doppler effect


Summary: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.

Top Publications

  1. Vergara A, Lubecke V. Data acquisition system for Doppler radar vital-sign monitor. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:2269-72 pubmed
    ..The quadrature signal is analyzed using an arctangent demodulation that extracts vital phase information. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is proposed to deal with issues inherent in arctangent demodulation of a quadrature radar signal. ..
  2. Yu L, Chen Z. Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography. J Biomed Opt. 2010;15:016029 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for 3-D vasculature imaging of human retina and choroid. ..
  3. Vakoc B, Tearney G, Bouma B. Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009;28:814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressions for the noise distribution and the noise variance as a function of relevant imaging system parameters are given, and the implications of these results on both system and algorithm design are discussed. ..
  4. Soroldoni D, Jörg D, Morelli L, Richmond D, Schindelin J, Jülicher F, et al. Genetic oscillations. A Doppler effect in embryonic pattern formation. Science. 2014;345:222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A second time scale, the rate of tissue shortening, contributes to the period of segmentation through a Doppler effect. This contribution is modulated by a gradual change in the oscillation profile across the tissue...
  5. Ahn Y, Jung W, Chen Z. Quantification of a three-dimensional velocity vector using spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography. Opt Lett. 2007;32:1587-9 pubmed
    ..After calibration, an unknown velocity vector field inside a microtube was quantified by solving a three-dimensional minimization problem. ..
  6. Liu G, Qi W, Yu L, Chen Z. Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging. Opt Express. 2011;19:3657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..High resolution images of choroidal capillary of the vasculature network with phased-resolved color Doppler and Doppler variance are shown. ..
  7. Makita S, Fabritius T, Yasuno Y. Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography. Opt Lett. 2008;33:836-8 pubmed
    ..The volumetric flow rate is obtained with the position and the region of the vessel lumen. The volumetric blood flow rate of retinal arteries before and after a bifurcation is verified in a healthy human eye. ..
  8. Fang H, Maslov K, Wang L. Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. Phys Rev Lett. 2007;99:184501 pubmed
  9. Satyanarayan L, Haberman M, Berthelot Y. Cellular polypropylene polymer foam as air-coupled ultrasonic transducer materials. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2010;57:2343-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, two ferroelectret transducers are operated in transmit-receive mode and the received signal is shown to accurately represent the corresponding signal generated by the transmitting transducer as measured using LDV. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Jiang X, Zeng W, Li X. Time delay and Doppler estimation for wideband acoustic signals in multipath environments. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;130:850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulation results are provided to verify the performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, indicating that it has a super-resolution in both delay and Doppler domain, and it is robust to noise. ..
  2. Song H, Hodgkiss W, van Walree P. Phase-coherent communications without explicit phase tracking. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:969-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed time reversal approach without explicit phase tracking is demonstrated using experimental data (12-20 kHz) in shallow water. ..
  3. Foltynowicz A, Wang J, Ehlers P, Axner O. Distributed-feedback-laser-based NICE-OHMS in the pressure-broadened regime. Opt Express. 2010;18:18580-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimum detectable on-resonance absorption with a cavity with a finesse of 460 was 2 × 10(-10) cm(-1) for 1 minute of integration time. ..
  4. Huebschman B. The use of frequency resolution in echolocation for modeling three dimensional environments. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:EL384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mathematics of frequency shifts for an emitter traveling at a large fraction of the velocity of propagation (c) is presented. Reported behavior that can be explained by this phenomenon is discussed. ..
  5. Bance M, Campos A, Wong L, Morris D, Van Wijhe R. How does prosthesis head size affect vibration transmission in ossiculoplasty?. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:70-3 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine if augmenting or reducing the head size of prosthesis had a systematic effect on transmission of vibrations to the stapes...
  6. Oliveira E, Castro R, Takano C, Bezerra L, Sartori M, Lima G, et al. Ultrasonographic and Doppler velocimetric evaluation of the levator ani muscle in premenopausal women with and without urinary stress incontinence. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;133:213-7 pubmed
    ..The CSA evaluation and the Doppler velocimetry of the levator ani muscle vessels were highly reproducible. The CSA was higher in continent women and the frequency of the absent end diastolic shift was higher in incontinent women. ..
