi Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms
    Rick M Maizels
    Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 3:733-44. 2003
    ..Long-lived parasites such as the helminths, however, are more remarkable for their ability to downregulate host immunity, protecting themselves from elimination and minimizing severe pathology in the host...
  88. ncbi Type 1/Type 2 immunity in infectious diseases
    B Spellberg
    Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 32:76-102. 2001
    ..Conversely, Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 and stimulate type 2 immunity, which is characterized by high ..
  89. pmc Welcome to the neighborhood: epithelial cell-derived cytokines license innate and adaptive immune responses at mucosal sites
    Steven A Saenz
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4539, USA
    Immunol Rev 226:172-90. 2008
    ....
  90. ncbi IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice
    P Launois
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Immunity 6:541-9. 1997
    ..Thus, the IL-4 required for Th2 development and susceptibility to L. major is produced by a restricted population of V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells after cognate interaction with a single antigen from this complex organism...
  91. pmc Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2
    H Hirai
    R and D Center, BML, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Exp Med 193:255-61. 2001
    ..In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Galphai-dependent manner...
  92. pmc Resolution of allergic inflammation and airway hyperreactivity is dependent upon disruption of the T1/ST2-IL-33 pathway
    Jennifer Kearley
    Leukocyte Biology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:772-81. 2009
    ..This represents an important consideration because failure to resolve allergen driven inflammation potentially leads to irreversible airway remodeling, characteristic of chronic asthma...
  93. pmc Conversion of Th2 memory cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppressing Th2-mediated allergic asthma
    Byung Seok Kim
    Laboratory of Immunology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:8742-7. 2010
    ..Our findings reveal the plasticity of Th2 memory cells and provide a strategy for adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases...
  94. pmc Cutting edge: basophils are transiently recruited into the draining lymph nodes during helminth infection via IL-3, but infection-induced Th2 immunity can develop without basophil lymph node recruitment or IL-3
    Sohee Kim
    Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Immunol 184:1143-7. 2010
    ..Our results reveal a previously unknown role of IL-3 in recruiting basophils to the LN and demonstrate that basophils are not necessarily associated with the development of Th2 immunity during parasite infection...
  95. ncbi TSLP: an epithelial cell cytokine that regulates T cell differentiation by conditioning dendritic cell maturation
    Yong Jun Liu
    Department of Immunology, Center of Cancer Immunology Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 25:193-219. 2007
    ..We review recent progress on how TSLP expressed within thymus and peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated central tolerance, peripheral T cell homeostasis, and inflammatory Th2 responses...
  96. pmc At homeostasis filarial infections have expanded adaptive T regulatory but not classical Th2 cells
    Simon Metenou
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 184:5375-82. 2010
    ..Interestingly, frequencies of Th17 and aTreg/Tr1s but not classical Th1 or Th2 cells were significantly increased in Fil(+) compared to Fil(-) individuals...
  97. pmc Distinct roles for IL-13 and IL-4 via IL-13 receptor alpha1 and the type II IL-4 receptor in asthma pathogenesis
    A Munitz
    Division of Allergy and Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7240-5. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive mechanistic analysis of the critical role by which IL-13Ralpha1 mediates allergic lung pathology and highlight unforeseen roles for the type II IL-4R...
  98. pmc Biochemical and functional characterization of three activated macrophage populations
    Justin P Edwards
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 80:1298-307. 2006
    ..produce IL-12 and give rise to Th1 cells, whereas Mphi-II produce high levels of IL-10 and thus, give rise to Th2 cells secreting IL-4 and IL-10. Mphi-II express two markers that may be used to identify them in tissue...
