Summary: The second planet in order from the sun. It has no known natural satellites. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.

Top Publications

  1. Kaula W. Venus reconsidered. Science. 1995;270:1460-4 pubmed
    The Magellan imagery shows that Venus has a crater abundance equivalent to a surface age of 300 million to 500 million years and a crater distribution close to random...
  2. Del Giudice M, Booth T, Irwing P. The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29265 pubmed publisher
    ..These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology. ..
  3. Kasting J. Runaway and moist greenhouse atmospheres and the evolution of Earth and Venus. Icarus. 1988;74:472-94 pubmed
    ..4 times the present flux at Earth's orbit (S0). This value is close to the flux expected at Venus' orbit early in solar system history...
  4. Slanger T, Cosby P, Huestis D, Bida T. Discovery of the atomic oxygen green line in the Venus night airglow. Science. 2001;291:463-5 pubmed
    ..7 nanometers arising from the O(1S - 1D) transition of atomic oxygen has been observed on the nightside of Venus with HIRES, the echelle spectrograph on the W. M. Keck I 10-meter telescope...
  5. Owen T, Bar Nun A, Kleinfeld I. Possible cometary origin of heavy noble gases in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth and Mars. Nature. 1992;358:43-6 pubmed
    Models that trace the origin of noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets (Venus, Earth and Mars) to the 'planetary component' in chondritic meteorites confront several problems...
  6. Korycansky D, Zahnle K, Mac Law M. High-resolution calculations of asteroid impacts into the Venusian atmosphere. Icarus. 2000;146:387-403 pubmed
    ..results from a number of 2D high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of asteroids striking the atmosphere of Venus. These cover a wide range of impact parameters (velocity, size, and incidence angle), but the focus is on 2-3 km ..
  7. Borucki W, McKenzie R, McKay C, Duong N, Boac D. Spectra of simulated lightning on Venus, Jupiter, and Titan. Icarus. 1985;64:221-32 pubmed
    ..Spectra from 240 to 880 nm are presented for simulated lightning in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Titan...
  8. Kasting J. Planetary atmosphere evolution: do other habitable planets exist and can we detect them?. Astrophys Space Sci. 1996;241:3-24 pubmed
    ..First, what are the chances that habitable planets exist around other stars? And, second, if inhabited planets exist, what would be the best way to detect them? ..
  9. Des Marais D, Harwit M, Jucks K, Kasting J, Lin D, Lunine J, et al. Remote sensing of planetary properties and biosignatures on extrasolar terrestrial planets. Astrobiology. 2002;2:153-81 pubmed
    ..We assess known spectroscopic molecular band features of Earth, Venus, and Mars in the context of putative extrasolar analogs...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Zahnle K. Planetary science: being there. Nature. 2005;433:814-5 pubmed
  2. Genda H, Abe Y. Enhanced atmospheric loss on protoplanets at the giant impact phase in the presence of oceans. Nature. 2005;433:842-4 pubmed
    The atmospheric compositions of Venus and Earth differ significantly, with the venusian atmosphere containing about 50 times as much 36Ar as the atmosphere on Earth...
  3. de Bergh C. The D/H ratio and the evolution of water in the terrestrial planets. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 1993;23:11-21 pubmed
    ..None of the other terrestrial planets--Mercury, Venus and Mars--has liquid water at its surface...
  4. Schilling G. Planetary exploration. European probe returns to our neglected neighbor. Science. 2005;310:431 pubmed
  5. Steffes P, Klein M, Jenkins J. Observations of the microwave emission of Venus from 1.3 to 3.6 cm. Icarus. 1990;84:83-92 pubmed
    Laboratory measurements of Steffes (1986) have suggested that the intensity and shape of the microwave spectrum of Venus might be especially sensitive to the subcloud abundance of constituents such as SO2 and gaseous H2SO4...
  6. Sharma S, Misra A, Clegg S, Barefield J, Wiens R, Acosta T, et al. Remote-Raman spectroscopic study of minerals under supercritical CO2 relevant to Venus exploration. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;80:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..detector at the University of Hawaii for measuring remote Raman spectra of minerals under supercritical CO(2) (Venus chamber, ?102 atm pressure and 423 K) excited with a pulsed 532 nm laser beam of 6 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz...
  7. Gedik R, Hurmuzlu F, Coskun A, Bektaş O, Ozdemir A. Surface roughness of new microhybrid resin-based composites. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005;136:1106-12 pubmed
    ..The Sof-Lex, Enhance and Astropol techniques produced a smooth surface after the finishing and polishing of materials, while the Astrobrush technique yielded the least favorable results. ..
  8. Jaffe L. Problems in sterilization of unmanned space vehicles. Life Sci Space Res. 1964;2:407-32 pubmed
    ..The required degree of assurance against contamination of Mars, Venus and the Moon with Earth organisms is also considered...
  9. Meierhenrich U, Thiemann W, Barbier B, Brack A, Alcaraz C, Nahon L, et al. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2002;32:181-90 pubmed
    ..The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed ..
