phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate


Summary: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.

Top Publications

  1. Chen W, Liu M, Yang Y. Fluorometric assay for alcohol sulfotransferase. Anal Biochem. 2005;339:54-60 pubmed
    ..This method not only is useful for the routine and detailed kinetic study of this important class of enzymes but also has the potential for the development of a high-throughput procedure using microplate reader. ..
  2. Kamiyama S, Suda T, Ueda R, Suzuki M, Okubo R, Kikuchi N, et al. Molecular cloning and identification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25958-63 pubmed
    ..It is well known that mutations of some genes related to PAPS synthesis are responsible for human inherited disorders. Our findings provide insights into the significance of PAPS transport and post-translational sulfation. ..
  3. Williams S, Senaratne R, Mougous J, Riley L, Bertozzi C. 5'-adenosinephosphosulfate lies at a metabolic branch point in mycobacteria. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:32606-15 pubmed
    ..coli, confirming the ability of this organism to make PAPS. The expression of recombinant M. tuberculosis APS kinase provides a means for the discovery of inhibitors of this enzyme and thus of the biosynthesis of SL-1. ..
  4. López Coronado J, Bellés J, Lesage F, Serrano R, Rodriguez P. A novel mammalian lithium-sensitive enzyme with a dual enzymatic activity, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate phosphatase and inositol-polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16034-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, an unexpected connection between PAP and inositol-1,4-bisphosphate metabolism emerges from this work. ..
  5. Schwartz N, Lyle S, Ozeran J, Li H, Deyrup A, Ng K, et al. Sulfate activation and transport in mammals: system components and mechanisms. Chem Biol Interact. 1998;109:143-51 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which PAPS reaches its sites of utilization in the Golgi lumen has also been elucidated: The PAPS translocase is a 230-kDa integral Golgi membrane protein which functions as an antiport. ..
  6. Pedersen L, Petrotchenko E, Shevtsov S, Negishi M. Crystal structure of the human estrogen sulfotransferase-PAPS complex: evidence for catalytic role of Ser137 in the sulfuryl transfer reaction. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17928-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, Ser(137) appears to play an important role in regulating the side chain interaction of Lys(47) with the bridging oxygen between the 5'-phosphate and the sulfate of PAPS. ..
  7. Goda E, Kamiyama S, Uno T, Yoshida H, Ueyama M, Kinoshita Toyoda A, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel Drosophila 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28508-17 pubmed
    ..The dPAPST2 and sll genes showed a similar ubiquitous distribution. These results indicate that dPAPST2 may be involved in Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic signaling by controlling the sulfation of heparan sulfate. ..
  8. Rodriguez V, Chételat A, Majcherczyk P, Farmer E. Chloroplastic phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate metabolism regulates basal levels of the prohormone jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a nucleotide component of the sulfur futile cycle regulates early steps of JA production and basal JA levels. ..
  9. Kopriva S, Büchert T, Fritz G, Suter M, Benda R, Schünemann V, et al. The presence of an iron-sulfur cluster in adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase separates organisms utilizing adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate for sulfate assimilation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21786-91 pubmed
    ..We conclude, therefore, that the presence of an iron-sulfur cluster determines the APS specificity of the sulfate-reducing enzymes and thus separates the APS- and PAPS-dependent assimilatory sulfate reduction pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Pi N, Hoang M, Gao H, Mougous J, Bertozzi C, Leary J. Kinetic measurements and mechanism determination of Stf0 sulfotransferase using mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2005;341:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first detailed mechanistic data reported for Stf0, which further demonstrates the power of mass spectrometry in elucidating the reaction pathway and catalytic mechanism of promising enzymatic systems...
