Summary: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
- Robberstad B, Strand T, Black R, Sommerfelt H. Cost-effectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhoea in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:523-31 pubmed..It is therefore plausible that our findings are also applicable to other developing countries. ..
- Wills B, Nguyen M, Ha T, Dong T, Tran T, Le T, et al. Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:877-89 pubmed..Dextran 70 and 6 percent hydroxyethyl starch perform similarly in children with severe shock, but given the adverse reactions associated with the use of dextran, starch may be preferable for this group. ..
- Bachmann L, Homeier T, Arlt S, Brueckner M, Rawel H, Deiner C, et al. Influence of different oral rehydration solutions on abomasal conditions and the acid-base status of suckling calves. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1649-59 pubmed publisherThe aim of the study was to investigate the influence of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) on milk clotting, abomasal pH, electrolyte concentrations, and osmolality, as well as on the acid-base status in blood of suckling calves, as ..
- Goseki N, Hiranuma S, Yamazaki S, Maruyama M, Nakajima K, Gen T, et al. Oral rehydration solution for providing water and electrolytes following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and recovery of intestinal function. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:2276-81 pubmed
- Hahn S, Kim Y, Garner P. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration due to diarrhoea in children: systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323:81-5 pubmed
- Hoekstra J, Szajewska H, Zikri M, Micetic Turk D, Weizman Z, Papadopoulou A, et al. Oral rehydration solution containing a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates in the treatment of acute diarrhea: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled study on behalf of the ESPGHAN working group on intestinal infections. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004;39:239-45 pubmed..4% versus 16.2%, P = 0.42). In boys with acute non-cholera diarrhea with mild to moderate dehydration a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates was ineffective as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy. ..
- Taha A. Assessment of mother's knowledge and practice in use of oral rehydration solution for diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. Saudi Med J. 2002;23:904-8 pubmed..However, the ORS use rate was inadequate. Repeated health education of mothers regarding diarrhea management is needed. Oral rehydration solution should be made available at health posts and households. ..
- Lima A, Carvalho G, Figueiredo A, Gifoni A, Soares A, Silva E, et al. Effects of an alanyl-glutamine-based oral rehydration and nutrition therapy solution on electrolyte and water absorption in a rat model of secretory diarrhea induced by cholera toxin. Nutrition. 2002;18:458-62 pubmed..Clinical trials are now needed in children and adults with diarrhea and malnutrition. ..
- Perel P, Roberts I, Ker K. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD000567 pubmed publisher..As colloids are not associated with an improvement in survival and are considerably more expensive than crystalloids, it is hard to see how their continued use in clinical practice can be justified. ..
- Alam N, Islam S, Sattar S, Monira S, Desjeux J. Safety of rapid intravenous rehydration and comparative efficacy of 3 oral rehydration solutions in the treatment of severely malnourished children with dehydrating cholera. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;48:318-27 pubmed..Health Statistics median), ages 6 to 36 months with cholera, were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 oral rehydration solutions (ORSs): glucose-ORS (n=58), glucose-ORS plus 50 g/L of amylase-resistant starch (n=59), or rice-ORS (n=58)...
- Rouhani S, Meloney L, Ahn R, Nelson B, Burke T. Alternative rehydration methods: a systematic review and lessons for resource-limited care. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e748-57 pubmed publisher..IO rehydration seems to be an effective alternative when IV access is not readily obtainable. Additional evidence is needed before IP and subcutaneous rehydration can be endorsed. ..
- Gutiérrez C, Villa S, Mota F, Calva J. Does an L-glutamine-containing, glucose-free, oral rehydration solution reduce stool output and time to rehydrate in children with acute diarrhoea? A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:278-84 pubmed..An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea...
- Choi P, Yip G, Quinonez L, Cook D. Crystalloids vs. colloids in fluid resuscitation: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:200-10 pubmed..Larger well-designed randomized trials are needed to achieve sufficient power to detect potentially small differences in treatment effects if they truly exist. ..
- Bhan M, Mahalanabis D, Fontaine O, Pierce N. Clinical trials of improved oral rehydration salt formulations: a review. Bull World Health Organ. 1994;72:945-55 pubmed
- Alam N, Meier R, Schneider H, Sarker S, Bardhan P, Mahalanabis D, et al. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;31:503-7 pubmed
- el Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura H, Hegazi E, Fontaine O, Pierce N. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced-osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74:471-7 pubmed..Studies are in progress to define the optimal formulation of reduced-osmolarity glucose-based ORS...
- Schott H. Hydration, body fluid volumes, and fluid therapy--are we moving forward as fast as we think?. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:124-6 pubmed
- Narayanappa D. Randomized double blinded controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bifilac in patients with acute viral diarrhea. Indian J Pediatr. 2008;75:709-13 pubmed publisher..01). The synbiotic, bifilac, appears to be a safe and very effective adjuvant in the management of acute rotaviral diarrhea. ..
