elementary particles


Summary: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.

Top Publications

  1. Balasubramanian P, Sirivelu M, Weiss K, Wagner J, Harkema J, Morishita M, et al. Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats. Neurotoxicology. 2013;36:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..DA levels on the other hand, were unaffected in both BN and JCR/LA strains. These data suggest that repeated exposures to PM2.5 continue to stimulate the PVN in obese animals but not lean rats. ..
  2. Terasaki A. Dynamics of clusters initiated by photon and surface impact. J Phys Chem A. 2007;111:7671-89 pubmed
    ..These studies further reveal how the nature of chemical bonds influences the dynamics of clusters. ..
  3. Inoue T, Aoki S, Doi T, Hatsuda T, Ikeda Y, Ishii N, et al. Equation of state for nucleonic matter and its quark mass dependence from the nuclear force in lattice QCD. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;111:112503 pubmed
    ..We observe that the EOS becomes stiffer and thus the maximum mass of neutron star increases as the quark mass decreases toward the physical point. ..
  4. Wilson J, Shinn J, Townsend L, Tripathi R, Badavi F, Chun S. NUCFRG2: a semiempirical nuclear fragmentation model. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 1994;94:95-102 pubmed
  5. Adamczyk L, Adkins J, Agakishiev G, Aggarwal M, Ahammed Z, Alekseev I, et al. Measurement of J/? azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;111:052301 pubmed
    ..Our measurement suggests that J/? particles with relatively large transverse momenta are not dominantly produced by coalescence from thermalized charm quarks, when comparing to model calculations. ..
  6. Bondar A, Garmash A, Mizuk R, Kinoshita K, Adachi I, Aihara H, et al. Observation of two charged bottomoniumlike resonances in ?(5S) decays. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;108:122001 pubmed
    ..2±1.5)??MeV/c2, ?(2)=(11.5±2.2)??MeV. The results are obtained with a 121.4??fb(-1) data sample collected with the Belle detector in the vicinity of the ?(5S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. ..
  7. Zeitlin C. Physical interactions of charged particles for radiotherapy and space applications. Health Phys. 2012;103:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These same uncertainties are also critical in the therapy setting. ..
  8. Slater J. Selecting the optimum particle for radiation therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2007;6:35-9 pubmed
    ..The proton, at present, has the best combination of capabilities for routine radiation therapy. Heavier ions require further study to determine their role in patient treatment. ..
  9. Bao J, Bragas A, Furdyna J, Merlin R. Optically induced multispin entanglement in a semiconductor quantum well. Nat Mater. 2003;2:175-9 pubmed
    ..Our method, relying on the exchange interaction between localized excitons and paramagnetic impurities, can in principle be applied to entangle an arbitrarily large number of spins. ..

More Information


  1. Shavers M, Cucinotta F, Wilson J. HZETRN: neutron and proton production in quasi-elastic scattering of GCR heavy-ions. Radiat Meas. 2001;33:347-53 pubmed
    ..Calculations of neutron energy spectra in low Earth orbit indicate substantial contributions from relativistic neutrons. ..
  2. Overduin J, Priester W. Problems of modern cosmology: how dominant is the vacuum?. Naturwissenschaften. 2001;88:229-48 pubmed
    ..We conclude our review by exploring the possibility that the energy density of the vacuum is in fact so dominant as to leave little room for significant amounts of exotic dark matter. ..
  3. Rao K, Blattmann H, Fritz Niggli H. Variations of pion RBE in a volume with an asymmetric beam configuration. Strahlenther Onkol. 1987;163:739-41 pubmed
    ..The variation of the RBE is smaller than for the same field irradiated by a single pion beam. ..
  4. Belous K, Shapkin M, Sokolov A, Adachi I, Aihara H, Asner D, et al. Measurement of the ?-lepton lifetime at Belle. Phys Rev Lett. 2014;112:031801 pubmed
    ..33(syst))×10(-15)??s. The first measurement of the lifetime difference between ?+ and ?- is performed. The upper limit on the relative lifetime difference between positive and negative ? leptons is |??|/?<7.0×10(-3) at 90% C.L. ..
  5. Lam G. On the use of the pion stopping distribution and the lesion additivity concept for the calculation of effective doses in pion treatment planning. Phys Med Biol. 1990;35:731-40 pubmed
    ..Similar schemes can also be developed for other charged particle beams. ..
