Summary: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.

Top Publications

  1. Morris R, Ruff S, Gellert R, Ming D, Arvidson R, Clark B, et al. Identification of carbonate-rich outcrops on Mars by the Spirit rover. Science. 2010;329:421-4 pubmed publisher
    Decades of speculation about a warmer, wetter Mars climate in the planet's first billion years postulate a denser CO2-rich atmosphere than at present...
  2. Langevin Y, Poulet F, Bibring J, Gondet B. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express. Science. 2005;307:1584-6 pubmed
    ..l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers...
  3. McKay C, Stoker C, Glass B, Davé A, Davila A, Heldmann J, et al. The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: a search for biomolecular evidence for life. Astrobiology. 2013;13:334-53 pubmed publisher
    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the primary motivation for the exploration of that planet...
  4. Del Giudice M, Booth T, Irwing P. The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29265 pubmed publisher
    ..These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology. ..
  5. Osterloo M, Hamilton V, Bandfield J, Glotch T, Baldridge A, Christensen P, et al. Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars. Science. 2008;319:1651-4 pubmed publisher
    ..deposits consistent with chloride-bearing materials have been identified and mapped using data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System...
  6. Zerby S. Using the science fiction film invaders from Mars in a child psychiatry seminar. Acad Psychiatry. 2005;29:316-21 pubmed
    The science fiction film Invaders From Mars is used to teach principles of child development; clinical features of separation anxiety and nightmares; and clinical interventions, including child psychotherapy, child protective issues, and ..
  7. Kalb R, Solomon D. Space exploration, Mars, and the nervous system. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:485-90 pubmed
    When human beings venture back to the moon and then on to Mars in the coming decade or so, we will be riding on the accumulated data and experience from approximately 50 years of manned space exploration...
  8. La Duc M, Vaishampayan P, Nilsson H, Torok T, Venkateswaran K. Pyrosequencing-derived bacterial, archaeal, and fungal diversity of spacecraft hardware destined for Mars. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5912-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Hart K, Szpak M, Mahaney W, Dohm J, Jordan S, Frazer A, et al. A bacterial enrichment study and overview of the extractable lipids from paleosols in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica: implications for future Mars reconnaissance. Astrobiology. 2011;11:303-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the need not only to further investigate Dry Valley cryosols but also to develop reconnaissance strategies to determine whether such likely Earth-like environments on the Red Planet also contain life. ..

Scientific Experts

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  1. de Vera J, Möhlmann D, Butina F, Lorek A, Wernecke R, Ott S. Survival potential and photosynthetic activity of lichens under Mars-like conditions: a laboratory study. Astrobiology. 2010;10:215-27 pubmed publisher
    Lichens were repetitively exposed over 22 days to thermophysical Mars-like conditions at low-and mid-latitudes. The simulated parameters and the experimental setup are described...
  2. Ivarsson M, Lausmaa J, Lindblom S, Broman C, Holm N. Fossilized microorganisms from the Emperor Seamounts: implications for the search for a subsurface fossil record on Earth and Mars. Astrobiology. 2008;8:1139-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest new niches for life in subseafloor environments and have implications for further exploration of the subseafloor biosphere on Earth and beyond. ..
  3. Ehlmann B, Mustard J, Murchie S, Poulet F, Bishop J, Brown A, et al. Orbital identification of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars. Science. 2008;322:1828-32 pubmed publisher
    Geochemical models for Mars predict carbonate formation during aqueous alteration...
  4. Vigo D, Ogrinz B, Wan L, Bersenev E, Tuerlinckx F, Van den Bergh O, et al. Sleep-wake differences in heart rate variability during a 105-day simulated mission to Mars. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:125-30 pubmed
    ..Several factors could account for this observation, including reduced daylight exposure related to the confinement situation. ..
  5. Poole A, Willerslev E. Can identification of a fourth domain of life be made from sequence data alone, and could it be done on Mars?. Astrobiology. 2007;7:801-14 pubmed
    ..Overall, our conclusions do not bode well for planned PCR-based surveys for life on Mars, and we argue that other independent biosignatures will be essential in corroborating any claims for the presence ..
  6. Navarro González R, Navarro K, de la Rosa J, Iñiguez E, Molina P, Miranda L, et al. The limitations on organic detection in Mars-like soils by thermal volatilization-gas chromatography-MS and their implications for the Viking results. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16089-94 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that TV-GC-MS may be blind to low levels of organics on Mars. A comparison between TV-GC-MS and total organics has been conducted for a variety of Mars analog soils...
