moral obligations


Summary: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.

Top Publications

  1. Bredenoord A, Onland Moret N, van Delden J. Feedback of individual genetic results to research participants: in favor of a qualified disclosure policy. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We appeal to the genetics community to make a joint effort to further refine the packages and set thresholds for result selection. ..
  2. Childress J. The failure to give: reducing barriers to organ donation. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2001;11:1-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, policies are often too individualistic and too legalistic. ..
  3. Alexander G, Wynia M. Ready and willing? Physicians' sense of preparedness for bioterrorism. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003;22:189-97 pubmed
    ..Preparing physicians for bioterrorism should entail providing practical knowledge, preventive steps to minimize risk, and reinforcement of the profession's ethical duty to treat. ..
  4. Edwards S. Three versions of an ethics of care. Nurs Philos. 2009;10:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also shown that all three versions are beset with problems the least serious of which is distinctiveness from other approaches to moral problems in health care. ..
  5. Diekema D. Parental refusals of medical treatment: the harm principle as threshold for state intervention. Theor Med Bioeth. 2004;25:243-64 pubmed
    ..Finally, I will suggest a series of criteria that can be used in deciding whether the state should intervene in a parent's decision to refuse medical care on behalf of a child. ..
  6. Kipnis K. Harm and uncertainty in newborn intensive care. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:393-412 pubmed
    ..Though treatment may offer a reasonable chance of a good outcome, it is argued that there are situations in which neonatologists should nonetheless defer to parental nontreatment decisions. ..
  7. van Thiel G, van Delden J. The principle of respect for autonomy in the care of nursing home residents. Nurs Ethics. 2001;8:419-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a multidimensional understanding of this principle would best fit this context. We end this article with a description of a modest theory of respect for autonomy in nursing homes. ..
  8. Bloch S, Green S. An ethical framework for psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:7-12 pubmed
  9. Shapiro P. Moral agency in other animals. Theor Med Bioeth. 2006;27:357-73 pubmed
    ..Since many other animals are moral agents (to varying degrees), they are also subject to (limited) moral obligations, examples of which are provided in this paper...

