Summary: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
Publications196 found, 100 shown here
- Vocal tract function in birdsong production: experimental manipulation of beak movementsW J Hoese
Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology Group, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
J Exp Biol 203:1845-55. 2000Kinematic analyses have demonstrated that the extent to which a songbird's beak is open when singing correlates with the acoustic frequencies of the sounds produced, suggesting that beak movements function to modulate the acoustic ..
- Development of beak polymorphism in the African seedcracker, Pyrenestes ostrinusCeline Clabaut
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Evol Dev 11:636-46. 2009The black-bellied African seedcracker, Pyrenestes ostrinus, exhibits a non-sex-related polymorphism in beak size that enables the small-, large-, and mega-billed morphs to utilize different trophic niches...
- The role of the magnetite-based receptors in the beak in pigeon homingRoswitha Wiltschko
Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayerstrasse 70, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Curr Biol 20:1534-8. 2010Magnetite-containing structures in the upper beak of birds have been described as putative magnetoreceptors [1-4], but so far, all positive evidence indicating their influence on behavior has come from laboratory studies using rather ..
- How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birdsRichard A Schneider
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, 533 Parnassus Avenue, U 453, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Bioessays 29:1-6. 2007..momentum, a recent paper tackles one of the foremost topics in evolution, that is the origin of species-specific beak morphology in Darwin's finches...
- Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infectionAlexandra I Brower
Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Avian Pathol 39:223-5. 2010Proliferative growth, consistent with poxvirus infection, encapsulated plastic beak-bits and covered the dorsal portion of the upper beak and nares of adult male and female captive-raised Hungarian partridges...
- Molecular shaping of the beakPing Wu
Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Science 305:1465-6. 2004b>Beak shape is a classic example of evolutionary diversification. Beak development in chicken and duck was used to examine morphological variations among avian species...
- Ultrastructural analysis of a putative magnetoreceptor in the beak of homing pigeonsGerta Fleissner
Zoologisches Institut, J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, D 60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
J Comp Neurol 458:350-60. 2003..microscopic methods, we investigated the subcellular organization of afferent trigeminal terminals in the upper beak of the homing pigeon, Columba livia, which are about 5 microm in diameter and contain superparamagnetic magnetite (..
- Vocal mechanics in Darwin's finches: correlation of beak gape and song frequencyJeffrey Podos
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
J Exp Biol 207:607-19. 2004Recent studies of vocal mechanics in songbirds have identified a functional role for the beak in sound production...
- Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birdsGerald Falkenberg
Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany
PLoS ONE 5:e9231. 2010..pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system...
- Beak gape dynamics during song in the zebra finchFranz Goller
Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
J Neurobiol 59:289-303. 2004..To determine the contribution of beak movements to sound modification, we studied the beak gape patterns in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
- Upper beak truncation in chicken embryos with the cleft primary palate mutation is due to an epithelial defect in the frontonasal massMary E MacDonald
Dalhousie University Medical School, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Dev Dyn 230:335-49. 2004In this study, we used the chicken mutant strain known as cleft primary palate (cpp) to study the mechanisms of beak outgrowth. cpp mutants have complete truncation of the upper beak with normal development of the lower beak...
- A geometric morphometric appraisal of beak shape in Darwin's finchesD J Foster
Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
J Evol Biol 21:263-75. 2008b>Beak size and shape in Darwin's finches have traditionally been quantified using a few univariate measurements (length, depth, width)...
- Choreography of song, dance and beak movements in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)H Williams
Biology Department, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
J Exp Biol 204:3497-506. 2001..finches sing their learned songs while performing a courtship display that includes movements of the body, head and beak. The coordination of these display components was assessed by analyzing video recordings of courting males...
- A novel concept of Fe-mineral-based magnetoreception: histological and physicochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeonsGerta Fleissner
AG NCR, FB Biowissenschaften, J W Goethe Universitat, Siesmayerstr 70, D 60054, Frankfurt a M, Germany
Naturwissenschaften 94:631-42. 2007..and X-ray analyses support the hypothesis that delicate iron-containing structures in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons might serve as a biological magnetometer...
