veterinary drugs


Summary: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.

Top Publications

  1. Stege H, Bager F, Jacobsen E, Thougaard A. VETSTAT-the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals. Prev Vet Med. 2003;57:105-15 pubmed
    ..In 2001, sales of 96,500 kg of antimicrobials were reported. ..
  2. Yamada R, Kozono M, Ohmori T, Morimatsu F, Kitayama M. Simultaneous determination of residual veterinary drugs in bovine, porcine, and chicken muscle using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:54-65 pubmed
    ..with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of 130 veterinary drugs and their metabolites in bovine, porcine, and chicken muscle was developed...
  3. Romero González R, Aguilera Luiz M, Plaza Bolaños P, Frenich A, Vidal J. Food contaminant analysis at high resolution mass spectrometry: application for the determination of veterinary drugs in milk. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:9353-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Veterinary drugs (VDs) can remain in milk as a consequence of their use in livestock...
  4. Gómez Pérez M, Plaza Bolaños P, Romero González R, Martínez Vidal J, Garrido Frenich A. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative determination of pesticides and veterinary drugs in honey using liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1248:130-8 pubmed publisher
    A database has been created for the simultaneous analysis of more than 350 pesticides and veterinary drugs (including antibiotics) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (..
  5. Lemus J, Blanco G, Arroyo B, Martinez F, Grande J. Fatal embryo chondral damage associated with fluoroquinolones in eggs of threatened avian scavengers. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:2421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We searched for residues of veterinary drugs and other toxicants in infertile and embryonated unhatched eggs of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) and red ..
  6. Goetting V, Lee K, Tell L. Pharmacokinetics of veterinary drugs in laying hens and residues in eggs: a review of the literature. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34:521-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The available data suggest that, when administered to laying hens, a wide variety of drugs leave detectable residues in eggs laid days to weeks after the cessation of treatment. ..
  7. Kaufmann A, Butcher P, Maden K, Walker S, Widmer M. Development of an improved high resolution mass spectrometry based multi-residue method for veterinary drugs in various food matrices. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;700:86-94 pubmed publisher
    Multi-residue methods for veterinary drugs or pesticides in food are increasingly often based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
  8. Kinsella B, O Mahony J, Malone E, Moloney M, Cantwell H, Furey A, et al. Current trends in sample preparation for growth promoter and veterinary drug residue analysis. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:7977-8015 pubmed publisher
    A comprehensive review is presented on the current trends in sample preparation for the isolation of veterinary drugs and growth promoters from foods...
  9. Liu N, Su P, Gao Z, Zhu M, Yang Z, Pan X, et al. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;632:128-34 pubmed publisher
    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed...

More Information


  1. Kołodziejska M, Maszkowska J, Białk Bielińska A, Steudte S, Kumirska J, Stepnowski P, et al. Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry. Chemosphere. 2013;92:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture...
  2. Aguilera Luiz M, Vidal J, Romero González R, Frenich A. Multi-residue determination of veterinary drugs in milk by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1205:10-6 pubmed publisher
    A simple, selective and fast multi-residue method was developed to determine 18 veterinary drugs in milk by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry...
  3. Watson A, Maddison J. Systemic antibacterial drug use in dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:740-6 pubmed
    ..Drug selection for different disorders was generally appropriate when compared with recommendations in recent texts, although inappropriate use was evident in some circumstances. ..
  4. Hoffmann U, Meister C, Golle K, Zschiesche M. Severe intoxication with the veterinary tranquilizer xylazine in humans. J Anal Toxicol. 2001;25:245-9 pubmed
    ..The sensitvity is high, and with these methods, a rapid analysis is possible. Xylazine intoxications in humans are rare. We describe the management of acute poisoning and present a review of xylazine toxicity in humans. ..
  5. Turnipseed S, Andersen W, Karbiwnyk C, Madson M, Miller K. Multi-class, multi-residue liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry screening and confirmation methods for drug residues in milk. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:1467-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Confirmatory analyses, with additional ion transitions for each residue, were performed on the same extracts. ..
  6. Sarmah A, Meyer M, Boxall A. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment. Chemosphere. 2006;65:725-59 pubmed
    ..The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention. ..
  7. Kaufmann A, Butcher P, Maden K, Widmer M. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF): a novel tool for multiresidue screening of veterinary drugs in urine. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;586:13-21 pubmed
    A multiresidue method for the screening of veterinary drugs in urine with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is proposed...
