Summary: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.

Top Publications

  1. Thommes E, Duncan M, Levison H. The formation of Uranus and Neptune in the Jupiter-Saturn region of the Solar System. Nature. 1999;402:635-8 pubmed
    ..In the case of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, they accreted a significant amount of gas directly from the protosolar nebula after accumulating ..
  2. Sada P, Bjoraker G, Jennings D, McCabe G, Romani P. Observations of CH4, C2H6, and C2H2 in the stratosphere of Jupiter. Icarus. 1998;136:192-201 pubmed
    ..14 micrometers), C2H6 (12.16 micrometers), and C2H2 (13.45 micrometers) on Jupiter. These emission features probe the stratosphere of the planet and provide information on the carbon-based ..
  3. Schulze Makuch D, Irwin L. Energy cycling and hypothetical organisms in Europa's ocean. Astrobiology. 2002;2:105-21 pubmed
    ..Organisms thriving on these gradients could interact with each other to form the complex energy cycling necessary for establishing a stable ecosystem. ..
  4. Naganuma T, Uematsu H. Dive Europa: a search-for-life initiative. Biol Sci Space. 1998;12:126-30 pubmed
    ..Also, ice shell drilling is a challenge and is needed before the dive into Europa's ocean. These challenges should be overcome during a certain leading time for matured experience in the ISS operation. ..
  5. Lineweaver C, Grether D. The observational case for Jupiter being a typical massive planet. Astrobiology. 2002;2:325-34 pubmed
    ..A modest extrapolation of these trends puts Jupiter in the most densely occupied region of this parameter space, thus indicating that Jupiter is a typical massive ..
  6. Gladstone G, Allen M, Yung Y. Hydrocarbon photochemistry in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. Icarus. 1996;119:1-52 pubmed
    The hydrocarbon photochemistry in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter is investigated using a one-dimensional, photochemical-diffusive, and diurnally averaged model...
  7. Moore J. Galileo gears up for swansong as crash-landing looms. Nature. 2003;425:229 pubmed
  8. Dalton J. Spectral behavior of hydrated sulfate salts: implications for Europa mission spectrometer design. Astrobiology. 2003;3:771-84 pubmed
    ..Such information would provide valuable insights into the evolutionary history of Europa. ..
  9. Roos Serote M, Vasavada A, Kamp L, Drossart P, Irwin P, Nixon C, et al. Proximate humid and dry regions in Jupiter's atmosphere indicate complex local meteorology. Nature. 2000;405:158-60 pubmed
    Models of Jupiter's formation and structure predict that its atmosphere is enriched in oxygen, relative to the Sun, and that consequently water clouds should be present globally near the 5-bar pressure level...

More Information


  1. Krupp N. New surprises in the largest magnetosphere of our solar system. Science. 2007;318:216-7 pubmed
    ..ultimate rendezvous with Pluto, the New Horizons spacecraft passed through the magnetic and plasma environment of Jupiter in February 2007...
  2. Prockter L, Pappalardo R. Folds on Europa: implications for crustal cycling and accommodation of extension. Science. 2000;289:941-3 pubmed
    Regional-scale undulations with associated small-scale secondary structures are inferred to be folds on Jupiter's moon Europa...
  3. Ruiz J, Montoya L, López V, Amils R. Thermal diapirism and the habitability of the icy shell of Europa. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2007;37:287-95 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that the future astrobiological exploration of Europa should include the search for compatible solutes in chaos and lenticulae features. ..
  4. Wilson J, Clowdsley M, Cucinotta F, Tripathi R, Nealy J, De Angelis G. Deep space environments for human exploration. Adv Space Res. 2004;34:1281-7 pubmed
    ..Design scenarios are then evaluated for these missions. The underlying assumptions in arriving at the model environments and their impact on mission exposures within various shield materials will be discussed. ..