- Engineering stem cells into organs: topobiological transformations demonstrated by beak, feather, and other ectodermal organ morphogenesisCheng-Ming Chuong
Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
Curr Top Dev Biol 72:237-74. 2006..Promises and problems in reconstitute feather/hair follicles and other organs are discussed. Finally, simple modification at the topobiological level may lead to novel morphology for natural selection at the evolution level...
- Testing for the presence of magnetite in the upper-beak skin of homing pigeonsLanxiang Tian
Paleomagnetism and Geochronology Laboratory SKL LE, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
Biometals 20:197-203. 2007We carried out magnetic and nonmagnetic experiments on fresh, upper-beak skin tissue samples isolated from six pairs of homing pigeons to test whether the tissue contains magnetite particles...
- The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finchesArhat Abzhanov
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 442:563-7. 2006..work has shown that even small differences in any of the three major dimensions (depth, width and length) of the beak have major consequences for the overall fitness of the birds...
- The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphologyR A Schneider
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 533 Parnassus Avenue, Suite U-453, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Science 299:565-8. 2003Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying differences in beak morphology likely involve interactions among multiple embryonic populations...
- Evolutionary consequences of human disturbance in a rainforest bird species from Central AfricaThomas B Smith
Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California Los Angeles, 619 Charles Young Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Mol Ecol 17:58-71. 2008..Results suggest that anthropogenic habitat changes may have evolutionary consequences, with implications for conservation and restoration...
- Morphoregulation of avian beaks: comparative mapping of growth zone activities and morphological evolutionPing Wu
Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
Dev Dyn 235:1400-12. 2006Avian beak diversity is a classic example of morphological evolution...
- Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: an experimental testKevin J McGraw
1 Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Am Nat 162:704-12. 2003..in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males incorporate carotenoid pigments into their beak to attract mates...
- Bmp4 and morphological variation of beaks in Darwin's finchesArhat Abzhanov
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Science 305:1462-5. 2004..Darwin's finches are a classic example of species diversification by natural selection. Their impressive variation in beak morphology is associated with the exploitation of a variety of ecological niches, but its developmental basis is ..
- Developmental biology. Bonemaking protein shapes beaks of Darwin's finchesElizabeth Pennisi
Science 305:1383. 2004
- Convergent evolution of Darwin's finches caused by introgressive hybridization and selectionPeter R Grant
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 1003, USA
Evolution 58:1588-99. 2004..An increase in bluntness or robustness in the beak of G. scandens after 1990 can only partly be explained by selection...
- Stabilizing natural selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual trait in a passerine birdA Gregoire
Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
J Evol Biol 17:1152-6. 2004..We suggest that the consideration of early selection and the adoption of refined statistical methods may reveal patterns of selection in the wild that have, as yet, remained undetected...
- Sex steroid dependence of carotenoid-based coloration in female zebra finchesKevin J McGraw
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Physiol Behav 88:347-52. 2006..I experimentally and correlationally investigated the effect of T on the color of the carotenoid-based beak in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
- A new prey-detection mechanism for kiwi (Apteryx spp.) suggests convergent evolution between paleognathous and neognathous birdsSusan Cunningham
Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
J Anat 211:493-502. 2007..Therefore we cite the similar bill-tip anatomy of these two families as an example of convergent evolution across a deep taxonomic divide...
- Geographic variation in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina): local differentiation, polyphyly or hybridization?Nirmal K Bhagabati
The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
Mol Ecol 13:2721-34. 2004..Alternatively, ancient hybridization, followed by selection for scrub-jay like traits in some Mexican jay populations, might have given rise to the observed variation...
- The role of marker traits in the assortative mating within red crossbills, Loxia curvirostra complexL K Snowberg
Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
J Evol Biol 20:1924-32. 2007....
- Bill colour and correlates of male quality in blackbirds: an analysis using canonical ordinationA Bright
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
Behav Processes 65:123-32. 2004..Future studies should elucidate the relationship between bill colour and behavioural measures such as aggressiveness, territory size, song rate and nest attendance...
- Evolution. Competition drives big beaks out of businessElizabeth Pennisi
Science 313:156. 2006
- Evolutionary biology: the power of natural selectionAndrew P Hendry
Nature 433:694-5. 2005
- Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?Thomas L Parchman
Department of Biology, MSC 3AF, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 8001, USA
Evolution 61:2142-53. 2007....
- Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finchesPeter R Grant
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1003, USA
Science 313:224-6. 2006..Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G...
- Developmental mechanisms facilitating the evolution of bills and quillsRichard A Schneider
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, CA 94143 0514, USA
J Anat 207:563-73. 2005....
- Interspecific variation in the use of carotenoid-based coloration in birds: diet, life history and phylogenyV A Olson
Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
J Evol Biol 18:1534-46. 2005....
- Maternal inheritance and rapid evolution of sexual size dimorphism: passive effects or active strategies?Alexander V Badyaev
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Am Nat 166:S17-30. 2005....
- A novel lipoprotein-mediated mechanism controlling sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbirdKevin J McGraw
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14583, USA
Physiol Behav 87:103-8. 2006..In previous work, we showed that variation in the sexually attractive red carotenoid-colored beak of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) was predicted not by the amount of food or pigments ingested, but by ..
- Darwin's finchesPeter R Grant
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Curr Biol 15:R614-5. 2005
- Do carotenoid-based sexual traits signal the availability of non-pigmentary antioxidants?Sophie Bertrand
Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7103, quai St Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
J Exp Biol 209:4414-9. 2006..To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that a non-pigmentary antioxidant enhances the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait...
- A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pineA M Siepielski
Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
J Evol Biol 18:1042-9. 2005..In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation...
- Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematicsSérgio Roberto Posso
Laboratório de Vertebrados, Departamento Ciências Biológicas, FC, UNESP, Bauru, Brasil
Eur J Morphol 42:163-72. 2005....
- Carotenoids modulate the trade-off between egg production and resistance to oxidative stress in zebra finchesSophie Bertrand
Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7103, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, quai St Bernard, France
Oecologia 147:576-84. 2006..This result therefore suggests that carotenoid availability can modulate the trade-off between reproduction and resistance to oxidative stress...
- Small clades at the periphery of passerine morphological spaceRobert E Ricklefs
Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St Louis, Missouri 63121 4499, USA
Am Nat 165:651-9. 2005..I use principal component (PC) scores based on eight log-transformed measurements of the wing, tail, leg, and beak to test the hypothesis that small clades (<or=5 species) occupy peripheral positions in morphological space...
- Within-male melanin-based plumage and bill elaboration in male house sparrowsRadovan Václav
Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas CSIC, General Segura 1, E 04001 Almería, Spain
Zoolog Sci 23:1073-8. 2006..My results indicate that size, brightness, and chroma of the bib, but also chroma of other deeply colored patches, convey redundant information about the signaler's quality in male house sparrows...
- Adaptive significance of avian beak morphology for ectoparasite controlDale H Clayton
Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Proc Biol Sci 272:811-7. 2005The beaks of Darwin's finches and other birds are among the best known examples of adaptive evolution. Beak morphology is usually interpreted in relation to its critical role in feeding...
- Evolution of bite force in Darwin's finches: a key role for head widthA Herrel
Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerpen, Belgium
J Evol Biol 18:669-75. 2005..We find that bite force correlates strongly with beak depth and width but only weakly or not at all with beak length, a result that is consistent with prior ..
- Ecological adaptation and species recognition drives vocal evolution in neotropical suboscine birdsNathalie Seddon
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Evolution 59:200-15. 2005..To my knowledge, these data provide the first direct evidence that species recognition and ecological adaptation operate in tandem, and that the interplay between these factors drives the evolution of mating signals in suboscine birds...
- Seed husking time and maximal bite force in finchesM A A Van der Meij
Department of Evolutionary Morphology, Institute of Biology Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
J Exp Biol 209:3329-35. 2006....
- The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pineE T Mezquida
Department of Biology, MSC 3AF, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA
J Evol Biol 18:348-57. 2005..These results suggest that Sciurus has influenced both the geographic selection mosaics for crossbills and conifers and the adaptive radiation of crossbills in Eurasia much like Tamiasciurus has done in the North America...
- Ecological speciation in South Atlantic island finchesPeter G Ryan
Percy Fitz Patrick Institute, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
Science 315:1420-3. 2007..Our study suggests that the buntings have undergone parallel ecological speciation...