  7. Tung H, Bramall N, Price P. Microbial origin of excess methane in glacial ice and implications for life on Mars. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18292-6 pubmed
  8. Poulet F, Bibring J, Mustard J, Gendrin A, Mangold N, Langevin Y, et al. Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate. Nature. 2005;438:623-7 pubmed remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on ..
  9. Moeller R, Schuerger A, Reitz G, Nicholson W. Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:8849-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants. ..
  10. Zeitlin C, Hassler D, Cucinotta F, Ehresmann B, Wimmer Schweingruber R, Brinza D, et al. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory. Science. 2013;340:1080-4 pubmed publisher
    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed ..
  11. Squyres S, Knoll A, Arvidson R, Ashley J, Bell J, Calvin W, et al. Exploration of Victoria crater by the Mars rover Opportunity. Science. 2009;324:1058-61 pubmed publisher
    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, an approximately 750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks...
  12. Mumma M, Villanueva G, Novak R, Hewagama T, Bonev B, DiSanti M, et al. Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003. Science. 2009;323:1041-5 pubmed publisher
    Living systems produce more than 90% of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. On Mars, methane could be a signature of either origin...
  13. Boynton W, Ming D, Kounaves S, Young S, Arvidson R, Hecht M, et al. Evidence for calcium carbonate at the Mars Phoenix landing site. Science. 2009;325:61-4 pubmed publisher
    ..products of aqueous processes and may hold important clues about the history of liquid water on the surface of Mars. Calcium carbonate (approximately 3 to 5 weight percent) has been identified in the soils around the Phoenix ..
  14. Fisk M, Popa R, Mason O, Storrie Lombardi M, Vicenzi E. Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?). Astrobiology. 2006;6:48-68 pubmed
    ..distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.
  15. Parro V, de Diego Castilla G, Moreno Paz M, Blanco Y, Cruz Gil P, Rodríguez Manfredi J, et al. A microbial oasis in the hypersaline Atacama subsurface discovered by a life detector chip: implications for the search for life on Mars. Astrobiology. 2011;11:969-96 pubmed publisher
    The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface...
  16. Smith M, Wolff M, Lemmon M, Spanovich N, Banfield D, Budney C, et al. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES. Science. 2004;306:1750-3 pubmed
    ..Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites. ..
  17. Debus A. Estimation and assessment of Mars contamination. Adv Space Res. 2005;35:1648-53 pubmed
    Since the beginning of the exploration of Mars, more than fourty years ago, thirty-six missions have been launched, including fifty-nine different space systems such as fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, cruise modules, landing or penetrating ..
  18. Hellweg C, Baumstark Khan C. Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts' risk from space radiation. Naturwissenschaften. 2007;94:517-26 pubmed
    ..are shifting towards planetary exploration and, in particular, towards missions by human beings to the Moon and to Mars. Radiation is considered to be one of the major hazards for personnel in space and has emerged as the most critical ..
  19. Parro V, Fernández Remolar D, Rodríguez Manfredi J, Cruz Gil P, Rivas L, Ruiz Bermejo M, et al. Classification of modern and old Río Tinto sedimentary deposits through the biomolecular record using a life marker biochip: implications for detecting life on Mars. Astrobiology. 2011;11:29-44 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights ..
  20. Scalzi G, Selbmann L, Zucconi L, Rabbow E, Horneck G, Albertano P, et al. LIFE experiment: isolation of cryptoendolithic organisms from Antarctic colonized sandstone exposed to space and simulated Mars conditions on the international space station. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2012;42:253-62 pubmed publisher cryptoendolithic communities were exposed on the International Space Station (ISS) to space and simulated Mars conditions (LiFE-Lichens and Fungi Experiment). After 1...
  21. Ehlmann B, Mustard J, Murchie S, Bibring J, Meunier A, Fraeman A, et al. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars. Nature. 2011;479:53-60 pubmed publisher
    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago...
  22. ten Kate I. Organics on Mars?. Astrobiology. 2010;10:589-603 pubmed publisher
    Organics are expected to exist on Mars based on meteorite infall, in situ production, and any possible biological sources...
  23. Chen D, Wu J. Dislodgement and removal of dust-particles from a surface by a technique combining acoustic standing wave and airflow. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;127:45-50 pubmed publisher
    It is known that there are many fine particles on the moon and Mars. Their existence may cause risk for the success of a long-term project for NASA, i.e., exploration and habitation of the moon and Mars...