  6. Hoi C, Chang P, Aihara H, Asner D, Aushev T, Bakich A, et al. Evidence for direct CP violation in B±??h± and observation of B0??K0. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;108:031801 pubmed
    ..38±0.11±0.01 and A(CP)(B(±)???(±))=-0.19±0.06±0.01 with significances of 3.8 ? and 3.0 ?, respectively. For all measurements, the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. ..
  7. Johnson W, Loredo L, Slater J. Surgery and radiotherapy: complementary tools in the management of benign intracranial tumors. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;24:E2 pubmed publisher
  8. Fuwa N, Nakamura T, Kodaira T. [Recent progress on radiotherapy for head and neck neoplasms]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2007;110:703-6 pubmed
  9. Siiskonen T. Dose from slow negative muons. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:234-8 pubmed
    ..Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented. ..
  10. Boccia A, Zanoni R, Arduini A, Pescatori L, Secchi A. Negatively charged gold atoms in subnanometric particles: experimental evidence from an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012;12:8851-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings are relevant for the open discussion of a specific role played by negatively charged Au atoms in catalytic reactions, especially at low temperatures. ..
  11. Weick G, Woollacott C, Barnes W, Hess O, Mariani E. Dirac-like plasmons in honeycomb lattices of metallic nanoparticles. Phys Rev Lett. 2013;110:106801 pubmed
  12. Ionica M, Alpat B, Ambrosi G, Battiston R, Bertucci B, Burger W, et al. Absorbed dose rate estimation for protons, leptons and helium observed with AMS01 experiment in low earth orbit during STS-91 mission. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:216-9 pubmed
    ..In this paper, the absorbed dose rate owing to the protons, leptons and helium are presented and compared with measurements made by other instruments flown on the same mission. ..
  13. Tripathi R, Wilson J, Cucinotta F. A method for calculating proton-nucleus elastic cross-sections. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 2002;194:229-36 pubmed
    ..The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. ..
  14. Thomson M. Neutrino oscillations. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2002;360:921-38 pubmed
    ..This article describes the main features and the most significant experimental observations of this unusual application of the principle of interference. ..
  15. Scheres S, Chen S. Prevention of overfitting in cryo-EM structure determination. Nat Methods. 2012;9:853-4 pubmed publisher
  16. Crawford M, Broadhurst C, Guest M, Nagar A, Wang Y, Ghebremeskel K, et al. A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2013;88:5-13 pubmed publisher
  17. Sevret P, Magne N, Chargari C, Beaudre A, Ferrand R, Habrand J. [An original contention system for hadron therapy]. Cancer Radiother. 2009;13:161-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We have been developing recently an original positioning system allowing for treatment with posterior-oblique beams, either from right or left directions, by keeping the child in the adequate position. ..
  18. Tabocchini M, Campa A, Dini V. DNA and cellular effects of charged particles. Health Phys. 2012;103:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of biophysical models aimed to describe the kinetics of the DNA repair process is underway, and it is expected to support the experimental investigation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular radiation response. ..
  19. Mezzacappa A, Liebendörfer M, Messer O, Hix W, Thielemann F, Bruenn S. Simulation of the spherically symmetric stellar core collapse, bounce, and postbounce evolution of a star of 13 solar masses with boltzmann neutrino transport, and its implications for the supernova mechanism. Phys Rev Lett. 2001;86:1935-8 pubmed
    ..The model presented here is the first in a sequence of models beginning with different progenitors. In this model, a supernova explosion is not obtained. ..
  20. Coutrakon G. Accelerators for heavy-charged-particle radiation therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2007;6:49-54 pubmed
    ..These features are now being incorporated for medical accelerators in new facilities. ..
  21. Kenway R. Simulation of the strong interaction. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2002;360:1123-34 pubmed
    ..This continues today, with a project to develop a 10 Tflops computer for QCD costing less than 1 US dollar per Mflops. ..
  22. Szpak S, Mosier Boss P, Gordon F. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd/D lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften. 2007;94:511-4 pubmed
    ..The experiments were reproducible. A model based upon electron capture is proposed to explain the reaction products observed in the Pd/D-D2O system. ..
  23. Atri D, Hariharan B, Grießmeier J. Galactic cosmic ray-induced radiation dose on terrestrial exoplanets. Astrobiology. 2013;13:910-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined the dependence of the GCR-induced radiation dose on the strength of the planetary magnetic field and its atmospheric depth, and found that the latter is the decisive factor for the protection of a planetary biosphere. ..
