solar system


Summary: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)

Top Publications

  1. Guillot T. Interiors of giant planets inside and outside the solar system. Science. 1999;286:72-7 pubmed
    ..9 and 1.7 Jupiter radii), provided that they contain mostly hydrogen and helium. ..
  2. Thommes E, Duncan M, Levison H. The formation of Uranus and Neptune in the Jupiter-Saturn region of the Solar System. Nature. 1999;402:635-8 pubmed produce the smaller ice giants Uranus and Neptune at their present locations, because in that region of the Solar System the small planetary bodies will have been more widely spaced, and less tightly bound gravitationally to the Sun...
  3. Horigome C, Mizuta K. Ribosome biogenesis factors working with a nuclear envelope SUN domain protein: new players in the solar system. Nucleus. 2012;3:22-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that a protein complex consisting Ebp2, Rrs1 and Mps3 is involved in a wide range of activities at the nuclear envelope...
  4. Sakamoto N, Seto Y, Itoh S, Kuramoto K, Fujino K, Nagashima K, et al. Remnants of the early solar system water enriched in heavy oxygen isotopes. Science. 2007;317:231-3 pubmed
    Oxygen isotopic composition of our solar system is believed to have resulted from mixing of two isotopically distinct nebular reservoirs, 16O-rich and (17,18)O-rich relative to Earth...
  5. Messenger S, Keller L, Stadermann F, Walker R, Zinner E. Samples of stars beyond the solar system: silicate grains in interplanetary dust. Science. 2003;300:105-8 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest cometary origins of these IDPs and underscore the perplexing absence of silicates among circumstellar dust grains from meteorites. ..
  6. Nicholson W, Setlow B, Setlow P. UV photochemistry of DNA in vitro and in Bacillus subtilis spores at earth-ambient and low atmospheric pressure: implications for spore survival on other planets or moons in the solar system. Astrobiology. 2002;2:417-25 pubmed
    Two major parameters influencing the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores in space and on bodies within the Solar System are UV radiation and vacuum, both of which induce inactivating damage to DNA...
  7. Fukue T, Tamura M, Kandori R, Kusakabe N, Hough J, Bailey J, et al. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2010;40:335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then ..
  8. Chyba C, Sagan C. Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the origins of life. Nature. 1992;355:125-32 pubmed
    ..Endogenous, exogenous and impact-shock sources of organics could each have made a significant contribution to the origins of life. ..
  9. Lawler A. Solar system exploration. Planetary science's defining moment. Science. 2002;295:32-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Krot A, McKeegan K, Leshin L, MacPherson G, Scott E. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula. Science. 2002;295:1051-4 pubmed
    ..The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun. ..
  2. Lumme K, Peltoniemi J, Irvine W. Some photometric techniques for atmosphereless solar system bodies. Adv Space Res. 1990;10:187-93 pubmed
    ..We also outline a new scattering model for atmosphereless bodies in the solar system and show how it fits Mariner 10 surface photometry of the planet Mercury...
  3. Gitelson J, Bartsev S, Mezhevikin V, Okhonin V. An alternative approach to solar system exploration providing safety of human mission to Mars. Adv Space Res. 2003;31:17-24 pubmed
    ..Some approximate estimations of electric spacecraft, long-term hybrid LSS, radiation protection and mission parameters are conducted and discussed. ..
  4. Pennisi E. Neuroscience. Monarchs check clock to chart migration route. Science. 2003;300:1216-7 pubmed
  5. Fonin V, Khorlin A. [Preparation of biologically transformed raw material from woolly foxglove Digitalis lanata Ehrh and isolation of digoxin from it]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2003;39:588-92 pubmed
    ..6% and for isolation from this fraction of highly purified digoxin with the yield of 0.06% of the starting raw material, and the other secondary glycosides can be also isolated...