  24. Sun H, Saccomanno V, Hedlund B, McKay C. Stereo-specific glucose consumption may be used to distinguish between chemical and biological reactivity on Mars: a preliminary test on Earth. Astrobiology. 2009;9:443-6 pubmed publisher
    Two alternative hypotheses explain the degradation of organics in the Viking Labeled Release experiment on Mars. Either martian soil contains live indigenous microorganisms or it is sterile but chemically reactive...
  25. Ellery A, Ball A, Cockell C, Dickensheets D, Edwards H, Kolb C, et al. Vanguard--a European robotic astrobiology-focussed Mars sub-surface mission proposal. Acta Astronaut. 2005;56:397-407 pubmed
    We present a new European Mars mission proposal to build on the UK-led Beagle2 Mars mission and continue its astrobiology-focussed investigation of Mars...
  26. Koike Y, Frey M, Sahiar F, Dodge R, Mohler S. Effects of HZE particle on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in a future Mars mission. Acta Astronaut. 2005;56:367-78 pubmed
  27. Fernández Remolar D, Prieto Ballesteros O, Rodriguez N, Gomez F, Amils R, Gomez Elvira J, et al. Underground habitats in the Río Tinto basin: a model for subsurface life habitats on Mars. Astrobiology. 2008;8:1023-47 pubmed publisher
    ..deposit near the source waters of the Río Tinto River (Iberian pyrite belt, southwest Spain) was carried out by Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project investigators in 2003 and 2004...
  28. Allen C, Oehler D. A case for ancient springs in Arabia Terra, Mars. Astrobiology. 2008;8:1093-1112 pubmed publisher
    Based on new image data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), a case can be made that several structures in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra are ancient springs...
  29. Stuster J. Analogue prototypes for Lunar and Mars exploration. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76:B78-83 pubmed
    ..This paper describes research conducted to extrapolate design and procedural guidelines for lunar and planetary expeditions from a review of information concerning previous expeditions and voyages of discovery. ..
  30. López Lozano N, Eguiarte L, Bonilla Rosso G, García Oliva F, Martínez Piedragil C, Rooks C, et al. Bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle in the gypsum soils of Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, coahuila: a Mars analogue. Astrobiology. 2012;12:699-709 pubmed publisher
    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified gypsum at several sites on Mars in 2005. These minerals constitute a direct record of past aqueous activity and are important with regard to the search of extraterrestrial life...
  31. Rai B, Kaur J, Foing B. Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study. Neurosci Lett. 2012;518:23-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase...
  32. Squyres S, Arvidson R, Bell J, Calef F, Clark B, Cohen B, et al. Ancient impact and aqueous processes at Endeavour Crater, Mars. Science. 2012;336:570-6 pubmed publisher
    The rover Opportunity has investigated the rim of Endeavour Crater, a large ancient impact crater on Mars. Basaltic breccias produced by the impact form the rim deposits, with stratigraphy similar to that observed at similar-sized craters ..
  33. Direito S, Marees A, Röling W. Sensitive life detection strategies for low-biomass environments: optimizing extraction of nucleic acids adsorbing to terrestrial and Mars analogue minerals. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012;81:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..negatively influences molecular microbial ecology studies, in particular for low-biomass environments on Earth and Mars. We determined the recovery of nucleic acids from a range of minerals relevant to Earth and Mars...
  34. Cucinotta F, Kim M, Chappell L, Huff J. How safe is safe enough? Radiation risk for a human mission to Mars. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74988 pubmed publisher
    Astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed for up to 3 years to galactic cosmic rays (GCR)--made up of high-energy protons and high charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei...
  35. Aubrey A, Chalmers J, Bada J, Grunthaner F, Amashukeli X, Willis P, et al. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration. Astrobiology. 2008;8:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of ..
  36. Tosca N, Knoll A, McLennan S. Water activity and the challenge for life on early Mars. Science. 2008;320:1204-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the martian surface has shown that acidic, saline liquid water was intermittently available on ancient Mars. The habitability of these waters depends critically on water activity (aH2O), a thermodynamic measure of salinity, ..
  37. Maltagliati L, Montmessin F, Fedorova A, Korablev O, Forget F, Bertaux J. Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars. Science. 2011;333:1868-71 pubmed publisher
    The vertical distribution of water vapor is key to the study of Mars' hydrological cycle. To date, it has been explored mainly through global climate models because of a lack of direct measurements...
  38. Schulte M, Blake D, Hoehler T, McCollom T. Serpentinization and its implications for life on the early Earth and Mars. Astrobiology. 2006;6:364-76 pubmed
    ..These systems are viewed as important analogs for potential early ecosystems on both Earth and Mars, where highly reducing mineralogy was likely widespread in an undifferentiated crust...