- Woodrow P. Assessing fluid balance in older people: fluid replacement. Nurs Older People. 2003;14:29-30 pubmed
- Xu Y, Lin P, Wang C, Wu L, Kang M, Zhu L, et al. [Investigation of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring for evaluating treatment outcome of nerve-mediated syncope in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013;15:458-61 pubmed..As an effective, objective and non-invasive monitoring means, ABPM is of some clinical significance for evaluating the treatment outcome of NMS in children. ..
- Bellemare S, Hartling L, Wiebe N, Russell K, Craig W, McConnell D, et al. Oral rehydration versus intravenous therapy for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC Med. 2004;2:11 pubmed..The results support existing practice guidelines recommending ORT as the first course of treatment in appropriate children with dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis. ..
- Malhotra B, Deka D. Duration of the increase in amniotic fluid index (AFI) after acute maternal hydration. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;269:173-5 pubmed..However, AFI at 24 and 48 h were not significantly different from pre-hydration AFI. Maternal hydration increases AFI in women with normal and decreased amniotic fluid, but the increase in AFI lasts for less than 24 h. ..
- Assathiany R, Guedj R, Bocquet A, Thiebault G, Salinier C, Girardet J. [Treatment of acute gastroenteritis in private practice: a survey of 641 pediatricians]. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20:1113-9 pubmed publisher..Drug prescription is still too frequent. Anti-rotavirus vaccine is prescribed often but is administered much less frequently. ..
- Masserdotti C. Unusual "erythroid loops" in canine blood smears after viper-bite envenomation. Vet Clin Pathol. 2009;38:321-5 pubmed publisher..Echinocytes, spherocytes, and erythrocyte ghosts are known to result from the action of phospholipase in viper venom; however, erythroid loops have not been reported previously and their exact mechanism of formation is unknown. ..
- Bernal C, Alcaraz G, Botero J. [Oral rehydration with a plantain flour-based solution precooked with standardized electrolytes]. Biomedica. 2005;25:11-21 pubmed..A preparation consisting of a precooked plantain flour-based solution and standard rehydration electrolytes was examined for its effectiveness in treating dehydration, as well as its anti-diarrhoeal properties...
- Thibault H, Aubert Jacquin C, Goulet O. Effects of long-term consumption of a fermented infant formula (with Bifidobacterium breve c50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065) on acute diarrhea in healthy infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004;39:147-52 pubmed..To determine whether long-term consumption of a fermented infant formula could influence the incidence of acute diarrhea and its severity in healthy infants...
- Friedman A. Pediatric hydration therapy: historical review and a new approach. Kidney Int. 2005;67:380-8 pubmed
- Vaslef S, Kaminski B, Talarico T. Oxygen transport dynamics of acellular hemoglobin solutions in an isovolemic hemodilution model in swine. J Trauma. 2001;51:1153-60 pubmed..The differences in the P50 of the two hemoglobin solutions do not appear to significantly influence oxygen dynamics over the range of hematocrits studied. ..
- Grünberg W, Hartmann H, Arlt S, Burfeind O, Staufenbiel R. Alkalinizing effect of NaHCO? with and without glucose when administered orally to euhydrated neonatal dairy calves. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:3895-906 pubmed publisherThe use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) is well established as an effective treatment to correct water-, electrolyte-, and acid-base balance in diarrheic calves...
- Meybohm P, Cavus E, Dorges V, Weber B, Stadlbauer K, Wenzel V, et al. Release of protein S100B in haemorrhagic shock: effects of small volume resuscitation combined with arginine vasopressin. Resuscitation. 2008;76:449-56 pubmed..Haemorrhage-induced hypotension yielded increased S100B levels that were comparable in groups throughout the study period. ..
- Ishizaka T, Okada S, Tokuyama E, Mukai J, Uchida T. Suppression of bitterness and improvement of palatability of commercial prednisolone powder. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008;56:1395-9 pubmed..The additions of orange juice or a carbonated lemon drink to simple syrup solution were most effective in suppressing bitterness and improving palatability of PP. ..
- Diallo A, Cong X, Henderson W, McGrath J. Management of childhood diarrhea by healthcare professionals in low income countries: An integrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017;66:82-92 pubmed publisherThe significant drop in child mortality due to diarrhea has been primarily attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions, continuous feeding and zinc supplementation...
- Yalcin E, Kiper N, Dogru D, Ozcelik U, Aslan A. Clinical features and treatment approaches in cystic fibrosis with pseudo-Bartter syndrome. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2005;25:119-24 pubmed..Infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) are prone to develop episodes of hyponatraemic, hypochloraemic dehydration with metabolic alkalosis, which are biochemical hallmarks of the pseudo-Bartter syndrome (PB)...
- Pantaleon L, Furr M, McKenzie H, Donaldson L. Effects of small- and large-volume resuscitation on coagulation and electrolytes during experimental endotoxemia in anesthetized horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:1374-9 pubmed..HSS-HES may have a protective effect against endotoxemia-induced ionized hypocalcemia. ..
- Fielding C, Magdesian K, Carlson G, Ruby R, Rhodes D. Estimation of acute fluid shifts using bioelectrical impedance analysis in horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:176-83 pubmed..MF-BIA represents a practical and accurate means of assessing acute fluid changes during dehydration and expansion of ECFV using isotonic crystalloids with potential clinical applications in equine critical care. ..
