Summary: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.

Top Publications

  1. . Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:933-8 pubmed
    ..However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting. ..
  2. Shigemura J, Tanigawa T, Saito I, Nomura S. Psychological distress in workers at the Fukushima nuclear power plants. JAMA. 2012;308:667-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Pollice R, Bianchini V, Roncone R, Casacchia M. Marked increase in substance use among young people after L'Aquila earthquake. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:429-30 pubmed publisher
  4. Casacchia M, Pollice R, Roncone R. The narrative epidemiology of L'Aquila 2009 earthquake. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2012;21:13-21 pubmed
  5. Tsuda T, Lindahl L, Tokinobu A. Ethical Issues Related to the Promotion of a "100 mSv Threshold Assumption" in Japan after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in 2011: Background and Consequences. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2017;4:119-129 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethical problems after the accident in Fukushima can be understood from the consequences of the mistakes in both risk information and risk communication in Japan after 2011. ..
  6. Witze A. Seismology: The sleeping dragon. Nature. 2009;459:153-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Usui C, Hatta K, Aratani S, Yagishita N, Nishioka K, Okamura S, et al. Vulnerability to traumatic stress in fibromyalgia patients: 19 month follow-up after the great East Japan disaster. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R130 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that patients with fibromyalgia are vulnerable to chronic stress rather than acute stress. ..
  8. Hori H, Kuratomi A, Ishizaki M, Sakamoto T, Nishida Y, Ando Y. The effects of the Kumamoto earthquake on the clinical symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2017;57:425-429 pubmed publisher
    ..scale for monitoring and evaluating motor function, were confirmed with the subjects before and after the earthquakes. After the earthquakes, worsened symptoms were found in 7 patients and 7 patients felt better...
  9. Tanaka M, Imai J, Satoh M, Hashimoto T, Izumi T, Sawada S, et al. Glycemic control in diabetic patients with impaired endogenous insulin secretory capacity is vulnerable after a natural disaster: study of Great East Japan Earthquake. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:e212-3 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pradhan E, Limbu B, Thakali S, Jain N, Gurung R, Ruit S. The impact of ocular trauma during the Nepal earthquake in 2015. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:32 pubmed publisher
    ..The burden of ocular trauma resulting from the recent earthquakes in Nepal has not been described thus far...
  2. Kim Y. Great East Japan earthquake and early mental-health-care response. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;65:539-48 pubmed publisher
  3. Ohira T, Hosoya M, Yasumura S, Satoh H, Suzuki H, Takahashi A, et al. How lifestyle affects health--changes in health status before and after the earthquake. Fukushima J Med Sci. 2014;60:211-2 pubmed publisher
  4. Watts J. Haiti making good progress in health but challenges remain. Lancet. 2014;384:1413-4 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhang X, Yin Y, Hu X, Duan L, Qi R, Xu Q, et al. Altered default mode network configuration in posttraumatic stress disorder after earthquake: A resting-stage functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7826 pubmed publisher
    ..26, P?=?.04).This study implicates alteration of topological features on the DMN in PTSD victims after major earthquake, and provides new insights into DMN malfunction in PTSD based on graph theory. ..
  6. Stone R. China. Race to contain plague in quake zone. Science. 2010;328:559 pubmed publisher
  7. Weinhold B. Energy development linked with earthquakes. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:a388 pubmed publisher
  8. Christodouleas J, Forrest R, Ainsley C, Tochner Z, Hahn S, Glatstein E. Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2334-41 pubmed publisher
  9. Patrick M, Steenland M, Dismer A, Pierre Louis J, Murphy J, Kahler A, et al. Assessment of Drinking Water Sold from Private Sector Kiosks in Post-Earthquake Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the increasing role of the private sector in drinking water provision in Port-au-Prince and elsewhere in Haiti, this assessment was an important first step for government regulation of this sector...
  10. Mizukawa K, Hirai Y, Sakakibara H, Endo S, Okuda K, Takada H, et al. Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trend of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds Derived from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;73:185-195 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the long-term trend of environmental pollution induced by the disaster, continuous monitoring along the Tohoku coast is required. ..