- An experimental test of the dose-dependent effect of carotenoids and immune activation on sexual signals and antioxidant activityCarlos Alonso-Alvarez
Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai St Bernard, CC237, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
Am Nat 164:651-9. 2004..how carotenoid availability and immune activation affected the amount of circulating plasma carotenoids, the beak color, and the antioxidant defenses (assessed as the resistance of red blood cells to a controlled free radical ..
- The effects of different beak trimming techniques on plasma corticosterone and performance criteria in Single Comb White Leghorn hensG S Davis
Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7608, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7608, USA
Poult Sci 83:1624-8. 2004DeKalb XL chicks were given a beak trim at 6 d of age (6DP) with a 2.8-mm gauge and a beak trim at 11 wk (11WB) with a block cut approximately 2 mm anterior to the nasal openings...
- Functional variation among frugivorous birds: implications for rainforest seed dispersal in a fragmented subtropical landscapeC Moran
Rainforest Cooperative Research Centre and Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia
Oecologia 141:584-95. 2004....
- Environmental stress affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait in male zebra finchesCyril Eraud
Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5561, Biogéosciences, Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21 000 Dijon, France
J Exp Biol 210:3571-8. 2007..The physiological functions related to self-maintenance that might have benefited from carotenoid saving are discussed...
- Evolution. Colorful males flaunt their healthElizabeth Pennisi
Science 300:29-31. 2003
- Carotenoid modulation of immune function and sexual attractiveness in zebra finchesJonathan D Blount
Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
Science 300:125-7. 2003..In this study, we show that manipulation of dietary carotenoid supply invokes parallel changes in cell-mediated immune function and sexual attractiveness in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
- The 'island rule' in birds: medium body size and its ecological explanationSonya M Clegg
Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
Proc Biol Sci 269:1359-65. 2002....
- Evolutionary biology. Darwin's avian muses continue to evolveCarl Zimmer
Science 296:633-5. 2002
- Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finchesPeter R Grant
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA. prgrantprinceton.edu
Science 296:707-11. 2002..fortis (medium ground finch) and Geospiza scandens (cactus finch) changed several times in body size and two beak traits...
- Ecology and evolution. Darwin's hummingbirdsDouglas L Altshuler
Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91104, USA
Science 300:588-9. 2003
- Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird associationEthan J Temeles
Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 USA
Science 300:630-3. 2003....
- Niche expansion leads to small-scale adaptive divergence along an elevation gradient in a medium-sized passerine birdJohn E McCormack
Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Proc Biol Sci 275:2155-64. 2008..These results demonstrate that niche expansion can lead to adaptive divergence despite gene flow between parapatric populations along an elevation gradient, providing information on a key precursor to ecological speciation...
- [Adaptations of the hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) to leaf-eating. Morphological characteristics and functional features of its bill and hyoid apparatus]Léonid P Korzoun
Université d Etat Lomonossov de Moscou, Vorobievi Gori 1199899, B 234 Moscou, Russie
C R Biol 326:75-94. 2003..Such a hypothesis would implicate a counter-selective evolutionary reversion...
- Development. The bills of qucks and duailsPaul Trainor
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
Science 299:523-4. 2003
- Avian skin diseasesJ H Gill
Canley Heights Veterinary Clinic, Canley Heights, Australia
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 4:463-92, vi. 2001..Psittacine circovirus, which causes psittacine beak and feather disease, can devastate breeding programs and cause masked distress to new bird owners and their young ..
- Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirdsIrby J Lovette
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
Proc Biol Sci 269:37-42. 2002....
- Carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird (Turdus merula)R Baeta
Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
Proc Biol Sci 275:427-34. 2008..Carotenoids are thus traded off between host physiological response to parasites and secondary sexual traits. Further investigations are required to determine the physiological mechanisms that govern this trade-off...
- Morphological shifts in island-dwelling birds: the roles of generalist foraging and niche expansionSusan N Scott
Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
Evolution Int J Org Evolution 57:2147-56. 2003....
- On the key trophic adaptation of timaliid birds (Timaliidae; Passeriformes; Aves)M V Kalyakin
Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia
Dokl Biol Sci 417:469-71. 2007
- Development of furnished cages for laying hensM C Appleby
University of Edinburgh, ADAS Gleadthorpe, UK
Br Poult Sci 43:489-500. 2002..No birds were beak trimmed...
