beak

Summary

Summary: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Two developmental modules establish 3D beak-shape variation in Darwin's finches
    Ricardo Mallarino
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4057-62. 2011
  2. doi Age-dependent allocation of carotenoids to coloration versus antioxidant defences
    J Cote
    Biogéosciences UMR 5561, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 213:271-7. 2010
  3. ncbi Interspecific variation in the use of carotenoid-based coloration in birds: diet, life history and phylogeny
    V A Olson
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    J Evol Biol 18:1534-46. 2005
  4. doi Dive and beak movement patterns in leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea during internesting intervals in French Guiana
    Sabrina Fossette
    IPHC Département Ecologie, Physiologie, Ethologie, ULP, CNRS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    J Anim Ecol 77:236-46. 2008
  5. ncbi Bill size and dimorphism in tidal-marsh sparrows: island-like processes in a continental habitat
    Russell Greenberg
    Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Washington, D C 20008, USA
    Ecology 91:2428-36. 2010
  6. doi Dynamics of PHA-induced immune response and plasma carotenoids in birds: should we have a closer look?
    C Biard
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR 5561 Biogéosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, F 21000 Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 212:1336-43. 2009
  7. doi Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule
    Matthew R E Symonds
    Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Am Nat 176:188-97. 2010
  8. doi Measuring foraging activity in a deep-diving bird: comparing wiggles, oesophageal temperatures and beak-opening angles as proxies of feeding
    Nicolas Hanuise
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, CEBC CNRS UPR 1934, Villiers en Bois, France
    J Exp Biol 213:3874-80. 2010
  9. ncbi Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator
    Glenn J Tattersall
    Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    Science 325:468-70. 2009
  10. doi Microanatomy of passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)
    Caroline Van Hemert
    US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Morphol 273:226-40. 2012

Research Grants

  1. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2004
  3. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2009
  9. NEURAL CONTROL OF VETEBRATE INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR
    H Zeigler; Fiscal Year: 1990
  10. MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIA
    Jill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Two developmental modules establish 3D beak-shape variation in Darwin's finches
    Ricardo Mallarino
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4057-62. 2011
    ..some of the molecular mechanisms that regulate morphogenesis of the prenasal cartilage, which forms the initial beak skeleton. However, much of the beak diversity in birds depends on variation in the premaxillary bone...
  2. doi Age-dependent allocation of carotenoids to coloration versus antioxidant defences
    J Cote
    Biogéosciences UMR 5561, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 213:271-7. 2010
    ..Using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model species, we assessed circulating carotenoids, beak coloration and the plasma antioxidant status of birds of different ages before and after an inflammatory challenge...
  3. ncbi Interspecific variation in the use of carotenoid-based coloration in birds: diet, life history and phylogeny
    V A Olson
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    J Evol Biol 18:1534-46. 2005
    ....
  4. doi Dive and beak movement patterns in leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea during internesting intervals in French Guiana
    Sabrina Fossette
    IPHC Département Ecologie, Physiologie, Ethologie, ULP, CNRS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
    J Anim Ecol 77:236-46. 2008
    ..the possibility of this active behaviour being associated with foraging, by studying concurrently diving and beak movement patterns in gravid females equipped with IMASEN (Inter-MAndibular Angle SENsor). 2...
  5. ncbi Bill size and dimorphism in tidal-marsh sparrows: island-like processes in a continental habitat
    Russell Greenberg
    Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Washington, D C 20008, USA
    Ecology 91:2428-36. 2010
    ..Thus, both a shift in bill size and increases in its dimorphism and variability may be favored by high productivity and abiotic constraints...
  6. doi Dynamics of PHA-induced immune response and plasma carotenoids in birds: should we have a closer look?
    C Biard
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR 5561 Biogéosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, F 21000 Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 212:1336-43. 2009
    ..Taking into account the dynamics of the immune response and that of associated physiological parameters would thus yield new insights into our interpretation of variation in PHA response...
  7. doi Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule
    Matthew R E Symonds
    Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Am Nat 176:188-97. 2010
    ..Our results provide the strongest comparative support yet published for Allen's rule and demonstrate that thermoregulation has been an important factor in shaping the evolution of bird bills...
  8. doi Measuring foraging activity in a deep-diving bird: comparing wiggles, oesophageal temperatures and beak-opening angles as proxies of feeding
    Nicolas Hanuise
    Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, CEBC CNRS UPR 1934, Villiers en Bois, France
    J Exp Biol 213:3874-80. 2010
    ..Crucially, and for the first time, two types of beak-opening events were identified...
  9. ncbi Heat exchange from the toucan bill reveals a controllable vascular thermal radiator
    Glenn J Tattersall
    Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    Science 325:468-70. 2009
    The toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), the largest member of the toucan family, possesses the largest beak relative to body size of all birds...
