neutrons

Summary

Summary: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.

Top Publications

  1. Jang K, Yagi T, Pyeon C, Yoo W, Shin S, Misawa T, et al. Feasibility of fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov effect for detecting thermal neutrons. Opt Express. 2013;21:14573-82 pubmed publisher
    In this research, we propose a novel method for detecting thermal neutrons with a fiber-optic radiation sensor using the Cerenkov effect...
  2. Hashimoto T, Isobe T, Hashii H, Kumada H, Tada H, Okumura T, et al. Influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:10 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy on ICDs...
  3. Haley B, Wang Q, Wanzer B, Vogt S, Finney L, Yang P, et al. Past and future work on radiobiology mega-studies: a case study at Argonne National Laboratory. Health Phys. 2011;100:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research. ..
  4. Wang C, Smith R, Duhig J, Prestwich W, Byun S, McNeill F, et al. Neutrons do not produce a bystander effect in zebrafish irradiated in vivo. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011;87:964-73 pubmed publisher
    Neutron irradiations at the McMaster Tandetron Accelerator were performed to study direct and bystander effects of neutrons in a live organism. The neutrons were produced through (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction...
  5. Ellender M, Harrison J, Meijne E, Huiskamp R, Kozlowski R, Haines J, et al. Intestinal tumours induced in Apc(Min/+) mice by X-rays and neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011;87:385-99 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the development of intestinal adenomas following neutron and X-ray exposure of Apc(Min/+) mice (Apc - adenomatous polyposis coli; Min - multiple intestinal neoplasia)...
  6. Vandersickel V, Mancini M, Slabbert J, Marras E, Thierens H, Perletti G, et al. The radiosensitizing effect of Ku70/80 knockdown in MCF10A cells irradiated with X-rays and p(66)+Be(40) neutrons. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Following irradiation of control and Ku-deficient cell lines with either 6 MV X-rays or p(66)+Be(40) neutrons, cellular radiosensitivity testing was performed using a crystal violet cell proliferation assay...
  7. Singh S, Wu W, Stuschke M, Bockisch A, Iliakis G. Reduced contribution of thermally-labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation after exposure to neutrons. Radiat Res. 2012;178:581-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that, although the yields of total DSBs are very similar after exposure to neutrons and X rays, the yields of thermally-labile sugar lesions dependent DSBs from neutrons are decreased in comparison ..
  8. Shuryak I, Brenner D, Ullrich R. Radiation-induced carcinogenesis: mechanistically based differences between gamma-rays and neutrons, and interactions with DMBA. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28559 pubmed publisher
    ..Densely ionizing radiation (e.g. neutrons) often produces downwardly curving dose responses, where the risk initially grows with dose, but eventually ..
  9. Yang M, Kim J, Son Y, Kim J, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Detrimental effect of fast neutrons on cultured immature rat hippocampal cells: relative biological effectiveness of in vitro cell death indices. Radiat Res. 2011;176:303-10 pubmed
    ..the detrimental effect and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on rat immature hippocampal cultured cells with those of low-LET ? rays...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wang P, Zhen H, Jiang X, Zhang W, Cheng X, Guo G, et al. Boron neutron capture therapy induces apoptosis of glioma cells through Bcl-2/Bax. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:661 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether induction of apoptosis contributes to the main therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and to compare the relative biological effect (RBE) of BNCT, ?-ray and reactor neutron irradiation...
  2. Taddei P, Mahajan A, Mirkovic D, Zhang R, Giebeler A, Kornguth D, et al. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:7067-80 pubmed publisher
    ..was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI)...
  3. Fujibuchi T, Yamaguchi I, Kasahara T, Iimori T, Masuda Y, Kimura K, et al. Measurement of thermal neutron fluence distribution with use of 23Na radioactivation around a medical compact cyclotron. Radiol Phys Technol. 2009;2:159-65 pubmed publisher
    A medical compact cyclotron produces about 10(15) neutrons per day along with 100 GBq of (18)F...
  4. Yang M, Kim J, Song M, Kim J, Shin T, Lee S, et al. Dose-response and relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons: induction of apoptosis and inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult mice. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010;86:476-85 pubmed publisher
    Our study compared the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on the induction of apoptosis and reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult ICR mice with those of low-LET (60)Co gamma-rays, to evaluate the ..