  8. Heuer O, Jensen V, Hammerum A. Antimicrobial drug consumption in companion animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:344-5 pubmed
  9. Yamaguchi T, Kakimoto K, Nagayoshi H, Yamaguchi M, Okihashi M, Kajimura K, et al. [Simultaneous determination of veterinary drugs in livestock products using dispersive and cartridge column solid-phase extraction by LC-MS/MS]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2013;54:290-7 pubmed
    ..and cartridge column solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of veterinary drugs in livestock products by LC-MS/MS...
  10. Banumathi B, Vaseeharan B, Ishwarya R, Govindarajan M, Alharbi N, Kadaikunnan S, et al. Toxicity of herbal extracts used in ethno-veterinary medicine and green-encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti and microbial pathogens. Parasitol Res. 2017;116:1637-1651 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results suggest that L. leschenaultiana-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles have a significant potential to control A. aegypti mosquitoes and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. ..
  11. Miller J, Sehgal I. A Veterinary Comparative Counseling Elective Featuring Web-based, Student-created, Client Information Sheets. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80:15 pubmed publisher
    ..disease states, how to counsel on common pet prescriptions, where to access informatics about specific veterinary drugs, and how to create their own CIS...
  12. Obimakinde S, Fatoki O, Opeolu B, Olatunji O. Veterinary pharmaceuticals in aqueous systems and associated effects: an update. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:3274-3297 pubmed publisher
  13. Morris D, Gray A, Kay J, Gettinby G. EU sampling strategies for the detection of veterinary drug residues in aquaculture species: are they working?. Drug Test Anal. 2012;4 Suppl 1:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations of the directive, datasets, and practices are further discussed. ..
  14. Padula D, Madigan T, Nowak B. Australian farmed Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus): residues of metallic, agricultural and veterinary chemicals, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. Chemosphere. 2012;86:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..All residues and contaminants were either undetectable or present at very low levels when judged against Australian, Japanese and European Union regulatory standards (where set). ..
  15. Wang R, Wei R, Liu T, Wang T. [Sorption characteristics of veterinary antibiotics chlortetracycline on manure]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008;29:1363-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that organic matter and cation exchange mainly contribute to the sorption of CTC on manure. ..
  16. Sidler X. [The problem of oral administration of antimicrobially effective substances. Experiences from Switzerland]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2008;115:304-7 pubmed
    ..This ordinance pretends to control all technical equipments used for production, transport and application of medicated feed by a qualified person (QP) on farms. Important criteria are defined in the ordinance on veterinary medicines. ..
  17. Fowles J, Dailey D, Gustafson D, Thamm D, Duval D. The Flint Animal Cancer Center (FACC) Canine Tumour Cell Line Panel: a resource for veterinary drug discovery, comparative oncology and translational medicine. Vet Comp Oncol. 2017;15:481-492 pubmed publisher
    ..We have assembled a panel of canine cancer cell lines to facilitate studies in canine cancer and report here phenotypic and genotypic data associated with these cells...
  18. Hofman J, de Jong S, Lipman L. [Adjustments in the waiting times]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2008;133:756-9 pubmed
  19. Weiss D. Drug-associated blood cell dyscrasias. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2012;34:E2 pubmed
  20. Casado N, Pérez Quintanilla D, Morante Zarcero S, Sierra I. Evaluation of bi-functionalized mesoporous silicas as reversed phase/cation-exchange mixed-mode sorbents for multi-residue solid phase extraction of veterinary drug residues in meat samples. Talanta. 2017;165:223-230 pubmed publisher
    ..Best results were achieved with 200mg of SBA-15-C18-SO3- obtaining recoveries higher than 70% for the majority of analytes. ..
  21. Walker W, Epperson W, Wittum T, Lord L, Rajala Schultz P, Lakritz J. Characteristics of dairy calf ranches: morbidity, mortality, antibiotic use practices, and biosecurity and biocontainment practices. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:2204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This research provides initial estimates of key demographics usable by calf ranches, veterinarians, and other professionals serving this segment of the US dairy industry. ..
  22. van der Heeft E, Bolck Y, Beumer B, Nijrolder A, Stolker A, Nielen M. Full-scan accurate mass selectivity of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight and orbitrap mass spectrometry in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2009;20:451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The current trend towards more generic and less selective sample preparation is expected to aggravate this issue further. ..
