qi

Summary

Summary: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)

Top Publications

  1. Zhang H, Wang W, Lin R, Zhang J, Ji Q, Lin Q, et al. Buyang Huanwu decoction ameliorates coronary heart disease with Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome by reducing CRP and CD40 in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:98-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Qi deficiency and blood stasis is traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome. It leads to many diseases including coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD)...
  2. Zhang W. [Analysis on the concepts of qi, blood and meridians in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic)]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2013;33:708-16 pubmed
    Concepts of qi, blood, meridians and collaterals in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic) were analyzed systematically based on their relationships described in the classic...
  3. Mao J, Ge Y, Wang H, Wang Q, Zhang Y, Yu D, et al. Summary of 32 patients with cardiac syndrome X treated by TCM therapy of regulating qi relieving chest stuffiness and promoting blood circulation. Chin J Integr Med. 2007;13:17-21 pubmed
    ..effect of Liqi Kuanxiong Huoxue method LKH, traditional Chinese medicine, TCM therapeutic method for regulating qi, relieving chest stuffiness and promoting blood circulation) in treating patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX)...
  4. Zhou K, Fang J, Wang X, Wang Y, Hong Y, Liu J, et al. Characterization of de qi with electroacupuncture at acupoints with different properties. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to explore the characteristics of de qi using electroacupuncture at acupoints with different properties in the meridian category, histological type, and nerve innervations...
  5. Li Y, Jin M, Qiu S, Wang P, Zhu T, Wang C, et al. Effect of Chinese drugs for supplementing Qi, nourishing Yin and activating blood circulation on myocardial perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction after revascularization. Chin J Integr Med. 2009;15:19-25 pubmed publisher
    To observe the effects of Chinese drugs for supplementing qi, nourishing yin and activating blood circulation on the myocardial perfusion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after revascularization...
  6. Shao L, Zhang J, Chen L, Zhang X, Chen K. Effects of external qi of qigong with opposing intentions on proliferation of Escherichia coli. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:567-71 pubmed publisher
    The existence and characteristics of external qi (EQ) in qigong therapy has long been subject to scientific debate and rigorous examination. The therapist's intent has played an important role in many studies...
  7. Miao G, Liang X, Wang Y. [Clinical observation on treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with qi-supplementing and blood-activating therapy]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2003;23:826-8 pubmed
    To observe the clinical efficacy of Qi-supplementing and blood-activating (QSBA) in treating diabetic peripheral nephropathy (DPN)...
  8. Wang Y, Guo S, Li C, Chen J, Chuo W, Dong F, et al. [Analysis of plasma metabonomics of mini-swines with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome due to chronic myocardial ischemia]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011;9:158-64 pubmed
    To study the changes of plasma metabolites of mini-swines with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome due to chronic myocardial ischemia and to explore the relationship between plasma metabonomics and qi deficiency and blood stasis ..
  9. White P, Prescott P, Lewith G. Does needling sensation (de qi) affect treatment outcome in pain? Analysis of data from a larger single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Acupunct Med. 2010;28:120-5 pubmed
    Insertion of an acupuncture needle into an acupuncture point typically generates a range of sensations called 'de qi'...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bi C, Wen J, Jiang K, Chen S, Wang C, Sun W, et al. [Chinese drugs for supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation in preventing deep venous thrombosis after big operations in orthopaedics and traumatology]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:625-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the Chinese drugs for supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation in preventing DVT after big operations in orthopaedics and traumatology and observe the change of D-dimer before and after ..
  2. Kong J, Gollub R, Huang T, Polich G, Napadow V, Hui K, et al. Acupuncture de qi, from qualitative history to quantitative measurement. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13:1059-70 pubmed publisher
    De qi is an important traditional acupuncture term used to describe the connection between acupuncture needles and the energy pathways of the body...
  3. Li J, Zhang M, Chen B. [Effect of Tongguan capsule on post-intervention patients of coronary heart disease with qi-deficiency and blood stasis syndrome]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:32-5 pubmed
    To observe the effect of Tongguan Capsule (TGC), a Chinese herbal preparation for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation, in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with qi-deficiency and blood stasis syndrome...
  4. Zhang Y, Chang J, Chi H, Mao B, Tang W, Wang L, et al. Randomized controlled trial on treatment of bronchial asthma of qi-deficiency cold syndrome type by pingchuan yiqi granule. Chin J Integr Med. 2007;13:27-32 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect and safety of Pingchuan Yiqi Granule in treating bronchial asthma of qi-deficiency cold syndrome type (BS-QDC)...
  5. Chen X, Yang H. [Effects of acupuncture under guidance of qi street theory on endocrine function in the patient of epilepsy]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:481-4 pubmed
    To observe effects of acupuncture under guidance of qi street theory on endocrine function in the patient of epilepsy...