  39. Langevin Y, Arvidson R, Pinet P, Forget F, Berthé M, Bibring J, et al. Global mineralogical and aqueous mars history derived from OMEGA/Mars Express data. Science. 2006;312:400-4 pubmed
    Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and ..
  40. Haskin L, Wang A, Jolliff B, McSween H, Clark B, Des Marais D, et al. Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater. Nature. 2005;436:66-9 pubmed
  41. Lazzer S, Plaino L, Antonutto G. The energetics of cycling on Earth, Moon and Mars. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, since during the next decades the return of Man on the Moon and, why not, a mission to Mars can be realistically hypothesised, a section is dedicated to cycling-based facilities, such as man powered short ..
  42. Basner M, Dinges D, Mollicone D, Ecker A, Jones C, Hyder E, et al. Mars 520-d mission simulation reveals protracted crew hypokinesis and alterations of sleep duration and timing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the effects of the latter, we used a high-fidelity ground simulation of a Mars mission to objectively track sleep-wake dynamics in a multinational crew of six during 520 d of confined isolation...
  43. Edwards H, Villar S, Parnell J, Cockell C, Lee P. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanobacterial gypsum halotrophs and relevance for sulfate deposits on Mars. Analyst. 2005;130:917-23 pubmed
    ..spectroscopic techniques for incorporation as part of the instrumentation suite of a robotic lander for planetary surface exploration for the detection of organisms inside sulfate crystals from previous hydrothermal activity on Mars.
  44. Schneider S, Abeln V, Popova J, Fomina E, Jacubowski A, Meeusen R, et al. The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500). Behav Brain Res. 2013;236:1-7 pubmed publisher
    With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions...
  45. Arvidson R, Poulet F, Bibring J, Wolff M, Gendrin A, Morris R, et al. Spectral reflectance and morphologic correlations in eastern Terra Meridiani, Mars. Science. 2005;307:1591-4 pubmed
    The Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) hyperspectral image data covering eastern Terra Meridiani indicate the ubiquitous presence of molecular water in etched terrain materials that ..
  46. Gendrin A, Mangold N, Bibring J, Langevin Y, Gondet B, Poulet F, et al. Sulfates in Martian layered terrains: the OMEGA/Mars Express view. Science. 2005;307:1587-91 pubmed
    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified hydrated sulfates on light-toned layered terrains on Mars...
  47. Nicholson W, Schuerger A, Setlow P. The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight. Mutat Res. 2005;571:249-64 pubmed
    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars can be lethal to microorganisms because of the high vacuum and high solar radiation flux, in particular UV radiation, in such environments...
  48. Wagner E, Fulford Jones T. Sensorimotor investigations for the Mars Gravity Biosatellite: a rotating spacecraft for partial gravity research. Brain Res. 2006;1091:75-8 pubmed
    The Mars Gravity Biosatellite will offer investigators a unique environment for sensorimotor research. Fifteen mice will fly for 5 weeks in low Earth orbit before being returned safely to the ground...
  49. Cucinotta F, Kim M, Schneider S, Hassler D. Description of light ion production cross sections and fluxes on the Mars surface using the QMSFRG model. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2007;46:101-6 pubmed
    The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however, increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle ..
  50. Rai B, Foing B, Kaur J. Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study. Neurosci Lett. 2012;516:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity...
  51. Sherwood Lollar B, Voglesonger K, Lin L, Lacrampe Couloume G, Telling J, Abrajano T, et al. Hydrogeologic controls on episodic H2 release from precambrian fractured rocks--energy for deep subsurface life on earth and mars. Astrobiology. 2007;7:971-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A conceptual model is presented that demonstrates how periodic opening of fractures and resultant mixing control the distribution and supply of H(2) and support a microbial community of H(2)-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens. ..
  52. Quinn R, Martucci H, Miller S, Bryson C, Grunthaner F, Grunthaner P. Perchlorate radiolysis on Mars and the origin of martian soil reactivity. Astrobiology. 2013;13:515-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Instruments on the Mars Phoenix Lander and the Mars Science Laboratory detected perchlorate in martian soil, which is nonreactive under the ..
  53. Horneck G, Stöffler D, Ott S, Hornemann U, Cockell C, Moeller R, et al. Microbial rock inhabitants survive hypervelocity impacts on Mars-like host planets: first phase of lithopanspermia experimentally tested. Astrobiology. 2008;8:17-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A vital launch window for the transport of rock-colonizing microorganisms from a Mars-like planet was inferred, which encompasses shock pressures in the range of 5 to about 40 GPa for the bacterial ..