  10. doi Microanatomy of passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)
    Caroline Van Hemert
    US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Morphol 273:226-40. 2012
    ..An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the ..
  11. doi QTL linkage mapping of zebra finch beak color shows an oligogenic control of a sexually selected trait
    Holger Schielzeth
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Evolution 66:18-30. 2012
    ..Here we analyze whether the genetic architecture of beak color in a population of zebra finches supports this hypothesis...
  12. ncbi The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology
    R A Schneider
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 533 Parnassus Avenue, Suite U 453, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Science 299:565-8. 2003
    Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying differences in beak morphology likely involve interactions among multiple embryonic populations...
  13. ncbi Carotenoid-based bill colour as an indicator of immunocompetence and sperm performance in male mallards
    A Peters
    Reproductive Biology and Behaviour Group, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Starnberg, Germany
    J Evol Biol 17:1111-20. 2004
    ..Our data provide support for current theories that females could use carotenoid-based sexual signals to detect immune vigour and fertilizing ability of prospective mates...
  14. ncbi An experimental test of the dose-dependent effect of carotenoids and immune activation on sexual signals and antioxidant activity
    Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai St Bernard, CC237, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Am Nat 164:651-9. 2004
    ..how carotenoid availability and immune activation affected the amount of circulating plasma carotenoids, the beak color, and the antioxidant defenses (assessed as the resistance of red blood cells to a controlled free radical ..
  15. ncbi Vocal tract function in birdsong production: experimental manipulation of beak movements
    W J Hoese
    Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology Group, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    J Exp Biol 203:1845-55. 2000
    Kinematic analyses have demonstrated that the extent to which a songbird's beak is open when singing correlates with the acoustic frequencies of the sounds produced, suggesting that beak movements function to modulate the acoustic ..
  16. ncbi Environmental stress affects the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait in male zebra finches
    Cyril Eraud
    Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5561, Biogéosciences, Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21 000 Dijon, France
    J Exp Biol 210:3571-8. 2007
    ..The physiological functions related to self-maintenance that might have benefited from carotenoid saving are discussed...
  17. ncbi Evolution on a local scale: developmental, functional, and genetic bases of divergence in bill form and associated changes in song structure between adjacent habitats
    Alexander V Badyaev
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Evolution 62:1951-64. 2008
    ....
  18. ncbi Choreography of song, dance and beak movements in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)
    H Williams
    Biology Department, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA
    J Exp Biol 204:3497-506. 2001
    ..finches sing their learned songs while performing a courtship display that includes movements of the body, head and beak. The coordination of these display components was assessed by analyzing video recordings of courting males...
  19. ncbi The role of the magnetite-based receptors in the beak in pigeon homing
    Roswitha Wiltschko
    Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayerstrasse 70, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Curr Biol 20:1534-8. 2010
    Magnetite-containing structures in the upper beak of birds have been described as putative magnetoreceptors [1-4], but so far, all positive evidence indicating their influence on behavior has come from laboratory studies using rather ..
  20. ncbi Genic capture and the genetic basis of sexually selected traits in the zebra finch
    Timothy R Birkhead
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom
    Evolution 60:2389-98. 2006
    ..zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, we tested two key predictions from this model: (1) that genetic variance exists in beak color which is a sexually selected trait, but also in condition and immune function, and (2) that positive genetic ..
  21. ncbi Evidence of accelerated beak growth associated with avian keratin disorder in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)
    Caroline Van Hemert
    US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Wildl Dis 48:686-94. 2012
    We recently documented an epizootic of beak deformities in more than 2,000 Blackcapped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and other wild bird species in North America...
  22. pmc Avian orientation: the pulse effect is mediated by the magnetite receptors in the upper beak
    Wolfgang Wiltschko
    Fachbereich Biowissenschaften der J W Goethe Universität, 60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Proc Biol Sci 276:2227-32. 2009
    ..Structures containing superparamagnetic magnetite have been described in the inner skin at the edges of the upper beak of birds, while single-domain magnetite particles are indicated in the nasal cavity...
  23. ncbi From snout to beak: the loss of teeth in birds
    Antoine Louchart
    Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5242, ENS de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:663-73. 2011
    ..Reviewing these lines of evidence, we propose hypotheses for its causes, with a prominent role for the horny beak during development...
  24. ncbi Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches
    Peter R Grant
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 1003, USA
    Science 313:224-6. 2006
    ..Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G...
  25. pmc Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak
    Ali Miserez
    Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:38115-24. 2010
    ..dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material...
