fast neutrons


Summary: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.

Top Publications

  1. Matsumura H, Masumoto K, Nakao N, Wang Q, Toyoda A, Kawai M, et al. Characteristics of high-energy neutrons estimated using the radioactive spallation products of Au at the 500-MeV neutron irradiation facility of KENS. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:1-5 pubmed
    ..A good agreement (between them) was found for energies beyond 100 MeV. The profile of the neutron spectrum, ranging from 8 to 500 MeV, does not depend on the thickness of the concrete shield. ..
  2. Lee H, Kim J, Moon C, Kim J, Jo S, Kim S. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons in a multiorgan assay for apoptosis in mouse. Environ Toxicol. 2008;23:233-9 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on the induction of apoptosis in several tissue types (hair follicle, intestine crypt, testis) of ICR mouse exposed to low LET 60Co gamma-rays...
  3. Vral A, Thierens H, Baeyens A, de Ridder L. Induction and disappearance of G2 chromatid breaks in lymphocytes after low doses of low-LET gamma-rays and high-LET fast neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol. 2002;78:249-57 pubmed
    ..24 keV x microm(-1) 60Co gamma-rays and 20 keV x microm(-1) fast neutrons)...
  4. Ishida Y, Ohmachi Y, Nakata Y, Hiraoka T, Hamano T, Fushiki S, et al. Dose-response and large relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons with regard to mouse fetal cerebral neuron apoptosis. J Radiat Res. 2006;47:41-7 pubmed
    ..on fetal nervous development, [C57BL/6J x C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-1.0 Gy) or 137Cs-generated gamma-rays (0.1-2.0 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5...
  5. MacDougall R, Kerr G, Duncan W. Incidence of sarcoma in patients treated with fast neutrons. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66:842-4 pubmed
    ..aim of this study is to report the incidence of soft tissue sarcoma in a large group of patients treated with fast neutrons. A systematic review was conducted of long-term follow-up after trials of fast neutron therapy for cancers at ..
  6. Britten R, Peters L, Murray D. Biological factors influencing the RBE of neutrons: implications for their past, present and future use in radiotherapy. Radiat Res. 2001;156:125-35 pubmed
    ..In the future, fast-neutron therapy might be prescribed based upon the relative status of appropriate molecular parameters that have a differential impact upon radiosensitivity to photons compared to fast neutrons.
  7. Fujikawa K, Hasegawa Y, Matsuzawa S, Fukunaga A, Itoh T, Kondo S. Dose and dose-rate effects of X rays and fission neutrons on lymphocyte apoptosis in p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) mice. J Radiat Res. 2000;41:113-27 pubmed
    ..4 Gy/min) and chronic (3 mGy/min) gamma-irradiations. Namely, radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes is a dose-rate independent event. ..
  8. Soltan Monem A, Ali F, Al thani N, Ali S. Membrane solubilization in erythrocytes as a measure of radiation exposure to fast neutrons. Phys Med Biol. 1999;44:347-55 pubmed
    ..Blood films photographed two weeks post-irradiation show developed elliptocytosis and crenated cell anaemia. ..
  9. Rosenfeld A, Bradley P, Cornelius I, Allen B, Zaider M, Maughan R, et al. Solid state microdosimetry in hadron therapy. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;101:431-4 pubmed
    ..Several shortcomings of the current silicon microdosemeter were identified and will be taken into account in the design of a second-generation device. ..

More Information


  1. Menzel H, Wambersie A, Pihet P. The clinical RBE and microdosimetric characterization of radiation quality in fast neutron therapy. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:251-9 pubmed
    High-LET radiation therapy using fast neutrons is being applied regularly at several centres worldwide and in the future, other types of radiation qualities, such as protons and heavier ions and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are ..
  2. Forton E, Stichelbaut F, Cambriani A, Kleeven W, Ahlback J, Jongen Y. Overview of the IBA accelerator-based BNCT system. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This overview presents the current status of the system: after a description of every component, some design issues, solutions and experimental tests will be discussed. ..