  6. Kerr R. Planetary science. Comet crackup will spur science, whatever the result. Science. 2005;308:1247 pubmed
  7. Cornelissen G, Halberg F, Kovac M, Mikulecky M, Otsuka K, Bakken E. Geographic and extraterrestrial aspects of morbidity and/or mortality patterns from myocardial infarction and stroke. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005;59 Suppl 1:S68-75 pubmed
  8. Akhavan O. Lasting antibacterial activities of Ag-TiO2/Ag/a-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film photocatalysts under solar light irradiation. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;336:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the Ag-TiO(2)/Ag/a-TiO(2) photocatalyst can be nominated as one of the effective and long-lasting antibacterial nanocomposite materials. ..
  9. Jin C, Guan D, Zhu T. [Spectral characteristics of solar radiation in broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2000;11:19-21 pubmed
    ..The forest canopy absorbed 93.9% PAR and 94.1% UV, but reflected and transmitted less. It absorbed 59.2%, reflected 26.3% and transmitted 14.4% NIR. ..
  10. Chyba C, Thomas P, Brookshaw L, Sagan C. Cometary delivery of organic molecules to the early Earth. Science. 1990;249:366-73 pubmed
    ..These results may be put in context by comparison with terrestrial oceanic and total biomasses, approximately 3 x 10(12) kilograms and approximately 6 x 10(14) kilograms, respectively. ..
  11. Kasting J. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 1992;20:199-231 pubmed
    ..Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters. ..
  12. Des Marais D, Nuth J, Allamandola L, Boss A, Farmer J, Hoehler T, et al. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Astrobiology. 2008;8:715-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its ..
  13. Whittet D, Gibb E, Nummelin A. Interstellar ices as a source of CN-bearing molecules in protoplanetary disks. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2001;31:157-65 pubmed formation is fundamental to our quest to determine the organic inventory of planetesimals in the early Solar System. This has become a realistic goal since the launch of the Infrared Space Observatory, which provides a facility ..
  14. Sluyter R, Halliday G. Infiltration by inflammatory cells required for solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation enhancement of skin tumor growth. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2001;50:151-6 pubmed
    ..While these effects may also suppress the induction of anti-tumor immunity, at higher doses of UV radiation inflammatory cells may enhance tumor growth by a non-immunological mechanism. ..
  15. Sassen K, Zhu J. The rainbow as interactive art: modeling the Elaisson Beauty installation at SFMOMA. Appl Opt. 2008;47:H171-5 pubmed
    ..Through geometrical optics and Airy's theory simulations we show a rich relationship between the locally produced rainbow phenomena and the chamber equipment geometry and viewing position. ..
  16. Burns J, Squyres S. Healthy discussion of planetary science goals. Science. 2002;295:1644 pubmed
  17. Cho I, Kim Y, Yang J, Lee N, Lee S. Solar-chemical treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum at gas station sites: ex situ remediation using solar/TiO(2) photocatalysis and Solar Photo-Fenton. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2006;41:457-73 pubmed
    ..From this work, the AOP process (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/solar light and TiO(2)/H(2)O(2)/solar light) illuminated with solar light was identified as an effective ex situ technique in the remediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum. ..
  18. Simonelli D, Pollack J, McKay C, Reynolds R, Summers A. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula. Icarus. 1989;82:1-35 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in gaseous CO; 10% to a few tens of percent of the C was in condensed organic materials; and at least a trace amount of carbon was in methane gas. ..
  19. Johnson R, Cooper P, Quickenden T, Grieves G, Orlando T. Production of oxygen by electronically induced dissociations in ice. J Chem Phys. 2005;123:184715 pubmed
    ..for the production of O2 by electronic excitation of ice, a process that occurs on icy bodies in the outer solar system. Based on a review of the relevant available laboratory data, we propose that a trapped oxygen atom-water ..
  20. Gould J. Sensory bases of navigation. Curr Biol. 1998;8:R731-8 pubmed
    ..Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others. ..
  21. Drobyshevski E, Chesnakov V, Sinitsyn V. The electrolytical processes in dirty ices: implications for origin and chemistry of minor bodies and related objects. Adv Space Res. 1995;16:73-84 pubmed
    ..Thus the electrochemical processes in the dirty ice with organics, along with its subsequent thermal, radiative etc. processing, open up new potentials for explanation and prediction of quite unexpected discoveries. ..