  26. ncbi Model for vocalization by a bird with distensible vocal cavity and open beak
    Neville H Fletcher
    Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, Australia
    J Acoust Soc Am 119:1005-11. 2006
    ..cardinalis) have a muscularly distended oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity between the top of the trachea and the open beak. The present paper analyzes the acoustics of this vocal system...
  27. doi Minor beak trimming in chickens leads to loss of mechanoreception and magnetoreception
    R Freire
    EH Graham Centre, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2650, Australia
    J Anim Sci 89:1201-6. 2011
    Routine removal of the tip of the beak of chickens within the poultry industry leads to changes in pecking behavior, which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of pain...
  28. ncbi Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens
    B A Mullens
    Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Poult Sci 89:2565-72. 2010
    ..Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) ..
  29. ncbi Clusters of iron-rich cells in the upper beak of pigeons are macrophages not magnetosensitive neurons
    Christoph Daniel Treiber
    Institute of Molecular Pathology, Dr Bohr Gasse, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 484:367-70. 2012
    ..of magnetite-containing trigeminal afferents located at six specific loci in the rostral subepidermis of the beak. These studies have been widely accepted in the field and heavily relied upon by both behavioural biologists and ..
  30. doi A multifactorial test of the effects of carotenoid access, food intake and parasite load on the production of ornamental feathers and bill coloration in American goldfinches
    Geoffrey E Hill
    Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830, USA
    J Exp Biol 212:1225-33. 2009
    ..These results indicate that pigment intake, food access and parasite load can have complex and variable effects on color displays, and that feather and bill coloration signal different aspects of male condition...
  31. ncbi Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection
    Alexandra I Brower
    Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Avian Pathol 39:223-5. 2010
    Proliferative growth, consistent with poxvirus infection, encapsulated plastic beak-bits and covered the dorsal portion of the upper beak and nares of adult male and female captive-raised Hungarian partridges...
  32. ncbi How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birds
    Richard A Schneider
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, 533 Parnassus Avenue, U 453, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Bioessays 29:1-6. 2007
    ..momentum, a recent paper tackles one of the foremost topics in evolution, that is the origin of species-specific beak morphology in Darwin's finches...
  33. ncbi Orientation of birds in total darkness
    Katrin Stapput
    Fachbereich Biowissenschaften J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Siesmayerstrasse 70, D 60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Curr Biol 18:602-6. 2008
    ..A high-frequency field of 1.315 MHz did not affect the behavior, whereas local anesthesia of the upper beak resulted in disorientation...
  34. ncbi A biogeographic pattern in sparrow bill morphology: parallel adaptation to tidal marshes
    J Letitia Grenier
    Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Evolution 59:1588-95. 2005
    ..We, therefore, speculate that tidal marsh ecosystems are likely settings for ecological speciation...
  35. ncbi Development of beak polymorphism in the African seedcracker, Pyrenestes ostrinus
    Celine Clabaut
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Evol Dev 11:636-46. 2009
    The black-bellied African seedcracker, Pyrenestes ostrinus, exhibits a non-sex-related polymorphism in beak size that enables the small-, large-, and mega-billed morphs to utilize different trophic niches...
  36. ncbi Testing for the presence of magnetite in the upper-beak skin of homing pigeons
    Lanxiang Tian
    Paleomagnetism and Geochronology Laboratory SKL LE, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China
    Biometals 20:197-203. 2007
    We carried out magnetic and nonmagnetic experiments on fresh, upper-beak skin tissue samples isolated from six pairs of homing pigeons to test whether the tissue contains magnetite particles...
  37. ncbi Engineering stem cells into organs: topobiological transformations demonstrated by beak, feather, and other ectodermal organ morphogenesis
    Cheng Ming Chuong
    Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Curr Top Dev Biol 72:237-74. 2006
    ..Promises and problems in reconstitute feather/hair follicles and other organs are discussed. Finally, simple modification at the topobiological level may lead to novel morphology for natural selection at the evolution level...
  38. ncbi The calmodulin pathway and evolution of elongated beak morphology in Darwin's finches
    Arhat Abzhanov
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 442:563-7. 2006
    ..work has shown that even small differences in any of the three major dimensions (depth, width and length) of the beak have major consequences for the overall fitness of the birds...
  39. pmc Avian magnetoreception: elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature of birds
    Gerald Falkenberg
    Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e9231. 2010
    ..pigeons have made us suggest that the iron containing sensory dendrites in the inner dermal lining of the upper beak are a candidate structure for such an avian magnetometer system...
  40. ncbi A geometric morphometric appraisal of beak shape in Darwin's finches
    D J Foster
    Redpath Museum and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    J Evol Biol 21:263-75. 2008
    b>Beak size and shape in Darwin's finches have traditionally been quantified using a few univariate measurements (length, depth, width)...
