value of life


Summary: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)

Top Publications

  1. Rennie J, Leigh B. The legal framework for end-of-life decisions in the UK. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;13:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Legal proceedings should be used only as a last resort. ..
  2. Jotkowitz A, Glick S, Zivotofsky A. The case of Samuel Golubchuk and the right to live. Am J Bioeth. 2010;10:50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..3. In modern society there exists an erosion of a basic attitude towards the value of life. 4...
  3. Johansson Stenman O, Martinsson P. Are some lives more valuable? An ethical preferences approach. J Health Econ. 2008;27:739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a saved pedestrian is consistently valued higher than a saved car driver of the same age. ..
  4. Yabroff K, Bradley C, Mariotto A, Brown M, Feuer E. Estimates and projections of value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1755-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to estimate and project the value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States...
  5. Clark P. Tube feedings and persistent vegetative state patients: ordinary or extraordinary means?. Christ Bioeth. 2006;12:43-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, additional analysis is needed to determine whether the papal allocution is in conflict with the traditional Catholic medical ethics understanding of the ordinary-extraordinary care distinction. ..
  6. Gesundheit B, Steinberg A, Glick S, Or R, Jotkovitz A. Euthanasia: an overview and the jewish perspective. Cancer Invest. 2006;24:621-9 pubmed
    ..We trust that classical Jewish sources might contribute to the establishment of clinical definitions, meaningful approaches and practical guidelines for clinicians. ..
  7. Attema A, Brouwer W. The value of correcting values: influence and importance of correcting TTO scores for time preference. Value Health. 2010;13:879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that correcting TTO scores for time preference is feasible and influential, so that there can be a substantial value of correcting values for time preference. ..
  8. Kon A. Neonatal euthanasia is unsupportable: the Groningen protocol should be abandoned. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:453-63 pubmed
    ..I conclude that because the primary duty of physicians is to never harm their patients, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported. ..
  9. Stiggelbout A, de Vogel Voogt E. Health state utilities: a framework for studying the gap between the imagined and the real. Value Health. 2008;11:76-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss some of the findings as they relate to the field of response shift research. We propose issues for discussion in the field, and suggestions for improvement of the process of utility assessment. ..

More Information


  1. Lieu T, Ortega Sanchez I, Ray G, Rusinak D, Yih W, Choo P, et al. Community and patient values for preventing herpes zoster. Pharmacoeconomics. 2008;26:235-49 pubmed
    ..Consideration of both community and patient perspectives is crucial to help decision makers fully determine the implications of their policies now that a vaccine against herpes zoster is available. ..
  2. Brouwer W, van Exel J, Baker R, Donaldson C. The new myth: the social value of the QALY. Pharmacoeconomics. 2008;26:1-4 pubmed
  3. Craig B, Oppe M. From a different angle: a novel approach to health valuation. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictions suggest that published estimates overvalue severe states. This paper examines TTO responses; however, it may be extended to all forms of health valuation. ..
  4. Lee C, Chertow G, Zenios S. An empiric estimate of the value of life: updating the renal dialysis cost-effectiveness standard. Value Health. 2009;12:80-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Essink Bot M, Stuifbergen M, Meerding W, Looman C, Bonsel G. Individual differences in the use of the response scale determine valuations of hypothetical health states: an empirical study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:62 pubmed
    ..Further valuation research should focus on explaining individual response patterns as a possible key to understanding the determinants of health state valuations. ..
  6. Martin S, Rice N, Smith P. Does health care spending improve health outcomes? Evidence from English programme budgeting data. J Health Econ. 2008;27:826-842 pubmed publisher
    ..They can also help health technology agencies decide whether their cost-effectiveness thresholds for accepting new technologies are set at the right level. ..
  7. Bradley C, Yabroff K, Dahman B, Feuer E, Mariotto A, Brown M. Productivity costs of cancer mortality in the United States: 2000-2020. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1763-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Investments in programs that target the cancers with high incidence and/or cancers that occur in younger, working-age individuals are likely to yield the greatest reductions in productivity losses to society. ..