  11. Suzuki Y, Weissbecker I. Post-disaster mental health care in Japan. Lancet. 2011;378:317 pubmed publisher
  12. Chen G, Lai W, Liu F, Mao Q, Tu F, Wen J, et al. The dragon strikes: lessons from the Wenchuan earthquake. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:908-15 pubmed publisher
  13. . Conclusions and recommendations of the International Expert Symposium in Fukushima: Radiation and Health Risks. J Radiol Prot. 2011;31:381-4 pubmed publisher
  14. Lachish T, Bar A, Alalouf H, Merin O, Schwartz E. Morbidity among the Israeli Defense Force response team during Nepal, post-earthquake mission, 2015. J Travel Med. 2017;24: pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of morbidity and specifically of GI complaints upon arrival to a disaster-stricken area in a developing country is difficult. Medical teams in such missions should be acquainted with treating GI complaints. ..
  15. Juin S, Schaad N, Lafontant D, Joseph G, Barzilay E, BONCY J, et al. Strengthening National Disease Surveillance and Response-Haiti, 2010-2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustainability remains the greatest challenge since most of the funding for surveillance come from external sources...
  16. Takeuchi Y, Saito A, Ojima Y, Kagaya S, Fukami H, Sato H, et al. The influence of the Great East Japan earthquake on microscopic polyangiitis: A retrospective observational study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177482 pubmed publisher
    ..The Great East Japan earthquake influenced the development of the microscopic polyangiitis in our restricted area. The patients who developed after the disaster had severe symptoms and a high mortality rate. ..
  17. Cartwright C, Hall M, Lee A. The changing health priorities of earthquake response and implications for preparedness: a scoping review. Public Health. 2017;150:60-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited...
  18. Hikichi H, Aida J, Tsuboya T, Kondo K, Kawachi I. Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183:902-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Community-level social cohesion strengthens the resilience of community residents in the aftermath of a disaster. ..
  19. Seike K, Shirai K, Murakami Sugihara N. Using tsunami deposits to determine the maximum depth of benthic burrowing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182753 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum burrowing depth of E. cordatum in Funakoshi Bay was 22 cm from the seafloor surface. ..
  20. Satoh M, Kikuya M, Ohkubo T, Imai Y. Acute and subacute effects of the great East Japan earthquake on home blood pressure values. Hypertension. 2011;58:e193-4 pubmed publisher
  21. Li C, Zhang H, Su H, Zhou H, Wang Y. Spatial distribution correlation of soil-gas radon (222Rn) and mercury with leveling deformation in northern margin fault zone of West Qinling, China. J Environ Radioact. 2017;178-179:315-324 pubmed publisher
  22. . Malaria acquired in Haiti - 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:217-9 pubmed
    ..S. traveler. This report summarizes the 11 cases and provides chemoprophylactic and additional preventive recommendations to minimize the risk for acquiring malaria for persons traveling to Haiti. ..
  23. Brumfiel G, Fuyuno I. Japan's nuclear crisis: Fukushima's legacy of fear. Nature. 2012;483:138-40 pubmed publisher
  24. Sugihara G, Suda S. Need for close watch on children's health after Fukushima disaster. Lancet. 2011;378:485-6 pubmed publisher
  25. Jean Louis F, Buteau J, BONCY J, Anselme R, Stanislas M, Nagel M, et al. Building and Rebuilding: The National Public Health Laboratory Systems and Services Before and After the Earthquake and Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2009-2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:21-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, the progress and gains made remain fragile and require the full ownership and continuous investment from the Haitian government to sustain these successes and achievements. ..
  26. Nelson E, Nelson D, Salam M, Sack D. Antibiotics for both moderate and severe cholera. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:5-7 pubmed publisher
  27. de Pee S, Moench Pfanner R, Martini E, Zlotkin S, Darnton Hill I, Bloem M. Home fortification in emergency response and transition programming: experiences in Aceh and Nias, Indonesia. Food Nutr Bull. 2007;28:189-97 pubmed
    ..This experience demonstrates that providing micronutrients as part of emergency relief and transition programming, as recently recommended by the World Health Organization/UNICEF/World Food Program, is feasible. ..