  41. ncbi Upper beak truncation in chicken embryos with the cleft primary palate mutation is due to an epithelial defect in the frontonasal mass
    Mary E MacDonald
    Dalhousie University Medical School, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    Dev Dyn 230:335-49. 2004
    In this study, we used the chicken mutant strain known as cleft primary palate (cpp) to study the mechanisms of beak outgrowth. cpp mutants have complete truncation of the upper beak with normal development of the lower beak...
  42. ncbi A novel concept of Fe-mineral-based magnetoreception: histological and physicochemical data from the upper beak of homing pigeons
    Gerta Fleissner
    AG NCR, FB Biowissenschaften, J W Goethe Universitat, Siesmayerstr 70, D 60054, Frankfurt a M, Germany
    Naturwissenschaften 94:631-42. 2007
    ..and X-ray analyses support the hypothesis that delicate iron-containing structures in the skin of the upper beak of homing pigeons might serve as a biological magnetometer...
  43. ncbi Beak gape dynamics during song in the zebra finch
    Franz Goller
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
    J Neurobiol 59:289-303. 2004
    ..To determine the contribution of beak movements to sound modification, we studied the beak gape patterns in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
  44. ncbi Ultrastructural analysis of a putative magnetoreceptor in the beak of homing pigeons
    Gerta Fleissner
    Zoologisches Institut, J W Goethe Universität Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, D 60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Comp Neurol 458:350-60. 2003
    ..microscopic methods, we investigated the subcellular organization of afferent trigeminal terminals in the upper beak of the homing pigeon, Columba livia, which are about 5 microm in diameter and contain superparamagnetic magnetite (..
  45. ncbi Vocal mechanics in Darwin's finches: correlation of beak gape and song frequency
    Jeffrey Podos
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    J Exp Biol 207:607-19. 2004
    Recent studies of vocal mechanics in songbirds have identified a functional role for the beak in sound production...
  46. ncbi Molecular shaping of the beak
    Ping Wu
    Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Science 305:1465-6. 2004
    b>Beak shape is a classic example of evolutionary diversification. Beak development in chicken and duck was used to examine morphological variations among avian species...
  47. ncbi Evolution of bite force in Darwin's finches: a key role for head width
    A Herrel
    Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Antwerpen, Belgium
    J Evol Biol 18:669-75. 2005
    ..We find that bite force correlates strongly with beak depth and width but only weakly or not at all with beak length, a result that is consistent with prior ..
  48. ncbi Ecological adaptation and species recognition drives vocal evolution in neotropical suboscine birds
    Nathalie Seddon
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Evolution 59:200-15. 2005
    ..To my knowledge, these data provide the first direct evidence that species recognition and ecological adaptation operate in tandem, and that the interplay between these factors drives the evolution of mating signals in suboscine birds...
  49. ncbi Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?
    Thomas L Parchman
    Department of Biology, MSC 3AF, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 8001, USA
    Evolution 61:2142-53. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi Evolutionary biology: the power of natural selection
    Andrew P Hendry
    Nature 433:694-5. 2005
  51. ncbi The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pine
    E T Mezquida
    Department of Biology, MSC 3AF, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA
    J Evol Biol 18:348-57. 2005
    ..These results suggest that Sciurus has influenced both the geographic selection mosaics for crossbills and conifers and the adaptive radiation of crossbills in Eurasia much like Tamiasciurus has done in the North America...
  52. pmc Carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird (Turdus merula)
    R Baeta
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
    Proc Biol Sci 275:427-34. 2008
    ..Carotenoids are thus traded off between host physiological response to parasites and secondary sexual traits. Further investigations are required to determine the physiological mechanisms that govern this trade-off...
  53. pmc Niche expansion leads to small-scale adaptive divergence along an elevation gradient in a medium-sized passerine bird
    John E McCormack
    Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 275:2155-64. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that niche expansion can lead to adaptive divergence despite gene flow between parapatric populations along an elevation gradient, providing information on a key precursor to ecological speciation...
  54. ncbi The effects of different beak trimming techniques on plasma corticosterone and performance criteria in Single Comb White Leghorn hens
    G S Davis
    Department of Poultry Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7608, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 7608, USA
    Poult Sci 83:1624-8. 2004
    DeKalb XL chicks were given a beak trim at 6 d of age (6DP) with a 2.8-mm gauge and a beak trim at 11 wk (11WB) with a block cut approximately 2 mm anterior to the nasal openings...
  55. ncbi A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine
    A M Siepielski
    Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
    J Evol Biol 18:1042-9. 2005
    ..In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation...