  3. Hampel G, Wortmann B, Blaickner M, Knorr J, Kratz J, Lizón Aguilar A, et al. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented. ..
  4. Matsubara S, Kuwabara Y, Horiuchi J, Suzuki S, Ito A. Dose distribution of neutron beam and chromosome analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;14:503-9 pubmed
    ..This wide penumbra and high RBE value, especially at lower dose range of the neutron beam may contribute to the induction of secondary malignancies in the normal tissue surrounding the tumor mass. ..
  5. Warenius H. Fast neutron therapy. The UK experience. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:289-92 pubmed
    ..5 MeV (p-->Be+) Douglas cyclotron was installed at Clatterbridge in order to carry out further studies with fast neutrons. Several features were incorporated into the study design to achieve as unbiased as possible a comparison ..
  6. Kumada H, Yamamoto K, Yamamoto T, Nakai K, Nakagawa Y, Kageji T, et al. Improvement of dose calculation accuracy for BNCT dosimetry by the multi-voxel method in JCDS. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:1045-50 pubmed
    ..These results proved that the multi-voxel calculation enables JCDS to more accurately estimate the absorbed doses to a patient by efficient calculations. ..
  7. Oliveira N, Castro M, Rodrigues A, Gonçalves I, Cassapo R, Fernandes A, et al. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of the boron neutron capture reaction in human melanoma cells using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Mutagenesis. 2001;16:369-75 pubmed
    ..The presented results reinforce the usefulness of the CBMN assay as an alternative method for assessment of the deleterious effects induced by high LET radiation produced by the BNC reaction in human melanoma cells. ..
  8. Nakashima H, Sakamoto Y, Nakane Y, Meigo S, Tanaka S, Nakamura T, et al. An experimental study on radiation streaming through a labyrinth in a proton accelerator facility of intermediate energy. Health Phys. 2001;81:406-18 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that it is mandatory to estimate the gamma ray dose equivalent rate in a labyrinth, which is dominated by the secondary gamma rays due to the neutron capture reaction. ..
  9. Belafrites A, Nourreddine A, Mouhssine D, Nachab A, Pape A, Boucenna A, et al. Comparison of imaging plates with track detectors for fast-neutron dosimetry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:333-6 pubmed
    ..This performance is compared with those of dosemeters based on the plastic track detectors PN3 and CR-39. ..
  10. Ipe N, Olsher R, Ryge P, Mrozack J, Thieu J. A cargo inspection system based on pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:343-6 pubmed
    ..The truck or container to be inspected will be moved through the inspection tunnel by a conveyor system. The facility and radiation source terms considered in the shielding design are described. ..
  11. Menard S, Chau Q, Lahaye T. Active neutron dosemeters based on microdosimetric principles: research studies. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;99:375-6 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in 2000 and in 2001 with the cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter developed for use in radiation protection and filled with a low pressure tissue-equivalent gas (propane based) are presented here. ..
  12. Chiba S, Saito A, Ogawa S, Takeuchi K, Kumano K, Seo S, et al. Transplantation for accidental acute high-dose total body neutron- and gamma-radiation exposure. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:935-9 pubmed
    ..Random chromatid breaks were observed in donor cells suggesting a bystander effect of neutron exposure. The subject died 82 days after the accident (75 days post transplant) from multi-organ failure. ..
  13. Hawk A, Blue T, Woollard J. A shielding design for an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:1027-31 pubmed
  14. Khattab K. Measurement of the fast neutron flux in the MNSR inner irradiation site. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:46-9 pubmed
  15. Followill D, Stovall M, Kry S, Ibbott G. Neutron source strength measurements for Varian, Siemens, Elekta, and General Electric linear accelerators. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2003;4:189-94 pubmed
    ..44(x10(12)) neutrons per photon Gy for a 25 MV beam. The most comprehensive set of neutron source strength values, Q, for the current accelerators in clinical use are presented for use in calculating room shielding. ..
