metaphor

Summary

Summary: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)

Top Publications

  1. Schmidt G, Seger C. Neural correlates of metaphor processing: the roles of figurativeness, familiarity and difficulty. Brain Cogn. 2009;71:375-86 pubmed publisher
    There is currently much interest in investigating the neural substrates of metaphor processing...
  2. Bambini V, Gentili C, Ricciardi E, Bertinetto P, Pietrini P. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:203-16 pubmed publisher
    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process...
  3. Buchanan D, Caldwell R, Meyer J, Storey J, Wainwright C. Leadership transmission: a muddled metaphor?. J Health Organ Manag. 2007;21:246-58 pubmed
    ..the concept of "leadership transmission", considering what theoretical and practical value this metaphor brings to the healthcare modernization agenda...
  4. Chen E, Widick P, Chatterjee A. Functional-anatomical organization of predicate metaphor processing. Brain Lang. 2008;107:194-202 pubmed publisher
    The bulk of the research on the neural organization of metaphor comprehension has focused on nominal metaphors and the metaphoric relationships between word pairs...
  5. Landau M, Meier B, Keefer L. A metaphor-enriched social cognition. Psychol Bull. 2010;136:1045-67 pubmed publisher
    ..we propose that social cognition can and should be enriched by an explicit recognition that conceptual metaphor is a unique cognitive mechanism that shapes social thought and attitudes...
  6. Lee S, Schwarz N. Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects: the embodiment of social suspicion and fishy smells. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012;103:737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also highlight the need for exploring the cultural variability and origin of metaphorical knowledge. ..
  7. Cornejo C, Simonetti F, Ibanez A, Aldunate N, Ceric F, López V, et al. Gesture and metaphor comprehension: electrophysiological evidence of cross-modal coordination by audiovisual stimulation. Brain Cogn. 2009;70:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..information are combined online to make sense of the interlocutor's linguistic production in an early stage of metaphor comprehension...
  8. Morrone I, Declercq C, Novella J, Besche C. Aging and inhibition processes: the case of metaphor treatment. Psychol Aging. 2010;25:697-701 pubmed publisher
    ..The interference effect was predicted by the psychometric tests designed to evaluate inhibition. ..
  9. Agnati L, Guidolin D, Cortelli P, Genedani S, Cela Conde C, Fuxe K. Neuronal correlates to consciousness. The "Hall of Mirrors" metaphor describing consciousness as an epiphenomenon of multiple dynamic mosaics of cortical functional modules. Brain Res. 2012;1476:3-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of these neurobiological data and speculations and of the evidence of 'mirror neurons' the 'Hall of Mirrors' is proposed as a significant metaphor of consciousness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Greenhalgh T, Wieringa S. Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review. J R Soc Med. 2011;104:501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that while 'translation' is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualise and study the link between knowledge and practice...
  2. Uchiyama H, Saito D, Tanabe H, Harada T, Seki A, Ohno K, et al. Distinction between the literal and intended meanings of sentences: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of metaphor and sarcasm. Cortex. 2012;48:563-83 pubmed publisher
    To comprehend figurative utterances such as metaphor or sarcasm, a listener must both judge the literal meaning of the statement and infer the speaker's intended meaning (mentalizing; Amodio and Frith, 2006)...
  3. Diaz M, Hogstrom L. The influence of context on hemispheric recruitment during metaphor processing. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:3586-97 pubmed publisher
  4. Mould T, Oades L, Crowe T. The use of metaphor for understanding and managing psychotic experiences: A systematic review. J Ment Health. 2010;19:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Metaphor is a valuable way of describing these experiences to others...
  5. Rockwood K. What metaphor for the aging brain?. Neurology. 2007;69:1896-7 pubmed
  6. Gold R, Faust M, Goldstein A. Semantic integration during metaphor comprehension in Asperger syndrome. Brain Lang. 2010;113:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we aimed to examine whether a deficient semantic integration process underlies the difficulties in metaphor comprehension frequently experienced by persons with AS...
  7. Yang F, Edens J, Simpson C, Krawczyk D. Differences in task demands influence the hemispheric lateralization and neural correlates of metaphor. Brain Lang. 2009;111:114-24 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated metaphor comprehension in the broader context of task-difference effects and manipulation of processing difficulty...