  99. ncbi Activated, but not resting human Th2 cells, in contrast to Th1 and T regulatory cells, produce soluble ST2 and express low levels of ST2L at the cell surface
    Sandrine Lécart
    INSERM U454, CHU Arnaud de Villeneuve, 371 Avenue Doyen Gaston Giraud, F 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France
    Eur J Immunol 32:2979-87. 2002
    ..expression of ST2L/ST2 transcripts was also found in short-term in vitro differentiated, activated CD4(+) Th2 cells. No expression of ST2L or ST2 mRNA was detected in any of the resting T cell subsets...
  100. pmc Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced, toll-like receptor 4-dependent T helper cell type 2 responses to inhaled antigen
    Stephanie C Eisenbarth
    Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Exp Med 196:1645-51. 2002
    ..These studies suggest that the level of LPS exposure can determine the type of inflammatory response generated and provide a potential mechanistic explanation of epidemiological data on endotoxin exposure and asthma prevalence...
  101. ncbi Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy
    R Raghupathy
    Dept of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait
    Immunol Today 18:478-82. 1997
    ..Here, evidence from murine and human pregnancy is presented to show that, since Th1-type cytokines mediate pregnancy loss, a shift towards Th1-type immunity may help resolve 'unexplained' pregnancy failure...

Research Grants74

  1. Immunomodulation of inflammatory disease by atorvastatin
    Scott Zamvil; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..treatment induced a Th2 bias that was associated with STAT6 phosphorylation, and promoted differentiation of Th2 cells that adoptively transferred protection to untreated mice...
  2. Cellular &Inflammatory Pathways in Ashtma &Allergic Diseases: From IgE to Cells
    LAWRENCE BARRY SCHWARTZ; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Upon recognition of their cognate antigen, Th2 cells produce cytokines that regulate IgE synthesis (IL-4 and IL-13), and growth and activation of eosinophils (IL-5) ..
  3. Modeling TH17 Cells in Acute GVHD
    JONATHAN STUART SERODY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Th2 cells have not been shown to mediate lethal GvHD in multiple different murine models suggesting that an unidentified ..
  4. SCHISTOSOME EGG INDUCED TH2 RESPONSES
    Edward J Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..infection induces a Th2 response, and the Th2 bias is critical, since in the absence of IL-4, a major product of Th2 cells, infected mice die rapidly after eggs begin to be produced by the parasites, due to an immunopathologic response ..
  5. TNF Family Members and Control of Fibrotic Disease
    Michael Croft; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mediated by deregulation of epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils may play roles in promoting the activity of these cell types...
  6. Role of natural indoles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Mitzi Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathway of activation of AhR, leading to suppression of proinflammatory Th1/Th17cells and induction of T regs/Th2 cells via epigenetic regulatory mechanisms such as DNA methylation and miRNA dysregulation that block ..
  7. A translational model of neuro-immune therapy for PTSD in veterans of the OEF/OIF
    Leonardo H Tonelli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In specific aim #2 we will test the effects of reconstituting RAG2-/- mice with differentiated TH2 cells and in specific aim #3 we will test the effects of reconstituting RAG2-/- mice with differentiated TH1 cells in ..
  8. Role of T Cell Mediated Immunity In Emotion And Stress Responsiveness
    Leonardo H Tonelli; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..RAG2-/- mice will be reconstituted with either in vitro differentiated TH1 or TH2 cells obtained from RAG2 D011.10 transgenic mice...
  9. Role of interleukin-17 and iNKT cells in COPD
    ABDALA EL KHAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..studies showed that bronchoalveolar fluid lavage (BALF) from patients with COPD have an increased number of Th2 cells making the distinction between these two diseases more complex...
  10. CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR DYNAMICS IN GRANULOMA FORMATION
    Stephen W Chensue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The studies proposed herein will test the hypothesis that pathogen- elicited CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells have different chemokine requirements for sustenance of effector and central memory function...
  11. PARTICIPATION OF PARP-1 IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ASTHMA
    Hamid Boulares; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mice 2, 27 may be linked to a number of causes that include defects in sensitization, in the generation of Th2 cells, in the recruitment of Th2 cells to the lungs, in cytokine expression, or in a combination of two or more of ..