  5. Figueredo P, Greeley R, Neuer S, Irwin L, Schulze Makuch D. Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations. Astrobiology. 2003;3:851-61 pubmed
    ..This assessment will be expanded by multidisciplinary examination of the potential for habitability of specific features. ..
  6. Runswick S, Slothouber B, Boeing H, Bueno de Mesquita H, Clavel F, Key T, et al. Compliance with the urine marker PABAcheck in cancer epidemiology studies. IARC Sci Publ. 2002;156:35-7 pubmed
  7. Lorenz R. Thermal drilling in planetary ices: an analytic solution with application to planetary protection problems of radioisotope power sources. Astrobiology. 2012;12:799-802 pubmed publisher
  8. McCord T, Carlson R, Smythe W, Hansen G, Clark R, Hibbitts C, et al. Organics and other molecules in the surfaces of Callisto and Ganymede. Science. 1997;278:271-5 pubmed
    ..The spectra indicate that the primary surface constituents are water ice and hydrated minerals. ..
  9. Gormly S, Adams V, Marchand E. Physical simulation for low-energy astrobiology environmental scenarios. Astrobiology. 2003;3:761-70 pubmed
    ..However, researchers in electromagnetic biosignature and in situ instrument development should be aware of the study at this time, as they are invited to participate in planning for future applications of the digester facility. ..
  10. McNutt R, Haggerty D, Hill M, Krimigis S, Livi S, Ho G, et al. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail. Science. 2007;318:220-2 pubmed
    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system...
  11. Burnett D, Team G. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils...
  12. Irwin L, Schulze Makuch D. Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds. Astrobiology. 2001;1:143-60 pubmed
    ..Without any additional specific assumptions about the nature of life, the POL system is universally applicable. ..
  13. Ellul C, Foord J, Mooney J. Making metadata usable in a multi-national research setting. Appl Ergon. 2013;44:909-18 pubmed publisher
    ..A description is given of a configurable metadata system designed to grow as the project evolves. This work is of relevance for similar projects such as INSPIRE. ..
  14. Caldwell J, Owen T. Chemical evolution on the giant planets and Titan. Adv Space Res. 1984;4:51-8 pubmed
    ..chemistry in the atmospheres of the outer solar system with special emphasis on the question of HCN formation on Jupiter, differences between polar and equatorial compositions on Jupiter, the coloration of the Great Red Spot, and the ..
  15. Guillemin J, El Chaouch S, Bouayad A, Janati T. Partial pressures and nature of products. Application to the photolysis of PH3 and NH3 in the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. Adv Space Res. 2001;27:245-53 pubmed
    ..The relevance of such lab studies to the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn is discussed.
  16. Lorenz R, Lunine J, McKay C. Geologic settings for aqueous organic synthesis on Titan revisited. Enantiomer. 2001;6:83-96 pubmed
    ..We propose an important role in surface organic reactions for ultraviolet sunlight transported to the surface as chemical energy stored in acetylene and released by polymerization at Titan's surface. ..
  17. Colwell J, Horanyi M, Grun E. Capture of interplanetary and interstellar dust by the jovian magnetosphere. Science. 1998;280:88-91 pubmed
    Interplanetary and interstellar dust grains entering Jupiter's magnetosphere form a detectable diffuse faint ring of exogenic material. This ring is composed of particles in the size range of 0. 5 to 1...
  18. Reuter D, Simon Miller A, Lunsford A, Baines K, Cheng A, Jennings D, et al. Jupiter cloud composition, stratification, convection, and wave motion: a view from new horizons. Science. 2007;318:223-5 pubmed
    Several observations of Jupiter's atmosphere made by instruments on the New Horizons spacecraft have implications for the stability and dynamics of Jupiter's weather layer...
  19. Weidenschilling S, Marzari F. Gravitational scattering as a possible origin for giant planets at small stellar distances. Nature. 1996;384:619-21 pubmed
    ..Conventional models for the formation of giant planets (such as Jupiter and Saturn) place such objects at distances of several astronomical units from the parent star, whereas all but ..