  2. Veronese M, Burgess W, Zhu X, McManus M. Functional characterization of two human sulphotransferase cDNAs that encode monoamine- and phenol-sulphating forms of phenol sulphotransferase: substrate kinetics, thermal-stability and inhibitor-sensitivity studies. Biochem J. 1994;302 ( Pt 2):497-502 pubmed
  3. Abola A, Willits M, Wang R, Long S. Reduction of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate instead of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate in cysteine biosynthesis by Rhizobium meliloti and other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5280-7 pubmed
    ..strain NGR234, Rhizobium fredii (Sinorhizobium fredii), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens were assayed for APS or PAPS reductase activity. Cell extracts from all four species also preferentially reduce APS over PAPS...
  4. Lüders F, Segawa H, Stein D, Selva E, Perrimon N, Turco S, et al. Slalom encodes an adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate transporter essential for development in Drosophila. EMBO J. 2003;22:3635-44 pubmed
  5. Pi N, Armstrong J, Bertozzi C, Leary J. Kinetic analysis of NodST sulfotransferase using an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13283-8 pubmed
    ..This unique technique is currently being used to investigate the enzymatic mechanism of NodST and to identify sulfotransferase inhibitors. ..
  6. Yoshinari K, Petrotchenko E, Pedersen L, Negishi M. Crystal structure-based studies of cytosolic sulfotransferase. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2001;15:67-75 pubmed
    ..These crystal structures introduce a new era of the study of the sulfotransferases. ..
  7. Negishi M, Pedersen L, Petrotchenko E, Shevtsov S, Gorokhov A, Kakuta Y, et al. Structure and function of sulfotransferases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;390:149-57 pubmed
    ..The X-ray crystal structures have opened a new era for the study of sulfotransferases. ..
  8. Dick G, Grøndahl F, Prydz K. Overexpression of the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) transporter 1 increases sulfation of chondroitin sulfate in the apical pathway of MDCK II cells. Glycobiology. 2008;18:53-65 pubmed
  9. Kailemia M, Li L, Xu Y, Liu J, Linhardt R, Amster I. Structurally informative tandem mass spectrometry of highly sulfated natural and chemoenzymatically synthesized heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:979-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is found to work for a variety of heparin sulfate oligosaccharides derived from natural sources or produced by chemoenzymatic synthesis, with up to 12 saccharide subunits and up to 11 sulfo groups. ..
  10. Rossi A, Maggini V, Fredianelli E, Di Bello D, Pietrabissa A, Mosca F, et al. Phenotype-genotype relationships of SULT1A1 in human liver and variations in the IC50 of the SULT1A1 inhibitor quercetin. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;42:561-7 pubmed
    ..5 nM, respectively. There was a weak but significant correlation between the IC50 value and age of the liver donors (r = 0.283, p = 0.046). The observed variation did not correlate with the genotypes at the SULT1A1 and SULT1A2 loci. ..
  11. Danan L, Yu Z, Hoffhines A, Moore K, Leary J. Mass spectrometric kinetic analysis of human tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-1 and -2. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2008;19:1459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of this method is the initial step in the investigation of kinetic parameters of the sequential tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptors by TPSTs and in determining its catalytic mechanism. ..
  12. Carroll K, Gao H, Chen H, Stout C, Leary J, Bertozzi C. A conserved mechanism for sulfonucleotide reduction. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e250 pubmed
    ..Other sulfonucleotide reductases from structurally divergent subclasses appear to use the same mechanism, suggesting that this family of enzymes has evolved from a common ancestor. ..
  13. Matsumoto E, Matsui M, Tamura H. Identification and purification of sulfotransferases for 20-hydroxysteroid from the larval fat body of a fleshfly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003;67:1780-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the 43-kDa proteins catalyze 20E sulfation within the fat body of S. peregrina. ..
  14. Rouhier N, Vlamis Gardikas A, Lillig C, Berndt C, Schwenn J, Holmgren A, et al. Characterization of the redox properties of poplar glutaredoxin. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2003;5:15-22 pubmed
    ..However, the poplar glutaredoxin may be involved in the response to oxidative stress as its overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in a higher resistance toward hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. ..