  12. Vitamin D and the Immune System
    Lawrence Steinman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on the production of various cytokines including those produced by TH17 cells (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22), TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5), regulatory T cells (IL-10 and TGF?) and innate immune cells (IL-23, IL-12, IL6 and the anti-..
  13. Trefoil Factors Regulate Th2 Immunity
    DEBROSKI R HERBERT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>TH2 cells are also central drivers of allergic diseases and asthma, which affects more than 100 million people world-wide...
  14. TSLP and Childhood Asthma
    Steven F Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, the mechanisms underlying the preferential activation by environmental allergens of Th2 cells in atopic individuals still remain obscure...
  15. Flexibility and Commitment in Post-Effector Cd4 Lymphocytes
    Mark R Boothby; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is central to immunity against many intracellular pathogens, but induction of this gene is blocked in activated Th2 cells. In contrast to the information available about mechanisms programming the acute effector response, relatively ..
  16. Regulation of vitamin A metabolism during Schistosoma mansoni infection
    PNG LOKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have previously shown that AAMs could bias T helper cell differentiation pathways from Th1 to Th2 cells and RA might therefore provide a mechanism...
  17. Controlling Th2 immunity by tuning CXCL13 dependent DC migration in lymph nodes
    Frances E Lund; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By contrast, IL-4 producing Th2 cells are not protective and mice (and humans) that make a Th2- dominated response to this pathogen are highly ..
  18. Recruitment of CX3CR1-GFP+ monocytes during Schistosoma mansoni infection.
    PNG LOKE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..differentiation in liver granulomas using the CX3CR1- GFP reporter mice;(2) to determine the role of CD4+ TH2 cells in the recruitment of CX3CR1-GFPhi cells by S. mansoni eggs in the liver granulomas...
  19. Perinatal exposure to environmental estrogens and asthma pathogenesis
    Terumi Midoro Horiuti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of the T helper cell system to allergen frequently occurs in utero or in the early postnatal period, when Th2 cells normally dominate the immune response...
  20. Asb2 in CD4+ T cell lineage differentiation and its plasticity
    Xiao Hong Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Interestingly, genome-wide studies have revealed that Asb2 is highly expressed in Th2 cells and repressed in Treg cells...
  21. Mouse models for the functional analysis of asthma-associated human polymorphisms
    Donata Vercelli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..active than wild type (WT) IL13, whereas IL13-1112C>T in the 5'block increases IL13 transcription in Th2 cells and IL13 secretion ex vivo...
  22. Role of the Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in the Development and Treatment of Asthma
    Kun Ping Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cells to produce cytokines, including IL-33, which activates interleukin-1 receptor 1 (ST2) signaling in Th2 cells and Th2 target cells to induce asthma phenotypes]...
  23. The role of CBir1 flagellin-specific Th17 and Th1 effector cells in colitis
    Yingzi Cong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CD4+ T (Th17) cells have recently been defined as a separate effector T cell lineage distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. Both Th17 and Th1 responses are elevated in animal models of colitis and in patients with inflammatory bowel ..
  24. Oxidative stress in asthma initiation
    Sanjiv Sur; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..components of the adaptive immune system namely Class II MHC on antigen presenting cells, and T-cell receptor on Th2 cells, to induce late phase asthma phenotype...
  25. Role of Th1 Immune Responses in the Pathogenesis of Hypertensive Kidney Injury
    Steven D Crowley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Whereas Th2 cells regulate antibody responses, Th1 cells secrete IFN-g leading to activation of macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T ..
  26. Regulation of TH2 memory/effector cells during allergic inflammation
    Yui Hsi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..TH17 and TH2 cytokine production and GATA3 and ROR?t co-expression at a single cell level;termed IL-17-TH2 cells. Mirroring the findings in humans, IL-17-TH2 cells could be found primarily in inflamed lung, but not other ..