  8. Wilkinson D. Is it in the best interests of an intellectually disabled infant to die?. J Med Ethics. 2006;32:454-9 pubmed
    ..The best interests of the child can be affected by severe or profound intellectual disability. It is, though, not as clear-cut as some might expect. ..
  9. Link H. Playing God and the intrinsic value of life: moral problems for synthetic biology?. Sci Eng Ethics. 2013;19:435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This article deals with these 'ethical concerns'. In particular it addresses issues such as the intrinsic value of life and how to deal with 'artificial life', and the fear that synthetic biologists are tampering with nature or ..
  10. Huxtable R. 'In a twilight world'? Judging the value of life for the minimally conscious patient. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:565-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The judge appeared to be most persuaded by the intrinsic value of life and he concluded that treatment ought to continue...
  11. Janvier A, Bauer K, Lantos J. Are newborns morally different from older children?. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:413-25 pubmed
  12. Menzel P, Dolan P, Richardson J, Olsen J. The role of adaptation to disability and disease in health state valuation: a preliminary normative analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:2149-58 pubmed
    ..The article also points to the need for much additional work on adaptation, both empirical research and normative analysis. ..
  13. Yi M, Luckhaupt S, Mrus J, Tsevat J. Do medical house officers value the health of veterans differently from the health of non-veterans?. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2004;2:19 pubmed
    ..Physicians in training appear not to be biased either in favor of or against military veterans when judging the value of a patient's health. ..
  14. Dolan P, Jones Lee M. The time trade-off: a note on the effect of lifetime reallocation of consumption and discounting. J Health Econ. 1997;16:731-9 pubmed
    ..While the effect of reallocation is likely to be very small, discounting can lead to significant overestimation, the magnitude of which depends in part upon the severity of the health state impairment. ..
  15. Alderson P. Down's syndrome: cost, quality and value of life. Soc Sci Med. 2001;53:627-38 pubmed
    ..Much more social research with people who have congenital conditions is required, if prenatal screening policies and counselling are to be evidence based. ..
  16. Stalmeier P. Discrepancies between chained and classic utilities induced by anchoring with occasional adjustments. Med Decis Making. 2002;22:53-64 pubmed
    ..Decision analyses that use a mix of classic and chained utilities are not on firm ground. One should be wary of normative interpretations of new value assessment procedures. Alternative interpretations of the findings are discussed. ..
  17. MacKeigan L, Gafni A, O Brien B. Double discounting of QALYs. Health Econ. 2003;12:165-9 pubmed
    ..Adjusting TTO-based quality weights prior to external discounting reduced the discrepancy only slightly. Since time preference effects may vary with health state context, the double discounting effect needs further investigation. ..
  18. Ross P, Littenberg B, Fearn P, Scardino P, Karakiewicz P, Kattan M. Paper standard gamble: a paper-based measure of standard gamble utility for current health. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2003;19:135-47 pubmed
    ..94). These data suggest that PSG may serve as a reliable substitute for SG when current health utility is of interest. PSG may have particular advantages for acquisition of health-related quality-of-life data in longitudinal studies. ..
  19. Brouwer W, van Exel N. Discounting in decision making: the consistency argument revisited empirically. Health Policy. 2004;67:187-94 pubmed
    ..Our respondents seem to relate their discount rate for health to their expectations about future life expectancy, but this also is dependent on the elicitation method. ..
  20. Eberl J. Aquinas's account of human embryogenesis and recent interpretations. J Med Philos. 2005;30:379-94 pubmed
    ..In this article, I discuss two recent interpretations in which it is argued that a human person does not begin to exist until a fetus has developed a functioning cerebral cortex. ..
  21. Dolan P, Roberts J. To what extent can we explain time trade-off values from other information about respondents?. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:919-29 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that age, sex and marital status are the most important respondent characteristics determining health state valuations. The VAS valuations were found to add very little to the explanatory power of the models. ..
  22. Tsuchiya A, Ikeda S, Ikegami N, Nishimura S, Sakai I, Fukuda T, et al. Estimating an EQ-5D population value set: the case of Japan. Health Econ. 2002;11:341-53 pubmed
    ..001 for 8 of 12 coefficients; F-test). Thirdly, using alternative models, the predictions are improved so that the local Japanese value set achieves MAE in the order of 0.01. ..
