hypotonic solutions


Summary: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

Top Publications

  1. Barfod E, Moore A, Melnick R, Lidofsky S. Src regulates distinct pathways for cell volume control through Vav and phospholipase Cgamma. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25548-57 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that swelling-induced Src regulates cytoskeletal dynamics, through Vav, and fluid efflux, through PLCgamma, and thus can coordinate structural reorganization with fluid balance to maintain cellular integrity. ..
  2. Au A, Ray P, McBryde K, Newman K, Weinstein S, Bell M. Incidence of postoperative hyponatremia and complications in critically-ill children treated with hypotonic and normotonic solutions. J Pediatr. 2008;152:33-8 pubmed
    ..Careful monitoring of serum sodium level may be responsible for this lack of adverse outcomes. Larger, prospective studies are needed to determine whether the incidence of hyponatremia differs between the HT and NT groups. ..
  3. Neville K, Verge C, Rosenberg A, O Meara M, Walker J. Isotonic is better than hypotonic saline for intravenous rehydration of children with gastroenteritis: a prospective randomised study. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:226-32 pubmed
    ..No child became hypernatraemic. In gastroenteritis treated with intravenous fluids, normal saline is preferable to hypotonic saline because it protects against hyponatraemia without causing hypernatraemia. ..
  4. Armon K, Riordan A, Playfor S, Millman G, Khader A. Hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia during intravenous fluid administration. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:285-7 pubmed
    ..77 of 99 children receiving intravenous fluids received hypotonic solutions and 38% received >105% of fluid requirements...
  5. Chen L, Liu C, Liu L, Cao X. Changes in osmolality modulate voltage-gated sodium channels in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neurosci Res. 2009;64:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..voltage-dependent activation and inactivation curves shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction, while in hypotonic solutions only inactivation curve shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction...
  6. Snaith R, Peutrell J, Ellis D. An audit of intravenous fluid prescribing and plasma electrolyte monitoring; a comparison with guidelines from the National Patient Safety Agency. Paediatr Anaesth. 2008;18:940-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No patient had daily weight recorded. Our practice of i.v. fluid prescribing and electrolyte monitoring in children, prior to the publication of guidelines by the NPSA in March 2007, did not fully meet the recommended standards. ..
  7. Chen L, Liu C, Liu L. Changes in osmolality modulate voltage-gated calcium channels in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2008;1208:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, although the effects of hypo- and hypertonicity show similar phenotype, receptor and intracellular signaling pathways were selective for hypo- versus hypertonicity-induced inhibition of I(HVA). ..
  8. Pastor Anglada M, Derijard B, Casado F. Mechanisms implicated in the response of system a to hypertonic stress and amino acid deprivation still can be different. J Gen Physiol. 2005;125:41-2 pubmed
  9. Friis M, Vorum K, Lambert I. Volume-sensitive NADPH oxidase activity and taurine efflux in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C1552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that a NOX4 isotype plus p22 phox account for the swelling-induced increase in the ROS production in NIH3T3 cells and that the oxidase activity is potentiated by PKC and LPA but not by Ca2+. ..

More Information


  1. Moritz M. Urine sodium composition in ambulatory healthy children: hypotonic or isotonic?. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:955-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9+/-0.4 ml/kg per hour. It was concluded that healthy children generate free water via the excretion ofa hypertonic urine. It is unlikely that 0.9% NaCl would result in hypernatremia when administered in parenteral fluids. ..
  2. Tong E, Guo J, Huang A, Liu H, Hu C, Chung S, et al. Regulation of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of transcription factor OREBP/TonEBP/NFAT5. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23870-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide insight into how nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by changes in extracellular tonicity. ..
  3. Chen X, Alessandri Haber N, Levine J. Marked attenuation of inflammatory mediator-induced C-fiber sensitization for mechanical and hypotonic stimuli in TRPV4-/- mice. Mol Pain. 2007;3:31 pubmed
  4. Hatherill M, Waggie Z, Salie S, Argent A. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia is associated with excessive administration of intravenous maintenance fluid. Pediatrics. 2004;114:1368; author reply 1368-9 pubmed
  5. Yung M, Keeley S. Randomised controlled trial of intravenous maintenance fluids. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009;45:9-14 pubmed
    ..One patient, receiving normal saline at restricted rate, developed asymptomatic hypoglycaemia. Sick and post-operative children given dextrose saline at traditional maintenance rates are at risk of hyponatraemia. ..