  23. Pleadin J, Vulić A, Persi N, Terzic S, Andrisic M, Zarkovic I, et al. Accumulation of ractopamine residues in hair and ocular tissues of animals during and after treatment. J Anal Toxicol. 2013;37:117-21 pubmed publisher
  24. Grabowski T, Jaroszewski J. Bioavailability of veterinary drugs in vivo and in silico. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009;32:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained indicate the existence of a relationship between the mean LogP value and aPSA/PSA in silico, and the bioavailability of veterinary drugs as determined in vivo.
  25. Martinez M, Hunter R. Current challenges facing the determination of product bioequivalence in veterinary medicine. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2010;33:418-33 pubmed publisher
  26. Claxton R, Cook J, Endrenyi L, Lucas A, Martinez M, Sutton S. Estimating product bioequivalence for highly variable veterinary drugs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35 Suppl 1:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present manuscript discusses HVD and highly variable veterinary drugs (HVVD) from the perspective of possible alternative approaches to support the assessment of product BE in ..
  27. Nakajima T, Nagano C, Kanda M, Hayashi H, Hashimoto T, Kanai S, et al. Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2013;54:335-44 pubmed
    A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food...
  28. Dawson D. Toxins and adverse drug reactions affecting the equine nervous system. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2011;27:507-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Once a toxin or adverse drug reaction is identified, the specific antidote, if available, and supportive care should be administered promptly. ..
  29. Modric S. Regulatory framework for the availability and use of animal drugs in the United States. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2013;43:1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..drugs, the terminology and specific meaning of terms related to drug approval, and the marketing and use of veterinary drugs in companion animal practice...
  30. Mann S, Nuss K, Feist M, Weber B, Zoller D, Metzner M. Balling gun-induced trauma in cattle: clinical presentation, diagnosis and prevention. Vet Rec. 2013;172:685 pubmed publisher
    ..Five cases of cattle suffering from varying degrees of balling gun-induced trauma are presented, and consideration is given to incorrect application techniques. ..
  31. Samanidou V, Karageorgou E. On the use of Kinetex(™) -C(18) core-shell 2.6 µm stationary phase to the multiclass determination of antibiotics. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3:234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ng for oxacillin, 23.5 ng for florfenicol, 26.7 for cloxacillin, 23.5 ng for chloramphenicol and 42.3 ng for dicloxacillin for 20 µL injection volume. The developed method can be easily and readily transferred to any laboratory. ..
  32. Kulik A, Szczotkowska A, Białecka W, Podolska M, Kwiatkowska Puchniarz B, Mazurek A. Determination of active substances in binary mixture antiparasitic veterinary formulations by HPLC. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:467-72 pubmed
    ..It can also be applied to confirm the identity of benzyl alcohol, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate in Abamitel Plus formulation. ..
  33. Brown K, Stokes W. In vitro vaccine potency testing: a proposal for reducing animal use for requalification testing. Dev Biol (Basel). 2012;134:75-81 pubmed
    ..It would also provide advantages in terms of reduced costs and reduced time for requalification testing. As such it would provide a strong incentive for companies to develop and use in vitro assays for potency testing. ..
  34. Blanckenhorn W, Puniamoorthy N, Schäfer M, Scheffczyk A, Römbke J. Standardized laboratory tests with 21 species of temperate and tropical sepsid flies confirm their suitability as bioassays of pharmaceutical residues (ivermectin) in cattle dung. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;89:21-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Wu M, Li H, Jiang Y, Song C, Guo H, Wu S, et al. Simultaneous quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella boydii using a visual-antibody-macroarray. Analyst. 2015;140:6595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the examination can be solely performed with the naked eye. Therefore, we provide an easy, reliable and rapid method for quantitative analysis of microorganisms. ..
  36. Xian Q, Hu L, Chen H, Chang Z, Zou H. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. J Environ Manage. 2010;91:2657-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. ..
  37. Dhakal S, Chao K, Huang Q, Kim M, Schmidt W, Qin J, et al. A Simple Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Method for on-Site Screening of Tetracycline Residue in Whole Milk. Sensors (Basel). 2018;18: pubmed publisher
    Therapeutic and subtherapeutic use of veterinary drugs has increased the risk of residue contamination in animal food products. Antibiotics such as tetracycline are used for mastitis treatment of lactating cows...
