Summary: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.

Top Publications

  1. Thommes E, Duncan M, Levison H. The formation of Uranus and Neptune in the Jupiter-Saturn region of the Solar System. Nature. 1999;402:635-8 pubmed
    ..Such models, however, have been unable to produce the smaller ice giants Uranus and Neptune at their present locations, because in that region of the Solar System the small planetary bodies will have been ..
  2. Meller K, Theiss C. Atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy on the cytoskeleton of permeabilised and embedded cells. Ultramicroscopy. 2006;106:320-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this method offers a great potential to combine both microscopy techniques in order to understand and interpret intracellular protein relations, for example, the biochemical and morphological interaction of the cytoskeleton. ..
  3. Elliot J, Stansberry J, Olkin C, Agner M, Davies M. Triton's distorted atmosphere. Science. 1997;278:436-9 pubmed
    ..Hazes and clouds in the atmosphere are unlikely to have caused the asymmetry in the light curve. ..
  4. Steffen J, Ragozzine D, Fabrycky D, Carter J, Ford E, Holman M, et al. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7982-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests...
  5. Lyons J, Yung Y, Allen M. Solar control of the upper atmosphere of Triton. Science. 1992;256:204-6 pubmed
    If the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Triton are controlled by precipitation of electrons from Neptune's magnetosphere as previously proposed, Triton could have the only ionosphere in the solar system not controlled by solar ..
  6. Mukai K, Tokunaga A, Itoh S, Kanesaki Y, Ohara K, Nagaoka S, et al. Structure-activity relationship of the free-radical-scavenging reaction by vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-Tocopherols) and ubiquinol-10: pH dependence of the reaction rates. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:652-62 pubmed
    ..The relative antioxidant activities of alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol-10 have been discussed based on the ks values obtained and their concentrations in serum and several tissues (heart, muscle, liver, kidney, and brain). ..
  7. Dobrijevic M, Parisot J, Dutour I. A study of chemical systems using signal flow graph theory: application to Neptune. Planet Space Sci. 1995;43:15-24 pubmed
    ..In particular, the production of C2H6 in the atmosphere of Neptune from the photodissociation of CH4 is investigated...
  8. Benedetti L, Nguyen J, Caldwell W, Liu H, Kruger M, Jeanloz R. Dissociation of CH4 at high pressures and temperatures: diamond formation in giant planet interiors?. Science. 1999;286:100-2 pubmed
    ..Dissociation of CH4 at high pressures and temperatures can influence the energy budgets of planets containing substantial amounts of CH4, water, and ammonia, such as Uranus and Neptune.
  9. Encrenaz T. Search for organic molecules in the outer solar system. Adv Space Res. 1986;6:237-46 pubmed

More Information


  1. Thompson W, Sagan C. Color and chemistry on Triton. Science. 1990;250:415-8 pubmed
  2. Llano M, Vanegas M, Hutchins N, Thompson D, Delgado S, Poeschla E. Identification and characterization of the chromatin-binding domains of the HIV-1 integrase interactor LEDGF/p75. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:760-73 pubmed
    ..The results establish a molecular mechanism for LEDGF/p75-mediated tethering of HIV-1 integrase to chromatin. ..
  3. Baines K, Hammel H. Clouds, hazes, and the stratospheric methane abundance in Neptune. Icarus. 1994;109:20-39 pubmed
    Analysis of high-spatial-resolution (approximately 0.8 arcsec) methane band and continuum imagery of Neptune's relatively homogeneous Equatorial Region yields significant constraints on (1) the stratospheric gaseous methane mixing ratio (..
  4. Lutz B, Owen T, de Bergh C. Deuterium enrichment in the primitive ices of the protosolar nebula. Icarus. 1990;86:329-35 pubmed
    ..These planetary-atmosphere-derived results are compared with other solar system bodies thought to contain primitive material and with D/H ratios observed in interstellar polyatomic molecules. ..
  5. Dobrijevic M, Parisot J, Dutour I. A study of chemical systems using signal flow graph theory. Adv Space Res. 1995;16:105-8 pubmed
    ..In particular, the production of C2H6 in the atmosphere of Neptune from the photodissociation of CH4 is investigated...
  6. Feuchtgruber H, Lellouch E, de Graauw T, Bezard B, Encrenaz T, Griffin M. External supply of oxygen to the atmospheres of the giant planets. Nature. 1997;389:159-62 pubmed
    ..we report the detection, by infrared spectroscopy, of gaseous H2O in the upper atmospheres of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The implied H2O column densities are 1.5 x 10(15), 9 x 10(13) and 3 x 10(14) molecules cm(-2) respectively...
  7. Duncan M, Levison H. A disk of scattered icy objects and the origin of Jupiter-family comets. Science. 1997;276:1670-2 pubmed
    Orbital integrations carried out for 4 billion years produced a disk of scattered objects beyond the orbit of Neptune. Objects in this disk can be distinguished from Kuiper belt objects by a greater range of eccentricities and ..