- Experimentally induced selenosis of adult mallard ducks: clinical signs, lesions, and toxicologyD O'Toole
The Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, Laramie 82070, USA
Vet Pathol 34:330-40. 1997..alopecia of the scalp and dorsal cervical midline, broken or lost digital nails, and necrosis of the tip of the beak (maxillary nail)...
- Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field observationsRoss G Cooper
Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, Africa
Trop Anim Health Prod 39:439-42. 2007..Poisoning from Sarcostemma viminale (Melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death...
- Avian circovirus diseases: lessons for the study of PMWSDaniel Todd
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Stoney Road, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, UK
Vet Microbiol 98:169-74. 2004The diseases associated with psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), pigeon circovirus (PiCV) and goose circovirus (GoCV), which can be classified with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) as members of the genus Circovirus of the ..
- Comparative anatomy of the paratympanic organ (vitali organ) in the middle ear of birds and non-avian vertebrates: focus on alligators, parakeets and armadillosJason A Neeser
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nev 89557, USA
Brain Behav Evol 60:65-79. 2002..Bird species with significant upper beak movement lack a PTO, suggesting that PTO function is incompatible with upper beak movement...
- Keratinization and lipogenesis in epidermal derivatives of the zebrafinch, Taeniopygia guttata castanotis (Aves, Passeriformes, Ploecidae) during embryonic developmentLorenzo Alibardi
Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
J Morphol 251:294-308. 2002Little is known of the lipid content of beta-keratin-producing cells such as those of feathers, scutate scales, and beak. The sequence of epidermal layers in some apteria and in interfollicular epidermis in the zebrafinch embryo (..
- Molecular characterization of a poxvirus isolated from an American flamingo (Phoeniconais ruber rubber)Shankar P Mondal
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Avian Dis 52:520-5. 2008An avian poxvirus from the beak scab of an American flamingo (Phoeniconais ruber rubber) was isolated by inoculation on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryos...
- Clinical analysis of thoracic ossified ligamentum flavum without ventral compressive lesionSang Hoon Yoon
Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam si, Gyeonggi Do, South Korea
Eur Spine J 20:216-23. 2011..mJOA) scores and recovery rate (RR), Modic changes, the axial (fused or non-fused) and sagittal (omega or beak) configurations of OLF, and the ratios of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the ..
- Pop hole passages and welfare in furnished cages for laying hensH Wall
Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Br Poult Sci 45:20-7. 2004..No birds were beak-trimmed. 3...
- Cell structure of developing barbs and barbules in downfeathers of the chick: Central role of barb ridge morphogenesis for the evolution of feathersL Alibardi
Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Italy
J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol 37:19-41. 2005..and is replaced by cells containing alpha-keratin (interfollicular-apteric epidermis), scale beta-keratin (scales), beak beta-keratin (beak), and claw beta-keratin (claws)...
- Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gullD Todd
Veterinary Sciences Division, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Stormont, Belfast, BT4 3SD, UK
Avian Pathol 36:75-81. 2007..the seven additional genus members indicated that FiCV and GuCV were more closely related to canary circovirus, beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus, and that FiCV and canary circovirus were the most closely related ..
- Histopathological and ultrastructural studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the liver of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryoMaryam Shams Lahijani
Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, G C, Tehran, Iran
Electromagn Biol Med 28:391-413. 2009..Morphological observations indicated exencephalic embryos, embryos with asymmetrical faces, crossed beak, shorter upper beak, deformed hind limbs, gastroschesis, anophthalmia, and microphthalmia...
- Redescription of Psilotricha acuminata Stein, 1859 and revisions of the genera Psilotricha and Urospinula (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida)G F Esteban
CEH Windermere, The Ferry House, Ambleside, Cumbria, United Kingdom
J Eukaryot Microbiol 48:280-92. 2001..observed from the ventral side have a protruding anterior end, a rounded or acuminate posterior pole, and a "beak-like" projection to the left side of the posterior end...
- The independent evolution of the enlargement of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve in three different groups of birdsCristian Gutiérrez-Ibáñez
Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Brain Behav Evol 74:280-94. 2009..Many species rely heavily on tactile information during feeding. Input from the beak, tongue and face, conveyed via the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves, is first processed ..