  16. Das M, Sawamura T, Abe M, Kaneko J, Homma A, Fujita F, et al. Superheated emulsions as high-energy neutron dosemeters. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:325-31 pubmed
    ..1-10 MeV with Pb-breeder. The present work indicates the possibility of using the bubble detector as a dosemeter to high-energy neutron using a Pb-breeder of proper thickness. ..
  17. Zhou C, Zhao J, Xiao W. PIN silicon diode fast neutron detector. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;117:365-8 pubmed
    ..Based on the results of the neutron source response experiments, it was concluded that the response of fast neutron varied linearly with the structural ratio of the detectors. ..
  18. Mokaleng B, Akudugu J. Modulation of the sensitivity in Chinese hamster cells to photons and fast neutrons by cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The relatively higher sensitivity of the ovarian cells to vinblastine and bleomycin might constitute a limitation in the use of these drugs for the treatment of lung lesions. ..
  19. Yang M, Kim H, Kim J, Kim S, Kim J, Bae C, et al. Fast neutron irradiation deteriorates hippocampus-related memory ability in adult mice. J Vet Sci. 2012;13:1-6 pubmed evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following acute exposure to relatively low doses of fast neutrons. In addition, hippocampal neurogenesis changes in adult murine brain after cranial irradiation were analyzed ..
  20. Ishigure N, Endo A, Yamaguchi Y, Kawachi K. Calculation of the absorbed dose for the overexposed patients at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S137-48 pubmed
    ..The estimated neutron doses were 5.4 Gy for patient A. 2.9 Gy for patient B and 0.81 Gy for patient C. The estimated gamma-ray doses were 8.5 or 13 Gy for patient A, 4.5 or 6.9 Gy for patient B, and 1.3 or 2.0 Gy for patient C...
  21. Duncan W. An evaluation of the results of neutron therapy trials. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:299-306 pubmed
    ..Late morbidity after neutron therapy is a persistent cause for concern and often has been unacceptably high. There is no convincing evidence that fast neutrons are either as safe or as effective in cancer control as photon therapy.
  22. Schwartz D, Einck J, Bellon J, Laramore G. Fast neutron radiotherapy for soft tissue and cartilaginous sarcomas at high risk for local recurrence. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;50:449-56 pubmed
    ..Cartilaginous sarcomas have also been included in this high-risk group. This report updates and expands our previously described experience with this approach...
  23. Mukherjee B. ANDI-03: a genetic algorithm tool for the analysis of activation detector data to unfold high-energy neutron spectra. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:249-54 pubmed
    ..9% (at shield top level) and +/-27.2% (behind a 60 cm thick concrete shield) with the same unfolded with the SAND-II code. ..
  24. Angelone M, Pillon M, Marinelli M, Milani E, Paoletti A, Tucciarone A, et al. Development and application of CVD diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutron flux monitoring. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:233-6 pubmed
    ..Good stability and capability to operate in neutron flux up to 1.5 x 10(8) n cm(-2) s(-1) was observed. The radiation hardness property was also investigated using a 460 microm thick film and these results are also reported. ..
  25. Yamauchi M, Ochiai K, Morimoto Y, Wada M, Sato S, Nishitani T. Experiment and analyses for 14 MeV neutron streaming through a dogleg duct. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:542-6 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the simple design code is reliable enough to be used for shielding design analyses as well as the Monte Carlo method, which showed excellent agreement between calculated and measured values. ..
  26. Courdi A, Brassart N, Herault J, Mari D, Chauvel P. The RBE of fast neutrons for in vitro inactivation of human tumour cells determined by the ratio of mean inactivation doses. Acta Oncol. 1996;35:237-42 pubmed
    ..An 'intrinsic gain factor' may thus be expected in irradiating radiation resistant tumours with fast neutrons, in addition to the hypoxic or kinetic gain factors...
  27. Kasesaz Y, Khalafi H, Rahmani F. Optimization of the beam shaping assembly in the D-D neutron generators-based BNCT using the response matrix method. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;82:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show good agreement between direct calculation and the RM method. ..