  15. Satishchandran C, Hickman Y, Markham G. Characterization of the phosphorylated enzyme intermediate formed in the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase reaction. Biochemistry. 1992;31:11684-8 pubmed
    ..We have identified a sequence beginning at residue 147 which may reflect a PAPS binding site. This sequence was identified in the carboxy terminal region of 10 reported sequences of proteins of PAPS metabolism. ..
  16. Dong D, Ako R, Wu B. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases: insights into the mechanisms of action and substrate selectivity. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012;8:635-46 pubmed publisher
  17. Waring R, Ramsden D, Jarratt P, Harris R. Biomarkers of endocrine disruption: cluster analysis of effects of plasticisers on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolism of steroids. Int J Androl. 2012;35:415-23 pubmed publisher
  18. Hatzios S, Iavarone A, Bertozzi C. Rv2131c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a CysQ 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies indicate that Rv2131c encodes a CysQ enzyme that may play a role in mycobacterial sulfur metabolism...
  19. Saribas A, Mobasseri A, Pristatsky P, Chen X, Barthelson R, Hakes D, et al. Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast-expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1). Glycobiology. 2004;14:1217-28 pubmed
    ..coli K5 polysaccharide or Pasteurella multocida polysaccharide. ..
  20. Kamiyama S, Ichimiya T, Ikehara Y, Takase T, Fujimoto I, Suda T, et al. Expression and the role of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporters in human colorectal carcinoma. Glycobiology. 2011;21:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that PAPS transporters play a role in the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells themselves and take part in a desmoplastic reaction to support cancer growth by controlling their sulfation status. ..
  21. Turan N, Waring R, Ramsden D. The effect of plasticisers on "sulphate supply" enzymes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;244:15-9 pubmed
    ..005-0.5 microM octylphenol, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and DIP treatment. Endocrine disrupting effects of some plasticisers may be a consequence of modulation of expression of enzymes supplying PAPS for hormone sulphation. ..
  22. Sasaki N, Hirano T, Ichimiya T, Wakao M, Hirano K, Kinoshita Toyoda A, et al. The 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporters, PAPST1 and 2, contribute to the maintenance and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8262 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PAPST-dependent sulfation of HS or CS chains, which is regulated developmentally, regulates the extrinsic signaling required for the maintenance and normal differentiation of mESCs. ..
  23. Yang Y, Tsai S, Lin E. Effects of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate on the activity and folding of phenol sulfotransferase. Chem Biol Interact. 1998;109:129-35 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that folding of phenol sulfotransferase is assisted by PAP to form alpha enzyme. In the absence of PAP, beta form of phenol sulfotransferase is produced. ..
  24. Lu J, Li H, Zhang J, Li M, Liu M, An X, et al. Crystal structures of SULT1A2 and SULT1A1 *3: insights into the substrate inhibition and the role of Tyr149 in SULT1A2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These latter data imply a significant role of Tyr149 in the catalytic mechanism of SULT1A2. ..
  25. Grunwell J, Rath V, Rasmussen J, Cabrilo Z, Bertozzi C. Characterization and mutagenesis of Gal/GlcNAc-6-O-sulfotransferases. Biochemistry. 2002;41:15590-600 pubmed
    ..These results should facilitate mechanistic studies and the development of small molecule inhibitors of this enzyme family to ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. ..
  26. Eklund E, Roden L, Malmstrom M, Malmstrom A. Dermatan is a better substrate for 4-O-sulfation than chondroitin: implications in the generation of 4-O-sulfated, L-iduronate-rich galactosaminoglycans. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;383:171-7 pubmed
  27. Harmer C, Partridge S, Hall R. pDGO100, a type 1 IncC plasmid from 1981 carrying ARI-A and a Tn1696-like transposon in a novel integrating element. Plasmid. 2016;86:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In the A/C2, IncHI1, and IncHI2 plasmids, genes encoding a phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase were interrupted...