  6. Chen L, Liu C, Liu L. The modulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by anisotonicity in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2008;154:482-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, changes in osmolality have various effects on IK and IA and different receptors and second messenger systems are selective for the modulation of VGPCs induced by hypo- versus hypertonicity. ..
  7. Lambert I. Activation and inactivation of the volume-sensitive taurine leak pathway in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C390-400 pubmed
  8. Moritz M, Ayus J. Preventing neurological complications from dysnatremias in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1687-700 pubmed
    ..Breastfed infants must be monitored closely for insufficient lactation and receive lactation support. Judicious use of infant formula supplementation may be called for until problems with lactation can be corrected. ..
  9. Moritz M, Ayus J. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia--why are hypotonic parenteral fluids still being used?. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007;3:374-82 pubmed
  10. Duke T, Kinney S, Waters K. Hyponatraemia and seizures in oncology patients associated with hypotonic intravenous fluids. J Paediatr Child Health. 2005;41:685-6 pubmed
  11. Nishinaka D, Kishino F, Matsuura A. Water and electrolyte absorption from hypotonic oral rehydration solution in rat small intestine and colon. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:315-21 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that low osmolality is a crucial factor to facilitate water absorption, and the electrolytes, sodium and chloride, can effectively be salvaged in the colon. ..
  12. Davies P, Hall T, Ali T, Lakhoo K. Intravenous postoperative fluid prescriptions for children: a survey of practice. BMC Surg. 2008;8:10 pubmed publisher
    ..A survey to describe practice since publication of National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) recommendations is required. ..
  13. Chen L, Liu C, Liu L. Osmolality-induced tuning of action potentials in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:79-83 pubmed
    ..The increase of APs by hypo- and hypertonicity is mediated through different receptor and intracellular signaling pathways. ..
  14. Ichinose Y, Yano T, Asoh H, Yokoyama H, Fukuyama Y, Miyagi J, et al. Intraoperative intrapleural hypotonic cisplatin treatment for carcinomatous pleuritis. J Surg Oncol. 1997;66:196-200 pubmed
    ..These observations seem to suggest that intraoperative intrapleural hypotonic cisplatin treatment for carcinomatous pleuritis found at thoracotomy can, at least, delay the appearance of the pleural disease without any adverse events. ..
  15. Sakaguchi T, Kuno M, Kawasaki K. Disparity of cell swelling and rapid neuronal death by excitotoxic insults in rat hippocampal slice cultures. Neurosci Lett. 1999;274:135-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, contrary to the previous notion, the rapid neuronal death was Ca2+-dependent. Thus, the primary cause of the rapid neuronal death induced by NMDA cannot be attributed to cell swelling. ..
  16. Koyama T, Oike M, Ito Y. Involvement of Rho-kinase and tyrosine kinase in hypotonic stress-induced ATP release in bovine aortic endothelial cells. J Physiol. 2001;532:759-69 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that tyrosine kinase and the Rho-Rho-kinase pathways are involved in hypotonic stress-induced ATP release and actin rearrangement, but actin polymerization is not required for ATP release in BAECs. ..
  17. Moritz M, Ayus J. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia: why are there still deaths?. Pediatrics. 2004;113:1395-6 pubmed
  18. Rubera I, Barriere H, Tauc M, Bidet M, Verheecke Mauze C, Poujeol C, et al. Extracellular adenosine modulates a volume-sensitive-like chloride conductance in immortalized rabbit DC1 cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F126-45 pubmed
    ..The effects of adenosine are mediated via A(1) receptors that could mediate the purinergic regulation of the volume-sensitive Cl(-) conductance. ..
  19. Moritz M, Ayus J. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatremia: a case for using isotonic saline. Pediatrics. 2003;111:227-30 pubmed
    ..The administration of isotonic saline in maintenance parenteral fluids is the most important prophylactic measure that can be taken to prevent the development of hyponatremia in children who receive parenteral fluids. ..
  20. Barriere H, Belfodil R, Rubera I, Tauc M, Poujeol C, Bidet M, et al. CFTR null mutation altered cAMP-sensitive and swelling-activated Cl- currents in primary cultures of mouse nephron. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F796-811 pubmed
    ..This observation strengthens the hypothesis that CFTR is a modulator of ATP release in epithelia. ..
  21. Nilius B, Sehrer J, Droogmans G. Permeation properties and modulation of volume-activated Cl(-)-currents in human endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1994;112:1049-56 pubmed
    ..Evidence that they belong to the class of P-glycoprotein associated Cl--channels is however only marginal, whereas their biophysical characteristics differ significantly from those of the CIC-2 volume-activated Cl--channels. ..