  5. Zanini A, Durisi E, Fasolo F, Ongaro C, Visca L, Nastasi U, et al. Monte Carlo simulation of the photoneutron field in linac radiotherapy treatments with different collimation systems. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:571-82 pubmed
    ..Results for the facility at IRCC (Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro) Candiolo (Turin), which is based on 18 MV x-rays from a Varian Clinac 2300 C/D, are presented for a variety of different collimator configurations. ..
  6. Takahashi T, Watanabe H, Dohi K, Ito A. 252Cf relative biological effectiveness and inheritable effect of fission neutrons in mouse liver tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 1992;52:1948-53 pubmed
    To determine the relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf fission neutrons versus 60Co gamma-rays for inducing liver tumorigenesis, C57BL/6NCrj x C3H/NCrj F1, hereafter called B6C3F1, mice were irradiated once either with 252Cf or 60Co ..
  7. Hertel N, Shannon M, Wang Z, Valenzano M, Mengesha W, Crowe R. Neutron measurements in the vicinity of a self-shielded PET cyclotron. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108:255-61 pubmed
    ..A common end product of the nuclear reactions used to produce the PET radionuclides is neutron radiation. These neutrons could potentially contribute to the annual effective dose received by hospital personnel...
  8. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina D, et al. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008;84:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..whole body irradiation (WBI) with 206 cGy or 417 cGy cobalt-60 gamma rays or 10 cGy or 40 cGy of fission-spectrum neutrons (average energy 0.85 MeV) produced by the Janus reactor at Argonne National Laboratory...
  9. Ariyoshi Y, Miyatake S, Kimura Y, Shimahara T, Kawabata S, Nagata K, et al. Boron neuron capture therapy using epithermal neutrons for recurrent cancer in the oral cavity and cervical lymph node metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:861-6 pubmed
    ..of this clinical trial was to evaluate the utility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using epithermal neutrons for cases of recurrent cancer in the oral cavity, which are not indicated for a conventional treatment modality...
  10. Brenner D, Elliston C, Hall E, Paganetti H. Reduction of the secondary neutron dose in passively scattered proton radiotherapy, using an optimized pre-collimator/collimator. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:6065-78 pubmed publisher
    ..There is considerable uncertainty as to the carcinogenic potential of low doses of high-energy neutrons, and thus we investigate whether this neutron dose can be significantly reduced without major modifications to ..
  11. Balcer Kubiczek E, Zhang X, Harrison G, Zhou X, Vigneulle R, Ove R, et al. Delayed expression of hpS2 and prolonged expression of CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 in human tumour cells irradiated with X-rays, fission neutrons or 1 GeV/nucleon Fe ions. Int J Radiat Biol. 1999;75:529-41 pubmed
    ..5 Gy) or fission neutrons (0 or 1.2 Gy) 7 days earlier...
  12. Dowdell S, Clasie B, Wroe A, Guatelli S, Metcalfe P, Schulte R, et al. Tissue equivalency of phantom materials for neutron dosimetry in proton therapy. Med Phys. 2009;36:5412-9 pubmed
    Previous Monte Carlo and experimental studies involving secondary neutrons in proton therapy have employed a number of phantom materials that are designed to represent human tissue...
  13. Ruhm W, Mares V, Pioch C, Simmer G, Weitzenegger E. Continuous measurement of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation at mountain altitudes and close to the North Pole--a discussion in terms of H*(10). Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009;136:256-61 pubmed publisher
    Two Bonner sphere spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation continuously, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m in Germany and the ..
  14. PEREZ ANDUJAR A, Newhauser W, DeLuca P. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:993-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head...
  15. Kysela B, Arrand J, Michael B. Relative contributions of levels of initial damage and repair of double-strand breaks to the ionizing radiation-sensitive phenotype of the Chinese hamster cell mutant, XR-V15B. Part II. Neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;64:531-8 pubmed
    ..We found that neutrons do not appear to induce more dsbs than X-rays and deduce that increased sensitivity to neutrons is therefore not ..
  16. Polf J, Newhauser W, Titt U. Patient neutron dose equivalent exposures outside of the proton therapy treatment field. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;115:154-8 pubmed
    ..of dose to healthy tissue located outside of the treatment field during proton therapy is attributable to neutrons produced in the beam-delivery apparatus...
