organ preservation solutions


Summary: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.

Top Publications

  1. Ahlenstiel T, Burkhardt G, Kohler H, Kuhlmann M. Improved cold preservation of kidney tubular cells by means of adding bioflavonoids to organ preservation solutions. Transplantation. 2006;81:231-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to examine whether cold storage induced cell injury can be ameliorated by adding flavonoids directly to preservation solutions...
  2. Bessems M, t Hart N, Tolba R, Doorschodt B, Leuvenink H, Ploeg R, et al. The isolated perfused rat liver: standardization of a time-honoured model. Lab Anim. 2006;40:236-46 pubmed
    ..The usual volume is 150-300 cm3, oxygenated to a pO2 of more than 500 mmHg. The temperature of the perfusate is maintained at 37 degrees C. Standardized markers should be used to allow comparison with other experiments. ..
  3. Maathuis M, Leuvenink H, Ploeg R. Perspectives in organ preservation. Transplantation. 2007;83:1289-98 pubmed
    ..Therefore, recently some groups have pointed at the beneficial effects of normothermic machine perfusion as a new perspective in organ preservation and transplantation. ..
  4. Ostrowska A, Gu K, Bode D, Van Buskirk R. Hypothermic storage of isolated human hepatocytes: a comparison between University of Wisconsin solution and a hypothermosol platform. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the use of HTS-FRS eliminates the need for serum in preservation solutions. HTS-FRS represents an improved solution compared to HTS-Base and UW for extending the shipping/storage time of human hepatocytes. ..
  5. Guibert E, Almada L, Mamprin M, Bellarosa C, Pizarro M, Tiribelli C, et al. Subzero nonfreezing storage of rat hepatocytes using UW solution and 1,4-butanediol. II- functional testing on rewarming and gene expression of urea cycle enzymes. Ann Hepatol. 2009;8:129-33 pubmed
  6. Smith V, Johnson T. Evaluation of Megacell MEM as a storage medium for corneas destined for transplantation. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;43:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This was independent of corneal swelling. Serum-free Megacell MEM is a better storage medium than EB MEM 2% FCS for corneas destined for transplantation. ..
  7. Favreau F, Thuillier R, Cau J, Milin S, Manguy E, Mauco G, et al. Anti-thrombin therapy during warm ischemia and cold preservation prevents chronic kidney graft fibrosis in a DCD model. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that inhibition of thrombin is an effective therapy against IRI that reduces chronic graft fibrosis, with a significantly positive effect on survival. ..
  8. Olschewski P, Gass P, Ariyakhagorn V, Jasse K, Hunold G, Menzel M, et al. The influence of storage temperature during machine perfusion on preservation quality of marginal donor livers. Cryobiology. 2010;60:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxygenated machine perfusion improves viability of livers after prolonged warm ischemic damage. Elevated perfusion temperature of 21 degrees C reconstitutes the hepatic functional capacity better than perfusion at 4 or 12 degrees C. ..
  9. Ben Mosbah I, Rosello Catafau J, Alfany Fernandez I, Rimola A, Parellada P, Mitjavila M, et al. Addition of carvedilol to University Wisconsin solution improves rat steatotic and nonsteatotic liver preservation. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CVD is a useful additive for UW solution that improves the preservation of steatotic and nonsteatotic livers subjected to prolonged cold ischemia. ..

More Information


  1. Schreinemachers M, Doorschodt B, Florquin S, van den Bergh Weerman M, Zernecke A, Idu M, et al. Pulsatile perfusion preservation of warm ischaemia-damaged experimental kidney grafts. Br J Surg. 2010;97:349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that the function of warm ischaemia-damaged kidney grafts after pulsatile perfusion preservation was comparable to that of non-ischaemic controls. ..
  2. Iwai S, Kikuchi T, Kasahara N, Teratani T, Yokoo T, Sakonju I, et al. Impact of normothermic preservation with extracellular type solution containing trehalose on rat kidney grafting from a cardiac death donor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33157 pubmed publisher
    ..Normothermic storage with extracellular-type solution containing trehalose might prevent reperfusion injury due to temperature-dependent tissue edema. ..
  3. Negishi K, Teratani T, Iwasaki J, Kanazawa H, Kasahara N, Lefor A, et al. Luminescence technology in preservation and transplantation for rat islet. Islets. 2011;3:111-7 pubmed
    The development of organ preservation solutions and associated technology has been a major effort in tissue transplantation recently. However, this research takes a great deal of time and resources...