- Identification of a novel circovirus in Australian ravens (Corvus coronoides) with feather diseaseMeredith E Stewart
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Science, South St, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia
Avian Pathol 35:86-92. 2006..from an Australian raven (Corvus coronoides) with feather lesions similar to those that occur in psittacine beak and feather disease is reported...
- [Popliteal cysts: sonography evaluation after arthroscopic treatment]G Balconi
Radiologia, Ospedale San Raffaele, Ville Turro, Milan, Italy
Radiol Med 101:255-9. 2001..To identify a set of sonomorphological parameters to evaluate the outcome of arthroscopic surgery for popliteal cysts by sonography...
- Comparison of the structures of three circoviruses: chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virusR A Crowther
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Cambridge CB2 2QH, United Kingdom
J Virol 77:13036-41. 2003..Thus, Chicken anemia virus is in the genus Gyrovirus, while porcine circoviruses and Beak and feather disease virus belong to the genus CIRCOVIRUS: Little is known about the structures of circoviruses...
- Cutaneous sensory afferents recorded from the nervus intramandibularis of Gallus gallus var domesticusM J Gentle
AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Midlothian, United Kingdom
J Comp Physiol A 164:763-74. 1989..small nerve bundles of the intramandibular nerve of the chicken following thermal and mechanical stimulation of the beak. Thermoreceptors, nociceptors and mechanoreceptors were identified and their responses characterized...
- Nucleotide sequence analysis of a novel circovirus of canaries and its relationship to other members of the genus Circovirus of the family CircoviridaeK V Phenix
Division of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia
J Gen Virol 82:2805-9. 2001..columbid circovirus (CoCV) and was more distantly related to the two porcine circovirus strains, PCV1 and PCV2, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and a recently isolated goose circovirus (GCV) isolate (46.8-50.9% nt identity)...
- Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in an eclectus parrotMatthew S Johnston
James L Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:1028-31. 2007..The bird was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for further examination...
- Past or present? Relative contributions of developmental and adult conditions to adult immune function and coloration in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)Michael W Butler
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, PO Box 874601, Tempe, AZ 85287 4601, USA
J Comp Physiol B 181:551-63. 2011..body mass) throughout development, and assessed adult immune function and integumentary carotenoid-based beak and foot coloration...
- Avian cryptococcosisR Malik
University Veterinary Centre and Diagnostic Services Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Med Mycol 41:115-24. 2003..signs referable to mycotic rhinitis or to involvement of structures contiguous with the nasal cavity, such as the beak, sinuses, choana, retrobulbar space and palate...
- Global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolatesArvind Varsani
School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
J Gen Virol 92:752-67. 2011Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) has a broad host range and is widespread in wild and captive psittacine populations in Asia, Africa, the Americas, Europe and Australasia...
- Effects of arginine vasotocin (AVT) on the behavioral, cardiovascular, and corticosterone responses of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to crowdingBenjamin C Nephew
Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
Horm Behav 47:280-9. 2005..Exogenous AVT decreased the frequency of maintenance behaviors (feeding, drinking, preening, and beak wiping), as well as activity in resident starlings...
- The effect of beta-bungarotoxin, or geniculate ganglion lesion on taste bud development in the chick embryoDonald Ganchrow
Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel
Histochem Cell Biol 126:419-35. 2006..In ovo injection of beta-bungarotoxin at E12 resulted in a complete absence of taste buds in lower beak and palatal epithelium at developmental ages E17 and E21...
- Classification and clinical significance of acromial spur in rotator cuff tear: heel-type spur and rotator cuff tearJoo Han Oh
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:1542-50. 2010..spurs could be classified morphologically into six types: heel, lateral/anterior traction, lateral/anterior bird beak, and medial. We found acromial spurs in 142 of the 208 patients (68%), and their incidence increased with age...
- An early role for sonic hedgehog from foregut endoderm in jaw development: ensuring neural crest cell survivalJosé M Brito
Laboratoire de Développement, Evolution et Plasticité du Système Nerveux, Unité Propre de Recherche 2197, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11607-12. 2006..If the embryos were deprived of their forehead at 8- to 10-ss, they were later on endowed with a lower beak. In embryos that were operated on early, the NCCs migrated normally to BA1 but were subjected to massive apoptosis ..