  7. Mora E, Cobo Cuan A, Macías Escrivá F, Pérez M, Nowotny M, Kössl M. Mechanical tuning of the moth ear: distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and tympanal vibrations. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3863-72 pubmed publisher
  8. Cui N, Gan Z, Zhang L. An absorption-free and Doppler-improved optical waveguide for diffractionless light propagation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14198 pubmed publisher
    ..the waveguide: i) It is not absorptive, on the contrary, weak gain is presented; ii) It can be improved by the Doppler effect in the sense that the dispersion is enhanced while the gain is further reduced...
  9. Coman I. Christian Andreas Doppler--the man and his legacy. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2005;6:7-10 pubmed
    Reminding the life and legacy of the Austrian Scientist who discovered the famous 'Doppler Effect'. C.A. Doppler was born the 29th of November 1803 in Salzburg...
  10. Iwamoto T. [Clinical significance of carotid artery lesions]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2002;39:516-9 pubmed
  11. Neuhoff J, McBeath M. The Doppler illusion: the influence of dynamic intensity change on perceived pitch. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1996;22:970-85 pubmed
    Four studies illustrate a new auditory illusion associated with the Doppler effect and demonstrate a new influence of dynamic intensity change on perceived pitch...
  12. Yan Y, Li C, Yu X, Weiss M, Lin J. Verification of a non-contact vital sign monitoring system using an infant simulator. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:4836-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis suggests possible techniques for further improvement, such as direct coupling circuit, carrier frequency tuning and spectral analysis. ..
  13. Lee J, Hwang J, Choi D, Park S. Noninvasive biosignal detection radar system using circular polarization. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2009;13:400-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The operating frequency of the system is in the X-band and the radar size is 95 x50 x13 mm(3). ..
  14. Tan O, Liu G, Liang L, Gao S, Pechauer A, Jia Y, et al. En face Doppler total retinal blood flow measurement with 70 kHz spectral optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2015;20:066004 pubmed publisher
    ..7 ± 7.6 ?l/min for glaucomatous participants (p-value = 0.01). The intravisit repeatability was 8.6% for healthy controls and 8.4% for glaucoma participants. The proposed automated method provided repeatable TRBF measurement. ..
  15. Zheng D, Upton R, Martinez A. The contribution of the coronary concentrations of propofol to its cardiovascular effects in anesthetized sheep. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:1589-97, table of contents pubmed
    ..Models of the cardiovascular effects of propofol should account for these relationships. ..
  16. Metzner W, Zhang S, Smotherman M. Doppler-shift compensation behavior in horseshoe bats revisited: auditory feedback controls both a decrease and an increase in call frequency. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1607-16 pubmed
  17. Shindo N, Tanaka N, Takeda K, Hiraide D, Amaya K, Kobori Y, et al. [Measurement of fractional and coronary flow reserve using dual sensor guide wire]. J Cardiol. 2002;40:189-97 pubmed
    ..CFR-thermo measured by the dual sensor guide wire may be useful to detect myocardial ischemia. ..
  18. Summers J. Information transfer in auditoria and room-acoustical quality. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;133:EL242-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Zhu J, Lee C, Kim E, Wu D, Hu C, Zhou Q, et al. High-overtone self-focusing acoustic transducers for high-frequency ultrasonic Doppler. Ultrasonics. 2010;50:544-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Both experimental and theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the transducers can be applied to Doppler systems with high frequencies up to 100 MHz. ..
  20. Jakob A, Bornitz M, Kuhlisch E, Zahnert T. New aspects in the clinical diagnosis of otosclerosis using laser Doppler vibrometry. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:1049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) applied to umbo motion measurement in healthy and otosclerotic ears shows statistically tested differences...
  21. Ophir J, Cespedes I, Ponnekanti H, Yazdi Y, Li X. Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues. Ultrason Imaging. 1991;13:111-34 pubmed
    ..We discuss several potential clinical uses of this technique. ..
  22. Taniguchi N, Huang C, Kaneko A, Liu C, Howe B, Wang Y, et al. Measuring the Kuroshio Current with ocean acoustic tomography. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;134:3272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed temporal variation demonstrates a similar trend to the prediction from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. ..