  20. Krajick K. Astrobiology. Robot seeks new life--and new funding--in the abyss of Zacaton. Science. 2007;315:322-4 pubmed
  21. Irwin L, Schulze Makuch D. Strategy for modeling putative multilevel ecosystems on Europa. Astrobiology. 2003;3:813-21 pubmed
    ..Calculations indicate the plausibility of both ecosystems, including small macroorganisms at the highest trophic levels, with ionotrophy supporting a larger biomass than chemoautotrophy. ..
  22. Borucki W, McKenzie R, McKay C, Duong N, Boac D. Spectra of simulated lightning on Venus, Jupiter, and Titan. Icarus. 1985;64:221-32 pubmed
    ..Spectra from 240 to 880 nm are presented for simulated lightning in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Titan...
  23. Geissler P, McEwen A, Ip W, Belton M, Johnson T, Smyth W, et al. Galileo imaging of atmospheric emissions from Io. Science. 1999;285:870-4 pubmed
    ..detected diffuse optical emissions from Io in high-resolution images acquired while the satellite was eclipsed by Jupiter. Three distinct components make up Io's visible emissions...
  24. Nelson K. Increased funding for health could help prevent conflict. Lancet. 2004;363:47 pubmed
  25. Peplow M. Signs of warm water on Saturn's moon. Nature. 2006;440:261 pubmed
  26. Cooper J, Johnson R, Richardson J, Leblanc F. Space physics, Mars, and life. Astrobiology. 2006;6:437-8 pubmed
  27. Carlson R. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto. Science. 1999;283:820-1 pubmed
    ..A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. ..
  28. Taylor S. Origin of the terrestrial planets and the moon. J R Soc West Aust. 1996;79 Pt 1:59-65 pubmed
    ..The early formation of the gas giant, Jupiter, affected the subsequent development of inner solar system and is responsible for the existence of the asteroid ..
  29. Wdowiak T, Gerakines P, Agresti D, Clemett S. Technology considerations relevant to an exobiology surface-science approach for Europa. Astrobiology. 2001;1:467-76 pubmed
    ..Such a simulator is mandatory in certification of the functional utility of a flight instrument. ..
  30. Meierhenrich U, Thiemann W, Barbier B, Brack A, Alcaraz C, Nahon L, et al. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2002;32:181-90 pubmed
    ..The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory...
  31. Chyba C, Phillips C. Europa as an abode of life. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2002;32:47-68 pubmed
    ..It is not premature to draw lessons from the search for life on Mars with the Viking spacecraft for planning exobiological missions to Europa. ..
  32. Steffen J, Ragozzine D, Fabrycky D, Carter J, Ford E, Holman M, et al. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7982-7 pubmed publisher
    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science ..
  33. Geissler P, Greenberg R, Hoppa G, Helfenstein P, McEwen A, Pappalardo R, et al. Evidence for non-synchronous rotation of Europa. Galileo Imaging Team. Nature. 1998;391:368-70 pubmed
    ..rotation of Europa was predicted on theoretical grounds, by considering the orbitally averaged torque exerted by Jupiter on the satellite's tidal bulges...
  34. Sugita S, Ootsubo T, Kadono T, Honda M, Sako S, Miyata T, et al. Subaru telescope observations of Deep Impact. Science. 2005;310:274-8 pubmed
    ..The dust distribution in the inner part of the plume, however, is inconsistent with a pure gravity control and implies that evaporation and expansion of volatiles accelerated dust. ..
  35. Landis G. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration. Acta Astronaut. 2004;55:985-90 pubmed
  36. Williams D, Knacke R. Looking for planetary moons in the spectra of distant Jupiters. Astrobiology. 2004;4:400-3 pubmed
    More than 100 nearby stars are known to have at least one Jupiter-sized planet. Whether any of these giant gaseous planets has moons is unknown, but here we suggest a possible way of detecting Earth-sized moons with future technology...