  22. Yurimoto H, Kuramoto K. Molecular cloud origin for the oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the solar system. Science. 2004;305:1763-6 pubmed
    ..The icy dust grains drifted toward the Sun in the disk, and their subsequent evaporation resulted in the 17O- and 18O-enrichment of the inner disk gas. ..
  23. Lavergne J. Commentary on: "Photosynthesis and negative entropy production" by Jennings and coworkers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1453-9; author reply 1460-2 pubmed
    ..The basic principles of free energy conversion by a photo-electrochemical cell are outlined, emphasizing the fact that the potential depends on the relative population of the excited state and thus on the illumination intensity. ..
  24. Ross J, Diamond M, Badcock D. Mach bands change asymmetrically during solar eclipses. Perception. 2003;32:767-70 pubmed
    ..These changes can be explained as due to changes in the shape of the penumbras of shadows as the visible portion of the Sun forms crescents of different orientation. ..
  25. Brennecka G, Borg L, Wadhwa M. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17241-6 pubmed publisher
    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature...
  26. Poole A, Hode T, Brandenburg A, Hjalmarson A, Holm N. Life up north: meeting report: nordic astrobiology 2006: origins & distribution of life in the universe. Astrobiology. 2006;6:815-8 pubmed
  27. Mazzoni M, Falorni P, Del Bianco S. Sun-induced leaf fluorescence retrieval in the O2-B atmospheric absorption band. Opt Express. 2008;16:7014-22 pubmed
    ..The scale and the instrumental conversion factor were also fitted in order to obtain an accuracy that could not be attained by using the radiance measurements alone. ..
  28. Vollmer M, Gedzelman S. Simulating irradiance during lunar eclipses: the spherically symmetric case. Appl Opt. 2008;47:H52-61 pubmed
    ..Typical distributions of aerosol particles, ozone, mountains, and clouds around the terminator reduce irradiance by an additional factor of the order of 100. ..
  29. David Gedzelman S. Simulating halos and coronas in their atmospheric environment. Appl Opt. 2008;47:H157-66 pubmed
  30. Tschauner O, Asimow P, Kostandova N, Ahrens T, Ma C, Sinogeikin S, et al. Ultrafast growth of wadsleyite in shock-produced melts and its implications for early solar system impact processes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13691-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may also provide another pathway for syntheses, via shock recovery, of some high-value, high-pressure phases. ..
  31. Joshi M. Climate model studies of synchronously rotating planets. Astrobiology. 2003;3:415-27 pubmed
  32. Bingman V, Able K. Maps in birds: representational mechanisms and neural bases. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:745-50 pubmed
    ..Recent results from electrophysiological studies hint at the possibility that different aspects of space may be represented in the activity of different neuronal types in the avian hippocampus. ..
  33. Alibert Y, Broeg C, Benz W, Wuchterl G, Grasset O, Sotin C, et al. Origin and formation of planetary systems. Astrobiology. 2010;10:19-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a reliable formation theory should not only explain the formation of the Solar System, with small terrestrial planets within a few AU and gas giants farther out, but also the newly discovered ..
  34. Owen T, Cruikshank D, de Bergh C, Geballe T. Dark matter in the outer solar system. Adv Space Res. 1995;16:41-9 pubmed
    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material...
  35. Brustein R, Kupferman J. The creation of the world--according to science. Hist Philos Life Sci. 2012;34:361-72 pubmed
    ..Using novel scientific methods and techniques to analyze the data, fresh perspectives concerning the creation of the world have emerged. This process and its main findings will be described. ..
  36. Zahnle K, Pollack J, Kasting J. Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 1990;54:2577-86 pubmed
    ..The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system.