  28. Coughtrie M. Function and organization of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) family. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;259:2-7 pubmed publisher
  29. Allali Hassani A, Pan P, Dombrovski L, Najmanovich R, Tempel W, Dong A, et al. Structural and chemical profiling of the human cytosolic sulfotransferases. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e97 pubmed
    ..The data help explain substrate promiscuity in this family and, at the same time, reveal new similarities between hSULT family members that were previously unrecognized by sequence or structure comparison alone. ..
  30. Mitsuhashi H, Ota F, Ikeuchi K, Kaneko Y, Kuroiwa T, Ueki K, et al. Sulfite is generated from PAPS by activated neutrophils. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002;198:125-32 pubmed
    ..Moreover, sulfite production from PAPS was clearly demonstrated in the cytosolic fraction of activated neutrophils. These findings strongly suggest that sulfite is generated, at least in part, from PAPS by activated neutrophils...
  31. Yamauchi S, Mita S, Matsubara T, Fukuta M, Habuchi H, Kimata K, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8975-81 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis showed that, among various mouse adult tissues, 5.7-kilobase message of C4ST was mainly expressed in the brain and kidney. ..
  32. Tyapochkin E, Cook P, Chen G. Isotope exchange at equilibrium indicates a steady state ordered kinetic mechanism for human sulfotransferase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Data are consistent with a steady state ordered kinetic mechanism with PAPS and PAP binding to the free enzyme. ..
  33. Gulcan H, Duffel M. Substrate inhibition in human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1: studies on the formation of catalytically non-productive enzyme complexes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;507:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that hSULT2A1 forms non-productive ternary complexes that involve either DHEA or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and the formation of these ternary complexes displays negative cooperativity in the binding of DHEA. ..
  34. Shimada M, Yoshinari K, Tanabe E, Shimakawa E, Kobashi M, Nagata K, et al. Identification of ST2A1 as a rat brain neurosteroid sulfotransferase mRNA. Brain Res. 2001;920:222-5 pubmed
    ..The recombinant ST2A1 protein mediated neurosteroid sulfation. These data strongly suggest a functional role of ST2A1 as a neurosteroid sulfotransferase in rat brain. ..
  35. Zhou X, Chandarajoti K, Pham T, Liu R, Liu J. Expression of heparan sulfate sulfotransferases in Kluyveromyces lactis and preparation of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Glycobiology. 2011;21:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results pave the way to conduct the enzymatic synthesis of heparin in large quantities. ..
  36. Ohtake S, Kimata K, Habuchi O. A unique nonreducing terminal modification of chondroitin sulfate by N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-o-sulfotransferase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38443-52 pubmed
    ..Oligo III behaved identically with the sulfated Oligos I and II. These results suggest that GalNAc4S-6ST may be involved in the terminal modification of CS-A, through which a highly sulfated nonreducing terminal sequence is generated. ..
  37. Kurima K, Warman M, Krishnan S, Domowicz M, Krueger R, Deyrup A, et al. A member of a family of sulfate-activating enzymes causes murine brachymorphism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8681-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a family of SK genes are responsible for sulfate activation in mammals, that a mutation in SK2 causes murine brachymorphism, and that members of this gene family have nonredundant, tissue-specific roles. ..
  38. MacRae I, Segel I. ATP sulfurylase from filamentous fungi: which sulfonucleotide is the true allosteric effector?. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;337:17-26 pubmed
    ..Computer-assisted simulations allowing for APS and PAPS binding to both the catalytic and regulatory sites of the hexameric enzyme yielded results that nearly duplicated the experimental curves. ..
  39. Hanna M, Taylor R. Radioactive-electrophoretic assay of adenosine 5'-triphosphate sulfurylase activity in crude extracts with sulfate or selenate as a substrate. Anal Biochem. 1989;176:294-302 pubmed
    ..The method also has utility for measuring any direct reduction by crude microbial extracts of radioactive selenate to selenite, independent of ATP sulfurylase. ..