- Ovarian hemangiosarcoma in an orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica)Kimberly Mickley
Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02130, USA
J Avian Med Surg 23:29-35. 2009..Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a 2-week history of straining to defecate, lethargy, open-beak breathing, decreased vocalization, and ruffled feathers...
- Functional morphology of the cephalopod buccal mass: a novel joint typeTheodore A Uyeno
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 3280, USA
J Morphol 264:211-22. 2005..in three mutually perpendicular planes were used to identify the muscles and connective tissues responsible for beak movements and stability and to describe their morphology and fiber trajectories...
- Pseudosclerodermatous triad of perniosis, pulp atrophy and 'parrot-beaked' clawing of the nails--a newly recognized syndrome of chronic crack cocaine useJ J Payne-James
Forensic Healthcare Services Ltd, 19 Speldhurst Road, London, UK
J Forensic Leg Med 14:65-71. 2007..is lost, it can no longer splint the nail straight and so the nail curves, claw-like, and reminiscent of a parrot's beak as it clings to the new contour. As the pulp atrophy progresses, the nail eventually also becomes smaller...
- Beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomes: intermediates between the geminiviruses and plant circovirusesF D Niagro
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, USA
Arch Virol 143:1723-44. 1998..The sequences of the beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomic DNAs are presented and analyzed in the context of the ..
- Size Regulation of Ectodermal OrgansCheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2007..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
- Size Regulation of Ectodermal OrgansCheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2009..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
- Size Regulation of Ectodermal OrgansCheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2010..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
- MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIAJill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2007..found evidence of such regionalization when we identified a signaling center regulating polarity in the upper beak. In our second set of experiments we will molecular markers to identify putative signaling centers, molecular and ..
- SYNTHETIC STUDIES OF LITHIATED HETEROCYCLESROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2000..so well established that organolithiums are the most widely used organometallics in contemporary organi chemistry" (Beak et al, Acc. Chem. Res. 1996, 29, 552-560)...
- Mechanism for Producing Complex SoundsFranz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONGFranz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2009..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
- NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONGFranz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2004..The integrative nature of this research will generate results of wide interdisciplinary interest, including disciplines such as neurobiology, respiratory physiology, linguistics, neuroethology and evolution. ..
- Mechanisms for producing complex sounds Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2010..The "electronic syrinx" will provide an excellent test device for developing a similar system for the human larynx. ..
- EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & traThomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
- EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & traThomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
- Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesodermPaul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Neural mechanisms of localization dominanceBrian Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2007..I propose using neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments to determine which of these two spike bursts is salient and which burst most closely parallels the time course of localization dominance. ..
- Development and control of repetitive leg movements during embryonic developmentNINA BRADLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007..We will accelerate the time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant light and delay time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant dark. ..
- Biologically Inspired Polymer AdhesivesPHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- TEMPORAL REGULATION OF CRANIAL SKELETOGENESISRichard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Antifouling Peptide Mimetic PolymersPHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2009..When applied to the surface of an object, these polymers are anticipated to enhance the performance of medical devices by providing resistance to fouling by proteins, cells and bacteria. ..
- Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling BiomaterialsPHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- The Role of Neural Crest in Facial PatterningRichard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2003..This project is significant in using a novel approach to investigate regulation of facial growth and will provide valuable insights on birth defects. ..
- BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALSPHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Neuromuscular control of flightDOUGLAS ALTSHULER; Fiscal Year: 2005..Improved understanding of the neural control of the regulation of complex motor behaviors would have direct relevance to studies of human motor control diseases and motor control degeneration that accompanies ageing. ..
- Antifouling Peptide Mimetic PolymersPhillip B Messersmith; Fiscal Year: 2010..When applied to the surface of an object, these polymers are anticipated to enhance the performance of medical devices by providing resistance to fouling by proteins, cells and bacteria. ..
- Bioadhesive Polymer Hydrogels: Basic and Applied StudiesPHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- A New System to Study the Control of Epidermal GrowthRichard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007....