  28. Navarro Mateu F, Salmerón D, Vilagut G, Tormo M, Ruíz Merino G, Escámez T, et al. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other mental disorders in the general population after Lorca's earthquakes, 2011 (Murcia, Spain): A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179690 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior mental disorders and the level of exposure to the earthquakes are the most important for the development of a consequent mental disorder and this recognition may help to ..
  29. Nakamura M, Tanaka K, Tanaka F, Matsuura Y, Komi R, Niiyama M, et al. Long-Term Effects of the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on Incidence of Fatal and Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:352-358 pubmed publisher
    ..005) but not with the maximum seismic intensity (r = 0.43; p = 0.12). In conclusion, these results suggest that the devastating tsunami was associated with a continual increase in the incidence of fatal MI among disaster survivors. ..
  30. Lin L, Wang Y, Liu T. Perception of recovery of households affected by 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A structural equation model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183631 pubmed publisher
    ..It is implied that a one-size-fits-all policy in disaster recovery may not be effective and more specific assistance should be provided to those people in need. ..
  31. Kikuya M, Matsubara H, Ishikuro M, Sato Y, Obara T, Metoki H, et al. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey. J Epidemiol. 2017;27:462-468 pubmed publisher
    ..56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. ..
  32. Lemoine J, BONCY J, Filler S, Kachur S, Fitter D, Chang M. Haiti's Commitment to Malaria Elimination: Progress in the Face of Challenges, 2010-2016. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:43-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The reinforcement of evidence-based approaches coupled with strong collaboration among the Ministry of Health and partners has demonstrated that malaria elimination by 2020 is a realistic prospect...
  33. Pape J, Deschamps M, Ford H, Joseph P, Johnson W, Fitzgerald D. The GHESKIO refugee camp after the earthquake in Haiti--dispatch 2 from Port-au-Prince. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:e27 pubmed publisher
  34. Lu Ping Z, Rodriguez Llanes J, Qi W, van den Oever B, Westman L, Albela M, et al. Multiple injuries after earthquakes: a retrospective analysis on 1,871 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Crit Care. 2012;16:R87 pubmed publisher
    Multiple injuries have been highlighted as an important clinical dimension of the injury profile following earthquakes, but studies are scarce...
  35. Graham F, Harte D. Survival of Legionella in earthquake-induced soil disturbance (liquefaction) in residential areas, Christchurch, New Zealand: implications for disease. N Z Med J. 2017;130:51-64 pubmed between liquefaction dust exposure and the noticeable increase in legionellosis cases in response to major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 that resulted in widespread soil disturbance (liquefaction) in parts of Christchurch, New ..
  36. Wang M. Devastation after the Haiti Earthquake: a neurosurgeon's Journal. World Neurosurg. 2010;73:438-41 pubmed publisher
  37. Shibahara S. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and devastating tsunami. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;223:305-7 pubmed
  38. de Michele M, Ergintav S, Aochi H, Raucoules D. An L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar study on the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault zone between 2007 and 2011: Evidence for along strike segmentation and creep in a shallow fault patch. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185422 pubmed publisher
    ..Because this study improves our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the GF, our results have implications for local seismic hazard assessment. ..
  39. Vasquez D, Palacio A, Nunez J, Briones W, Beier J, Pareja D, et al. Impact of the 2016 Ecuador Earthquake on Zika Virus Cases. Am J Public Health. 2017;107:1137-1142 pubmed publisher
    ..A spike in ZIKV cases occurred after the earthquake. Patients in the area closest to the epicenter had a delay in seeking care. ..
  40. Wang Y, Zhu Y, Sui Q. Ethnic Groups Differences in Domestic Recovery after the Catastrophe: A Case Study of the 2008 Magnitude 7.9 Earthquake in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..Assistance should be established specifically for the psychological recovery of Qiang women and family recovery projects. ..