  38. Tomasi S, Roberts K, Stull J, Spiller H, McKenzie L. Pediatric Exposures to Veterinary Pharmaceuticals. Pediatrics. 2017;139: pubmed publisher
    ..Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%)...
  39. Cawley A, Collins M, Kazlauskas R, Handelsman D, Heywood R, Longworth M, et al. Stable isotope ratio profiling of testosterone preparations. Drug Test Anal. 2010;2:557-67 pubmed publisher
  40. Camacho Muñoz D, Kasprzyk Hordern B. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in environmental samples by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015;407:9085-104 pubmed publisher
    ..It will help with better understanding of the role of individual enantiomers in the environment and will enable more accurate environmental risk assessment. ..
  41. Thompson T, Noot D, Kendall J. Surveillance study of novobiocin and phenylbutazone residues in raw bovine milk using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:1104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..mixed with acetonitrile to facilitate the concurrent precipitation of milk proteins and extraction of both veterinary drugs. Without additional clean-up or concentration of the resulting extract, the analytes could be quantified at ..
  42. Mahnke H, Ballent M, Baumann S, Imperiale F, von Bergen M, Lanusse C, et al. The ABCG2 Efflux Transporter in the Mammary Gland Mediates Veterinary Drug Secretion across the Blood-Milk Barrier into Milk of Dairy Cows. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:700-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this study indicated that therapeutically relevant drugs like the anthelmintic MNP represent substrates of the bovine mammary ABCG2 transporter and may thereby be actively concentrated in dairy milk. ..
  43. Chen X, Wu L, Xie X, Zhu D, Wang J, Zhang X. Influence of pig farmer characteristics on improper use of veterinary drugs. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016;48:1395-400 pubmed publisher
    Improper use of veterinary drugs by pig farmers may affect food safety and agro-ecological environment. This study analyzed the influence of pig farmer characteristics on the improper use of veterinary drugs in rural China...
  44. Pan M, Chu L. Phytotoxicity of veterinary antibiotics to seed germination and root elongation of crops. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;126:228-237 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental risks of VAs were summarized based on the phytotoxicity results and other persistent factors. ..
  45. Deceuninck Y, Bichon E, Monteau F, Antignac J, Le Bizec B. Determination of MRL regulated corticosteroids in liver from various species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC). Anal Chim Acta. 2011;700:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance limits of the method have been validated according to the regulatory requirements and the method has been successfully applied to the confirmation of incurred liver samples. ..
  46. Zhong L, Zhang W, Zer C, Ge K, Gao X, Kernstine K. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues. BMC Biotechnol. 2010;10:12 pubmed publisher
    b>Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL) and sulfamethazine (SM2) are low molecular weight (<1000 Da) compounds, or haptens, that are difficult to develop immunoassays due to their low immunogenicity...
  47. Gaskins J. Compounding prokinetic medications for companion animals. Int J Pharm Compd. 2012;16:276-86 pubmed
    ..Therefore, an overall consensus of prokinetic medications will be assessed in this article, hopefully providing insight for practitioners about which therapeutic selections to make for their patients. ..
  48. Kolár J. [On the question of special over-the-counter drugs]. Ceska Slov Farm. 2011;60:269-75 pubmed
    ..drugs (lists of special OTC drugs, good practice of sellers of special OTC drugs) and compares the number and structure (indication group, selected medicinal products, dosage form) of human and veterinary drugs included into this group.
  49. Masia A, Suarez Varela M, Llopis González A, Pico Y. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review. Anal Chim Acta. 2016;936:40-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. ..
  50. Divari S, Cannizzo F, Uslenghi F, Pregel P, Mulasso C, Spada F, et al. Corticosteroid hormone receptors and prereceptors as new biomarkers of the illegal use of glucocorticoids in meat production. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that the combination of GR, MR, and 11?-HSD2 could provide a useful biomarker system to detect the use of illicit glucocorticoid treatment in cattle. ..
  51. Domingues I, Oliveira R, Soares A, Amorim M. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers. Ecotoxicology. 2016;25:491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding. ..
  52. Russo R, Autore G, Severino L. Pharmaco-toxicological aspects of herbal drugs used in domestic animals. Nat Prod Commun. 2009;4:1777-84 pubmed
  53. Han S, Zhou T, Yin B, He P. A sensitive and semi-quantitative method for determination of multi-drug residues in animal body fluids using multiplex dipstick immunoassay. Anal Chim Acta. 2016;927:64-71 pubmed publisher