  27. RELM-alpha regulation of hookworm-induced lung inflammation
    MEERA GOH NAIR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although it is clear that Th2 cells play an essential role in limiting parasite burden, these same responses also cause chronic helminth-induced ..
  28. Alternaria and ribonucleases in Th2-type immunity
    Hirohito Kita; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to result from dysregulated immune responses to environmental proteins and organisms, which are mediated by Th2 cells. However, several fundamental questions still remain...
  29. REGULATION OF NEONATAL IMMUNITY
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..advances in this field indicated that immunity develops in the neonate but the responses are biased towards Th2 cells producing IL-4 cytokine and thus do not support the usual IFNy-mediated inflammatory reactions...
  30. Defining modes of helper T cell motility within inflamed tissues
    Michael Glen Overstreet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Th1 cells moved rapidly with amoeboid-like motility while Th2 cells crawled with mesenchymal-like motility...
  31. Genes, Home Allergens and Asthma in Puerto Rican Children
    JUAN CARLOS CELEDON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 genes that control the development and regulation of T-helper (Th)1 cells, Th2 cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and may therefore influence the pathogenesis and severity of asthma in Puerto ..
  32. Mechanisms of Pulmonary Mast Cell Recruitment and Maturation
    MICHAEL FAGERSTEN GURISH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on CD4+ cells and the cytokines interleukin (IL)-9 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) although not on Th1 or Th2 cells. Using antibody-mediated depletion, null mice, and selective reconstitution, this project will test the ..
  33. PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNOREGULATION OF PLP-INDUCED R-EAE
    Stephen D Miller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cytokine staining, and MHC class II tetramers) to precisely quantitate the temporal appearance of Th1/Th2 cells in peripheral lymphoid organs, peripheral blood and the CMS in mouse models of relapsing, chronic and acute EAE ..
  34. Asthma Inflammation Research (AIR)
    Serpil C Erzurum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. Genetic and epigenetic contributions to the neonatal Th2 bias
    REBECCA D ADKINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In adult Th2 cells, coordinate expression of high levels of Th2 cytokines requires an intergenic regulatory region called conserved ..
  36. Role and Activation Status of IRS1/2 in IL-4-induced Protection from Cell Death.
    HOLLY A PORTER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    IL-4 is a cytokine with many functions that is produced mainly by TH2 cells, basophils, and mast cells, but is also expressed by NK T cells, gamma/delta T cells, and eosinophils...
  37. TSLP and the Pathophysiology of Asthma
    Steven F Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the mechanisms underlying the preferential activation by environmental allergens of Th2 cells in atopic individuals still remain obscure...
  38. Role of Novel T Cell Costimulatory Pathways in Allograft Rejection and Tolerance
    Mohamed H Sayegh; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..TIM-1 is expressed by activated Th1 and Th2 cells and its expression is sustained preferentially in terminally differentiated Th2 cells...
  39. TSLP in Th2 Immunity and Allergic Airway Inflammation
    Baohua Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..factors acting in concert with genetic predisposition leading to the preferential development and activation of Th2 cells by allergens in asthma and allergic individuals...
  40. T Cell Tolerance in Neonates
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We then used this model to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the lack of Th1 and excess of Th2 cells in the response of the newborn...
  41. The Role of STAT3 in Allergic Inflammation and Airway Remodeling
    Amy Simon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..significantly decreased production of both Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the airway, as well as decreased lung Th2 cells, suggesting that STAT3 is critical for Th2 cell function and trafficking in the lung in response to HDM...
  42. PARP activity in allergic inflammation
    Mark H Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..IFN- plays a major role in Th1 responses but inhibits the development of Th2 cells, while IL-4 promotes Th2 immunity and inhibits Th1 differentiation...
  43. Chemokines and Th2 Cell Trafficking in Asthma
    Andrew D Luster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since allergen-specific Th2 cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma, understanding the mechanisms that control their specific ..