  24. Paganetti H. Foreword: Hadron therapy--from yesterday's physics laboratory to today's modern clinical routine. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2003;2:353-4 pubmed
  25. Iancu G, Flesch F, Heinrich W. Nuclear fragmentation cross-sections of 400 A MeV 36Ar and 40Ar in collisions with light and heavy target nuclei. Radiat Meas. 2005;39:525-33 pubmed
    ..The dependence of the cross-sections on the fragment charge number and target charge number are discussed. The experimental results are compared to predictions of semi empirical cross-section models. ..
  26. van der Kogel A, Raju M. Tolerance of spinal cord, lung and rectum after fractionated pions and X-rays. Strahlenther Onkol. 1989;165:286-9 pubmed
    ..Unlike with neutrons, there are no significant differences between the RBE values for late and acute effects. ..
  27. Norbury J, Deutchman P, Townsend L. A particle-hole calculation for pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Nucl Phys A. 1985;433:691-712 pubmed
    ..The target can be excited to its giant M1 resonance (J pi = 1+, T = 1) at 15.11 MeV, or to its isobar analog neighbours, 12B at 13.4 MeV and 12N at 17.5 MeV. The theory is compared to recent experimental results. ..
  28. Ivantchenko A, Ivanchenko V, Molina J, Incerti S. Geant4 hadronic physics for space radiation environment. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012;88:171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested different Monte Carlo generators with our hadronic testing suite and accordingly we can propose an optimal configuration of Geant4 models for the simulation of the space radiation environment. ..
  29. Clem J, De Angelis G, Goldhagen P, Wilson J. Preliminary validation of computational procedures for a new atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model. Adv Space Res. 2003;32:27-33 pubmed
    ..This package interfaces with FLUKA to provide interaction starting points for each nucleon originating from a helium nucleus. Results from this calculation are presented and compared to measurements. ..
  30. Ogino T. [Current status and limitation of particle radiation therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2009;36:1801-5 pubmed
    ..Much debate, however, has been published in English journals upon proton therapy. The National Cancer Institute has started to support clinical trials in the United States. In Japan, however, research funding is still quite small. ..
  31. Paganetti H, Goitein M, Parodi K. Spread-out antiproton beams deliver poor physical dose distributions for radiation therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:79-86 pubmed publisher
  32. Luthy C. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science. Isis. 2000;91:442-79 pubmed
    ..This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms." ..
  33. Norbury J, Mueller C. Cross section parameterizations for cosmic-ray nuclei. II. Double nucleon removal. Astrophys J Suppl Ser. 1994;90:115-7 pubmed
    ..Such parameterizations should be very useful in studying cosmic-ray transport through the interstellar medium, the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft walls, and extraterrestrial matter. ..
  34. Ferrari A, Pelliccioni M, Villari R. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108:91-105 pubmed
    ..Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. ..
  35. Scaffidi T, Möller G. Adiabatic continuation of fractional Chern insulators to fractional quantum Hall States. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:246805 pubmed
  36. Palacios A, González Castrillo A, Martin F. Molecular interferometer to decode attosecond electron-nuclear dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:3973-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e., of electron correlation in the ionization continuum. Visualization of such dynamics is possible by varying the time delay between the pump and the probe pulses. ..
  37. Byrnes T, Koyama S, Yan K, Yamamoto Y. Neural networks using two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2531 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the BEC network in terms of neural network tasks such as learning and pattern recognition and find that the latter process may be accelerated by a factor of N. ..
  38. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan A, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al. Search for top-quark partners with charge 5/3 in the same-sign dilepton final state. Phys Rev Lett. 2014;112:171801 pubmed
    ..This is the first limit on these particles from the LHC, and it is significantly more restrictive than previous limits. ..
  39. Bassler N, Kantemiris I, Karaiskos P, Engelke J, Holzscheiter M, Petersen J. Comparison of optimized single and multifield irradiation plans of antiproton, proton and carbon ion beams. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This limits the potential usage to situations where dose to normal tissue must be reduced as much as possible. ..
  40. Stagg S, Lander G, Pulokas J, Fellmann D, Cheng A, Quispe J, et al. Automated cryoEM data acquisition and analysis of 284742 particles of GroEL. J Struct Biol. 2006;155:470-81 pubmed
    ..In particular, we show that the resolution of the reconstructed 3D density maps improves with decreasing ice thickness. These data provide a basis for assessing the capabilities of high-throughput macromolecular microscopy. ..