  56. pmc Adaptive significance of avian beak morphology for ectoparasite control
    Dale H Clayton
    Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 272:811-7. 2005
    The beaks of Darwin's finches and other birds are among the best known examples of adaptive evolution. Beak morphology is usually interpreted in relation to its critical role in feeding...
  57. ncbi Small clades at the periphery of passerine morphological space
    Robert E Ricklefs
    Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St Louis, Missouri 63121 4499, USA
    Am Nat 165:651-9. 2005
    ..I use principal component (PC) scores based on eight log-transformed measurements of the wing, tail, leg, and beak to test the hypothesis that small clades (<or=5 species) occupy peripheral positions in morphological space...
  58. ncbi On the key trophic adaptation of timaliid birds (Timaliidae; Passeriformes; Aves)
    M V Kalyakin
    Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119899, Russia
    Dokl Biol Sci 417:469-71. 2007
  59. ncbi Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematics
    Sérgio Roberto Posso
    Laboratório de Vertebrados, Departamento Ciências Biológicas, FC, UNESP, Bauru, Brasil
    Eur J Morphol 42:163-72. 2005
    ....
  60. ncbi Do carotenoid-based sexual traits signal the availability of non-pigmentary antioxidants?
    Sophie Bertrand
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7103, quai St Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    J Exp Biol 209:4414-9. 2006
    ..To our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence that a non-pigmentary antioxidant enhances the expression of a carotenoid-based sexual trait...
  61. ncbi Within-male melanin-based plumage and bill elaboration in male house sparrows
    Radovan Václav
    Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas CSIC, General Segura 1, E 04001 Almería, Spain
    Zoolog Sci 23:1073-8. 2006
    ..My results indicate that size, brightness, and chroma of the bib, but also chroma of other deeply colored patches, convey redundant information about the signaler's quality in male house sparrows...
  62. ncbi Ecological speciation in South Atlantic island finches
    Peter G Ryan
    Percy Fitz Patrick Institute, Department of Science and Technology National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    Science 315:1420-3. 2007
    ..Our study suggests that the buntings have undergone parallel ecological speciation...
  63. ncbi Evolution. Competition drives big beaks out of business
    Elizabeth Pennisi
    Science 313:156. 2006
  64. ncbi Sex steroid dependence of carotenoid-based coloration in female zebra finches
    Kevin J McGraw
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Physiol Behav 88:347-52. 2006
    ..I experimentally and correlationally investigated the effect of T on the color of the carotenoid-based beak in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
  65. ncbi Morphoregulation of avian beaks: comparative mapping of growth zone activities and morphological evolution
    Ping Wu
    Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA
    Dev Dyn 235:1400-12. 2006
    Avian beak diversity is a classic example of morphological evolution...
  66. ncbi Carotenoids modulate the trade-off between egg production and resistance to oxidative stress in zebra finches
    Sophie Bertrand
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7103, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, quai St Bernard, France
    Oecologia 147:576-84. 2006
    ..This result therefore suggests that carotenoid availability can modulate the trade-off between reproduction and resistance to oxidative stress...
  67. pmc Developmental mechanisms facilitating the evolution of bills and quills
    Richard A Schneider
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, CA 94143 0514, USA
    J Anat 207:563-73. 2005
    ....
  68. ncbi Maternal inheritance and rapid evolution of sexual size dimorphism: passive effects or active strategies?
    Alexander V Badyaev
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Am Nat 166:S17-30. 2005
    ....
  69. ncbi A novel lipoprotein-mediated mechanism controlling sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird
    Kevin J McGraw
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14583, USA
    Physiol Behav 87:103-8. 2006
    ..In previous work, we showed that variation in the sexually attractive red carotenoid-colored beak of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) was predicted not by the amount of food or pigments ingested, but by ..
  70. pmc A new prey-detection mechanism for kiwi (Apteryx spp.) suggests convergent evolution between paleognathous and neognathous birds
    Susan Cunningham
    Institute of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    J Anat 211:493-502. 2007
    ..Therefore we cite the similar bill-tip anatomy of these two families as an example of convergent evolution across a deep taxonomic divide...
  71. ncbi Darwin's finches
    Peter R Grant
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Curr Biol 15:R614-5. 2005
  72. ncbi The role of marker traits in the assortative mating within red crossbills, Loxia curvirostra complex
    L K Snowberg
    Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
    J Evol Biol 20:1924-32. 2007
    ....
  73. ncbi Seed husking time and maximal bite force in finches
    M A A Van der Meij
    Department of Evolutionary Morphology, Institute of Biology Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Exp Biol 209:3329-35. 2006
    ....