  44. Role of Type I Interferon in Allergic Asthma
    SARAH RUTH GONZALES-VAN HORN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As the development of Th2 cells is important during the onset of asthma, understanding the effects of this cytokine on memory Th2 cells will be ..
  45. IFN-Gamma Gene Regulation in T Cells and NK Cells
    Thomas M Aune; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms underlying formation of long range histone marks across the Ifng locus in developing effector Th1 and Th2 cells and functional consequences created by these marks...
  46. Type 2 Immunity: Initiation, Maintenance, Homeostasis and Pathology
    JAMES WAVELL AIKEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diseases reflect pathologic outcomes of type 2 immunity, and are characterized by infiltration of tissues with Th2 cells and eosinophils, by elevations in serum IgE, and by alterations in epithelial and mucosal biology...
  47. Innate vs Adaptive Contributions to Th2 Pathology in Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome
    Deborah J Fowell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..elevated Type 2 response in the absence of WASp may be driven by innate immune cells rather than by classic CD4+ Th2 cells. Understanding specific effector defects in discrete leukocyte subsets will be critical for the appropriate ..
  48. Immunomodulation of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis by Gut Parasites
    Zsuzsanna Fabry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and reshaping the pro-inflammatory systemic environment in parallel with the activation of anti- inflammatory Th2 cells (Specific Aim 1), (2) increasing the level of regulatory cells and mediators in the peripheral circulation (..
  49. Parasite Immunity Orchestrated by Th2 Cells
    Richard M Locksley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Parasitic helminths elicit host immune responses characterized by infiltration of tissues vi/ith Th2 cells, basophils and eosinophils, and the generation of high IgE in serum...
  50. Control of chromatin landscapes in effector T cell lineage specifications
    Casey T Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..structure associated with the mutually exclusive expression of Ifng by Th1 cells, and 114, 115, and 1113 by Th2 cells, a detailed understanding of the interplay of multiple distal regulatory cis-elements in defining ..
  51. IL-13 Associated Eosinophil Lung Responses
    Marc E Rothenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Clinical and experimental investigations have demonstrated a strong correlation between Th2 cells, eosinophils and allergic lung disease severity suggesting an integral role for both of these cells in asthma...
  52. Dendritic cell produced IL-33 in Th2 responses
    Anne I Sperling; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our current understanding of these diseases demonstrates that Th2 cells play a major role in the inflammatory responses...
  53. Type I Interferon-Regulated T Helper Development
    David Farrar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, Th2 cells are the key subset of cells that orchestrate the inflammation of asthma through the secretion of the effector ..
  54. Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Foxo factors
    Stephen M Hedrick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proinflammatory, and accelerate the development of inflammatory macrophages, whereas CD4 T cells in the form of Th2 cells and T regulatory cells appear to suppress macrophage-mediated inflammation...
  55. Naturally occurring T regulatory cells control airway hyperresponsiveness
    ERWIN WILLIAM GELFAND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a protective role for regulatory T cells in allergic disease where they exhibit control over effector Th1 and Th2 cells. Naturally-occurring CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (nTregs) isolated from the lungs of naive mice and ..
  56. The interdependence between T and B cells in Th2 cell differentiation
    Markus Mohrs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our preliminary data provide two key findings. First, IL-4R1-/- mice initiate the development of Th2 cells early on, but in contrast to wt mice, their expansion and maturation is aborted...
  57. Immunobiology of MINA53
    Mark Bix; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In humans, IL4 and TH2 cells critically impact a wide array of diseases, a prime example of which is bronchial asthma where genetic association studies have repeatedly identified both the gene locus ..
  58. Control of Airway Tolerance
    Michael Croft; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the lung, directly antagonize development of the iTreg and instead favor the development of pathogenic Th2 cells. Most importantly, these PRR drive the lung response through two cytokines, TSLP and IL-25, and a costimulatory ..
