Summary: The seventh planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. It has five known natural satellites.

Top Publications

  1. de Pater I, Hammel H, Gibbard S, Showalter M. New dust belts of Uranus: one ring, two ring, red ring, blue ring. Science. 2006;312:92-4 pubmed
    We compared near-infrared observations of the recently discovered outer rings of Uranus with Hubble Space Telescope results. We find that the inner ring, R/2003 U 2, is red, whereas the outer ring, R/2003 U 1, is very blue...
  2. Thommes E, Duncan M, Levison H. The formation of Uranus and Neptune in the Jupiter-Saturn region of the Solar System. Nature. 1999;402:635-8 pubmed
    ..Such models, however, have been unable to produce the smaller ice giants Uranus and Neptune at their present locations, because in that region of the Solar System the small planetary bodies will ..
  3. Guillot T. Condensation of methane, ammonia, and water and the inhibition of convection in giant planets. Science. 1995;269:1697-9 pubmed
    ..Convection is inhibited in Uranus and Neptune when methane reaches an abundance of about 15 times the solar value and in Jupiter and Saturn if the ..
  4. Lee M, Scandolo S. Mixtures of planetary ices at extreme conditions. Nat Commun. 2011;2:185 pubmed publisher
    The interiors of Neptune and Uranus are believed to be primarily composed of a fluid mixture of methane and water. The mixture is subjected to pressures up to several hundred gigapascal, causing the ionization of water...
  5. Karkoschka E. Clouds of high contrast on Uranus. Science. 1998;280:570-2 pubmed
    Near-infrared images of Uranus taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in July and October 1997 revealed discrete clouds with contrasts exceeding 10 times the highest contrast observed before with other techniques...
  6. Cavazzoni C, Chiarotti G, Scandolo S, Tosatti E, Bernasconi M, Parrinello M. Superionic and metallic states of water and ammonia at giant planet conditions. Science. 1999;283:44-6 pubmed
    ..and temperatures (300 to 7000 kelvin) of relevance for the middle ice layers of the giant planets Neptune and Uranus. Along the planetary isentrope water and ammonia behave as fully dissociated ionic, electronically insulating ..
  7. Encrenaz T. Search for organic molecules in the outer solar system. Adv Space Res. 1986;6:237-46 pubmed
  8. Gulkis S, Carr T. The main source of radio emission from the magnetosphere of Uranus. J Geophys Res. 1987;92:15159-68 pubmed
    Observations of kilometric radiation from Uranus made with the planetary radio astronomy experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft are presented and discussed...
  9. Strazzulla G. Ion irradiation: its relevance to the evolution of complex organics in the outer solar system. Adv Space Res. 1997;19:1077-84 pubmed
    ..Here results from laboratory experiments are summarized. Their relevance for the formation and evolution of simple molecules and complex organic materials on planetary bodies in the external Solar System is outlined. ..