  28. Schneider K, Wells B, Dolan L, Roberts K. Structural and genetic analysis of epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis primary roots. Development. 1997;124:1789-98 pubmed
    ..This result and the analysis of double mutants suggest a complex pathway leading to root hair initiation that requires the RHL and ERH genes for correct differentiation. ..
  29. Olsher R, McLean T. High-energy response of the PRESCILA and WENDI-II neutron rem meters. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;130:510-3 pubmed publisher
    ..For the sake of completeness, data collected between 2.5 and 19 MeV in monoenergetic neutron fields at the German Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility are also included in this study. ..
  30. Maughan R, Chuba P, Porter A, Ben Josef E, Lucas D. The elemental composition of tumors: kerma data for neutrons. Med Phys. 1997;24:1241-4 pubmed
    ..The average neutron kerma values for all tumor samples are approximately 6%-7% lower than those for average soft tissue in the energy range of interest in fast neutron therapy (energies > 1 MeV). ..
  31. Raju M. Particle radiotherapy: historical developments and current status. Radiat Res. 1996;145:391-407 pubmed
    ..The particles covered are fast neutrons, neutron capture therapy, protons, helium ions, pions and heavy ions...
  32. Miller M, Quintana J, Ojeda J, Langan S, Thorp S, Pozzi E, et al. New irradiation facility for biomedical applications at the RA-3 reactor thermal column. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S226-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Measurements in the empty cavity showed a thermal flux near 10(10) n cm(-2)s(-1), a cadmium ratio of 4100 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate of approximately 5 Gy h(-1). ..
  33. Nigg D, Wemple C, Risler R, Hartwell J, Harker Y, Laramore G. Modification of the University of Washington Neutron Radiotherapy Facility for optimization of neutron capture enhanced fast-neutron therapy. Med Phys. 2000;27:359-67 pubmed
    ..In-vivo clinical testing of BNCT-enhanced fast-neutron therapy for canine lung tumors using the new beam was recently initiated. ..
  34. Janiszewska M, Polaczek Grelik K, Raczkowski M, Szafron B, Konefał A, Zipper W. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation. Strahlenther Onkol. 2014;190:459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of ?-radiation are the following: (56)Mn in the stainless steel and (187)W of the ..
  35. Halfon S, Paul M, Steinberg D, Nagler A, Arenshtam A, Kijel D, et al. High power accelerator-based boron neutron capture with a liquid lithium target and new applications to treatment of infectious diseases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:S278-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Feasibility experiments evaluating the boron neutron capture effectiveness on bacteria annihilation are taking place at the Soreq nuclear reactor. ..
  36. Butarbutar S, Sanguanmith S, Meesungnoen J, Sunaryo G, Jay Gerin J. Calculation of the yields for the primary species formed from the radiolysis of liquid water by fast neutrons at temperatures between 25-350°C. Radiat Res. 2014;181:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This general trend is a reflection of the high-LET character of fast neutrons. Although the results of the simulations were consistent with the experiment, more experimental data are ..
  37. Maruyama Y, van Nagell J, Yoneda J, Gallion H, DePriest P, Feola J, et al. Schedule in Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy: complications after delayed implant therapy for cervical cancer in a phase II trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 1993;16:168-74 pubmed
    ..The delayed Cf implant apparently contributed to the greater risk for normal tissue complications. ..
  38. Matsumoto T, Harano H, Ito Y, Uritani A, Emi K, Kudo K. Development of a fast neutron spectrometer composed of silicon-SSD and position-sensitive proportional counters. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:223-6 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of the spectrometer were evaluated with a monoenergetic neutron beam. The best energy resolution was 1.8% for 5.0 MeV neutrons. ..
  39. Maughan R. A light localizer for use at large distances from a radiation source. Med Phys. 1998;25:892-3 pubmed
    ..The design of the light localizing system is explained in detail. ..
  40. Skvarc J, Giacomelli M, Yanagie H, Kuhne G. Selective radiography of 10B distribution in organs using cold and thermal neutron beams. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2002;7:162-4 pubmed
    ..equivalent results with both neutron sources, although the background noise due to recoil protons from the fast neutrons of the thermal neutron source is 15 % higher than that of the cold neutron source...