  59. High Throughput Screening (HTS) to Discover Graft-Versus-Host Disease Inhibitors
    Chao Yie Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sST2 acts as a decoy receptor for IL-33, the only known ligand for ST2, driving Th2 cells toward a Th1 phenotype...
  60. Inhalation Tolerance, IgE and gamma/delta T cells
    Willi K Born; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies should provide a better understanding of natural, 34 T cell-mediated, control mechanisms in allergic responses, and their potential uses for therapeutic intervention. ..
  61. Suppression of Allograft Rejection by A Novel Protein ESAT-6
    Buka Samten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will investigate the impact of ESAT-6 on T helper cell differentiation into Th1/Th17/Th2 cells and on T cell development into regulatory T (Treg) and memory T (Tmem) cells in the context of alloimmune ..
  62. The role of PU.1 in T helper cell heterogeneity
    Mark H Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In the previous grant period we demonstrated that PU.1 is also expressed in T cells, specifically in Th2 cells. PU...
  63. The p62/atypical PKC signaling complex in Th2 differentiation and asthma
    Jorge Moscat; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The pathology of asthma and other allergic diseases is associated with aberrant activation of CD4+ Th2 cells. Recent work has implicated several signaling molecules that are known to be involved in the control of cell ..
  64. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MHC LINKED SUSCEPTIBILITY
    Kai Wucherpfennig; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of particular interest because they are the major source of IL-4 for the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells. The relevance of findings in the transgenic mouse model for the pathogenesis of the human disease will be ..
  65. Innate Immunity in Myocarditis
    Sally A Huber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have shown that + cells selectively kill CD4+Th2 cells leaving the CD4+Th1 cells intact...
  66. INTERLEUKIN 5 GENE EXPRESSION AND LUNG INFLAMMATION
    Anuradha Ray; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This has led us to hypothesize that : 1. Activation of GATA-3 plays a major role in IL-5 gene expression in Th2 cells. 2...
  67. ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN T CELL MEDIATED COLITIS
    James Lillard; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..T helper type l (Thl) cells secreting TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma have been emphasized in ulcerative colitis, while Th2 cells may be more closely associated with Crohn's disease...
  68. MICROBES, DENDRITIC CELL SUBSETS AND T-CELL IMMUNITY
    Bali Pulendran; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cells differentiate into Thl cells, which produce IFNy; in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5 & ILl0) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the ..
  69. REGULATION OF DIABETES BY CHEMOKINES
    Linda Bradley; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..and LT are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta cells and disease onset whereas Th2 cells which produce IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do not cause disease due to protective effects of IL-4...
  70. TH2 CELLS AND CYTOKINES AND ALLOGRAFT TOLERANCE
    Jeffrey Punch; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..one of two distinct phenotypes: TH1 cells that respond to IL-12 and secrete primarily IL-2 and IFN gamma, or TH2 cells that secrete primarily IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13...
  71. GENE EXPRESSION IN CTCL PATIENTS IN IL 12 CLINICAL TRIAL
    Louise Showe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..of cytokine receptor gene expression (IL-12R and IFN-gamma R) in CTCL supports the relationship of SS cells to Th2 cells in six of seven SS patients, but also suggests that patients may vary from one another in this respect depending ..
  72. ASTHMA, ALLERGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASES COOP RES CTR
    David Chaplin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The second concerns the mechanism by which Th1 and Th2 cells synergize to establish eosinophilic inflammatory responses in experimental murine airway hypersensitivity...
  73. ETOH A COFACTOR IN AIDS--MODULATION OF TH1 AND TH2 CELLS
    Shirish Barve; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Initially we will determine if EtOH affects (a) differentiation of Th cells to Th1 and Th2 cells or (b) the preexisting differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells...
  74. Immune Tolerance in the Newborn Mouse
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..10 T cells were traced with KJ1-26 antibody and their responses analyzed. We have evidence that both Th1 and Th2 cells developed upon priming with antigen on the day of birth...