  8. Schmidt G, Kranjec A, Cardillo E, Chatterjee A. Beyond laterality: a critical assessment of research on the neural basis of metaphor. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2010;16:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose ways to advance our understanding of the neuropsychology of metaphor that go beyond simple laterality...
  9. McNickle G, St Clair C, Cahill J. Focusing the metaphor: plant root foraging behaviour. Trends Ecol Evol. 2009;24:419-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude by demonstrating how this new foundation could be adapted to address five fundamental questions in plant foraging ecology. ..
  10. Pallanti S, Hollander E. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific "metaphor". CNS Spectr. 2008;13:6-15 pubmed
    ..OCD has become known as the "primary domain" of a scientific "metaphor" comprising the putative cluster of OCD-related disorders (OCRDs)...
  11. Seligman R, Kirmayer L. Dissociative experience and cultural neuroscience: narrative, metaphor and mechanism. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2008;32:31-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This integrative model, grounded in a cultural neuroscience, can advance ethnographic studies of dissociation and inform clinical approaches to dissociation through careful consideration of the impact of social context. ..
  12. Vartanian O. Dissociable neural systems for analogy and metaphor: implications for the neuroscience of creativity. Br J Psychol. 2012;103:302-16 pubmed publisher
    ..to conduct quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments of analogy and metaphor - two processes related to creativity and included in the recent reviews...
  13. Maki Y, Yamaguchi T, Koeda T, Yamaguchi H. Communicative competence in Alzheimer's disease: metaphor and sarcasm comprehension. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2013;28:69-74 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deficits of metaphor and sarcasm comprehension in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as pragmatic interpretation such as metaphor and sarcasm comprehension is required in social communication...
  14. Li F, Guo X, Zhu L, Yang Z, Dienes Z. Implicit learning of mappings between forms and metaphorical meanings. Conscious Cogn. 2013;22:174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms ..
  15. Iannetti G, Salomons T, Moayedi M, Mouraux A, Davis K. Beyond metaphor: contrasting mechanisms of social and physical pain. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013;17:371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We then examine recent analytical advances that may improve the specificity of imaging for parsing pain from a broad range of perceptually unique human experiences. ..
  16. Cardillo E, Schmidt G, Kranjec A, Chatterjee A. Stimulus design is an obstacle course: 560 matched literal and metaphorical sentences for testing neural hypotheses about metaphor. Behav Res Methods. 2010;42:651-64 pubmed publisher
    Despite the ubiquity and importance of metaphor in thought and communication, its neural mediation remains elusive...
  17. Ijzerman H, Koole S. From perceptual rags to metaphoric riches--bodily, social, and cultural constraints on sociocognitive metaphors: comment on Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010). Psychol Bull. 2011;137:355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Sociocognitive metaphors do not exist just for mental representation but for action as well. We discuss the relevance of grounding sociocognitive metaphors for broader motivational purposes. ..
  18. Thibodeau P, Boroditsky L. Metaphors we think with: the role of metaphor in reasoning. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16782 pubmed publisher
    The way we talk about complex and abstract ideas is suffused with metaphor. In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them...
  19. Lakens D. Polarity correspondence in metaphor congruency effects: structural overlap predicts categorization times for bipolar concepts presented in vertical space. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 2012;38:726-36 pubmed publisher
    Previous research has shown that words presented on metaphor congruent locations (e.g...
  20. Bohrn I, Altmann U, Jacobs A. Looking at the brains behind figurative language--a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on metaphor, idiom, and irony processing. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:2669-83 pubmed publisher
    ..No general RH advantage for metaphor processing could be found...
  21. Mashal N, Vishne T, Laor N, Titone D. Enhanced left frontal involvement during novel metaphor comprehension in schizophrenia: evidence from functional neuroimaging. Brain Lang. 2013;124:66-74 pubmed publisher
    The neural basis involved in novel metaphor comprehension in schizophrenia is relatively unknown...
  22. Amanzio M, Geminiani G, Leotta D, Cappa S. Metaphor comprehension in Alzheimer's disease: novelty matters. Brain Lang. 2008;107:1-10 pubmed
    ..However, their performance was significantly lower in the case of non-conventional (novel) metaphor comprehension...
  23. Mo S, Su Y, Chan R, Liu J. Comprehension of metaphor and irony in schizophrenia during remission: the role of theory of mind and IQ. Psychiatry Res. 2008;157:21-9 pubmed
    The study reported herein explored the comprehension of metaphor and irony in schizophrenia during remission, and examined the role of IQ and a theory of mind...