  8. Ancilotto F, Chiarotti G, Scandolo S, Tosatti E. Dissociation of methane into hydrocarbons at extreme (planetary) pressure and temperature. Science. 1997;275:1288-90 pubmed
    ..The simulation conditions (100 to 300 gigapascals; 4000 to 5000 kelvin) were chosen to follow the isentrope in the middle ice layers of Neptune and Uranus. Implications on the physics of these planets are discussed.
  9. Khanna R. Infrared spectroscopy of organics of planetological interest at low temperatures. Adv Space Res. 1995;16:109-18 pubmed
    ..Of particular interest are Saturn's moon, Titan; Neptune's moon, Triton; and Pluto where extreme cold conditions prevail...
  10. Irwin L, Schulze Makuch D. Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds. Astrobiology. 2001;1:143-60 pubmed
    ..Without any additional specific assumptions about the nature of life, the POL system is universally applicable. ..
  11. Marzari F. Planetary science. Puzzling Neptune Trojans. Science. 2006;313:451-2 pubmed
  12. Khare B, Sagan C, Thompson W, Arakawa E, Votaw P. Solid hydrocarbon aerosols produced in simulated Uranian and Neptunian stratospheres. J Geophys Res. 1987;92:15067-82 pubmed be, at least in part, the unidentified visible and near-UV chromophores in the stratospheres of Uranus and Neptune. Results for experiments 2, 3, and 4 are in good mutual accord, but are significantly different from experiments ..
  13. Taylor A, Ye J, Schmitz Peiffer C. Inhibition of glycogen synthesis by increased lipid availability is associated with subcellular redistribution of glycogen synthase. J Endocrinol. 2006;188:11-23 pubmed
  14. Kubo T, Durham W, Stern L, Kirby S. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II. Science. 2006;311:1267-9 pubmed
    ..The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system. ..
  15. Simonelli D, Pollack J, McKay C, Reynolds R, Summers A. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula. Icarus. 1989;82:1-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in gaseous CO; 10% to a few tens of percent of the C was in condensed organic materials; and at least a trace amount of carbon was in methane gas. ..
  16. Caldwell J, Owen T. Chemical evolution on the giant planets and Titan. Adv Space Res. 1984;4:51-8 pubmed
  17. Cavazzoni C, Chiarotti G, Scandolo S, Tosatti E, Bernasconi M, Parrinello M. Superionic and metallic states of water and ammonia at giant planet conditions. Science. 1999;283:44-6 pubmed
    ..300 gigapascal) and temperatures (300 to 7000 kelvin) of relevance for the middle ice layers of the giant planets Neptune and Uranus...
  18. Bohn R, Sandford S, Allamandola L, Cruikshank D. Infrared spectroscopy of Triton and Pluto ice analogs: the case for saturated hydrocarbons. Icarus. 1994;111:151-73 pubmed
    ..1 x 10(-6), and H2CO/N2 < or = 5.2 x 10(-6) deduced for Pluto. The small amounts of C2H4 and H2CO in the surface ices of these bodies are in disagreement with the large abundances expected from many theoretical models. ..
  19. Sheppard S, Trujillo C. A thick cloud of Neptune Trojans and their colors. Science. 2006;313:511-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report the discovery of a high-inclination Neptune Trojan, 2005 TN(53)...
  20. Strazzulla G. Ion irradiation: its relevance to the evolution of complex organics in the outer solar system. Adv Space Res. 1997;19:1077-84 pubmed
    ..Here results from laboratory experiments are summarized. Their relevance for the formation and evolution of simple molecules and complex organic materials on planetary bodies in the external Solar System is outlined. ..
  21. Gazeau M, Cottin H, Guez L, Bruston P, Raulin F. HCN formation under electron impact: experimental studies and application to Neptune's atmosphere. Adv Space Res. 1997;19:1135-44 pubmed
    Laboratory experiments simulating organic synthesis in Neptune's atmosphere have been performed...
  22. Tryka K, Brown R, Cruikshank D, Owen T, Geballe T, DeBergh C. Temperature of nitrogen ice on Pluto and its implications for flux measurements. Icarus. 1994;112:513-27 pubmed
    ..2. ..
  23. Brown M, Koresko C, Blake G. Detection of water ice on Nereid. Astrophys J. 1998;508:L175-6 pubmed
    ..5 and 2.0 micrometers absorption bands of water ice in the near-infrared reflection spectrum of Neptune's distant irregular satellite Nereid...
  24. Lee M, Scandolo S. Mixtures of planetary ices at extreme conditions. Nat Commun. 2011;2:185 pubmed publisher
    The interiors of Neptune and Uranus are believed to be primarily composed of a fluid mixture of methane and water. The mixture is subjected to pressures up to several hundred gigapascal, causing the ionization of water...