  74. ncbi Bmp4 and morphological variation of beaks in Darwin's finches
    Arhat Abzhanov
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 305:1462-5. 2004
    ..Darwin's finches are a classic example of species diversification by natural selection. Their impressive variation in beak morphology is associated with the exploitation of a variety of ecological niches, but its developmental basis is ..
  75. ncbi Development. The bills of qucks and duails
    Paul Trainor
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Science 299:523-4. 2003
  76. ncbi Avian skin diseases
    J H Gill
    Canley Heights Veterinary Clinic, Canley Heights, Australia
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 4:463-92, vi. 2001
    ..Psittacine circovirus, which causes psittacine beak and feather disease, can devastate breeding programs and cause masked distress to new bird owners and their young ..
  77. ncbi Evolutionary consequences of human disturbance in a rainforest bird species from Central Africa
    Thomas B Smith
    Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, University of California Los Angeles, 619 Charles Young Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Mol Ecol 17:58-71. 2008
    ..Results suggest that anthropogenic habitat changes may have evolutionary consequences, with implications for conservation and restoration...
  78. ncbi [Adaptations of the hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) to leaf-eating. Morphological characteristics and functional features of its bill and hyoid apparatus]
    Léonid P Korzoun
    Université d Etat Lomonossov de Moscou, Vorobievi Gori 1199899, B 234 Moscou, Russie
    C R Biol 326:75-94. 2003
    ..Such a hypothesis would implicate a counter-selective evolutionary reversion...
  79. pmc Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds
    Irby J Lovette
    Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 269:37-42. 2002
    ....
  80. ncbi Evolutionary biology. Darwin's avian muses continue to evolve
    Carl Zimmer
    Science 296:633-5. 2002
  81. ncbi Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association
    Ethan J Temeles
    Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 USA
    Science 300:630-3. 2003
    ....
  82. pmc The 'island rule' in birds: medium body size and its ecological explanation
    Sonya M Clegg
    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 269:1359-65. 2002
    ....
  83. ncbi Ecology and evolution. Darwin's hummingbirds
    Douglas L Altshuler
    Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91104, USA
    Science 300:588-9. 2003
  84. ncbi Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finches
    Peter R Grant
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 1003, USA prgrantprinceton edu
    Science 296:707-11. 2002
    ..fortis (medium ground finch) and Geospiza scandens (cactus finch) changed several times in body size and two beak traits...
  85. ncbi Carotenoid modulation of immune function and sexual attractiveness in zebra finches
    Jonathan D Blount
    Division of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Science 300:125-7. 2003
    ..In this study, we show that manipulation of dietary carotenoid supply invokes parallel changes in cell-mediated immune function and sexual attractiveness in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
  86. ncbi Evolution. Colorful males flaunt their health
    Elizabeth Pennisi
    Science 300:29-31. 2003
  87. ncbi Morphological shifts in island-dwelling birds: the roles of generalist foraging and niche expansion
    Susan N Scott
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    Evolution 57:2147-56. 2003
    ....
  88. ncbi Geographic variation in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina): local differentiation, polyphyly or hybridization?
    Nirmal K Bhagabati
    The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Mol Ecol 13:2721-34. 2004
    ..Alternatively, ancient hybridization, followed by selection for scrub-jay like traits in some Mexican jay populations, might have given rise to the observed variation...
  89. ncbi Bill colour and correlates of male quality in blackbirds: an analysis using canonical ordination
    A Bright
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
    Behav Processes 65:123-32. 2004
    ..Future studies should elucidate the relationship between bill colour and behavioural measures such as aggressiveness, territory size, song rate and nest attendance...
  90. ncbi Stabilizing natural selection on the early expression of a secondary sexual trait in a passerine bird
    A Gregoire
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
    J Evol Biol 17:1152-6. 2004
    ..We suggest that the consideration of early selection and the adoption of refined statistical methods may reveal patterns of selection in the wild that have, as yet, remained undetected...
  91. ncbi Convergent evolution of Darwin's finches caused by introgressive hybridization and selection
    Peter R Grant
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 1003, USA
    Evolution 58:1588-99. 2004
    ..An increase in bluntness or robustness in the beak of G. scandens after 1990 can only partly be explained by selection...
  92. ncbi Functional variation among frugivorous birds: implications for rainforest seed dispersal in a fragmented subtropical landscape
    C Moran
    Rainforest Cooperative Research Centre and Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia
    Oecologia 141:584-95. 2004
    ....
  93. ncbi Carotenoids, immunocompetence, and the information content of sexual colors: an experimental test
    Kevin J McGraw
    1 Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Am Nat 162:704-12. 2003
    ..in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males incorporate carotenoid pigments into their beak to attract mates...