- de Aguilar Nascimento J, Valente A, Oliveira S, Hartmann A, Slhessarenko N. Changes in body composition, hematologic parameters, and serum biochemistry after rapid intravenous infusion or oral intake of 2 liters of 0.9% saline solution in young healthy volunteers: randomized crossover study. World J Surg. 2012;36:2776-81 pubmed publisher..04) after IV infusion. Oral intake of 2 L of 0.9% saline results in minimal variations in serum albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit when compared to IV infusion of the same volume. ..
- Davison G, McClean C, Brown J, Madigan S, Gamble D, Trinick T, et al. The effects of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage 15 minutes prior to high-intensity exercise performance. Res Sports Med. 2008;16:155-66 pubmed publisher..The main finding from this investigation indicates that drinking a CHO-E solution 15 minutes prior to exercise improves performance. This study has practical implications for those sports where drinking during activity is restricted. ..
- Jones D, McGeorge S. Subcutaneous infusion. Nurs Older People. 2007;19:18 pubmed
- Foex B, Dark P, Rees Davies R. Fluid replacement via the rectum for treatment of hypovolaemic shock in an animal model. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:3-4 pubmed
- Lee M, Lin L, Hung K, Wu H. Oral bacterial therapy promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2001;42:301-5 pubmed..1 vs. 3.6 days, p < 0.01). Oral bacterial therapy is an effective adjuvant therapy in rotavirus positive and negative children with diarrhea and can safely be administered during an episode of acute diarrhea. ..
- Rinehart J, Alexander B, Le Manach Y, Hofer C, Tavernier B, Kain Z, et al. Evaluation of a novel closed-loop fluid-administration system based on dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness: an in silico simulation study. Crit Care. 2011;15:R278 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that LIR is an effective volumetric resuscitator in simulated hemorrhage scenarios and improved physician management of the simulated hemorrhages. ..
- Prowle J, Bellomo R. Fluid administration and the kidney. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2013;19:308-14 pubmed publisher..In critically ill patients with, or at risk of, AKI, clinicians should avoid starch and, possibly, saline solutions. ..
- Jammalamadugu S, Mosime B, Masupe T, Habte D. Assessment of the household availability of oral rehydration salt in rural Botswana. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;15:130 pubmed publisher..Availing community based outlet for ORS is an alternative to enhance accessibility. ..
- Noakes T. Overconsumption of fluids by athletes. BMJ. 2003;327:113-4 pubmed
- Morris J, Nevill M, Thompson D, Collie J, Williams C. The influence of a 6.5% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on performance of prolonged intermittent high-intensity running at 30 degrees C. J Sports Sci. 2003;21:371-81 pubmed
- Ekseth K, Abildgaard L, Vegfors M, Berg Johnsen J, Engdahl O. The in vitro effects of crystalloids and colloids on coagulation. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:1102-8 pubmed..For crystalloids and albumin,dilution had to exceed 50% before coagulation was impaired. If these findings can be reproduced in vivo, they may have implications for transfusion practice and prophylaxis against thrombosis. ..
- Cian C, Barraud P, Melin B, Raphel C. Effects of fluid ingestion on cognitive function after heat stress or exercise-induced dehydration. Int J Psychophysiol. 2001;42:243-51 pubmed..However, long-term memory retrieval was impaired in both control and dehydration situations, whereas there was no decrement in performance in the fluid ingestion condition (H1, E1). ..
- Pieścik Lech M, Szymański H, Szajewska H. Efficacy and safety of a new apple-flavoured oral rehydration solution in children with acute gastroenteritis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:e458-64 pubmed publisher..No adverse events were observed in the study groups. ? In an outpatient setting, there was no difference in efficacy between the study products. Both ORSs were equally effective and may be used interchangeably. ..
- Khan A, Sarker S, Alam N, Hossain M, Fuchs G, Salam M. Low osmolar oral rehydration salts solution in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in neonates and young infants: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Health Popul Nutr. 2005;23:52-7 pubmed..The results of the study indicate that ORS-75 is as safe as standard ORS-90 in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in neonates and very young infants and is effective in correcting and preventing dehydration...
- Ibrahim M, Kohn N, Wapnir R. Proabsorptive effect of gum arabic in isotonic solutions orally administered to rats: effect on zinc and other solutes. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15:185-9 pubmed..This proabsorptive capacity could be attributed to some of the physicochemical and biochemical properties of GA and suggest possible applications of GA in liquid formulas and solid food preparations. ..
- Rafie A, Rath P, Michell M, Kirschner R, Deyo D, Prough D, et al. Hypotensive resuscitation of multiple hemorrhages using crystalloid and colloids. Shock. 2004;22:262-9 pubmed..However, trends toward lower BE values and the occurrence of deaths only in the hypotensive treatment protocols suggest that resuscitation to a target MAP of 65 mmHg may be too low for optimal outcomes. ..
- Shavit L, Lifschitz M, Plaksin J, Slotki I. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate. JAMA. 2004;292:1428; author reply 1428-9 pubmed