  17. Broerse J, Zoetelief J. Dose inhomogeneities for photons and neutrons near interfaces. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;112:509-17 pubmed
    ..of different atomic composition can lead to considerable differences in the energy deposition by photons and neutrons. Specific examples of these interface perturbations are encountered during irradiation of body cavities and soft ..
  18. Takahashi F, Endo A, Yamaguchi Y. Dose assessment from activated sodium within a body in criticality accidents. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;106:197-206 pubmed
    ..Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP-4B code were performed to study energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays for some criticality systems with fissile uranium...
  19. Tanaka K, Gajendiran N, Endo S, Komatsu K, Hoshi M, Kamada N. Neutron energy-dependent initial DNA damage and chromosomal exchange. J Radiat Res. 1999;40 Suppl:36-44 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to investigate the biological effect of monoenergetic neutrons on human lymphocyte DNA and chromosomes. Monoenergetic neutrons of 2.3, 1.0, 0.79, 0.57, 0.37 and 0...
  20. Zakharova S, Jesse W, Backendorf C, Egelhaaf S, Lapp A, van der Maarel J. Dimensions of plectonemically supercoiled DNA. Biophys J. 2002;83:1106-18 pubmed
    ..It is our conjecture that the free energy associated with this excess twist is of paramount importance in controlling the critical boundaries pertaining to the transition to the anisotropic, liquid-crystalline phase. ..
  21. Bastos M, Castro V, Mrevlishvili G, Teixeira J. Hydration of ds-DNA and ss-DNA by neutron quasielastic scattering. Biophys J. 2004;86:3822-7 pubmed
  22. Jarlskog C, Paganetti H. Sensitivity of different dose scoring methods on organ-specific neutron dose calculations in proton therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:4523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..When calculating neutron doses with Monte Carlo techniques, the dose can be scored in different ways because neutrons deposit dose indirectly...
  23. Kry S, Howell R, Titt U, Salehpour M, Mohan R, Vassiliev O. Energy spectra, sources, and shielding considerations for neutrons generated by a flattening filter-free Clinac. Med Phys. 2008;35:1906-11 pubmed
    ..Ultimately, removal of the flattening filter may offer several clinical advantages, including a reduction in the dose from neutrons to the patient and to radiation personnel.
  24. Bittner N, Koh W, Laramore G, Patel S, Mulligan M, Douglas J. Treatment of locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea with neutron radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There were 2 cases of Grade 3/4 chronic toxicity. Fast neutron radiotherapy is an effective treatment for locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, with acceptable treatment-related toxicity. ..
  25. Fontenot J, Taddei P, Zheng Y, Mirkovic D, Jordan T, Newhauser W. Equivalent dose and effective dose from stray radiation during passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:1677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..9 mSv Gy(-1) in the furthest (esophagus). Neutrons created in the nozzle predominated effective dose, though neutrons created in the patient contributed ..
  26. Fischer B, Benzina S, Jeannequin P, Dufour P, Bergerat J, Denis J, et al. Fast neutrons-induced apoptosis is Fas-independent in lymphoblastoid cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:533-42 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of Fas signaling in caspase 8 activation induced by fast neutrons irradiation in these cells. Fas and FasL expression was assessed by flow cytometry and by immunoblot...
  27. Nijsen J, van het Schip A, van Steenbergen M, Zielhuis S, Kroon Batenburg L, van de Weert M, et al. Influence of neutron irradiation on holmium acetylacetonate loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres. Biomaterials. 2002;23:1831-9 pubmed
  28. Dubrova Y, Plumb M, Brown J, Boulton E, Goodhead D, Jeffreys A. Induction of minisatellite mutations in the mouse germline by low-dose chronic exposure to gamma-radiation and fission neutrons. Mutat Res. 2000;453:17-24 pubmed
    ..66 x 10(-4) Gy min(-1)) low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) gamma-irradiation and high-LET fission neutrons (0.003 Gy min(-1)) was studied at pre-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis...
  29. Ryan L, Wilkins R, McFarlane N, Sung M, McNamee J, Boreham D. Relative biological effectiveness of 280 keV neutrons for apoptosis in human lymphocytes. Health Phys. 2006;91:68-75 pubmed
    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons varies from unity to greater than ten depending upon neutron energy and the biological endpoint measured...