  24. Chopra A, Doody G. Schizophrenia, an illness and a metaphor: analysis of the use of the term 'schizophrenia' in the UK national newspapers. J R Soc Med. 2007;100:423-6 pubmed
    To determine whether schizophrenia is a commonly used 'illness as metaphor', to compare the use of schizophrenia and cancer as illnesses as metaphor, and to determine if there is a difference in such usage between the UK and USA...
  25. Yang F, Fuller J, Khodaparast N, Krawczyk D. Figurative language processing after traumatic brain injury in adults: a preliminary study. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:1923-9 pubmed publisher
    Figurative speech (e.g., proverb, irony, metaphor, and idiom) has been reported to be particularly sensitive to measurement of abstract thinking in patients who suffer from impaired abstraction and language abilities...
  26. Duckworth K, Halpern J, Schutt R, Gillespie C. Use of schizophrenia as a metaphor in US newspapers. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54:1402-4 pubmed
    ..Building on Susan Sontag's exploration of cancer in the 1978 book Illness as Metaphor, the authors hypothesize that "schizophrenia" is now more commonly misused...
  27. Stringaris A, Medford N, Giora R, Giampietro V, Brammer M, David A. How metaphors influence semantic relatedness judgments: the role of the right frontal cortex. Neuroimage. 2006;33:784-93 pubmed
  28. Stone C. The metaphor of scaffolding: its utility for the field of learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil. 1998;31:344-64 pubmed
    ..the past 20 years, an increasing number of psychologists and educators have used the notion of scaffolding as a metaphor for the process by which adults (and more knowledgeable peers) guide children's learning and development...
  29. Milgrom L. Patient-Practitioner-Remedy (PPR) Entanglement, Part 7: a gyroscopic metaphor for the vital force and its use to illustrate some of the empirical laws of homeopathy. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004;11:212-23 pubmed
    ..the Vital Force to diseases and remedies within the developing contexts of WQT and PPR Entanglement, based on the metaphor of a hypothetical 'quantized' gyroscope as its physical representation...
  30. Werner G. Siren call of metaphor: subverting the proper task of neuroscience. J Integr Neurosci. 2004;3:245-52 pubmed
    ..Moreover, such practices obscure and detract from the primary task of Neurophysiology: to investigate the intrinsic properties of nervous systems, uncontaminated with concepts borrowed from other disciplines. ..
  31. Bowdle B, Gentner D. The career of metaphor. Psychol Rev. 2005;112:193-216 pubmed
    A central question in metaphor research is how metaphors establish mappings between concepts from different domains. The authors propose an evolutionary path based on structure-mapping theory...
  32. Wallis P, Nerlich B. Disease metaphors in new epidemics: the UK media framing of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:2629-39 pubmed
    ..In this article, we examine how language and metaphor were used in the UK media's coverage of another previously unknown and severe infectious disease: Severe Acute ..
  33. Checkland K, Harrison S, Marshall M. Is the metaphor of 'barriers to change' useful in understanding implementation? Evidence from general medical practice. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2007;12:95-100 pubmed
    ..such as National Health Service (NHS) National Service Frameworks (NSFs), and to explore the value of the metaphor of 'barriers to change' for understanding this...
  34. Kazmerski V, Blasko D, Dessalegn B. ERP and behavioral evidence of individual differences in metaphor comprehension. Mem Cognit. 2003;31:673-89 pubmed
    In two experiments, we examined individual differences in metaphor processing. In Experiment 1, the subjects judged the literal truth of literal, metaphorical, and scrambled sentences...
  35. Langdon R, Coltheart M. Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: the impact of schizotypal personality traits. Psychiatry Res. 2004;125:9-20 pubmed
    ..of identifying appropriate metaphors, suggesting a discontinuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy for the metaphor-recognition problem...
  36. Stringaris A, Medford N, Giampietro V, Brammer M, David A. Deriving meaning: Distinct neural mechanisms for metaphoric, literal, and non-meaningful sentences. Brain Lang. 2007;100:150-62 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous studies, our results do not support the view the right hemispheric is specifically involved in metaphor comprehension.
  37. Arzouan Y, Goldstein A, Faust M. Dynamics of hemispheric activity during metaphor comprehension: electrophysiological measures. Neuroimage. 2007;36:222-31 pubmed
    Brain imaging studies have lead to conflicting findings regarding the involvement of the right hemisphere (RH) in metaphor comprehension...