  4. Thuillier R, Giraud S, Favreau F, Goujon J, Desurmont T, Eugene M, et al. Improving long-term outcome in allograft transplantation: role of ionic composition and polyethylene glycol. Transplantation. 2011;91:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Such solutions could be invaluable for the use of fragile organs, such as from extended criteria or deceased after cardiac death donors. ..
  5. Dolińska B, Ostróżka Cieślik A, Caban A, Cierpka L, Ryszka F. Comparing the effect of Biolasol® and HTK solutions on maintaining proper homeostasis, indicating the kidney storage efficiency prior to transplantation. Ann Transplant. 2012;17:74-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly developed Biolasol(®) solution in kidney storage and to compare its protective effect to the standard HTK solution...
  6. Ryszka F, Dolinska B, Caban A, Ostróżka Cieślik A, Budziński G, Krzysztofik M, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of prolactin and cysteine contained in perfusion and preservation solutions on porcine liver stored in simple hypothermia. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:2882-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All tested markers were released more slowly into HTK+Cys+PRL with less release of K(I) and Mg(II) and greater of Na(I) and Ca(II) ions. Addition of the Cys and PRL to HTK positively affected 24-hour storage of isolated livers. ..
  7. Marada T, Zacharovova K, Saudek F. Perfluorocarbon improves post-transplant survival and early kidney function following prolonged cold ischemia. Eur Surg Res. 2010;44:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We demonstrated for the first time that conservation with TLM significantly improves the outcome of kidney transplantation in a rat model and should therefore be further studied in larger animals. ..
  8. Timsit M, Tullius S. Hypothermic kidney preservation: a remembrance of the past in the future?. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2011;16:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The current increased utilization of reduced quality kidneys will require us to further improve our practice and knowledge into optimized organ preservation concepts and their impact on transplant outcome and immune responsiveness. ..
  9. Smith V, Johnson T. Evaluation of an animal product-free variant of MegaCell MEM as a storage medium for corneas destined for transplantation. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;43:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..MegaCell DCS is an animal product-free medium formulated for corneal storage. The quality of corneas held in this medium is similar to those held in MegaCell MEM. ..
  10. Guarrera J, Henry S, Chen S, Brown T, Nachber E, Arrington B, et al. Hypothermic machine preservation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion markers after liver transplantation: preliminary results. J Surg Res. 2011;167:e365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..HMP significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression compared with CS controls. Further studies of human liver HMP with detailed molecular investigations are now warranted to elucidate benefits of HMP in liver transplantation. ..
  11. Pless Petig G, Singer B, Rauen U. Cold storage of rat hepatocyte suspensions for one week in a customized cold storage solution--preservation of cell attachment and metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40444 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat hepatocyte suspensions were stored in cell culture medium, organ preservation solutions and modified TiProtec solutions at 4°C for one week...
  12. Zaouali M, Ben Mosbah I, Boncompagni E, Ben Abdennebi H, Mitjavila M, Bartrons R, et al. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha accumulation in steatotic liver preservation: role of nitric oxide. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:3499-509 pubmed
    ..We found evidence for the role of the HIF-1alpha/NO system in fatty liver preservation, especially when IGL-1 solution is used. ..
  13. Pless G, Sauer I, Rauen U. Improvement of the cold storage of isolated human hepatocytes. Cell Transplant. 2012;21:23-37 pubmed publisher
  14. Ikeda A, Ueki S, Nakao A, Tomiyama K, Ross M, Stolz D, et al. Liver graft exposure to carbon monoxide during cold storage protects sinusoidal endothelial cells and ameliorates reperfusion injury in rats. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:1458-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CO delivery to excised liver grafts during cold preservation efficiently ameliorates SEC damage and hepatic I/R injury. ..
  15. Kay M, Hosgood S, Harper S, Bagul A, Waller H, Nicholson M. Normothermic versus hypothermic ex vivo flush using a novel phosphate-free preservation solution (AQIX) in porcine kidneys. J Surg Res. 2011;171:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Warm initial flushing has potential to be developed as part of normothermic renal preservation techniques. ..
  16. Yuan X, Theruvath A, Ge X, Floerchinger B, Jurisch A, Garcia Cardena G, et al. Machine perfusion or cold storage in organ transplantation: indication, mechanisms, and future perspectives. Transpl Int. 2010;23:561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to enunciate the principles of organ perfusion and preservation as they relate to indication, aspects of organ protection and to highlight future developments. ..