  30. Binns P, Riley K, Harling O. Epithermal neutron beams for clinical studies of boron neutron capture therapy: a dosimetric comparison of seven beams. Radiat Res. 2005;164:212-20 pubmed
    ..The in-air specific beam contamination from both fast neutrons and gamma rays ranged between 8 and 65 x 10(-11) cGy(w) cm2 for the different beams and the epithermal neutron ..
  31. Sakurai Y, Kobayashi T. The medical-irradiation characteristics for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor. Med Phys. 2002;29:2328-37 pubmed
    ..Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor, the mix irradiation of thermal and epi-thermal neutrons, and the solo irradiation of epi-thermal neutrons are available additionally to the thermal neutron irradiation, ..
  32. Kamiya K, Higgins P, Tanner M, Gould M, Clifton K. Kinetics of mammary clonogenic cells and rat mammary cancer induction by X-rays or fission neutrons. J Radiat Res. 1999;40 Suppl:128-37 pubmed
    ..4 than by a linear function after exposure to 1, 10. and 20 cGy fission neutrons, and 10 and 20 cGy significantly shortened the time to appearance of the first cancer...
  33. Niimura N. Neutrons expand the field of structural biology. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1999;9:602-8 pubmed
    ..These instrumental advances have been applied to Laue diffractometry, as well as to more conventional data collection techniques, such as those using monochromatized neutron beams. ..
  34. Kuhne W, Gersey B, Wilkins R, Wu H, Wender S, George V, et al. Biological effects of high-energy neutrons measured in vivo using a vertebrate model. Radiat Res. 2009;172:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..protons and galactic cosmic radiation with the atmosphere and other materials produces high-energy secondary neutrons from below 1 to 1000 MeV and higher...
  35. Taddei P, Mirkovic D, Fontenot J, Giebeler A, Zheng Y, Kornguth D, et al. Stray radiation dose and second cancer risk for a pediatric patient receiving craniospinal irradiation with proton beams. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:2259-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The predicted effective dose from stray radiation was 418 mSv, of which 344 mSv was from neutrons originating outside the patient; the remaining 74 mSv was caused by neutrons originating within the patient...
  36. Shin D, Yoon M, Kwak J, Shin J, Lee S, Park S, et al. Secondary neutron doses for several beam configurations for proton therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum doses due to secondary neutrons produced by a scattering beam-delivery system were on the order of 0.152 mSv/Gy and 1...
  37. Zielhuis S, Nijsen J, de Roos R, Krijger G, van Rijk P, Hennink W, et al. Production of GMP-grade radioactive holmium loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres for clinical application. Int J Pharm. 2006;311:69-74 pubmed
    ..3+/-0.1% of the loading was released from the microspheres in an aqueous solution. In conclusion, Ho-PLLA-MS which are produced as described in this paper, can be clinically applied, with respect to their pharmaceutical quality. ..
  38. Heidenreich W, Carnes B, Paretzke H. Lung cancer risk in mice: analysis of fractionation effects and neutron RBE with a biologically motivated model. Radiat Res. 2006;166:794-801 pubmed
    ..Argonne National Laboratory on lung cancer in 15,975 mice with acute and fractionated exposures to gamma rays and neutrons are analyzed with a biologically motivated model with two rate-limiting steps and clonal expansion...
  39. Nollmann M, Byron O, Stark W. Behavior of Tn3 resolvase in solution and its interaction with res. Biophys J. 2005;89:1920-31 pubmed
    ..It was found that site II and site III have the highest affinity for Tn3R, followed by site I. Finally, the affinity of Tn3R for nonspecific DNA was assayed by competition experiments. ..
  40. Fernandez F, Amgarou K, Domingo C, Garcia M, Quincoces G, Martí Climent J, et al. Neutron spectrometry in a PET cyclotron with a Bonner sphere system. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;126:371-5 pubmed
    ..Subsequent nuclear reactions may generate undesirable neutrons that should be evaluated and controlled...
  41. Jiang H, Wang B, Xu X, Suit H, Paganetti H. Simulation of organ-specific patient effective dose due to secondary neutrons in proton radiation treatment. Phys Med Biol. 2005;50:4337-53 pubmed
    ..In the case of proton therapy, secondary neutrons generated in the accelerator head and inside the patient reach many areas in the patient body...