  94. ncbi Developmental biology. Bonemaking protein shapes beaks of Darwin's finches
    Elizabeth Pennisi
    Science 305:1383. 2004
  95. ncbi Experimentally induced selenosis of adult mallard ducks: clinical signs, lesions, and toxicology
    D O'Toole
    The Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, Laramie 82070, USA
    Vet Pathol 34:330-40. 1997
    ..alopecia of the scalp and dorsal cervical midline, broken or lost digital nails, and necrosis of the tip of the beak (maxillary nail)...
  96. ncbi Development of furnished cages for laying hens
    M C Appleby
    University of Edinburgh, ADAS Gleadthorpe, UK
    Br Poult Sci 43:489-500. 2002
    ..No birds were beak trimmed...
  97. ncbi Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field observations
    Ross G Cooper
    Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe, Africa
    Trop Anim Health Prod 39:439-42. 2007
    ..Poisoning from Sarcostemma viminale (Melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death...
  98. ncbi Avian circovirus diseases: lessons for the study of PMWS
    Daniel Todd
    Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Stoney Road, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, UK
    Vet Microbiol 98:169-74. 2004
    The diseases associated with psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), pigeon circovirus (PiCV) and goose circovirus (GoCV), which can be classified with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) as members of the genus Circovirus of the ..
  99. ncbi Comparative anatomy of the paratympanic organ (vitali organ) in the middle ear of birds and non-avian vertebrates: focus on alligators, parakeets and armadillos
    Jason A Neeser
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nev 89557, USA
    Brain Behav Evol 60:65-79. 2002
    ..Bird species with significant upper beak movement lack a PTO, suggesting that PTO function is incompatible with upper beak movement...
  100. ncbi Molecular characterization of a poxvirus isolated from an American flamingo (Phoeniconais ruber rubber)
    Shankar P Mondal
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Avian Dis 52:520-5. 2008
    An avian poxvirus from the beak scab of an American flamingo (Phoeniconais ruber rubber) was isolated by inoculation on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicken embryos...
  101. ncbi Keratinization and lipogenesis in epidermal derivatives of the zebrafinch, Taeniopygia guttata castanotis (Aves, Passeriformes, Ploecidae) during embryonic development
    Lorenzo Alibardi
    Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
    J Morphol 251:294-308. 2002
    Little is known of the lipid content of beta-keratin-producing cells such as those of feathers, scutate scales, and beak. The sequence of epidermal layers in some apteria and in interfollicular epidermis in the zebrafinch embryo (..

Research Grants80

  1. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The acoustic role of tracheal, laryngeal, glottal, lingual, beak and oropharyngeal movements will be measured...
  2. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The acoustic role of tracheal, laryngeal, glottal, lingual, beak and oropharyngeal movements will be measured...
  3. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The acoustic role of tracheal, laryngeal, glottal, lingual, beak and oropharyngeal movements will be measured...
  4. MOTOR CORRELATES OF SONG PRODUCTION
    RODERICK SUTHERS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The acoustic role of tracheal, laryngeal, glottal, lingual, beak and oropharyngeal movements will be measured...
  5. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
  6. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
  7. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
  8. Size Regulation of Ectodermal Organs
    Cheng Ming Chuong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the last funding period, we studied the regulation of organ size and shape in feather, hair, beak, tooth, etc...
  9. NEURAL CONTROL OF VETEBRATE INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR
    H Zeigler; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The central representation of the avian beak muscles will be determined using anatomical marker techniques (HRP) and similar techniques will be used to clarify ..
  10. MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIA
    Jill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..found evidence of such regionalization when we identified a signaling center regulating polarity in the upper beak. In our second set of experiments we will molecular markers to identify putative signaling centers, molecular and ..
  11. MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIA
    Jill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..found evidence of such regionalization when we identified a signaling center regulating polarity in the upper beak. In our second set of experiments we will molecular markers to identify putative signaling centers, molecular and ..
  12. MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIA
    Jill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..found evidence of such regionalization when we identified a signaling center regulating polarity in the upper beak. In our second set of experiments we will molecular markers to identify putative signaling centers, molecular and ..
  13. MORPHOGENESIS OF CRANIOFACIAL PRIMORDIA
    Jill Helms; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..found evidence of such regionalization when we identified a signaling center regulating polarity in the upper beak. In our second set of experiments we will molecular markers to identify putative signaling centers, molecular and ..
  14. SYNTHETIC STUDIES OF LITHIATED HETEROCYCLES
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..so well established that organolithiums are the most widely used organometallics in contemporary organi chemistry" (Beak et al, Acc. Chem. Res. 1996, 29, 552-560)...
  15. SYNTHETIC STUDIES OF LITHIATED HETEROCYCLES
    ROBERT GAWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..so well established that organolithiums are the most widely used organometallics in contemporary organi chemistry" (Beak et al, Acc. Chem. Res. 1996, 29, 552-560)...