  38. Schmidt G, DeBuse C, Seger C. Right hemisphere metaphor processing? Characterizing the lateralization of semantic processes. Brain Lang. 2007;100:127-41 pubmed
    ..This pattern of results is consistent with theories postulating predominantly left hemisphere processing of close semantic relationships and predominantly right hemisphere processing of distant semantic relationships. ..
  39. Sotillo M, Carretié L, Hinojosa J, Tapia M, Mercado F, López Martín S, et al. Neural activity associated with metaphor comprehension: spatial analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2005;373:5-9 pubmed
    Though neuropsychological data indicate that the right hemisphere (RH) plays a major role in metaphor processing, other studies suggest that, at least during some phases of this processing, a RH advantage may not exist...
  40. Reisfield G, Wilson G. Use of metaphor in the discourse on cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4024-7 pubmed
  41. Milgrom L. Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement. Part 3. Refining the quantum metaphor for homeopathy. Homeopathy. 2003;92:152-60 pubmed
  42. Coulson S, Van Petten C. A special role for the right hemisphere in metaphor comprehension? ERP evidence from hemifield presentation. Brain Res. 2007;1146:128-45 pubmed
    ..ERP metaphoricity effects were very similar across hemifields, suggesting that the integration of metaphoric meanings was similarly taxing for the two hemispheres, contrary to the predictions of the right hemisphere theory of metaphor.
  43. Penson R, Schapira L, Daniels K, Chabner B, Lynch T. Cancer as metaphor. Oncologist. 2004;9:708-16 pubmed
    ..In oncology, the military metaphor is perhaps the most prominent, with the high profile of the "War on Cancer," and the imperative for ..
  44. Giora R. Is metaphor special?. Brain Lang. 2007;100:111-4 pubmed
  45. Kintsch W. Metaphor comprehension: a computational theory. Psychon Bull Rev. 2000;7:257-66 pubmed
    b>Metaphor comprehension involves an interaction between the meaning of the topic and the vehicle terms of the metaphor. Meaning is represented by vectors in a high-dimensional semantic space...
  46. Rapp A, Leube D, Erb M, Grodd W, Kircher T. Laterality in metaphor processing: lack of evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging for the right hemisphere theory. Brain Lang. 2007;100:142-9 pubmed
    ..The lowest degree of laterality was found in the temporal pole. Other factors than metaphoricity per se might trigger right hemisphere recruitment. Results are discussed in the context of lesion and hemifield studies. ..
  47. Boroditsky L. Does language shape thought? Mandarin and English speakers' conceptions of time. Cogn Psychol. 2001;43:1-22 pubmed
    ..g., how one tends to think about time) but does not entirely determine one's thinking in the strong Whorfian sense. ..
  48. Monetta L, Pell M. Effects of verbal working memory deficits on metaphor comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease. Brain Lang. 2007;101:80-9 pubmed
    ..PD participants and healthy controls (HC) completed a series of neuropsychological tests and performed a metaphor comprehension task following the methods of Gernsbacher and colleagues [Gernsbacher, M. A., Keysar, B...
  49. Murphy G. On metaphoric representation. Cognition. 1996;60:173-204 pubmed
    ..there is a separate representation of love, but the content of that representation is influenced by the metaphor such that the love concept takes on the same structure as the journey concept...
  50. Coulson S, Van Petten C. Conceptual integration and metaphor: an event-related potential study. Mem Cognit. 2002;30:958-68 pubmed
    ..Consistent with conceptual blending theory, the results suggest that the demands of conceptual integration affect the difficulty of both literal and metaphorical language. ..
  51. Rapp A, Leube D, Erb M, Grodd W, Kircher T. Neural correlates of metaphor processing. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2004;20:395-402 pubmed
    ..Beyond semantic analysis, understanding the figurative meaning of a metaphor requires mental linkage of different category domains normally not related to each other...
  52. Krasner J. Accumulated lives: metaphor, materiality, and the homes of the elderly. Lit Med. 2005;24:209-30 pubmed
  53. Eviatar Z, Just M. Brain correlates of discourse processing: an fMRI investigation of irony and conventional metaphor comprehension. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44:2348-59 pubmed
    ..The findings show differential hemispheric sensitivity to these aspects of figurative language, and are relevant to models of the functional cortical architecture of language processing in connected discourse. ..