  6. Zhang Y, Zhang J, Hu X. [Establishment of rat model of ischemic stroke with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome and its evaluation system]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009;29:343-6 pubmed
    To probe into the establishing method and the evaluating system for rat model of ischemic stroke with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome (QDBS)...
  7. Lee M, Rim Y, Jeong D, Kim M, Joo M, Shin S. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability during Qi therapy (external Qigong). Am J Chin Med. 2005;33:579-88 pubmed
    Heart rate variability (HRV) was compared in 30 subjects receiving external Qi therapy (EQT) or placebo control therapy, in a crossover design experiment...
  8. Yang K, Kim Y, Lee M. Efficacy of Qi-therapy (external Qigong) for elderly people with chronic pain. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:949-63 pubmed
    To test the efficacy of Qi-therapy (external Qigong) in improving symptoms of pain and mood states in elderly peoples with chronic pain...
  9. Lee M, Rim Y, Kang C. Effects of external qi-therapy on emotions, electroencephalograms, and plasma cortisol. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114:1493-502 pubmed
    The authors investigated the effect of external Qi-therapy (EQT) on changes in encephalograms (EEGs) and circulating cortisol concentrations...
  10. Lee M, Jang J, Jang H, Moon S. Effects of Qi-therapy on blood pressure, pain and psychological symptoms in the elderly: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Complement Ther Med. 2003;11:159-64 pubmed
    Recently, we reported that Qi-therapy may be beneficial in reducing negative psychological symptoms and increasing melatonin levels, neutrophil function and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in young subjects...
  11. Qiu X, Wang K, Chen G. [Retrospective analysis of risk factors in 900 patients with ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome in Wuhan District]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2011;31:1483-6 pubmed
    ..the correlation between risk factors and ischemic cerebral stroke of wind-phlegm collateral obstruction syndrome and qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome. Totally 900 patients of the two syndrome types were recruited...
  12. Lee M, Yang K, Huh H, Kim H, Ryu H, Lee H, et al. Qi therapy as an intervention to reduce chronic pain and to enhance mood in elderly subjects: a pilot study. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29:237-45 pubmed
    b>Qi therapy (or external Qi) is an oriental complementary therapy preventing, curing disease and strengthens health and improving the human potentiality through regulation of body...
  13. Lee M, Huh H, Jang H, Han C, Ryu H, Chung H. Effects of emitted Qi on in vitro natural killer cell cytotoxic activity. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29:17-22 pubmed
    The present study investigated the effects of Korean Qi-therapy, ChunSoo Energy Healing, on natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in vitro depending on Qi-treatment time and the types of cells treated...
  14. Qiu S, Jin M, Yi J, Zhu T, Quan X, Liang Y. [Therapy for replenishing qi, nourishing yin and promoting blood circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2009;7:616-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To observe the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy for replenishing qi, nourishing yin, and promoting blood circulation on AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
  15. Park J, Akazawa M, Ahn J, Beckman Harned S, Lin F, Lee K, et al. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling. Acupunct Med. 2011;29:257-65 pubmed publisher
    Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather ..
  16. Syldona M, Rein G. The use of DC electrodermal potential measurements and healer's felt sense to assess the energetic nature of qi. J Altern Complement Med. 1999;5:329-47 pubmed
    ..in DC potential values on acupoints would be a useful method for assessing the subtle energetic changes of qi. DC potential measurements from acupoints and nonacupoints were therefore compared when energy healing practitioners ..
  17. Deng L, Wang Q, Yuan H, Liu J, Tang Q, Xu X. [Effect of catalpol and puerarin freeze-dried powder on coagulability, hemorheology and no in rats with Qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2012;37:1472-6 pubmed
    ..a new compound traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation, on coagulability, hemorheology and NO in rats with qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome...
  18. White P, Bishop F, Hardy H, Abdollahian S, White A, Park J, et al. Southampton needle sensation questionnaire: development and validation of a measure to gauge acupuncture needle sensation. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:373-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Hui K, Nixon E, Vangel M, Liu J, Marina O, Napadow V, et al. Characterization of the "deqi" response in acupuncture. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007;7:33 pubmed
    ..The findings are clinically relevant and consistent with modern concepts in neurophysiology. They can provide a foundation for future studies on the deqi phenomenon. ..
  20. Kaptchuk T. Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:374-83 pubmed
    ..Such ideas as yin-yang, qi, dampness, and wind represent East Asian conceptual frameworks that emphasize the reliability of ordinary, human ..
  21. Que H, Zhu Y, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Xu J, Xing J, et al. [Effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007;5:165-9 pubmed
    To explore the effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with syndrome ..