  16. ROLE OF BFGF IN GROWTH OF THE FACE
    Joy Richman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..major reservoir for extracellular BFGF; and d) the effects of locally released BFGF on chondrogenesis in the upper beak. The results of these experiments will either support or refute the hypothesis that differential growth of the ..
  17. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The integrative nature of this research will generate results of wide interdisciplinary interest, including disciplines such as neurobiology, respiratory physiology, linguistics, neuroethology and evolution. ..
  18. Mechanism for Producing Complex Sounds
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The integrative nature of this research will generate results of wide interdisciplinary interest, including disciplines such as neurobiology, respiratory physiology, linguistics, neuroethology and evolution. ..
  20. Mechanism for Producing Complex Sounds
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The integrative nature of this research will generate results of wide interdisciplinary interest, including disciplines such as neurobiology, respiratory physiology, linguistics, neuroethology and evolution. ..
  22. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
  23. Mechanisms for producing complex sounds
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The "electronic syrinx" will provide an excellent test device for developing a similar system for the human larynx. ..
  24. Mechanism for Producing Complex Sounds
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  25. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
  26. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
  27. KERATINOCYTE TRANSGLUTAMINASE--STRUCTURE AND REGULATION
    Robert Rice; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  28. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
  29. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The integrative nature of this research will generate results of wide interdisciplinary interest, including disciplines such as neurobiology, respiratory physiology, linguistics, neuroethology and evolution. ..
  30. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL AND MOTOR INTEGRATION OF BIRDSONG
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..techniques, including recording of airflow and respiratory pressure, electrical activity of muscles and beak movements...
  31. Mechanism for Producing Complex Sounds
    Franz Goller; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. KERATINOCYTE TRANSGLUTAMINASE--ANCHORAGE AND CLONING
    Robert Rice; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ....
  33. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesoderm
    Paul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. Antifouling Peptide Mimetic Polymers
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..When applied to the surface of an object, these polymers are anticipated to enhance the performance of medical devices by providing resistance to fouling by proteins, cells and bacteria. ..
  35. Neural mechanisms of localization dominance
    Brian Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Biologically Inspired Polymer Adhesives
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  37. Development and control of repetitive leg movements during embryonic development
    NINA BRADLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will accelerate the time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant light and delay time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant dark. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
  39. Antifouling Peptide Mimetic Polymers
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..When applied to the surface of an object, these polymers are anticipated to enhance the performance of medical devices by providing resistance to fouling by proteins, cells and bacteria. ..
  40. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesoderm
    Paul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  41. Biologically Inspired Polymer Adhesives
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  42. TEMPORAL REGULATION OF CRANIAL SKELETOGENESIS
    Richard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  43. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
  44. 2008 Biointerface Science Gordon Research Conference
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Neural mechanisms of localization dominance
    Brian Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
  47. Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling Biomaterials
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Bioadhesive Polymer Hydrogels: Basic and Applied Studies
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. The Role of Neural Crest in Facial Patterning
    Richard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This project is significant in using a novel approach to investigate regulation of facial growth and will provide valuable insights on birth defects. ..
  50. Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling Biomaterials
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  52. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  53. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  54. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  55. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  56. Bioadhesive Polymer Hydrogels: Basic and Applied Studies
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. TEMPORAL REGULATION OF CRANIAL SKELETOGENESIS
    Richard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling Biomaterials
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesoderm
    Paul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  60. Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling Biomaterials
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Neuromuscular control of flight
    DOUGLAS ALTSHULER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Improved understanding of the neural control of the regulation of complex motor behaviors would have direct relevance to studies of human motor control diseases and motor control degeneration that accompanies ageing. ..
  62. Development and control of repetitive leg movements during embryonic development
    NINA BRADLEY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will accelerate the time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant light and delay time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant dark. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  63. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  64. BIOINSPIRED SYNTHESIS OF IN SITU GELLING BIOMATERIALS
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  65. Antifouling Peptide Mimetic Polymers
    Phillip B Messersmith; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..When applied to the surface of an object, these polymers are anticipated to enhance the performance of medical devices by providing resistance to fouling by proteins, cells and bacteria. ..
  66. Bioinspired Synthesis of In-Situ Gelling Biomaterials
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  67. Bioadhesive Polymer Hydrogels: Basic and Applied Studies
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  68. Bioadhesive Polymer Hydrogels: Basic and Applied Studies
    PHILLIP MESSERSMITH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  69. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesoderm
    Paul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  70. Intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of cranial mesoderm
    Paul Trainor; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  71. A New System to Study the Control of Epidermal Growth
    Richard Schneider; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..