  37. Mac Low M, Zahnle K. Explosion of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on entry into the Jovian atmosphere. Astrophys J. 1994;434:L33-6 pubmed
    ..ZEUS to compute high-resolution models of the disruption and deceleration of cometary fragments striking Jupiter. We find that simple analytic and semianalytic models work well for kilometer-size impactors...
  38. Atreya S, Wong M, Owen T, Mahaffy P, Niemann H, de Pater I, et al. A comparison of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: deep atmospheric composition, cloud structure, vertical mixing, and origin. Planet Space Sci. 1999;47:1243-62 pubmed
    ..current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn...
  39. Khurana K, Kivelson M, Russell C. Searching for liquid water in Europa by using surface observatories. Astrobiology. 2002;2:93-103 pubmed
    ..The observatories would also help us infer the composition of the icy crust and the ocean water. ..
  40. Jun I, Garrett H. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:50-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts...
  41. Atwell W, Townsend L, Miller T, Campbell C. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;116:220-3 pubmed
    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model...
  42. Hand K, Chyba C, Carlson R, Cooper J. Clathrate hydrates of oxidants in the ice shell of Europa. Astrobiology. 2006;6:463-82 pubmed
    ..Clathrate-sealed, gas-filled bubbles in the near surface ice could also provide an effective trapping mechanism, though they cannot explain the 5771 A (O2)2 absorption. ..
  43. Zahnle K, Dones L, Levison H. Cratering rates on the Galilean satellites. Icarus. 1998;136:202-22 pubmed
    ..We find that most, probably more than 90%, of the craters on the Galilean satellites are caused by the impact of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs)...
  44. Schenk P, McKinnon W, Gwynn D, Moore J. Flooding of Ganymede's bright terrains by low-viscosity water-ice lavas. Nature. 2001;410:57-60 pubmed
    ..Volcanism plays an integral role in these processes, and is consistent with partial melting of Ganymede's interior. ..
  45. Owen T, Lutz B, de Bergh C. Deuterium in the outer Solar System: evidence for two distinct reservoirs. Nature. 1986;320:244-6 pubmed
    ..Both of these reservoirs were established before the formation of the Solar System. ..
  46. Adriani A, Coradini A, Filacchione G, Lunine J, Bini A, Pasqui C, et al. JIRAM, the image spectrometer in the near infrared on board the Juno mission to Jupiter. Astrobiology. 2008;8:613-22 pubmed publisher
    ..JIRAM will explore the dynamics and the chemistry of Jupiter's auroral regions by high-contrast imaging and spectroscopy...
  47. Dvorak R, Pilat Lohinger E, Bois E, Schwarz R, Funk B, Beichman C, et al. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems. Astrobiology. 2010;10:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet...
  48. Takeyama N, Kuroki K, Hayashi T, Sai S, Okabe N, Kinebuchi Y, et al. Cerebral CT angiography using a small volume of concentrated contrast material with a test injection method: optimal scan delay for quantitative and qualitative performance. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:e748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Setting scan delay as [(T(cW)+8)-SD] s can produce the best performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. ..
  49. Grazier K. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde. Astrobiology. 2016;16:23-38 pubmed publisher
    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth...
  50. O Keefe J, Carter M, Lavie C, Bell D. The gravity of JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin). Postgrad Med. 2009;121:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) study, a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, rosuvastatin proved to be safe and remarkably effective in ..
  51. Kubo T, Durham W, Stern L, Kirby S. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II. Science. 2006;311:1267-9 pubmed
    ..The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system. ..
  52. Fortney J. Planetary science. Looking into the giant planets. Science. 2004;305:1414-5 pubmed
  53. Salama F, Allamandola L, Sandford S, Bregman J, Witteborn F, Cruikshank D. Is H2O present on Io? The detection of a new strong band near 3590 cm-1 (2.79 micrometers). Icarus. 1994;107:413-7 pubmed
    ..The new band probably originates from both SO2 and H2O. Unfortunately, the spectral resolution of the data is insufficient to settle the issue of whether there are two resolvable components. ..