  37. Luspay Kuti A, Mousis O, Hässig M, Fuselier S, Lunine J, Marty B, et al. The presence of clathrates in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Sci Adv. 2016;2:e1501781 pubmed publisher
    Cometary nuclei are considered to most closely reflect the composition of the building blocks of our solar system. As such, comets carry important information about the prevalent conditions in the solar nebula before and after planet ..
  38. Dalgarno A. The galactic cosmic ray ionization rate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12269-73 pubmed
    ..The models, both of dense and diffuse clouds, that are used to interpret the observations may be seriously inadequate. Nevertheless, it appears that the ionization rates differ in dense and diffuse clouds and in the intercloud medium. ..
  39. Kasting J, Ono S. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006;361:917-29 pubmed
    ..The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. ..
  40. Des Marais D, Harwit M, Jucks K, Kasting J, Lin D, Lunine J, et al. Remote sensing of planetary properties and biosignatures on extrasolar terrestrial planets. Astrobiology. 2002;2:153-81 pubmed
    ..The range of characteristics of extrasolar rocky planets might far exceed that of the Solar System. Planetary size and mass are very important indicators of habitability and can be estimated in the mid-IR and ..
  41. Kerr R. Planetary science. NASA's new road to faster, cheaper, better exploration. Science. 2002;298:1320-2 pubmed
  42. Secker J, Wesson P, Lepock J. Astrophysical and biological constraints on radiopanspermia. J R Astron Soc Can. 1996;90:184-92 pubmed
    ..out a series of calculations involving bacteria and viruses embedded in dust grains, which are ejected from our solar system by radiation pressure and travel through space to other star systems...
  43. Minh Y, Irvine W. Upper limits for the ethyl-cyanide abundances in TMC-1 and L134N: chemical implications. Astrophys Space Sci. 1991;175:165-9 pubmed
  44. Gedzelman S, Vollmer M. Simulating irradiance and color during lunar eclipses using satellite data. Appl Opt. 2008;47:H149-56 pubmed
  45. Drake Casanova P, Bolívar de Miguel G, Castro Rebollo M, Clement Corral M, Dapena Sevilla I, Pareja Esteban J. [Eclipse retinopathy: three case reports]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2007;82:575-7 pubmed
    ..For these reasons the most appropriate treatment is prevention by means of public awareness campaigns. ..
  46. O Brien K. The relative transit time of high-rigidity and low-rigidity cosmic rays through the solar system. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;109:357-63 pubmed
    ..This is in contradiction to the theory of the deceleration potential which states that cosmic-ray particles with rigidities greater than 36 V arrive at earth orbit about three months before cosmic-ray particles with lesses rigidines. ..
  47. Abel D. The Universal Plausibility Metric (UPM) & Principle (UPP). Theor Biol Med Model. 2009;6:27 pubmed publisher
    ..No low-probability hypothetical plausibility assertion should survive peer-review without subjection to the UPP inequality standard of formal falsification (xi < 1). ..
  48. Domagal Goldman S, Meadows V, Claire M, Kasting J. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets. Astrobiology. 2011;11:419-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. ..
  49. Des Marais D, Walter M. Astrobiology: exploring the origins, evolution, and distribution of life in the Universe. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. 1999;30:397-420 pubmed
    ..Astrobiologists learn how to recognize the morphological, chemical, and spectroscopic signatures of life in order to explore both extraterrestrial samples and electromagnetic spectra reflected from extrasolar planets. ..
  50. Rufino G, Grassi M. Digital sun sensor multi-spot operation. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:16451-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. ..
  51. Fan Q, Zhang G, Li J, Wei X, Li X. Error modeling and calibration for encoded sun sensors. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:3217-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental results show that within plus/minus 60 degree of incident angle, the ESS measurement accuracy after compensation is three times higher on average than that before compensation. ..
  52. Bingman V, Gagliardo A, Ioalè P. Hippocampal participation in the sun compass orientation of phase-shifted homing pigeons. J Comp Physiol A. 1996;179:695-702 pubmed
  53. Muoki P, Makokha A, Onyango C, Ojijo N. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48:482-98 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency. ..