Summary: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
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- Thomas K, Blanford G, Keller L, Klock W, McKay D. Carbon abundance and silicate mineralogy of anhydrous interplanetary dust particles. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 1993;57:1551-66 pubmed..Based on carbon abundances, the mixed-mineralogy group represents particles derived from either comets or asteroids. We believe that the high carbon, pyroxene-rich anhydrous IDPs are the best candidates for cometary dust. ..
- Sandford S. The mid-infrared transmission spectra of Antarctic ureilites. Meteoritics. 1993;28:579-85 pubmed..At present, the best candidates include the subset of S-type asteroids having low albedos and weak absorption features in the near infrared. ..
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- Cockell C. The origin and emergence of life under impact bombardment. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006;361:1845-55; discussion 1856 pubmed..In impact melt sheets, shattered, mixed rocks ultimately provided diverse geochemical gradients, which in present-day craters support the growth of microbial communities. ..
- Sheehan P, Fastovsky D, Hoffmann R, Berghaus C, Gabriel D. Sudden extinction of the dinosaurs: latest Cretaceous, upper Great Plains, USA. Science. 1991;254:835-9 pubmed..The findings are in agreement with an abrupt extinction event such as one caused by an asteroid impact. ..
- Kerr R. Planetary science. A smashing source of early Martian water?. Science. 2002;298:1866 pubmed
- Brown P, Spalding R, ReVelle D, Tagliaferri E, Worden S. The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth. Nature. 2002;420:294-6 pubmed..From this we estimate that the Earth is hit on average annually by an object with approximately 5 kton equivalent energy, and that Tunguska-like events occur about once every 1,000 years. ..
- Jedicke R. Planetary science: Intermediate impact factors. Nature. 2002;420:273-4 pubmed
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- Knight J. Asteroid rating system makes an impact on the media. Nature. 2002;418:468 pubmed
- Montague M, McArthur G, Cockell C, Held J, Marshall W, Sherman L, et al. The role of synthetic biology for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Astrobiology. 2012;12:1135-42 pubmed publisher..The conclusion is that food production in space environments from in situ material proven to exist there is quite feasible. ..
- Kerr R. Evolution. Did an impact trigger the dinosaurs' rise?. Science. 2002;296:1215-6 pubmed
- Wittke J, Weaver J, Bunch T, Kennett J, Kennett D, Moore A, et al. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2088-97 pubmed publisher..At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ?50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event. ..
- Yamaguchi A, Clayton R, Mayeda T, Ebihara M, Oura Y, Miura Y, et al. A new source of basaltic meteorites inferred from Northwest Africa 011. Science. 2002;296:334-6 pubmed..The presence of basaltic meteorites with variable oxygen isotopic composition suggests the occurrence of multiple basaltic meteorite parent bodies, perhaps similar to 4 Vesta, in the early solar system. ..
- Becker L, Poreda R, Hunt A, Bunch T, Rampino M. Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes. Science. 2001;291:1530-3 pubmed..These data imply that an impact event (asteroidal or cometary) accompanied the extinction, as was the case for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event about 65 million years ago. ..
- Raup D. Extinction from a paleontological perspective. Eur Rev. 1993;1:207-16 pubmed..Extinction certainly plays an important role in evolution, but whether it is constructive or destructive has not yet been determined. ..
- Maher K, Stevenson D. Impact frustration of the origin of life. Nature. 1988;331:612-4 pubmed
- Bada J, Bigham C, Miller S. Impact melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the origin of life. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1248-50 pubmed..Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide impacts could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms. ..
- Alexander C, Bowden R, Fogel M, Howard K, Herd C, Nittler L. The provenances of asteroids, and their contributions to the volatile inventories of the terrestrial planets. Science. 2012;337:721-3 pubmed publisher..The bulk hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic compositions of CI chondrites suggest that they were the principal source of Earth's volatiles. ..
- Sheppard S, Trujillo C. A thick cloud of Neptune Trojans and their colors. Science. 2006;313:511-4 pubmed..Our color measurements show that Neptune Trojans have statistically indistinguishable slightly red colors, which suggests that they had a common formation and evolutionary history and are distinct from the classical Kuiper Belt objects. ..
- Greenwood R, Franchi I, Jambon A, Barrat J, Burbine T. Oxygen isotope variation in stony-iron meteorites. Science. 2006;313:1763-5 pubmed..The stony-iron meteorites demonstrate that intense asteroidal deformation accompanied planetary accretion in the early Solar System. ..