  17. Hosgood S, Nicholson M. Normothermic kidney preservation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2011;16:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they may be used as a device to enhance and assess the condition of the kidney which would be particularly beneficial for kidneys from DCD donors. ..
  18. Navarro A, Asher J, Sohrabi S, Reddy M, Stamp S, Carter N, et al. Peritoneal cooling may provide improved protection for uncontrolled donors after cardiac death: an exploratory porcine study. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:1317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggests a need for further research to determine the potential for reductions in the rates of ischemia-related clinical phenomena for uncontrolled DCDs. ..
  19. Yoshida Y, Hatayama N, Sekino H, Seki K. Heterotopic transplant of an isolated rat heart preserved for 72 h in perfluorocarbon with CO2. Cell Transplant. 2008;17:83-9 pubmed
    ..The present report documents the resuscitation of this heart after 72 h of preservation followed by heterotrophic transplantation. ..
  20. Guarrera J, Karim N. Liver preservation: is there anything new yet?. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008;13:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..An ongoing challenge is to increase the number of innovations entering prospective and randomized clinical trials. ..
  21. Auger S, Vallerand D, Haddad P. Cold preservation-warm reperfusion perturbs cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Liver Transpl. 2003;9:150-9 pubmed
    ..Cold preservation does not significantly affect changes in SEC steady-state Ca(2+) levels, but greatly impairs the capacity of SECs to subsequently respond to Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists. ..
  22. Huang H, Salahudeen A. Cold induces catalytic iron release of cytochrome P-450 origin: a critical step in cold storage-induced renal injury. Am J Transplant. 2002;2:631-9 pubmed
    ..In the clinical setting, sequestering free iron released during cold storage is possible and may prove to be useful in limiting organ injury. ..
  23. Liu C, Hsu P, Huang W, Huang M, Hsu H. Two-layer method (UW solution/perfluorochemical plus O2) for lung preservation in rat lung transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:3019-23 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination revealed more inflammatory cell aggregates in the lung graft preserved using a two-layer method. ..
  24. Wei L, Hata K, Doorschodt B, Buttner R, Minor T, Tolba R. Experimental small bowel preservation using Polysol: a new alternative to University of Wisconsin solution, Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution?. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:3684-91 pubmed
    ..Cold storage using Polysol resulted in significantly better integrity and function of small bowel grafts than UW. Hence, Polysol may be a novel alternative for the small bowel preservation. ..
  25. Codas R, Petruzzo P, Morelon E, Lefrancois N, Danjou F, Berthillot C, et al. IGL-1 solution in kidney transplantation: first multi-center study. Clin Transplant. 2009;23:337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant difference in DGF and rejection rates as well as in patient and graft survival was shown between the two groups. Kidneys preserved in IGL-1 solution showed to have the same function as kidneys preserved in UW solution. ..
  26. Ben Mosbah I, Massip Salcedo M, Fernández Monteiro I, Xaus C, Bartrons R, Boillot O, et al. Addition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activators to University of Wisconsin solution: a way of protecting rat steatotic livers. Liver Transpl. 2007;13:410-25 pubmed
    ..TMZ and AICAR may constitute new additives to UW solution in steatotic liver preservation, whereas a combination of both seems unnecessary. ..
  27. Ben Mosbah I, Rosello Catafau J, Franco Gou R, Abdennebi H, Saidane D, Ramella Virieux S, et al. Preservation of steatotic livers in IGL-1 solution. Liver Transpl. 2006;12:1215-23 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, IGL-1 solution provided steatotic livers with better protection against the deleterious effects of cold ischemia-reperfusion injury than did UW solution. ..
  28. Matsumoto S, Kuroda Y. Perfluorocarbon for organ preservation before transplantation. Transplantation. 2002;74:1804-9 pubmed
    ..The TLM has also been shown to be beneficial for preserving other difficult organs, such as heart and small bowel. ..
  29. Maluf D, Mas V, Yanek K, Stone J, Weis R, Massey D, et al. Molecular markers in stored kidneys using perfluorocarbon-based preservation solution: preliminary results. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:1243-6 pubmed
    ..These preliminary data suggest that increasing oxygen delivery by PFC added to the perfusion solution triggers cytoprotective mechanism in kidney transplantation. ..