  10. Leu M, Yung Y. Determination of O2(a1 delta g) and O2(b1 sigma+ g) yields in the reaction O + ClO --> Cl + O2: implications for photochemistry in the atmosphere of Venus. Geophys Res Lett. 1987;14:949-52 pubmed
    ..5 x 10(-2) and equal to (4.4 +/- 1.1) x 10(-4), respectively. The observed O2(a1 delta g) airglow of Venus cannot be explained in the context of standard photochemistry using our experimental results and those reported in ..
  11. Irwin L, Schulze Makuch D. Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds. Astrobiology. 2001;1:143-60 pubmed
    ..of conditions so harsh as to make its perseverance at present unlikely but conceivable in isolated habitats (Venus, Io)...
  12. Owen T, Bar Nun A. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres. Icarus. 1995;116:215-26 pubmed
    ..A mixture of three basic types of comets appears capable of accounting for the observed volatile inventories on Venus, Earth, and Mars, with the caveat that impact erosion is necessary to explain the present condition of the martian ..
  13. Stern S, Slater D, Gladstone G, Wilkenson E, Cash W, Green J, et al. The 825-1110 angstroms EUV spectrum of Venus. Icarus. 1996;122:200-4 pubmed
    On 15 August 1994 we launched the EUVS sounding rocket payload to observe the 825-1110 angstrom region of Venus's far ultraviolet airglow spectrum...
  14. Griffin Short R. The Ancient Mariner and the transit of Venus. Endeavour. 2003;27:175-9 pubmed
    ..The Royal Society sent Wales to Hudson Bay, Canada, and James Cook to Tahiti, both to observe the 1769 transit of Venus as part of an international project to calculate solar parallax, and hence the distance to the Sun...
  15. Kasting J, Toon O, Pollack J. How climate evolved on the terrestrial planets. Sci Am. 1988;256:90-7 pubmed
    ..Planets with temperate, earthlike climates were once thought to be rare in our galaxy. Mathematical models now suggest that if planets do exist outside the solar system, many of them might be habitable. ..
  16. Reichhardt T. Express delivery to Venus. Nature. 2005;437:1071 pubmed
  17. Leconte J, Forget F, Charnay B, Wordsworth R, Pottier A. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets. Nature. 2013;504:268-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.
  18. Schulze Makuch D, Grinspoon D, Abbas O, Irwin L, Bullock M. A sulfur-based survival strategy for putative phototrophic life in the venusian atmosphere. Astrobiology. 2004;4:11-8 pubmed
    ..Having originated in a hot proto-ocean or been brought in by meteorites from Earth (or Mars), early life on Venus could have adapted to a dry, acidic atmospheric niche as the warming planet lost its oceans...
  19. Kerekes A, Hoffmann O, Iski G, Lipták N, Gócza E, Kues W, et al. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187214 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report refined phenotyping of previously generated Venus transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by ..
  20. Levine J. The early atmosphere: a new picture. Sci Act. 1986;23:6-16 pubmed
    ..Understanding our cosmic roots is particularly relevant as we embark on a search for life outside the Earth. At this very moment, several radio telescopes around the world are searching for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). ..
  21. Striepe S, Nealy J, Simonsen L. Radiation exposure predictions for short-duration stay Mars missions. J Spacecr Rockets. 1992;29:801-7 pubmed
    ..The direct transfer mission studied has slightly lower doses than the outbound Venus swingby mission [on the order of 10-20 centi-Sieverts (cSv) lower], with the greatest dose differences for the ..
  22. Crisp D, Allen D, Grinspoon D, Pollack J. The dark side of Venus: near-infrared images and spectra from the Anglo-Australian observatory. Science. 1991;253:1263-6 pubmed
    Near-infrared images and spectra of the night side of Venus taken at the Anglo-Australian Telescope during February 1990 reveal four new thermal emission windows at 1.10, 1.18, 1.27, and 1...
  23. Kasting J, Pollack J, Ackerman T. Response of Earth's atmosphere to increases in solar flux and implications for loss of water from Venus. Icarus. 1984;57:335-55 pubmed
    ..These results imply that the surface temperature of a primitive water-rich Venus should have been at least 80-100 degrees C and may have been much higher...
  24. Abe Y, Abe Ouchi A, Sleep N, Zahnle K. Habitable zone limits for dry planets. Astrobiology. 2011;11:443-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.
  25. Sharma S, Misra A, Clegg S, Barefield J, Wiens R, Acosta T. Time-resolved remote Raman study of minerals under supercritical CO2 and high temperatures relevant to Venus exploration. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2010;368:3167-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the CO(2) doublet and the effect of the viewing window, the main differences in the Raman spectra under Venus conditions are the phase transitions, the dehydration and decarbonation of various minerals, along with a slight ..
  26. Kasting J. O2 concentrations in dense primitive atmospheres: commentary. Planet Space Sci. 1995;43:11-3 pubmed
    ..The calculations presented here suggest an upper limit of approximately 10 mbar on the O2 partial pressure in a dominantly CO2 atmosphere. ..