  22. Trouet D, Hermans D, Droogmans G, Nilius B, Eggermont J. Inhibition of volume-regulated anion channels by dominant-negative caveolin-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:461-5 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that the interaction between caveolin-1 and detergent-resistant lipid rafts is an important prerequisite for endothelial VRAC activity. ..
  23. Nilius B, Voets T, Prenen J, Barth H, Aktories K, Kaibuchi K, et al. Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells. J Physiol. 1999;516 ( Pt 1):67-74 pubmed
    ..9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade. ..
  24. Hoorn E, Geary D, Robb M, Halperin M, Bohn D. Acute hyponatremia related to intravenous fluid administration in hospitalized children: an observational study. Pediatrics. 2004;113:1279-84 pubmed
    ..The most important factor for hospital-acquired hyponatremia is the administration of hypotonic fluid. We suggest that hypotonic fluid not be given to children when they have a P(Na) <138 mmol/L. ..
  25. Pedersen S, Mills J, Hoffmann E. Role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the RVD and RVI processes in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Exp Cell Res. 1999;252:63-74 pubmed
    ..The RVD and RVI processes are inhibited by 0.5 microM CB, but not by 0.5 microM CD, which is more specific for actin. ..
  26. Varela D, Simon F, Riveros A, Jørgensen F, Stutzin A. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H(2)O(2) signals chloride channel activation in cell volume regulation and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13301-4 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H(2)O(2) is the common signal transducing molecule that mediates the activation of these ubiquitously expressed anion channels under a variety of physiological conditions. ..
  27. Alessandri Haber N, Dina O, Yeh J, Parada C, Reichling D, Levine J. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 is essential in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain in the rat. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4444-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TRPV4 plays a crucial role in a painful peripheral neuropathy, making it a very promising target for the development of a novel class of analgesics. ..
  28. Playfor S. Fatal iatrogenic hyponatraemia. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:646-7 pubmed
  29. Belfodil R, Barriere H, Rubera I, Tauc M, Poujeol C, Bidet M, et al. CFTR-dependent and -independent swelling-activated K+ currents in primary cultures of mouse nephron. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;284:F812-28 pubmed
    ..In KO mice, impairment of the regulatory volume decrease process in DCT and CCT could be due to the loss of an autocrine mechanism, implicating ATP and adenosine, which controls swelling-activated Cl(-) and K(+) channels. ..
  30. Viana F, de la Pena E, Pecson B, Schmidt R, Belmonte C. Swelling-activated calcium signalling in cultured mouse primary sensory neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:722-34 pubmed
    ..b>Hypotonic solutions (15--45%) led to rapid cell swelling in all neurons...
  31. Liedtke W, Choe Y, Martí Renom M, Bell A, Denis C, Sali A, et al. Vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC), a candidate vertebrate osmoreceptor. Cell. 2000;103:525-35 pubmed
    ..The channel also occurs in other neurosensory cells, including inner-ear hair cells, sensory neurons, and Merkel cells. ..
  32. Alessandri Haber N, Yeh J, Boyd A, Parada C, Chen X, Reichling D, et al. Hypotonicity induces TRPV4-mediated nociception in rat. Neuron. 2003;39:497-511 pubmed
    ..Because this action is enhanced by an inflammatory mediator, TRPV4 may be important in pathological states and may be an attractive pharmacological target for the development of novel analgesics. ..
  33. Ichinose Y, Tsuchiya R, Koike T, Yasumitsu T, Nakamura K, Tada H, et al. A prematurely terminated phase III trial of intraoperative intrapleural hypotonic cisplatin treatment in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer with positive pleural lavage cytology: the incidence of carcinomatous pleuritis after surgical . J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002;123:695-9 pubmed
  34. Trischitta F, Denaro M, Faggio C. Cell volume regulation following hypotonic stress in the intestine of the eel, Anguilla anguilla, is Ca2+-dependent. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;140:359-67 pubmed
  35. Piao L, Lee H, Li H, Park C, Cho I, Piao Z, et al. Mechanosensitivity of voltage-gated K+ currents in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2006;83:1373-80 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that both I(K,A) and I(K,V) are mechanosensitive and that actin-based cytoskeleton is likely to regulate the mechanosensitivity of VGPC currents in TG neurons. ..
  36. Edjo Nkilly G, Michelet D, Hilly J, Diallo T, Greff B, Mangalsuren N, et al. Postoperative decrease in plasma sodium concentration after infusion of hypotonic intravenous solutions in neonatal surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..7 (0.9-1) and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively. Hypotonic solutions and i.v. free water intake of more than 6...