  40. Song Z. Roles of the nucleotide sugar transporters (SLC35 family) in health and disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The transport role of NSTs is essential to glycosylation and development. Mutations in two NST genes, SLC35A1 and SLC35C1, have been related to congenital disorder of glycosylation II (CDG II). ..
  41. Harris R, Turan N, Kirk C, Ramsden D, Waring R. Effects of endocrine disruptors on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase and enzymes involved in PAPS synthesis: genomic and nongenomic pathways. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115 Suppl 1:51-4 pubmed publisher
  42. Malojcic G, Glockshuber R. The PAPS-independent aryl sulfotransferase and the alternative disulfide bond formation system in pathogenic bacteria. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:1247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we discuss structural differences and similarities between aryl sulfotransferases and PAPS-dependent sulfotransferases. ..
  43. Bakker Grunwald T, Geilhorn B. Sulfate metabolism in Entamoeba histolytica. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992;53:71-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, up to 10% of the sulfate taken up was incorporated into high-molecular weight material (possibly proteoglycans). We propose that sulfurylation of cholesterol may play a role in controlling membrane sterol content. ..
  44. Lyle S, Ozeran J, Stanczak J, Westley J, Schwartz N. Intermediate channeling between ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase from rat chondrosarcoma. Biochemistry. 1994;33:6822-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that APS is channeled between the active sites of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase during the production of PAPS in rat chondrosarcoma. ..
  45. Tyapochkin E, Kumar V, Cook P, Chen G. Reaction product affinity regulates activation of human sulfotransferase 1A1 PAP sulfation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;506:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, data are consistent with release of PAP from E-PAP and PAPS from E-PAPS contributing to rate-limitation in both reaction directions. ..
  46. Dawson P. Sulfate in fetal development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22:653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. ..
  47. Koprivova A, Kopriva S. Sulfation pathways in plants. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;259:23-30 pubmed publisher
  48. Kreuger J, Kjellen L. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis: regulation and variability. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:898-907 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides an introduction to the current understanding of HS biosynthesis and its regulation, and identifies research areas where more knowledge is needed to better understand how the HS biosynthetic machinery works. ..
  49. Teramoto T, Sakakibara Y, Liu M, Suiko M, Kimura M, Kakuta Y. Snapshot of a Michaelis complex in a sulfuryl transfer reaction: Crystal structure of a mouse sulfotransferase, mSULT1D1, complexed with donor substrate and accepter substrate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;383:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data strongly support that the sulfuryl transfer reaction proceeds through an S(N)2-like in-line displacement mechanism. ..
  50. Teramoto T, Adachi R, Sakakibara Y, Liu M, Suiko M, Kimura M, et al. On the similar spatial arrangement of active site residues in PAPS-dependent and phenolic sulfate-utilizing sulfotransferases. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3091-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the active sites of PAPS-dependent SULT1D1 and phenolic sulfate-utilizing ASST represent an example of convergent evolution. ..
  51. Snoeck C, Verreth C, Hern ndez Lucas I, Mart nez Romero E, Vanderleyden J. Identification of a third sulfate activation system in Sinorhizobium sp. strain BR816: the CysDN sulfate activation complex. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:2006-14 pubmed
  52. Wang M, Ebmeier C, Olin J, Anderson R. Sulfation of tibolone metabolites by human postmenopausal liver and small intestinal sulfotransferases (SULTs). Steroids. 2006;71:343-51 pubmed
    ..The results support the occurrence of pre-receptor enzymatic regulation of hydroxytibolone metabolites and prompt further investigation of the tissue-selective regulation of tibolone effects. ..
  53. Ouyang Y, Lane W, Moore K. Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase: purification and molecular cloning of an enzyme that catalyzes tyrosine O-sulfation, a common posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2896-901 pubmed
    ..This enzyme defines a new class of Golgi sulfotransferases that may catalyze tyrosine O-sulfation of PSGL-1 and other protein substrates involved in diverse physiologic functions including inflammation and hemostasis. ..