  25. Lyons J. Metal ions in the atmosphere of Neptune. Science. 1995;267:648-51 pubmed
    Microwave propagation experiments performed with Voyager 2 at Neptune revealed sharp layers of electrons in Neptune's lower ionosphere with densities of approximately 10(4) per cubic centimeter...
  26. Neulen A, Blaudeck N, Zittrich S, Metzler D, Pfitzer G, Stehle R. Mn2+-dependent protein phosphatase 1 enhances protein kinase A-induced Ca2+ desensitisation in skinned murine myocardium. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;74:124-32 pubmed
    ..This can be ascribed to dephosphorylation of PKA-dependent phosphorylation sites. Hence PKA-dependent phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins persists to a functionally relevant degree after the skinning procedure. ..
  27. Guillot T. Condensation of methane, ammonia, and water and the inhibition of convection in giant planets. Science. 1995;269:1697-9 pubmed
    ..Convection is inhibited in Uranus and Neptune when methane reaches an abundance of about 15 times the solar value and in Jupiter and Saturn if the abundance of ..
  28. Smith R. Embryonic development in the viviparous nereid polychaete, Neanthes lighti Hartman. J Morphol. 1950;87:417-65 pubmed
  29. Thompson W, Singh S, Khare B, Sagan C. Triton: stratospheric molecules and organic sediments. Geophys Res Lett. 1989;16:981-4 pubmed
    Hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in Triton's stratosphere by energetic electrons from Neptune's magnetosphere and other charged particle sources...
  30. McDonald G, Thompson W, Heinrich M, Khare B, Sagan C. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins. Icarus. 1994;108:137-45 pubmed
    ..Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water. ..
  31. Yung Y, Lyons J. Triton: topside ionosphere and nitrogen escape. Geophys Res Lett. 1990;17:1717-20 pubmed
    ..The rate is estimated to be 8.6 x 10(6) N cm-2 s-1 or 2.0 x 10(24) atoms s-1. Implications for the magnetosphere of Neptune and Triton's evolution are discussed.
  32. Hemalatha S, Wahi A, Singh P, Chansouria J. Hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Withania coagulans Dunal in albino rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20:614-7 pubmed
    ..The hypolipidemic effect of W. coagulans fruits was found to be comparable to that of an Ayurvedic product containing Commiphora mukkul. ..
  33. Shock E, McKinnon W. Hydrothermal processing of cometary volatiles--applications to Triton. Icarus. 1993;106:464-77 pubmed
    Subsequent to its capture by Neptune, Triton could have experienced an episode of tidal heating sufficient to melt its icy mantle and possibly its rocky core as well...
  34. Georgiev A, Leipus A, Olsson I, Berrez J, Mutvei A. Characterization of MYR1, a dosage suppressor of YPT6 and RIC1 deficient mutants. Curr Genet. 2008;53:235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Myr1 is a novel factor linked to the secretory pathway and important cellular regulatory mechanisms. ..
  35. de Bergh C, Lutz B, Owen T, Maillard J P -. Monodeuterated methane in the outer solar system. IV. Its detection and abundance on Neptune. Astrophys J. 1990;355:661-6 pubmed
    We have detected the 3 nu 2 band of CH3D in the spectrum of Neptune near 1.6 micrometers recorded at a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1 with the Cassegrain Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3...
  36. Moses J, Allen M, Yung Y. Hydrocarbon nucleation and aerosol formation in Neptune's atmosphere. Icarus. 1992;99:318-46 pubmed
    Photodissociation of methane at high altitude levels in Neptune's atmosphere leads to the production of complex hydrocarbon species such as acetylene (C2H2), ethane (C2H6), methylacetylene (CH3C2H), propane (C3H8), diacetylene (C4H2), ..
  37. Prasad J, Shrivastava A, Khanna A, Bhatia G, Awasthi S, Narender T. Antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activity of the constituents isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:1245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The compounds 1A+1B mixture and 3 also showed good in vitro antioxidant activity...
  38. Brown R, Cruikshank D, Pendleton Y, Veeder G. Surface composition of Kuiper belt object 1993SC. Science. 1997;276:937-9 pubmed
    ..95, 2.20, and 2.32 micrometers in wavelength. Features near the same wavelengths in the spectra of Pluto and Neptune's satellite Triton are due to CH4 on their surfaces, suggesting the presence of a simple hydrocarbon ice such as ..
  39. Sammonds P. Planetary science. Creep and flow on the icy moons of the outer planets. Science. 2006;311:1250-1 pubmed
  40. Thompson W, McDonald G, Sagan C. The Titan haze revisited: magnetospheric energy sources and quantitative tholin yields. Icarus. 1994;112:376-81 pubmed