  42. Svergun D, Richard S, Koch M, Sayers Z, Kuprin S, Zaccai G. Protein hydration in solution: experimental observation by x-ray and neutron scattering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2267-72 pubmed
    ..Comparisons with the results of other studies suggest that this may be a general property of aqueous interfaces. ..
  43. Stoupel E, Domarkiene S, Radishauskas R, Abramson E, Israelevich P, Sulkes J. Neutrons and sudden cardiac death (SCD) codes 121-125 ICD 10. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17:45-53 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of possible neutron role in pathophysiology needs special studies. ..
  44. Coderre J, Gavin P, Capala J, Ma R, Morris G, Button T, et al. Tolerance of the normal canine brain to epithermal neutron irradiation in the presence of p-boronophenylalanine. J Neurooncol. 2000;48:27-40 pubmed
    ..5 Gy (14.3 Gy-Eq). At doses below threshold, some dogs developed subclinical MRI changes. Above threshold, all dogs developed dose-dependent MRI changes, neurological deficits, and focal brain necrosis. ..
  45. Huber P, Debus J, Latz D, Zierhut D, Bischof M, Wannenmacher M, et al. Radiotherapy for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma: neutrons, photons or mixed beam?. Radiother Oncol. 2001;59:161-7 pubmed
    To compare retrospectively radiotherapy with neutrons, photons, and a photon/neutron mixed beam in patients with advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck...
  46. Lu J, Perumal S, Powers E, Kelly J, Webster J, Penfold J. Adsorption of beta-hairpin peptides on the surface of water: a neutron reflection study. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:3751-7 pubmed
    ..1% D(2)O. Under this isotopic contrast the water is invisible to neutrons and the specular signal was then only from the peptide layer. At the highest concentration of ca...
  47. Schmid E, Schlegel D, Guldbakke S, Kapsch R, Regulla D. RBE of nearly monoenergetic neutrons at energies of 36 keV-14.6 MeV for induction of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2003;42:87-94 pubmed
    ..the induction of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with nearly monoenergetic neutrons at energies in the range of 36 keV-15.0 MeV...
  48. Yonai S, Matsufuji N, Kanai T, Matsui Y, Matsushita K, Yamashita H, et al. Measurement of neutron ambient dose equivalent in passive carbon-ion and proton radiotherapies. Med Phys. 2008;35:4782-92 pubmed
    ..This result means that not only scanning particle radiotherapy but also passive particle radiotherapy can provide reduced exposure to normal tissues around the target volume without an accompanied increase in total body dose. ..
  49. Newhauser W, Fontenot J, Mahajan A, Kornguth D, Stovall M, Zheng Y, et al. The risk of developing a second cancer after receiving craniospinal proton irradiation. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:2277-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulations revealed that both passively scattered and scanned-beam proton therapies confer significantly lower risks of second cancers than 6 MV conventional and intensity-modulated photon therapies. ..
  50. Schneider U, Agosteo S, Pedroni E, Besserer J. Secondary neutron dose during proton therapy using spot scanning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;53:244-51 pubmed
    During proton radiotherapy, secondary neutrons are produced by nuclear interactions in the material in the beam line before and after entering the patient...
  51. Kry S, Titt U, Followill D, Pönisch F, Vassiliev O, White R, et al. A Monte Carlo model for out-of-field dose calculation from high-energy photon therapy. Med Phys. 2007;34:3489-99 pubmed
    ..This out-of-field radiation is of particular concern with high-energy radiotherapy, as neutrons are produced in the accelerator head...
  52. Zielhuis S, Nijsen J, Dorland L, Krijger G, van het Schip A, Hennink W. Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis. Int J Pharm. 2006;315:67-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates that neutron and gamma irradiation results in the removal of residual chloroform in PLLA-microspheres...
  53. Zhang Y, Woloschak G. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice. Radiat Res. 1997;148:81-9 pubmed
    ..Exons 4 (83%) and 5 (90%) were the most frequently deleted among tested exons. Mice exposed to neutrons 60 times on a once-weekly schedule had a higher percentage of complete p53 deletions (5/8; 63%) than those ..