  23. de Blaeij A, Florax R, Rietveld P, Verhoef E. The value of statistical life in road safety: a meta-analysis. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:973-86 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of VOSL is intrinsically linked to the initial level of the risk of being caught up in a fatal traffic accident and to the risk decline implied by the research set-up. ..
  24. Stretton D. Essential properties and the right to life: a response to Lee. Bioethics. 2004;18:264-82 pubmed
    ..I argue that his criticisms of this alternative view are misguided or self-defeating, and that there are good reasons to hold we have a right to life accidentally rather than essentially. ..
  25. Gómez Lobo A. On potentiality and respect for embryos: a reply to Mary Mahowald. Theor Med Bioeth. 2005;26:105-10; discussion 111-3 pubmed
    ..It follows that they are already persons essentially. ..
  26. Ubel P, Loewenstein G, Jepson C. Whose quality of life? A commentary exploring discrepancies between health state evaluations of patients and the general public. Qual Life Res. 2003;12:599-607 pubmed
    ..Decisions about whose values to measure for the purposes of economic analyses, and how to measure discrepancies, should take these potential contributing factors into account. ..
  27. Lee P. The pro-life argument from substantial identity: a defence. Bioethics. 2004;18:249-63 pubmed
  28. Brazier J, Roberts J, Deverill M. The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-36. J Health Econ. 2002;21:271-92 pubmed
    ..These problems must be weighed against the rich descriptive ability of the SF-6D, and the potential application of these models to existing and future SF-36 data set. ..
  29. Lee G, Salomon J, LeBaron C, Lieu T. Health-state valuations for pertussis: methods for valuing short-term health states. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2005;3:17 pubmed
    ..Pertussis was considered worse than adverse events due to vaccination. Short-term health-state valuation is better able to discriminate among health states, which is useful for cost-utility analysis. ..
  30. Woloshin S, Schwartz L, Moncur M, Gabriel S, Tosteson A. Assessing values for health: numeracy matters. Med Decis Making. 2001;21:382-90 pubmed
    ..Limited numeracy may be an important barrier to meaningfully assessing patients' values using the standard gamble and time trade-off techniques. ..
  31. Tsevat J, Dawson N, Wu A, Lynn J, Soukup J, Cook E, et al. Health values of hospitalized patients 80 years or older. HELP Investigators. Hospitalized Elderly Longitudinal Project. JAMA. 1998;279:371-5 pubmed
    ..Because proxies and multivariable analyses cannot gauge health values of elderly hospitalized patients accurately, health values of the very old should be elicited directly from the patient. ..
  32. Dolan P, Stalmeier P. The validity of time trade-off values in calculating QALYs: constant proportional time trade-off versus the proportional heuristic. J Health Econ. 2003;22:445-58 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that respondents are using a proportional heuristic that casts doubt on the validity of using the TTO method to calculate QALYs for health states that are associated with MET preferences. ..
  33. Shaw J, Johnson J, Coons S. US valuation of the EQ-5D health states: development and testing of the D1 valuation model. Med Care. 2005;43:203-20 pubmed
    ..The D1 model best predicts the values for observed health states. The resulting preference weight estimates represent a significant enhancement of the EQ-5D's utility for health status assessment and economic analysis in the US. ..
  34. Havranek E, Steiner J. Valuation of health states in the US versus the UK: two measures divided by a common language?. Med Care. 2005;43:201-2 pubmed
  35. Hirth R, Chernew M, Miller E, Fendrick A, Weissert W. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: in search of a standard. Med Decis Making. 2000;20:332-42 pubmed
    ..A literature search identified 42 estimates of the value of life that were appropriate for inclusion...
  36. Saigal S, Stoskopf B, Feeny D, Furlong W, Burrows E, Rosenbaum P, et al. Differences in preferences for neonatal outcomes among health care professionals, parents, and adolescents. JAMA. 1999;281:1991-7 pubmed
    ..These findings have implications for decision making in the neonatal intensive care unit. ..