  41. Casal M, González S, Blaumann H, Longhino J, Calzetta Larrieu O, Wemple C. Comparison of the performance of two NCT treatment planning systems using the therapeutic beam of the RA-6 reactor. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:805-10 pubmed
    ..It can be seen that both codes give acceptable results on the central beam axis and on a lateral axis, showing good agreement with experimental results. ..
  42. Popescu A, Risler R. Wedge factor dependence with depth and field size for fast neutron beams. Phys Med Biol. 2003;48:2123-31 pubmed
    ..Despite this complication, the approach presented in Popescu et al (1999 Med. Phys. 26 541) can be used to describe the WF dependence on FS and depth (d). ..
  43. Little M. Radiation: a dose of the bomb. Nature. 2003;424:495-6 pubmed
  44. Carlsson J, Hartman T, Grusell E. Dose enhancement in fast neutron tumour therapy due to neutron captures in 10B. Acta Oncol. 1994;33:315-22 pubmed
  45. Murata Y, Muroyama T, Kawabata Y, Yamamoto M, Komura K. Activation of soil and chemical reagents exposed to the neutrons released by the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S55-74 pubmed
    ..The present data are believed to be important as validation data for a three-dimensional neutron transport model calculation. ..
  46. Maughan R, Yudelev M, Aref A, Chuba P, Forman J, Blosser E, et al. Design considerations for a computer controlled multileaf collimator for the Harper Hospital fast neutron therapy facility. Med Phys. 2002;29:499-508 pubmed
    ..For the rare cases, where optimum penumbra conditions are required, a MLC incorporating tapered leaves and, thus, providing focused collimation in one plane is necessary. ..
  47. Forman J, Yudelev M, Bolton S, Tekyi Mensah S, Maughan R. Fast neutron irradiation for prostate cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21:131-5 pubmed
    ..Future work will be done to expand the role of neutron radiation in other clinical disease sites. ..
  48. Langen K, Binnss P, Schreuder A, Lennox A, Deluca P. Measurement of the tissue to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic kerma ratio at two p(66)Be neutron therapy facilities. Phys Med Biol. 2003;48:1345-59 pubmed
    ..95 +/- 0.05. The experimentally determined ICRU tissue to A-150 plastic kerma ratios for the two clinical beams are in agreement with theoretical evaluations. Beam filtration reduces the kerma ratio by 3 +/- 2%. ..
  49. Tuo F, Zhou F, Yi Y, Cao X, Kong X. Cross-section measurements for the reactions of 14 MeV neutrons on indium isotopes. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:910-4 pubmed
    ..As samples, natural indium has been used. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)(4)He reaction. The results obtained are compared with existing data.
  50. Mendez R, Iniguez M, Martí Climent J, Penuelas I, Vega Carrillo H, Barquero R. Study of the neutron field in the vicinity of an unshielded PET cyclotron. Phys Med Biol. 2005;50:5141-52 pubmed
    ..Finally, gamma doses were determined from TLD700 readings and amounted to around 10% of the neutron doses. ..
  51. Spurny F, Jadrnickova I. Some recent measurements onboard spacecraft with passive detector. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:228-31 pubmed
    ..of radiation with low-linear energy transfer (LET); Si diode, to try to establish the contribution of fast neutrons; an LET spectrometer based on the chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate etched track detectors (PADC-..
  52. Burian J, Jansky B, Marek M, Novak E, Viererbl L, Fernandes A, et al. Development of equipments for determination of BNCT source spectral parameters. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:849-52 pubmed
    ..Test measurements were also carried out in conditions of known standard spectra. The accepted procedure and the first results documenting the sensitivity BSM to different spectra are presented. ..
  53. Yonai S, Itoga T, Baba M, Nakamura T, Yokobori H, Tahara Y. Benchmark experiments for cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:997-1001 pubmed
    ..These experimental results will be a good benchmark data to evaluate the accuracy of the calculation code. ..