  23. Gao X, Singh A, Yavari E, Lubecke V, Boric Lubecke O. Non-contact displacement estimation using Doppler radar. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:1602-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper we demonstrate that if relatively large motion is used to calibrate the system, smaller motion displacement may be acquired with the accuracy on the order of 30 µm. ..
  24. Uche C, Cree M, Round W. GEANT4 simulation of the effects of Doppler energy broadening in Compton imaging. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2011;34:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The FWHM improved to 2.4 mm for a silicon scatterer and 4.6 mm for a germanium scatterer. Our result for silicon at 140.5 keV is in very good agreement with that published by An et al. ..
  25. Munce N, Mariampillai A, Standish B, Pop M, Anderson K, Liu G, et al. Electrostatic forward-viewing scanning probe for Doppler optical coherence tomography using a dissipative polymer catheter. Opt Lett. 2008;33:657-9 pubmed
    ..Images of an IR card as well as in vivo Doppler OCT images of a tadpole heart are presented. This optomechanical design offers a simple, inexpensive method to obtain a high-frame-rate forward-viewing scanning probe. ..
  26. Pellett A, Kerut E. The Doppler equation. Echocardiography. 2004;21:197-8 pubmed
  27. Fletcher R, Kulkarni S. Clip-on wireless wearable microwave sensor for ambulatory cardiac monitoring. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Data collected from the microwave sensor exhibits a significant amount of features, indicating possible use as a tool for monitoring heart mechanics and detection of abnormalities such as fibrillation and akinesia. ..
  28. Behrend O, Kössl M, Schuller G. Binaural influences on Doppler shift compensation of the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus rouxi. J Comp Physiol A. 1999;185:529-38 pubmed
    ..The bats completely compensated the experimental shifts only as long as the interaural intensity difference of the playback did not exceed 20 dB. No animal compensated with monaural playback. ..
  29. Droitcour A, Seto T, Park B, Yamada S, Vergara A, El Hourani C, et al. Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:4812-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The 95% limits of agreement between the Doppler radar and reference measurements fall within +/-5 breaths per minute. ..
  30. Liu G, Rubinstein M, Saidi A, Qi W, Foulad A, Wong B, et al. Imaging vibrating vocal folds with a high speed 1050 nm swept source OCT and ODT. Opt Express. 2011;19:11880-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative transverse direction velocity distribution in the cross-sectional images was obtained with the Doppler variance images. ..
  31. Liu X, Doub W, Guo C. Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA). Int J Pharm. 2012;423:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. ..
  32. Fischer A, Konig J, Haufe D, Schlüssler R, Büttner L, Czarske J. Optical multi-point measurements of the acoustic particle velocity with frequency modulated Doppler global velocimetry. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;134:1102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, the present study describes an optical method based on the Doppler effect and its application for acoustic particle velocity (APV) measurements...
  33. Schmoll T, Kolbitsch C, Leitgeb R. Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow. Opt Express. 2009;17:4166-76 pubmed
    ..Experimental data of 3D static DFDOCT sets from fovea and nerve head region are shown together with first 4D imaging of retinal capillary flow. ..
  34. Marcus M, Wright C, Doty D, Eastham C, Laughlin D, Krumm P, et al. Measurements of coronary velocity and reactive hyperemia in the coronary circulation of humans. Circ Res. 1981;49:877-91 pubmed
  35. Fuchigami T, Okubo O, Fujita Y, Kohira R, Arakawa C, Endo A, et al. Event-related potentials in response to 3-D auditory stimuli. Brain Dev. 2009;31:577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..function, age correlations for event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory stimuli with a Doppler effect were studied in normal children. A sound with a Doppler effect is perceived as a moving audio image...
  36. Odell D, Cahalan M. Assessment of left ventricular global and segmental systolic function with transesophageal echocardiography. Anesthesiol Clin. 2006;24:755-62 pubmed
    ..Although the practical techniques customarily used for these applications have limitations, they afford direct measures of function not otherwise available to the clinician in the operating room or intensive care setting. ..
  37. Shields F, Rigby J. River habitat quality from river velocities measured using acoustic Doppler current profiler. Environ Manage. 2005;36:565-75 pubmed
    ..Advances in instrumentation are needed to allow collection of information in closer proximity to the free surface and solid boundaries. ..