  54. Cook I, Wang T, Falany C, Leyh T. A nucleotide-gated molecular pore selects sulfotransferase substrates. Biochemistry. 2012;51:5674-83 pubmed
  55. Su T, Yang Y. Mechanism of posttranslational regulation of phenol sulfotransferase: expression of two enzyme forms through redox modification and nucleotide binding. Biochemistry. 2003;42:6863-70 pubmed
    ..According to the experimental results, a mechanism for the formation of the two enzyme forms was proposed. ..
  56. Lee H, Yoon H, Kang J, Park J, Kim D, Choi K, et al. The structure of Staphylococcus aureus phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase in complex with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reveals a new ligand-binding mode. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:987-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study unexpectedly revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PPAT, thus providing potentially useful information for structure-based discovery of inhibitors of bacterial PPATs. ..
  57. Tyapochkin E, Cook P, Chen G. para-Nitrophenyl sulfate activation of human sulfotransferase 1A1 is consistent with intercepting the E[middle dot]PAP complex and reformation of E[middle dot]PAPS. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..PAP complex. Overall, data are consistent with the proposed ordered bypass mechanism. ..
  58. Wong K, Khoo B, Sit K. Biosynthesis of PAPS in vitro by human liver. Measurement by two independent assay procedures. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991;41:63-9 pubmed
  59. Superti Furga A. A defect in the metabolic activation of sulfate in a patient with achondrogenesis type IB. Am J Hum Genet. 1994;55:1137-45 pubmed
    ..Expression of the sulfation defect in cultured fibroblasts may offer a diagnostic tool for the disorder. ..
  60. Gesteira T, Pol Fachin L, Coulson Thomas V, Lima M, Verli H, Nader H. Insights into the N-sulfation mechanism: molecular dynamics simulations of the N-sulfotransferase domain of NDST1 and mutants. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70880 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, NDST1 mutants unveiled Lys833 as vital for both the glycan binding and subsequent N-sulfotransferase activity of NDST1. ..
  61. Sun M, Leyh T. Channeling in sulfate activating complexes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11304-11 pubmed
    ..Structural models of type III reveal a 75 A-long channel that interconnects active-site pairs in the complex and that opens and closes in response to occupancy of those sites. ..
  62. Møldrup M, Geu Flores F, Olsen C, Halkier B. Modulation of sulfur metabolism enables efficient glucosinolate engineering. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the accumulation did not reach the expected levels, leaving room for further optimization...
  63. Ozawa S, Shimizu M, Katoh T, Miyajima A, Ohno Y, Matsumoto Y, et al. Sulfating-activity and stability of cDNA-expressed allozymes of human phenol sulfotransferase, ST1A3*1 ((213)Arg) and ST1A3*2 ((213)His), both of which exist in Japanese as well as Caucasians. J Biochem. 1999;126:271-7 pubmed
    ..Protein instability and ST1A3 gene regulation may be both involved in the polymorphism of p-nitrophenol sulfation in human tissues. ..
  64. Hanna E, Ng K, Macrae I, Bley C, Fisher A, Segel I. Kinetic and stability properties of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase missing the C-terminal regulatory domain. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4415-24 pubmed
    ..The more negative entropy of activation of the truncated enzyme for APS synthesis is consistent with a role of the C-terminal domain in promoting the effective orientation of MgATP and sulfate at the active site. ..
  65. Valdes J, Veloso F, Jedlicki E, Holmes D. Metabolic reconstruction of sulfur assimilation in the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans based on genome analysis. BMC Genomics. 2003;4:51 pubmed
    ..Metabolic modeling provides an important preliminary step in understanding the unusual physiology of this extremophile especially given the severe difficulties involved in its genetic manipulation and biochemical analysis. ..
  66. Zheng Q, Li Z, Xiao J, Sun M, Zhang Y, Sun C. Homology modeling and PAPS ligand (cofactor) binding study of bovine phenol sulfotransferase. J Mol Model. 2005;11:97-104 pubmed
    ..The hydrogen-bonding interactions also play an important role for the stability of the complex. Our results may be helpful for further experimental investigations. ..