  41. Calo Blanco A, Kovářík J, Mengel F, Romero J. Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176885 pubmed publisher
    ..cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile...
  42. Salaffi F, Atzeni F, Talotta R, DI Carlo M, Sarzi Puttini P. Earthquake vulnerability of fibromyalgia patients: six-month follow-up after the catastrophic disasters in central Italy. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35 Suppl 105:93-99 pubmed
    To investigate the 6-month impact of the catastrophic earthquakes that struck central Italy in August and October 2016 on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with fibromyalgia (FM)...
  43. Bird W, Grossman E. Chemical aftermath: contamination and cleanup following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:A290-301 pubmed publisher
  44. Dobashi K, Nagamine M, Shigemura J, Tsunoda T, Shimizu K, Yoshino A, et al. Psychological effects of disaster relief activities on Japan ground self-defense force personnel following the 2011 great east Japan earthquake. Psychiatry. 2014;77:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Several factors may account for the low levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic symptoms observed in this study. ..
  45. Zhou J, Zhang A, Qiu L, Huang S, Wang W, Hu Y, et al. [Cognitive impairment in earthquake brain injury treated with comprehensive program of acupuncture and rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2014;34:105-9 pubmed
    ..The therapeutic effect is more advantageous as compared with the simple rehabilitation program of western medicine. ..
  46. Khan F, Smith B, Schwartzman K. Earthquake in Haiti: is the Latin American and Caribbean region's highest tuberculosis rate destined to become higher?. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010;4:417-9 pubmed publisher
  47. Fitter D, Delson D, Guillaume F, Schaad A, Moffett D, Poncelet J, et al. Applying a New Framework for Public Health Systems Recovery following Emergencies and Disasters: The Example of Haiti following a Major Earthquake and Cholera Outbreak. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:4-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Outlining the features of a public health system for recovery in structured manner can also help lay the foundation for sustainable long-term development leading to a more robust and resilient health system. ..
  48. Cyranoski D. China tackles surge in mental illness. Nature. 2010;468:145 pubmed publisher
  49. Masur J, Koenig S, Julma P, Ocheretina O, Durán Mendicuti M, Fitzgerald D, et al. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:433-435 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a high burden of undiagnosed TB in Port-au-Prince 3 years after the earthquake. Further assessment of the burden of TB is indicated. ..
  50. Sharma D. Nepal earthquake exposes gaps in disaster preparedness. Lancet. 2015;385:1819-20 pubmed publisher
  51. Landry M, Raman S, Kohrt B. Disability as an Emerging Public Health Crisis in Postearthquake Nepal. Am J Public Health. 2015;105:1515-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Nozue M, Nishi N, Tsubota Utsugi M, Miyoshi M, Yonekura Y, Sakata K, et al. Combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake with health status among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26:556-560 pubmed publisher
    ..Further interventions regarding physical activity and dietary intake are needed to improve the health status of survivors. ..
  53. Suzuki Y, Kim Y. The great east Japan earthquake in 2011; toward sustainable mental health care system. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2012;21:7-11 pubmed
    ..In Fukushima prefecture, where nuclear plant accident occurred, its mental health impact is most concerned and long-term follow-up of the residents' health has been being planned. ..
  54. Ribeiro A, de Fátima de Pina M. Could moderate earthquakes also trigger cardiac events?. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28:199-202 pubmed publisher
  55. Karki R. Management of disease outbreak in Nepal. Lancet. 2015;386:335-6 pubmed publisher
  56. Kashima S, Inoue K, Matsumoto M. Have the tsunami and nuclear accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake affected the local distribution of hospital physicians?. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178020 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the tsunami did not affect the distribution of physicians in the affected regions. However, the FDNPP accident changed physician distribution in areas close to the power plant. ..
  57. Shrestha A, Lama T, Gupta B, Sapkota B, Adhikari A, Khadka S, et al. Hepatitis E virus outbreak in postearthquake Nepal: is a vaccine really needed?. J Viral Hepat. 2016;23:492 pubmed publisher