  38. Walther J, Koch E. Transverse motion as a source of noise and reduced correlation of the Doppler phase shift in spectral domain OCT. Opt Express. 2009;17:19698-713 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a short discussion of the presented results and the consequence for performing Doppler experiments is given. ..
  39. Axelsson M, Dang Q, Pitsillides K, Munns S, Hicks J, Kassab G. A novel, fully implantable, multichannel biotelemetry system for measurement of blood flow, pressure, ECG, and temperature. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1220-8 pubmed
    ..This system will have significant utility in chronic models of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. ..
  40. Yang J, Xie F, Qu Z, Garfinkel A. Mechanism for spiral wave breakup in excitable and oscillatory media. Phys Rev Lett. 2003;91:148302 pubmed
    ..The difference in phenomenology is due to the asymptotic behavior of the modulation mode. ..
  41. Bollinger A, Partsch H. Christian Doppler is 200 years young. Vasa. 2003;32:225-33 pubmed
    ..Vascular territories like intracranial, renal and intestinal arteries can also be explored. For the assessment of microvascular flow in skin and mucosae laser Doppler instruments were introduced. ..
  42. Heaney K, Campbell R, Murray J, Baggeroer A, Scheer E, Stephen R, et al. Deep water towed array measurements at close range. J Acoust Soc Am. 2013;134:3230-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence of out-of-plane scattering does exist, however, at short ranges. The amount of out-of-plane scattering is best observed in the broadband impulse-beam response analysis, which in-plane surface roughness modeling cannot explain. ..
  43. Carroll T. Chaotic system for self-synchronizing Doppler measurement. Chaos. 2005;15:13109 pubmed
    ..In this work, a chaotic drive-response system is simulated that detects a Doppler shift in a chaotic signal. The response system can detect Doppler shifts in more than one signal at a time. ..
  44. Wang R, Ma Z. Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography. Opt Lett. 2006;31:3001-3 pubmed
    ..We experimentally demonstrate this method by real-time imaging of a flow phantom. ..
  45. Ling J, Zhao K, Li J, Nordenvaad M. Multi-input multi-output underwater communications over sparse and frequency modulated acoustic channels. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;130:249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated using in-water experimental measurements recently acquired during WHOI09 and ACOMM10 experiments. ..
  46. Han L, Rogers W, Huh S, Clinthorne N. Statistical performance evaluation and comparison of a Compton medical imaging system and a collimated Anger camera for higher energy photon imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:7029-45 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 2 cm FWHM. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity of the proposed Compton imaging system is about 15-20 times higher than that of the collimated Anger camera. ..
  47. Kolbitsch C, Schmoll T, Leitgeb R. Histogram-based filtering for quantitative 3D retinal angiography. J Biophotonics. 2009;2:416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the filtering technique is also compared to spatial frequency filtering methods. ..
  48. Lu L, Li C, Lie D. Experimental demonstration of noncontact pulse wave velocity monitoring using multiple Doppler radar sensors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:5010-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The measurement results have been verified by wired contact measurement with pulse transducers. ..
  49. Gillam E, Ulanovsky N, McCracken G. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:651-60 pubmed
    ..These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch-suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat. ..
  50. Pellett A, Kerut E. The Doppler velocity waveform. Echocardiography. 2006;23:528-30 pubmed
  51. Wang Y, Fawzi A, Tan O, Gil Flamer J, Huang D. Retinal blood flow detection in diabetic patients by Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express. 2009;17:4061-73 pubmed
    ..The patient with diabetic retinopathy had a flow value lower than the normal people. Our study shows that Doppler FD-OCT can be used to evaluate the total retinal blood flow in patients with retinal diseases. ..
  52. Bär M, Brusch L, Or Guil M. Mechanism for spiral wave breakup in excitable and oscillatory media. Phys Rev Lett. 2004;92:119801 pubmed
  53. Cagliari C, Jurkiewicz A, Santos R, Marques J. Doppler sonar analysis of swallowing sounds in normal pediatric individuals. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;75:706-15 pubmed
    ..There was swallowing interference associated with saliva and the other tested food types and with the biological development of the age range being studied. It is an easy to apply method, not expensive and non-invasive. ..