  67. Huynh Q, Shailubhai K, Boddupalli H, Yu H, Broschat K, Jacob G. Isolation and characterization from porcine serum of a soluble sulfotransferase responsible for 6-O-sulfation of the galactose residue in 2'-fucosyllactose: implications in the synthesis of the ligand for L-selectin. Glycoconj J. 1999;16:357-63 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that this enzyme might be involved in the synthesis of the ligand for L-selectin. ..
  68. Xiong J, Bhaskar U, Li G, Fu L, Li L, Zhang F, et al. Immobilized enzymes to convert N-sulfo, N-acetyl heparosan to a critical intermediate in the production of bioengineered heparin. J Biotechnol. 2013;167:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the successful immobilization of all three enzymes and their use in converting N-sulfo, N-acetyl heparosan into N-sulfo, N-acetyl 2-O-sulfo heparin. ..
  69. Gulat Marnay C, Lafitte A, Vargas F, Schwartz J. Formation and utilization of the active sulfate donor [35S]3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate in brain slices: effects of depolarizing agents. J Neurochem. 1987;49:1443-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that PAPS synthesis is turned off when cerebral cells are strongly depolarized. ..
  70. Chen J, Avci F, Munoz E, McDowell L, Chen M, Pedersen L, et al. Enzymatic redesigning of biologically active heparan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42817-25 pubmed
  71. McCully K. Communication: Homocysteine, Thioretinaco Ozonide, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Biosynthesis of Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016;46:701-704 pubmed
    The formation of phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) is accomplished by the action of the enzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase (PAPSS) in two sequential reactions, consisting of (1) reaction of inorganic sulfate with ..
  72. Satishchandran C, Markham G. Mechanistic studies of Escherichia coli adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;378:210-5 pubmed
    ..The affinity for Mn(2+) increases 23-fold when the enzyme is phosphorylated. Two Mn(2+) ions bind per subunit when both APS and the ATP analog AMPPNP are present, indicating a potential dual metal ion catalytic mechanism. ..
  73. Chen G, Rabjohn P, York J, Wooldridge C, Zhang D, Falany C, et al. Carboxyl residues in the active site of human phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1). Biochemistry. 2000;39:16000-7 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates that carboxyl residues are present in the active site and are important for SULT1A1 catalytic activity. Glu83 and E134 are essential amino acids for SULT1A1 catalytic activity. ..
  74. Togame H, Shimazaki M, Yamato A, Watanabe S, Saito K, Reinemer P. Development of a simple homogeneous assay to screen for inhibitors of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfotransferases. Anal Biochem. 2003;315:67-76 pubmed
    ..1 microM. The assay can be operated in 384-well format; is characterized by a high signal-to-noise ratio, low variation, and excellent Z factors; and is highly suitable for high-throughput screening. ..
  75. Huopaniemi L, Kolmer M, Niittymäki J, Pelto Huikko M, Renkonen R. Inflammation-induced transcriptional regulation of Golgi transporters required for the synthesis of sulfo sLex glycan epitopes. Glycobiology. 2004;14:1285-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together our results suggest that inflammation-induced transcriptional regulation exists for Golgi membrane transporters required for the synthesis of the inflammation-inducible ZIP code sulfo sLex glycans. ..
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    ..loti for nodule colonization. These results suggest that sulfated cell surface polysaccharides are required for optimum nodule formation but limit growth rate and nodule colonization in M. loti. ..
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    ..These findings suggest that this enzyme may be involved in the assembly of 3'-sialyl-6'-sulfo Lewisx, the major capping group of HEV-ligands for L-selectin. ..
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    ..Molecular and physiological analyses of papst1 mutant plants indicate that PAPST1 is involved in several aspects of sulfur metabolism, including the biosynthesis of thiols, glucosinolates, and phytosulfokines...