  22. Wang Z, Wang S, Zhao M. [Comparative study on effect of recipe for activating blood circulation and replenishing Qi on left ventricular remodeling in rats with left heart failure after myocardial infarction]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002;22:376-8 pubmed
    ..Salviae miltiorrhizea; Rh. Ligusticum wallichii and F1. Carthamus tinctorius) and injection for replenishing Qi (RQI, consisted of R. Codonopsis Pilosulae and R. Astragalus membranaceus) respectively...
  23. Liu Q, Liu J, Liu D. Clinical research into ke min yin for treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis in patients with qi deficiency and blood stasis. J Tradit Chin Med. 2003;23:106-8 pubmed
  24. Chen K. An analytic review of studies on measuring effects of external QI in China. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004;10:38-50 pubmed
    Scientists have long been interested in measuring external qi (EQ or wai qi) during qigong healing, and have produced a large body of literature over the past 20 years...
  25. Kong F, Ng D, Chan C, Yu W, Chan D, Kwok K, et al. Parental use of the term "Hot Qi" to describe symptoms in their children in Hong Kong: a cross sectional survey "Hot Qi" in children. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:2 pubmed
    The Chinese term "Hot Qi" is often used by parents to describe symptoms in their children...
  26. Fukushima M, Kataoka T, Hamada C, Matsumoto M. Evidence of Qi-gong energy and its biological effect on the enhancement of the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29:1-16 pubmed
    In order to test for an effect of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) treated externally with Qi energy ("Qi-treated" PBS) on the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), rigorously controlled experiments ..
  27. Mao J, Farrar J, Armstrong K, Donahue A, Ngo J, Bowman M. De qi: Chinese acupuncture patients' experiences and beliefs regarding acupuncture needling sensation--an exploratory survey. Acupunct Med. 2007;25:158-65 pubmed
    While de qi, the acupuncture needling sensation, has been considered as an important component of acupuncture, little is known of the acupuncture patient's experience and beliefs about de qi in clinical settings...
  28. Liu H, Wang W, Shi D, Ge J, Zhang L, Peng J, et al. Protective effect of Chinese herbs for supplementing qi, nourishing yin and activating blood circulation on heart function of patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:423-30 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of Chinese herbs for supplementing qi, nourishing yin and activating blood circulation on heart function of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
  29. Yan B, A J, Hao H, Wang G, Zhu X, Zha W, et al. Metabonomic phenotype and identification of "heart blood stasis obstruction pattern" and "qi and yin deficiency pattern" of myocardial ischemia rat models. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52:1081-90 pubmed publisher
    ..concepts of "Xinxueyuzuzheng (heart blood stasis obstruction pattern)" and "Qiyinliangxuzheng (qi and yin deficiency pattern)" for myocardial ischemia rat models were constructed in the present study...
  30. Yan X, Shen H, Jiang H, Zhang C, Hu D, Wang J, et al. External Qi of Yan Xin Qigong differentially regulates the Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways and is cytotoxic to cancer cells but not to normal cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:2102-13 pubmed
    Long-term clinical observations and ongoing studies have shown significant antitumor effect of external Qi of Yan Xin Qigong which originated from traditional Chinese medicine...
  31. Benham A, Johnson M. Could acupuncture needle sensation be a predictor of analgesic response?. Acupunct Med. 2009;27:65-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Leung A, Park J, Schulteis G, Duann J, Yaksh T. The electrophysiology of de qi sensations. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:743-50 pubmed
    ..point (AP) and a point with no known acupuncture function (NP); and (2) the corresponding characteristics of de qi sensations. The design was prospective...
  33. Chen R, Kang M. [Key point of moxibustion, arrival of qi produces curative effect]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:44-6 pubmed
    ..Arrival of qi produces the effect of moxibustion.
  34. Gong Z, Dong J, Xie J. [Regulatory function of Shen-reinforcing and qi-supplementing drugs on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and interleukin-6 dysfunction in asthmatic rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2008;28:348-51 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of Shen-reinforcing and qi-supplementing (SRQS) drugs on some ingredients of neuro-endocrine-immune (NEI) network in asthma rat model. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin sensitization and long-term excitation...
  35. Kim Y, Park J, Lee H, Bang H, Park H. Content validity of an acupuncture sensation questionnaire. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:957-63 pubmed publisher
    ..using qualitative methods and to test the content validity whether their sensations are proper candidates for de qi. The items for the Acupuncture Sensation Questionnaire (ASQ) were developed through in-depth interview, focus group ..
  36. Li Y, Jin M, Qiu S. [Effect of Chinese herbal medicine for benefiting qi and nourishing yin to promote blood circulation on ventricular wall motion of AMI patients after revascularization]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2009;29:300-4 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine for benefiting qi and nourishing yin to promote the blood circulation (abbr...
  37. Streitberger K, Eichenberger U, Schneider A, Witte S, Greher M. Ultrasound measurements of the distance between acupuncture needle tip at P6 and the median nerve. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13:585-91 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that de qi (a sensation that is typical of acupuncture needling) is evoked when the needle comes into contact with the ..