  41. Agosteo S, Dimovasili E, Fasso A, Silari M. The response of a bonner sphere spectrometer to charged hadrons. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:161-8 pubmed
    ..Following these results, a complete response matrix of the extended BSS to charged pions and protons was calculated with FLUKA. An experimental verification was carried out with a 120 GeV per c hadron beam at the CERF facility at CERN. ..
  42. Tripathi R, Wilson J, Cucinotta F. Medium modified two-body scattering amplitude from proton-nucleus total cross-sections. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 2001;173:391-6 pubmed
    ..The agreement is excellent with the available experimental data. These cross-sections are needed for the radiation risk assessment of space missions. ..
  43. Gosset J, Valette O, Alard J, Augerat J, Babinet R, Bastid N, et al. Nuclear collective flow and charged-pion emission in Ne-nucleus collisions at E/A = 800 MeV. Phys Rev Lett. 1989;62:1251-4 pubmed
    ..Such a preferential emission, which is not predicted by cascade calculations, may be attributed to a stronger pion absorption by the heavier spectator remnant. ..
  44. Takai M, Blattmann H, Pedroni E. An intercomparison of two dynamic treatment techniques, ring scan and spot scan, for head and neck tumors with the Piotron. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;14:1025-31 pubmed
    ..From the practical view point the spot scan is preferable to the ring scan for the treatment of head and neck tumors with the Piotron. ..
  45. Aaltonen T, Alvarez González B, Amerio S, Amidei D, Anastassov A, Annovi A, et al. Search for new physics in high pT like-sign dilepton events at CDF II. Phys Rev Lett. 2011;107:181801 pubmed
    ..The observed data are consistent with standard model predictions. We set 95% C.L. lower limits on the mass of doubly charged scalars decaying to like-sign dileptons, m(H±±) > 190-245 GeV/c(2), assuming 100% BR to ee, ?? or e?. ..
  46. Mammoliti F, Bellini V, Cisbani E, Cusanno F, Garibaldi F, Giusa A, et al. A RICH detector for hadron identification at JLab. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:1118-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the technical features of such a RICH detector and comment on the presently achieved performance in hadron identification. ..
  47. Olsen D, Overgaard J. Leveraging clinical performance by technological excellence - The case of particle therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:1-2 pubmed publisher
  48. Morone M, Calabretta L, Cuttone G, Fiorini F. Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the contamination in an energy modulated carbon ion beam for hadron therapy delivered by cyclotron. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:6045-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The residual component of fragments reaching the patient is negligible with respect to the fragment quantity generated by the primary beam inside the patient before arriving at the end of the target volume. ..
  49. Gusev G, Saito T, Tsarev V, Uryson A. A relativistic neutron fireball from a supernova explosion as a possible source of chiral influence. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2007;37:259-66 pubmed
    ..In this case, their chiral efficiency will be about five orders of magnitude less than that for polarized electrons. ..
  50. Hellemans A, Seife C. High-energy physics. Environmental report paralyzes Italian neutrino lab. Science. 2003;300:1634 pubmed
  51. Tsuda S, Endo A, Yamaguchi Y, Sato O. Fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients for electrons with energy from 1 MeV to 100 GeV. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2001;95:5-16 pubmed
    ..2%. Even at energies above 140 MeV the dose contributions of the photonuclear reactions were insignificant. ..
  52. Aad G, Abajyan T, Abbott B, Abdallah J, Abdel Khalek S, Abdinov O, et al. Search for quantum black hole production in high-invariant-mass lepton+jet final states using pp collisions at ?s=8? TeV and the ATLAS detector. Phys Rev Lett. 2014;112:091804 pubmed
    ..The combined 95% confidence level upper limit on this product for quantum black holes with threshold mass above 3.5 TeV is 0.18 fb. This limit constrains the threshold quantum black-hole mass to be above 5.3 TeV in the model considered. ..
  53. Thum P, Greiner R, Blattmann H, Coray A, Zimmermann A. [Pion radiation therapy of non-resectable bone- and soft tissue sarcomas at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1988;118:333-40 pubmed
    ..3% and the two year survival rate 67.9%. Each of the 6 patients with bone sarcomas treated with curative intent showed clinically local tumor control. After a total dose of 30-36 Gy, no severe radiation induced morbidity was found. ..