  27. Nna Mvondo D, Navarro Gonzalez R, McKay C, Coll P, Raulin F. Production of nitrogen oxides by lightning and coronae discharges in simulated early Earth, Venus and Mars environments. Adv Space Res. 2001;27:217-23 pubmed
    ..NO and N2O) in CO2-N2 mixtures that simulate different stages of the evolution of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars...
  28. Owen T, Bar Nun A. Contributions of icy planetesimals to the Earth's early atmosphere. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2001;31:435-58 pubmed
    ..b>Venus may require a contribution from icy planetesimals formed at the low temperatures characteristic of the Kuiper Belt.
  29. Krasnopolsky V, Pollack J. H2O-H2SO4 system in Venus' clouds and OCS, CO, and H2SO4 profiles in Venus' troposphere. Icarus. 1994;109:58-78 pubmed
    A coupled problem of diffusion and condensation is solved for the H2SO4-H2O system in Venus' cloud layer...
  30. Richardson S, Pollack J, Reynolds R. Water loss on Venus: the role of carbon monoxide. Icarus. 1984;60:307-16 pubmed
    The abundance of water on Venus is four to five orders of magnitude lower than on the Earth...
  31. Morton O. Planetary science. Don't ignore the planet next door. Science. 2002;298:1706-7 pubmed
  32. Hand E. Space and astronomy: the girl next door. Nature. 2007;450:606-8 pubmed
  33. Rasool S, Jastrow R. The atmospheres of Mars, Venus and Jupiter. Life Sci Space Res. 1964;2:3-24 pubmed
    The general properties of the atmospheres of Mars, Venus and Jupiter are reviewed...
  34. Schulze Makuch D, Irwin L. Reassessing the possibility of life on venus: proposal for an astrobiology mission. Astrobiology. 2002;2:197-202 pubmed
    With their similar size, chemical composition, and distance from the Sun, Venus and Earth may have shared a similar early history...
  35. Krasnopolsky V, Bowyer S, Chakrabarti S, Gladstone G, McDonald J. First measurement of helium on Mars: implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets. Icarus. 1994;109:337-51 pubmed
    ..the surface rocks, is used as input to a single two-reservoir degassing model which is applied to Mars and then to Venus. A similar model with known abundances of K, U, and Th is applied to Earth...
  36. Owen T. Time travel and chemical evolution: a look at the outer solar system. Planet Rep. 1987;7:16-8 pubmed
  37. Landis G. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration. Acta Astronaut. 2004;55:985-90 pubmed
  38. Schulze Makuch D, Dohm J, Fairén A, Baker V, Fink W, Strom R. Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs. Astrobiology. 2005;5:778-95 pubmed
    b>Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history...
  39. Zahnle K. Airburst origin of dark shadows on Venus. J Geophys Res. 1992;97:10243-55 pubmed
  40. Solomon S, Bullock M, Grinspoon D. Climate change as a regulator of tectonics on Venus. Science. 1999;286:87-90 pubmed
    Tectonics, volcanism, and climate on Venus may be strongly coupled...
  41. de Bergh C, Bezard B, Owen T, Crisp D, Maillard J P -, Lutz B. Deuterium on Venus: observations from Earth. Science. 1991;251:547-9 pubmed
    Absorption lines of HDO and H2O have been detected in a 0.23-wave number resolution spectrum of the dark side of Venus in the interval 2.34 to 2...
  42. Ingersoll A. Venus: express dispatches. Nature. 2007;450:617-8 pubmed
  43. Arrhenius G. Carbon dioxide warming of the early Earth. Ambio. 1997;26:12-6 pubmed
  44. Owen T, Bar Nun A. Comets, meteorites and atmospheres. Earth Moon Planets. 1996;72:425-32 pubmed
    ..The model will be tested by results from the Galileo Entry Probe. ..
  45. Margulis L, Guerrero R. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars. Microbiologia. 1995;11:173-84 pubmed
    ..Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?" ..
  46. Rosenqvist J, Chassefiere E. Inorganic chemistry of O2 in a dense primitive atmosphere. Planet Space Sci. 1995;43:3-10 pubmed
    ..The peculiar case of a runaway greenhouse which has possibly taken place on Venus is qualitatively envisaged...
  47. Gurwell M, Yung Y. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection. Planet Space Sci. 1993;41:91-104 pubmed
    The fractionation factor f is important for interpreting the current escape fluxes of H and D on Venus and how the D/H ratio has evolved...
  48. Suzuki N, Sekimoto K, Hayashi C, Mabuchi Y, Nakamura T, Akazawa C. Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells from Sox10-Venus Mice to Oligodendrocytes and Astrocytes. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14133 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently established a transgenic mouse line that expresses a fluorescent protein Venus under the promoter of Sox10, whose expression is restricted to OPCs and oligodendrocytes in the CNS...