  38. Lee M, Jeong S, Jang H, Ryu H, Moon S. Effects of in vitro and in vivo Qi-therapy on neutrophil superoxide generation in healthy male subjects. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31:623-8 pubmed
    The present study investigated the effects of in vitro and in vivo Korean ChunSoo Qi-Energy Healing on neutrophil superoxide generation. Neutrophil superoxide generation was measured by a chemiluminescence assay...
  39. Ren J, Liu J, Lin C. [Comparative analysis on the biological basis of blood stasis syndrome induced by qi-stagnation and qi-deficiency in patients with unstable angina pectoris]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2010;30:352-6 pubmed
    To comparatively analyse the objective characteristics of different syndrome types of qi-disturbance-induced blood stasis syndrome (QDBS) in the pathogenetic evolution of unstable angina coronary heart disease (UA-CHD)...
  40. Lai X, Tong Z. A study on the classification and the 'catching' of the 'arrived qi' in acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med. 2010;30:3-8 pubmed
    This essay studies the phenomenon of 'obtaining of qi' in acupuncture...
  41. Wang K. [Clinical study on treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in stable stage by bufei yishen recipe]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:555-6 pubmed
  42. Feng N, He J, Wang Q. [Research on differential genes related with qi stagnation constitution]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2011;31:48-51 pubmed
    To investigate the differential genes between the qi-stagnation constitution (QSC) and non-QSC, for the sake of disclose the hereditary essence of QSC...
  43. Wang Y. [Enlightenment and thinking on deqi (arrival of needling sensation) by abdominal acupuncture]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2011;31:183-5 pubmed
    ..techniques such as abdominal acupuncture, different recognitions on deqi (arrival of needling sensation), namely qi sensation under the tip of the needles and qi sensation at the affected region were analyzed in this article...
  44. Park S, Ko C, Bae H, Jung W, Moon S, Cho K, et al. Short-term reactions to acupuncture treatment and adverse events following acupuncture: a cross-sectional survey of patient reports in Korea. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15:1275-83 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to explore the type and frequency of short-term reactions, de qi associated with acupuncture treatment, and to determine the incidence of adverse events following acupuncture treatment in Korea...
  45. Lindeman M, Saher M. Vitalism, purpose and superstition. Br J Psychol. 2007;98:33-44 pubmed
    ..The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking. ..
  46. Liu J, Wang L, Tian J. Recognition of dementia in ancient China. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:2948.e11-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which ..
  47. Jiang Y, Wang H, Liu Z, Dong Y, Dong Y, Xiang X, et al. Manipulation of and sustained effects on the human brain induced by different modalities of acupuncture: an fMRI study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66815 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the findings from our work could provide methodological information for further research into the mechanism of acupuncture. ..
  48. Chen M, Yu H, Li S, You T. A complementary method for detecting qi vacuity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009;9:12 pubmed publisher
    b>Qi vacuity (QV) is defined by traditional Chinese medicine as a loss of energy in the human body. An objective method for detecting QV was not available until recently, however...
  49. He L, Jiang W, Mao T. [Preliminary exploration on establishing a simulated model of acute and chronic after-qi-stagnation blood stasis by adrenaline injection]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:244-6 pubmed
    To testify the TCM theory on "qi-stagnation causes blood stasis" and explore the method of using adrenaline to establish an acute and chronic blood stasis animal model...
  50. Shi N, Chen Y, Wang J, Ni H. Clinical observation on the effect of Zengse Pill in treating patients with vitiligo of qi-stagnancy and blood-stasis syndrome type. Chin J Integr Med. 2008;14:303-6 pubmed publisher
    To observe the clinical efficacy of Zengse Pill ( ZSP) on patients with vitiligo of qi-stagnancy and blood-stasis syndrome type (V-QB), and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action...
  51. Qiao M, Wang W, Zhang H. [Epidemiological survey on etiology of Gan-qi inversion syndrome and Gan-qi stagnation syndrome and study on the evocative mode of emotional diseases]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2007;27:117-9 pubmed
    To investigate the etiology of Gan-qi inversion syndrome and Gan-qi stagnation syndrome, and to study the evocative mode of emotional diseases...
  52. Jiang X, Zhang Y, Lei Y, Hu G, Zhang Z, Xiao Z. Case-control study on the association between qi-stagnation and insomnia. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012;10:655-62 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between insomnia and qi-stagnation by using the international standardized measurement of sleep quality and the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Constitution Scales...
  53. Chang T, Li X, Zhao X. Relationship between various Chinese medicine types and T-cell subsets in patients with ulcerative colitis. Chin J Integr Med. 2009;15:220-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between various Chinese medicine (CM) types and T-cell subsets (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) in the colonic mucous membranes of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC)...