More Information


  1. Paris J, Schreiber M, Moreland M. Parental refusal of medical treatment for a newborn. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:427-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude with support for the policy articulated in the 2007 guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics on non-intervention or withdrawal of intensive care for high-risk newborns. ..
  2. Ehni H. Dual use and the ethical responsibility of scientists. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2008;56:147-52 pubmed publisher
  3. Chan S, Harris J. Free riders and pious sons--why science research remains obligatory. Bioethics. 2009;23:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that both these lines of argument support the duty to research, and explore further aspects of this duty, such as to whom it is owed and how it might be discharged. ..
  4. Kon A. Neonatal euthanasia is unsupportable: the Groningen protocol should be abandoned. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:453-63 pubmed
    ..I conclude that because the primary duty of physicians is to never harm their patients, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported. ..
  5. Janvier A, Bauer K, Lantos J. Are newborns morally different from older children?. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:413-25 pubmed
  6. Miller P, Weijer C. Trust based obligations of the state and physician-researchers to patient-subjects. J Med Ethics. 2006;32:542-7 pubmed
  7. Harris J. Scientific research is a moral duty. J Med Ethics. 2005;31:242-8 pubmed
  8. Kishore R. Human organs, scarcities, and sale: morality revisited. J Med Ethics. 2005;31:362-5 pubmed
    ..Commercialisation should be curbed not by depriving a needy person of his genuine requirements but by making the enforcement agencies efficient. ..
  9. Reid L. Diminishing returns? Risk and the duty to care in the SARS epidemic. Bioethics. 2005;19:348-61 pubmed
    ..Such reflection underwrites a strong duty of care, but one not to be borne solely by the altruism and heroism of individual healthcare workers. ..
  10. Miller F, Brody H. A critique of clinical equipoise. Therapeutic misconception in the ethics of clinical trials. Hastings Cent Rep. 2003;33:19-28 pubmed
    ..quot;Clinical equipoise" is necessary. But this perspective is flawed. The ethics of research and of therapy are fundamentally different, and clinical equipoise should be abandoned. ..
  11. Bevan J, Upshur R. Anesthesia, ethics, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50:977-9, 979-82 pubmed
  12. Schaefer G, Emanuel E, Wertheimer A. The obligation to participate in biomedical research. JAMA. 2009;302:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a shift would be of great aid to the progress of biomedical research, eventually making society significantly healthier and longer lived. ..
  13. Turner L. From the local to the global: bioethics and the concept of culture. J Med Philos. 2005;30:305-20 pubmed
    ..or oncology unit to the transnational workings of human rights agencies, attentiveness to the concept of culture can illuminate how patients, family members, and health care providers interpret illness, healing, and moral obligations.
  14. Brassington I. John Harris' argument for a duty to research. Bioethics. 2007;21:160-8 pubmed
    ..While it is not my intention here to deny that there might be a duty to research, I claim that Harris' argument for the existence of such a duty is not the best way to establish it. ..
  15. Shapshay S, Pimple K. Participation in biomedical research is an imperfect moral duty: a response to John Harris. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:414-7 pubmed
    ..That Harris has not succeeded in claiming a special status for biomedical research among all other social goods is shown here. ..
  16. Gómez Lobo A. On potentiality and respect for embryos: a reply to Mary Mahowald. Theor Med Bioeth. 2005;26:105-10; discussion 111-3 pubmed
    ..It follows that they are already persons essentially. ..
  17. Ruderman C, Tracy C, Bensimon C, Bernstein M, Hawryluck L, Shaul R, et al. On pandemics and the duty to care: whose duty? who cares?. BMC Med Ethics. 2006;7:E5 pubmed
    ..With this paper, we hope to open the social dialogue and advance the public debate on this increasingly urgent issue. ..
  18. van der Burg S, van Gorp A. Understanding moral responsibility in the design of trailers. Sci Eng Ethics. 2005;11:235-56 pubmed
    ..We will also inspect MacIntyre's proposal critically. ..
  19. Kuhlau F, Eriksson S, Evers K, Höglund A. Taking due care: moral obligations in dual use research. Bioethics. 2008;22:477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered ..
  20. Takala T, Hayry M. Genetic ignorance, moral obligations and social duties. J Med Philos. 2000;25:107-13; discussion 114-20 pubmed
    ..Our own conclusion, based on the Millian way of thinking, is that individuals probably do have the right to remain in ignorance in the cases Professor Rhodes presents as examples of a duty to know. ..
  21. Ashrafian H. Artificial intelligence and robot responsibilities: innovating beyond rights. Sci Eng Ethics. 2015;21:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultimate and unified goal of stipulating these responsibilities resides through the advancement of mankind and the enduring preservation of the core tenets of humanity. ..
  22. Erickson E. Punishing the mad bomber: questions of moral responsibility in the trials of French anarchist terrorists, 1886-1897. Fr Hist. 2008;22:51-73 pubmed
  23. Solbrekke T, Sutphen M. Learning in a web of commitments. J Nurs Educ. 2012;51:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also indicate ways for students to reflect as part of their educational experience. ..
  24. Elster J. Procreative beneficence: cui bono?. Bioethics. 2011;25:482-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, PB itself will in some cases be self-effacing in favour of SPB. ..
  25. Simpson C. Mapping our practice? Some conceptual "bumps" for us to consider. HEC Forum. 2012;24:219-26 pubmed publisher
  26. Kim K, Eggebeen D, Zarit S, Birditt K, Fingerman K. Agreement between aging parent's bequest intention and middle-aged child's inheritance expectation. Gerontologist. 2013;53:1020-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Parents and children form their intention or expectation about inheritance based on different factors, leaving open the possibility of misunderstandings between the generations. ..
  27. Laliberté M, Hunt M, Williams Jones B, Feldman D. Health care professionals and bedbugs: an ethical analysis of a resurgent scourge. HEC Forum. 2013;25:245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss limits and obstacles to the provision of care in these situations. ..
  28. Silva D, Dawson A, Upshur R. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control. J Bioeth Inq. 2016;13:75-86 pubmed publisher