More Information


  1. Khare B, Sagan C, Thompson W, Arakawa E, Votaw P. Solid hydrocarbon aerosols produced in simulated Uranian and Neptunian stratospheres. J Geophys Res. 1987;92:15067-82 pubmed
    ..hypothesized to be, at least in part, the unidentified visible and near-UV chromophores in the stratospheres of Uranus and Neptune...
  2. Chau R, Hamel S, Nellis W. Chemical processes in the deep interior of Uranus. Nat Commun. 2011;2:203 pubmed publisher
    The unusual magnetic fields of the planets Uranus and Neptune represent important observables for constraining and developing deep interior models...
  3. Kubo T, Durham W, Stern L, Kirby S. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II. Science. 2006;311:1267-9 pubmed
    ..The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system. ..
  4. Brown M, Koresko C, Blake G. Detection of water ice on Nereid. Astrophys J. 1998;508:L175-6 pubmed
    ..The spectrum thus provides support for the hypothesis that Nereid is a regular satellite formed in a circumplanetary environment rather than a captured object. ..
  5. Clarke J, Hudson M, Yung Y. The excitation of the far ultraviolet electroglow emissions on Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter. J Geophys Res. 1987;92:15139-47 pubmed
    ..diffuse FUV emissions of H and H2 in excess of photoelectron excitation observed from the sunlit atmospheres of Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter are produced by electric field acceleration of photoelectrons and ions locally in the upper ..
  6. Thompson W, Henry T, Khare B, Flynn L, Schwartz J, Sagan C. Light hydrocarbons from plasma discharge in H2-He-CH4: first results and Uranian auroral chemistry. J Geophys Res. 1987;92:15083-92 pubmed
    ..Saturated hydrocarbons (C2H6, C3H8, C4H10, etc.) are mostly shielded from photodissociation by C2H2 and will therefore persist at the sunlit, as well as the currently dark, magnetic polar regions. ..
  7. Jaffe W, Berge G, Owen T, Caldwell J. Uranus: microwave images. Science. 1984;225:619-21 pubmed
    Observations of Uranus at wavelengths of 2 and 6 centimeters with the Very Large Array were made in 1980 and 1981...
  8. Langer W, Velusamy T, Xie T. The IRS 1 circumstellar disk, and the origin of the jet and CO outflow in B5. Astrophys J. 1996;468:L41-4 pubmed
    ..The intrinsic opening angle is in the range of 60 degrees-90 degrees which leads to significant interaction between outflow and infall. ..
  9. Simonelli D, Pollack J, McKay C, Reynolds R, Summers A. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula. Icarus. 1989;82:1-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in gaseous CO; 10% to a few tens of percent of the C was in condensed organic materials; and at least a trace amount of carbon was in methane gas. ..
  10. Caldwell J, Owen T. Chemical evolution on the giant planets and Titan. Adv Space Res. 1984;4:51-8 pubmed
  11. Benedetti L, Nguyen J, Caldwell W, Liu H, Kruger M, Jeanloz R. Dissociation of CH4 at high pressures and temperatures: diamond formation in giant planet interiors?. Science. 1999;286:100-2 pubmed
    ..Dissociation of CH4 at high pressures and temperatures can influence the energy budgets of planets containing substantial amounts of CH4, water, and ammonia, such as Uranus and Neptune.
  12. Owen T, Lutz B, de Bergh C. Deuterium in the outer Solar System: evidence for two distinct reservoirs. Nature. 1986;320:244-6 pubmed
    We have just completed a series of determinations of the CH3D/CH4 ratio in the atmospheres of Saturn, Titan and Uranus. These results, coupled with the work of other investigators, suggest that the Solar System contains at least two ..
  13. Lutz B, Owen T, de Bergh C. Deuterium enrichment in the primitive ices of the protosolar nebula. Icarus. 1990;86:329-35 pubmed
    ..These planetary-atmosphere-derived results are compared with other solar system bodies thought to contain primitive material and with D/H ratios observed in interstellar polyatomic molecules. ..
  14. Cruikshank D, Allamandola L, Hartmann W, Tholen D, Brown R, Matthews C, et al. Solid C triple bond N bearing material on outer solar system bodies. Icarus. 1991;94:345-53 pubmed
    ..of a few D-class asteroids, the dust of some comets, and low-albedo hemisphere of Iapetus, and the rings of Uranus, through spectroscopic detection of the 2...
  15. Marley M, McKay C. Thermal structure of Uranus' atmosphere. Icarus. 1999;138:268-86 pubmed
    Application of a radiative-convective equilibrium model to the thermal structure of Uranus' atmosphere evaluates the role of hazes in the planet's stratospheric energy budget and places a lower limit on the internal energy flux...
  16. Feuchtgruber H, Lellouch E, de Graauw T, Bezard B, Encrenaz T, Griffin M. External supply of oxygen to the atmospheres of the giant planets. Nature. 1997;389:159-62 pubmed
    ..Here we report the detection, by infrared spectroscopy, of gaseous H2O in the upper atmospheres of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The implied H2O column densities are 1...
  17. Ancilotto F, Chiarotti G, Scandolo S, Tosatti E. Dissociation of methane into hydrocarbons at extreme (planetary) pressure and temperature. Science. 1997;275:1288-90 pubmed
    ..The simulation conditions (100 to 300 gigapascals; 4000 to 5000 kelvin) were chosen to follow the isentrope in the middle ice layers of Neptune and Uranus. Implications on the physics of these planets are discussed.