  30. Mosbah I, Franco Gou R, Abdennebi H, Hernandez R, Escolar G, Saidane D, et al. Effects of polyethylene glycol and hydroxyethyl starch in University of Wisconsin preservation solution on human red blood cell aggregation and viscosity. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:1229-35 pubmed
    ..These results were consistent with reduced viscosity for PEG-containing solutions. In conclusion, the use of PEG did not change the physiologic function of human RBCs and thus may be an alternative to HES in UW liquids. ..
  31. Almada L, Bellarosa C, Giraudi P, Mamprín M, Mediavilla M, Guibert E, et al. Gene expression and activity of urea cycle enzymes of rat hepatocytes cold stored up to 120h in University of Wisconsin solution. Cryobiology. 2006;52:393-400 pubmed
  32. Yoshida H, Okuno H, Kamoto T, Habuchi T, Toda Y, Hasegawa S, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of ET-Kyoto with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions in cold renal storage. Transplantation. 2002;74:1231-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that this simple and chemically stable solution, ETKS, could be a promising substitute for UWS. ..
  33. Ostróżka Cieślik A, Dolińska B, Ryszka F. Influence of the selected antioxidants on the stability of the Celsior solution used for perfusion and organ preservation purposes. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2009;10:468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mmol/l caused a 4.4 times stability increase (t(90) = 96 days), and fumaric acid at a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l extended the stability by 2.1 times (t(90) = 48 days) in relation to the original solution. ..
  34. Lakey J, Tsujimura T, Shapiro A, Kuroda Y. Preservation of the human pancreas before islet isolation using a two-layer (UW solution-perfluorochemical) cold storage method. Transplantation. 2002;74:1809-11 pubmed
  35. Wight J, Chilcott J, Holmes M, Brewer N. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of pulsatile machine perfusion versus cold storage of kidneys for transplantation retrieved from heart-beating and non-heart-beating donors. Health Technol Assess. 2003;7:1-94 pubmed
    ..Research is also needed to establish whether a valid test (or combination of tests) of kidney viability can be developed. ..
  36. Camposampiero D, Tiso R, Zanetti E, Ruzza A, Bruni A, Ponzin D. Improvement of human corneal endothelium in culture after prolonged hypothermic storage. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:745-51 pubmed
    ..These results may encourage the possibility of an eye bank to allocate the available cornea pool, thus decreasing the risk of discarding precious material. ..
  37. Rauen U, Kerkweg U, de Groot H. Iron-dependent vs. iron-independent cold-induced injury to cultured rat hepatocytes: a comparative study in physiological media and organ preservation solutions. Cryobiology. 2007;54:77-86 pubmed
    ..We here assessed the effects of organ preservation solutions on both components of cold-induced injury and tried to further characterize the iron-independent ..
  38. T Hart N, van der Plaats A, Leuvenink H, Wiersema Buist J, Olinga P, van Luyn M, et al. Initial blood washout during organ procurement determines liver injury and function after preservation and reperfusion. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:1836-44 pubmed
    ..We propose to use high-pressure UW-CSS perfusion for the initial blood washout of the donor liver instead of the usually used low-pressure washout. ..
  39. Sommer S, Warnecke G, Hohlfeld J, Gohrbandt B, Niedermeyer J, Kofidis T, et al. Pulmonary preservation with LPD and celsior solution in porcine lung transplantation after 24 h of cold ischemia. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;26:151-7 pubmed
    ..Both solutions might provide safe pulmonary preservation for 24 h of cold ischemia. While surfactant activity was affected to the same extent in both groups, Celsior solution provided slightly superior endothelial preservation. ..
  40. Rauen U, Klempt S, De Groot H. Histidine-induced injury to cultured liver cells, effects of histidine derivatives and of iron chelators. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:192-205 pubmed
    The amino acid histidine is an excellent buffer and is therefore included in several organ preservation solutions used in transplantation medicine...
  41. Rauen U, Kerkweg U, Wusteman M, de Groot H. Cold-induced injury to porcine corneal endothelial cells and its mediation by chelatable iron: implications for corneal preservation. Cornea. 2006;25:68-77 pubmed
    ..This cold-induced injury might provide an explanation for the known corneal endothelial susceptibility to hypothermic preservation injury, which thus might be amenable to therapeutic interventions (ie, by iron chelators). ..
  42. Monbaliu D, Crabbé T, Roskams T, Fevery J, Verwaest C, Pirenne J. Livers from non-heart-beating donors tolerate short periods of warm ischemia. Transplantation. 2005;79:1226-30 pubmed
    ..This preclinical model is a valid tool to develop techniques to predict the quality of ischemic livers before implantation and to design interventional strategies to improve the tolerance of the liver to warm ischemia. ..