  29. Deady R, McCarthy J. A study of the situations, features, and coping mechanisms experienced by Irish psychiatric nurses experiencing moral distress. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2010;46:209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, unresolved moral conflict impacts upon the quality of clinical decision-making by not allowing open and transparent discussions that allow clinicians the opportunity to address their concerns adequately. ..
  30. Pascalev A, Vidalis T. 'Vague Oviedo': autonomy, culture and the case of previously competent patients. Bioethics. 2010;24:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet it should be left to the national legislations to determine the extent of this obligation and its concrete forms. ..
  31. Dawson A. The future of bioethics: three dogmas and a cup of hemlock. Bioethics. 2010;24:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, I offer a more positive perspective by suggesting how bioethics may benefit from looking towards public health ethics as a new source of inspiration and direction. ..
  32. Jotterand F. Human dignity and transhumanism: do anthro-technological devices have moral status?. Am J Bioeth. 2010;10:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, I examine the concept of posthuman dignity and whether the concept of human dignity as construed in the declaration has any relevance to posthuman dignity. ..
  33. Witman Y, van den Kerkhof P, Braat D. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157:A5698 pubmed
    ..More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems. ..
  34. Shekar V, Singh M, Shekar K, Brennan P. Clinical negligence and duty of candour. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49:593-6 pubmed publisher
  35. McGillivray G, Rosenfeld J, McKinlay Gardner R, Gillam L. Genetic counselling and ethical issues with chromosome microarray analysis in prenatal testing. Prenat Diagn. 2012;32:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-directive pre-test and post-test genetic counselling is central to the delivery of these ethical objectives...
  36. Knutson K, Krueger F, Koenigs M, Hawley A, Escobedo J, Vasudeva V, et al. Behavioral norms for condensed moral vignettes. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010;5:378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting vignettes can be used in future parametric studies on moral judgment in behavioral, neuropsychological and functional imaging experiments. ..
  37. Brassington I. Is there a duty to remain in ignorance?. Theor Med Bioeth. 2011;32:101-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In effect, there may be an argument to be made not just for a right to remain in ignorance, but for a duty to do so. ..
  38. Chan S. Should we enhance animals?. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:678-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. ..
  39. Delaney J, Hershenov D. Why consent may not be needed for organ procurement. Am J Bioeth. 2009;9:3-10 pubmed publisher
  40. Merritt M. Health researchers' ancillary care obligations in low-resource settings: how can we tell what is morally required?. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2011;21:311-47 pubmed
  41. de Roubaix J. Beneficence, non-maleficence, distributive justice and respect for patient autonomy--reconcilable ends in aesthetic surgery?. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of this expanded notion of responsibility are discussed. ..
  42. Brown O. Good Samaritan statutes: a malpractice defense for "doing the right thing". J Vasc Surg. 2010;51:1572-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The legal system recognizes the need to protect physicians who appropriately respond and, therefore, Good Samaritan statutes were adopted. ..
  43. Alahmad G, Dierickx K. What do Islamic institutional fatwas say about medical and research confidentiality and breach of confidentiality?. Dev World Bioeth. 2012;12:104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that more specialized fatwas are needed to clarify Islamic juristic views about medical and research confidentiality, especially the circumstances in which infringements on this confidentiality are justified. ..
  44. Miller J, Feltz A. Frankfurt and the folk: an experimental investigation of Frankfurt-style cases. Conscious Cogn. 2011;20:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We defend our interpretation of this evidence against objections and explore some implications of these findings for the free will debate. ..
  45. Blackford R. Moral pluralism versus the total view: why Singer is wrong about radical life extension. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:747-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A more pluralistic account of the nature of morality promises to solve these problems, and in this case it reaches a benevolent recommendation on life-extension technology. ..
  46. Chima S. Global medicine: is it ethical or morally justifiable for doctors and other healthcare workers to go on strike?. BMC Med Ethics. 2013;14 Suppl 1:S5 pubmed publisher
    ..with their role as ordinary employees who are rightfully entitled to a just wage for just work versus their moral obligations to patients and society...
  47. DeGrazia D. Genetic enhancement, post-persons and moral status: a reply to Buchanan. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:135-9 pubmed publisher
  48. van Zyl L, Walker R. Beyond altruistic and commercial contract motherhood: the professional model. Bioethics. 2013;27:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we accept that there are good reasons for rejecting the commercial model as a suitable framework for contract pregnancy, and argue, instead, in favour of viewing it as a profession. ..
  49. Agar N. Why is it possible to enhance moral status and why doing so is wrong?. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We should look upon moral status enhancement as creating especially morally needy beings. We are subject to no obligation to create them in the first place. We avoid creating their needs by avoiding creating them. ..
  50. Shabanowitz R, Reardon J. Avian flu pandemic - flight of the healthcare worker?. HEC Forum. 2009;21:365-85 pubmed publisher
  51. LaSala C. Moral accountability and integrity in nursing practice. Nurs Clin North Am. 2009;44:423-34 pubmed publisher
  52. Clancy A. An embodied response: ethics and the nurse researcher. Nurs Ethics. 2011;18:112-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Feelings of vulnerability are embodied responses that remind us of the primacy of ethics. More so, it is the primacy of ethics that gives rise to feelings of vulnerability and embodied responses. ..
  53. McMahan J. Infanticide and moral consistency. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive. ..