  37. Andersson H. Willingness to pay for road safety and estimates of the risk of death: evidence from a Swedish contingent valuation study. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:853-65 pubmed
    ..Further, we find that respondents underassess their own mortality risks, both road- and total-mortality risks, compared to the objective risk measures for Sweden at the time of the survey. ..
  38. Cutas D. Life extension, overpopulation and the right to life: against lethal ethics. J Med Ethics. 2008;34:e7 pubmed publisher
  39. Sterud T, Hem E, Lau B, Ekeberg O. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a nationwide sample of operational Norwegian ambulance personnel. J Occup Health. 2008;50:406-14 pubmed
    ..Although serious suicidal ideation was rarely attributed to working conditions in general, this study suggests that job-related factors like emotional exhaustion and bullying may be of importance. ..
  40. Cholbi M. The duty to die and the burdensomeness of living. Bioethics. 2010;24:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the duty to die is much rarer than Hardwig supposes. ..
  41. April C, Parker M. End of life decision-making in neonatal care. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:126-7 pubmed
  42. Beusterien K, Yeung J, Pang F, Brazier J. Development of the multi-attribute Adolescent Health Utility Measure (AHUM). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:102 pubmed
    ..039. The AHUM health state classification system may be used in future research to enable calculation of quality-adjust life expectancy for applicable health conditions. ..
  43. Kanarek N, Kanarek M, Olatoye D, Carducci M. Removing barriers to participation in clinical trials, a conceptual framework and retrospective chart review study. Trials. 2012;13:237 pubmed publisher
    ..The framework may serve to streamline comprehensive reporting of clinical trial participation to the benefit of patients and the ethical conduct of clinical trials. ..
  44. Porter L. Abortion, infanticide and moral context. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:350-2 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts. ..
  45. Krause N. Longitudinal study of social support and meaning in life. Psychol Aging. 2007;22:456-69 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the findings revealed that, at least initially, negative interaction lowers an older person's sense of meaning in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved). ..
  46. Li M, Vietri J, Galvani A, Chapman G. How do people value life?. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, young targets were judged as more valuable in general, but young participants valued young targets even more than older participants did. ..
  47. van Bogaert L. Separation-survivability--the elusive moral cut-off point?. S Afr Med J. 2006;96:1140-2; author reply 1142-4 pubmed
  48. Mulvaney Day N, Horvitz Lennon M, Chen C, Laderman M, Alegria M. Valuing health in a racially and ethnically diverse community sample: an analysis using the valuation metrics of money and time. Qual Life Res. 2010;19:1529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Time valuation scenarios appear less feasible for Latinos in poor health. More research is necessary to understand these differences and the role of immigrant status in health valuation. ..
  49. Tjia J, Givens J. Ethical framework for medication discontinuation in nursing home residents with limited life expectancy. Clin Geriatr Med. 2012;28:255-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these challenges, physicians should be able to perform systematic medication reviews and monitor discontinuation trials in their NH patients for whom this is consistent with their goals of care. ..
  50. Marshall J. Time to move on? Let's talk about it!. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 2006;69:49-50 pubmed
  51. Allen T, Habib A, Dear G, White W, Lubarsky D, Gan T. How much are patients willing to pay to avoid postoperative muscle pain associated with succinylcholine?. J Clin Anesth. 2007;19:601-8 pubmed
    ..To determine how much money patients are willing to pay to avoid postoperative muscle pains associated with succinylcholine...
  52. Koch T. Bioethics as ideology: conditional and unconditional values. J Med Philos. 2006;31:251-67 pubmed
    ..The result unpacks the ideological and political underpinnings of bioethical thinking and suggests new avenues for a broader debate over fundamentals, and a different approach to bioethical debate. ..
  53. Haley K, Womack J, Helm Estabrooks N, Lovette B, Goff R. Supporting autonomy for people with aphasia: use of the Life Interests and Values (LIV) Cards. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2013;20:22-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Family members did not predict activity choices and desires of PWA with full accuracy. The LIV Cards appear to be a viable tool for setting goals and discussing life priorities of PWA. ..