  43. Greenbaum A, Hasany S, Rootman D. Optisol vs Dexsol as storage media for preservation of human corneal epithelium. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:519-24 pubmed
    ..The storage time should be less than 4 days,especially when performing penetrating keratoplasty on patients with ocular surface disorders. ..
  44. Wittwer T, Franke U, Fehrenbach A, Ochs M, Sandhaus T, Schuette A, et al. Experimental lung transplantation: impact of preservation solution and route of delivery. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24:1081-90 pubmed
    ..In contrast, preservation with Celsior solution resulted in lethal post-ischemic outcome, regardless of the route of administration, and therefore must be considered unsuitable for extended lung procurement. ..
  45. Wille T, de Groot H, Rauen U. Improvement of the cold storage of blood vessels with a vascular preservation solution. Study in porcine aortic segments. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, iron chelators, but also optimized base solutions, are options to improve the storage of vascular endothelium. The optimized solution should now be tested in in vivo animal experiments. ..
  46. Maathuis M, Ottens P, van Goor H, Zwaagstra J, Wiersema Buist J, Schuurs T, et al. Static cold storage preservation of ischemically damaged kidneys. a comparison between IGL-1 and UW solution. Transpl Int. 2008;21:473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present experiment, static CS preservation of ischemically damaged rat kidneys in either IGL-1 or UW-CSS rendered equal results after transplantation. ..
  47. T Hart N, van der Plaats A, Faber A, Leuvenink H, Olinga P, Wiersema Buist J, et al. Oxygenation during hypothermic rat liver preservation: an in vitro slice study to demonstrate beneficial or toxic oxygenation effects. Liver Transpl. 2005;11:1403-11 pubmed
    ..This study also shows that ROS formation occurs during hypothermic preservation and the liver is not protected by UCP-2. We conclude that saturation of UW-MP with 21% oxygen allows optimal preservation results. ..
  48. Noguchi H, Ueda M, Hayashi S, Kobayashi N, Okitsu T, Iwanaga Y, et al. Ductal injection of preservation solution increases islet yields in islet isolation and improves islet graft function. Cell Transplant. 2008;17:69-81 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, this technique is now used for clinical islet transplantation from non-heart-beating donor pancreata or living donor pancreas. ..
  49. Atias S, Mizrahi S, Shaco Levy R, Yussim A. Preservation of pancreatic tissue morphology, viability and energy metabolism during extended cold storage in two-layer oxygenated University of Wisconsin/perfluorocarbon solution. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:273-6 pubmed
    ..This method could be implemented in clinical practice to maximize utilization of pancreata for whole-organ and islet transplantation as well as for pancreas sharing with remote centers. ..
  50. Sawada T, Matsumoto I, Nakano M, Kirchhof N, Sutherland D, Hering B. Improved islet yield and function with ductal injection of University of Wisconsin solution before pancreas preservation. Transplantation. 2003;75:1965-9 pubmed
    ..05, group 2 vs. group 3 and group 4 vs. group 5). Ductal preservation improved islet yield and function after 6 and 24 hr of preservation. Well-preserved pancreatic ducts maintained good distribution of collagenase solution. ..
  51. Abbas R, Kombu R, DIGNAM D, Gunning W, Stulberg J, Brunengraber H, et al. Polyethylene glycol modified-albumin enhances the cold preservation properties of University of Wisconsin solution in rat liver and a hepatocyte cell line. J Surg Res. 2010;164:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Peg-Alb-UW solution improved the integrity of the glutathione redox buffer system of a hepatocyte cell line after cold storage and reperfusion. ..
  52. Xu H, Lee C, Clemens M, Zhang J. Pronlonged hypothermic machine perfusion preserves hepatocellular function but potentiates endothelial cell dysfunction in rat livers. Transplantation. 2004;77:1676-82 pubmed
  53. Amir G, Horowitz L, Rubinsky B, Yousif B, Lavee J, Smolinsky A. Subzero nonfreezing cryopresevation of rat hearts using antifreeze protein I and antifreeze protein III. Cryobiology. 2004;48:273-82 pubmed
    ..4 vs. 1.7, p<0.05, and 3.4 vs. 1.7, p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, AFPs were found to protect the heart from freezing and improve survival and dP (AFP III) in prolonged subzero preservation. ..