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- Alvarez L. Mass extinctions caused by large bolide impacts. Phys Today. 1987;40:24-33 pubmed
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- Zhang Q, Xu D. Inquiring into indicators and origin of catastrophic events at stratigraphic boundaries. J Southeast Asian Earth Sci. 1996;13:373-8 pubmed..We support the hypothesis of the extraterrestrial origin of catastrophic events and suggest that the events at different stratigraphic boundaries might be different in features and processes. ..
- Basiuk V, Navarro Gonzalez R. Dust in the Universe: implications for terrestrial prebiotic chemistry. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 1995;25:457-93 pubmed..Until these gaps are filled, it seems reasonable to focus efforts of the scientists dealing with dust-driven catalytic formation of prebiotically important compounds on the volcanic and meteoritic/cometary impact environments. ..
- Anders E. Pre-biotic organic matter from comets and asteroids. Nature. 1989;342:255-7 pubmed..It may have included some biologically important compounds that did not form by abiotic synthesis on Earth. ..
- Whitmire D, Doyle L, Reynolds R, Matese J. A slightly more massive young Sun as an explanation for warm temperatures on early Mars. J Geophys Res. 1995;100:5457-64 pubmed..2(-0.2, +0.4) Gyr of the Sun's main sequence phase. The implied mass-loss rate of 4(+3, -2) x 10(-11) M solar yr-1, or about 10(3)x that of the current Sun, may be detectable in several nearby young solar type stars. ..
- Olsen P, Kent D, Sues H, Koeberl C, Huber H, Montanari A, et al. Ascent of dinosaurs linked to an iridium anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science. 2002;296:1305-7 pubmed..Eastern North American dinosaurian diversity reached a stable maximum less than 100,000 years after the boundary, marking the establishment of dinosaur-dominated communities that prevailed for the next 135 million years. ..
- Raup D. Biological extinction in earth history. Science. 1986;231:1528-33 pubmed..Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses. ..
- Trefil J, Raup D. Numerical simulations and the problem of periodicity in the cratering record. Earth Planet Sci Lett. 1987;82:159-64 pubmed..We conclude that the real record is most likely to have been generated by a mixture of random and periodic impacts, with the random events constituting the majority. ..
- Kerr R. Impact cratering. A big splat in the asteroid belt doomed Earth's dinosaurs. Science. 2007;317:1310 pubmed
- Oro J, Mills T. Chemical evolution of primitive solar system bodies. Adv Space Res. 1989;9:105-20 pubmed..Some of the outstanding problems concerning the synthesis of organic molecules on different cosmic bodies are also discussed from an exobiological perspective. ..
- Rabinowitz D, Helin E, Lawrence K, Pravdo S. A reduced estimate of the number of kilometre-sized near-Earth asteroids. Nature. 2000;403:165-6 pubmed..We find that the total number of asteroids with diameters > 1 km is about half the earlier estimates. At the current rate of discovery of near-Earth asteroids, 90% will probably have been detected within the next 20 years. ..
- Kerr R. Paleontology. Evidence of huge, deadly impact found off Australian coast?. Science. 2004;304:941 pubmed
- Smit J, Montanari A, Swinburne N, Alvarez W, Hildebrand A, Margolis S, et al. Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico. Geology. 1992;20:99-103 pubmed..An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. ..
- Chyba C, Sagan C. Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the origins of life. Nature. 1992;355:125-32 pubmed..Endogenous, exogenous and impact-shock sources of organics could each have made a significant contribution to the origins of life. ..
- Kerr R. Impact hazard. A little respect for the asteroid threat. Science. 2002;297:1785-7 pubmed
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- Kasting J. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 1992;20:199-231 pubmed..Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters. ..
- Chyba C, Thomas P, Brookshaw L, Sagan C. Cometary delivery of organic molecules to the early Earth. Science. 1990;249:366-73 pubmed..These results may be put in context by comparison with terrestrial oceanic and total biomasses, approximately 3 x 10(12) kilograms and approximately 6 x 10(14) kilograms, respectively. ..
- Matheny J. Reducing the risk of human extinction. Risk Anal. 2007;27:1335-44 pubmed..We review the challenges to studying human extinction risks and, by way of example, estimate the cost effectiveness of preventing extinction-level asteroid impacts. ..
- Cruikshank D, Allamandola L, Hartmann W, Tholen D, Brown R, Matthews C, et al. Solid C triple bond N bearing material on outer solar system bodies. Icarus. 1991;94:345-53 pubmed
- Mitchell J, Roopnarine P, Angielczyk K. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18857-61 pubmed publisher..Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America. ..
- Lumme K, Peltoniemi J, Irvine W. Some photometric techniques for atmosphereless solar system bodies. Adv Space Res. 1990;10:187-93 pubmed..It is shown how important the correct scattering law is while deriving the topography by photoclinometry. ..