  37. Parichehreh V, Estrada R, Kumar S, Bhavanam K, Raj V, Raj A, et al. Exploiting osmosis for blood cell sorting. Biomed Microdevices. 2011;13:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate feasibility of this approach for monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte (sub-populations) isolation based on size. ..
  38. Korossis S, Wilcox H, Watterson K, Kearney J, Ingham E, Fisher J. In-vitro assessment of the functional performance of the decellularized intact porcine aortic root. J Heart Valve Dis. 2005;14:408-21; discussion 422 pubmed
    ..This approach can be used for both allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue matrices. ..
  39. Lenertz L, Lee B, Min X, Xu B, Wedin K, Earnest S, et al. Properties of WNK1 and implications for other family members. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26653-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the WNK1 autoinhibitory domain inhibited the catalytic activity of these WNKs. These findings suggest potential mechanisms for interconnected regulation of WNK family members. ..
  40. Vorontsova I, Donaldson P, Kong Z, Wickremesinghe C, Lam L, Lim J. The modulation of the phosphorylation status of NKCC1 in organ cultured bovine lenses: Implications for the regulation of fiber cell and overall lens volume. Exp Eye Res. 2017;165:164-174 pubmed publisher
    ..to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and ..
  41. Zankov D, Toyoda F, Omatsu Kanbe M, Matsuura H, Horie M. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates partially hyposmotic-induced increase of I (Ks) current in guinea pig atrium. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:837-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The above results implicate AT(1) receptor and tyrosine kinases in the hyposmotic modulation of atrial I (Ks) and suggest acute antiarrhythmic properties of AT(1) antagonists in the settings of stretch-related atrial tachyarrhythmias. ..
  42. Wang P, Zhang C, Yu P, Tang B, Liu T, Cui H, et al. Regulation of colon cancer cell migration and invasion by CLIC1-mediated RVD. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;365:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates, for the first time, that CLIC1 regulates the migration and invasion of colon cancer. ..
  43. Bobak N, Bittner S, Andronic J, Hartmann S, Mühlpfordt F, Schneider Hohendorf T, et al. Volume regulation of murine T lymphocytes relies on voltage-dependent and two-pore domain potassium channels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:2036-44 pubmed publisher
  44. Lipp S, Wurm A, Pannicke T, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Chen J, et al. Calcium responses mediated by type 2 IP3-receptors are required for osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial cells in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2009;457:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that endogenous calcium signaling mediated by IP(3)R2 is required for the osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial cells. ..
  45. Zander R. [Intracranial pressure and hypotonic infusion solutions]. Anaesthesist. 2009;58:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Every infusion fluid should be isotonic (290+/-10 mosmol/kgH2O). Hypotonic solutions must move water from the extracellular space to the intracellular space...
  46. da Silva M, Ventura R, Varanda W. Hypertonicity increases NO production to modulate the firing rate of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus of rats. Neuroscience. 2013;250:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that an intrinsic nitrergic system is part of the mechanisms controlling the excitability of MNCs of the SON when the internal fluid homeostasis is disturbed. ..
  47. Hirakawa M, Oike M, Watanabe M, Karashima Y, Ito Y. Pivotal role of integrin alpha5beta1 in hypotonic stress-induced responses of human endothelium. FASEB J. 2006;20:1992-9 pubmed
    ..It is therefore reasonable to assume that this particular subtype of integrin is involved in the initiation of the responses induced by mechanical stimuli in HUVECs. ..
  48. Deng H, Klein C, Yan J, Shi Y, Wu Y, Fecto F, et al. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy and CMT2C are allelic disorders caused by alterations in TRPV4. Nat Genet. 2010;42:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings link mutations in TRPV4 to altered calcium homeostasis and peripheral neuropathies, implying a pathogenic mechanism and possible options for therapy for these disorders. ..
  49. Israel J, Poulain D, Oliet S. Glutamatergic inputs contribute to phasic activity in vasopressin neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:1221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data thus strongly suggest that phasic activity in magnocellular VP neurons is controlled by glutamatergic synaptic inputs rather than by intrinsic properties. ..
  50. Herok G, Millar T, Anderton P, Martin D. Role of chloride channels in regulating the volume of acinar cells of the rabbit superior lacrimal gland. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the outward chloride currents (Cl(OR)) in single acinar cells isolated from the rabbit superior lacrimal gland (RSLG) to investigate the hypothesis that Cl(OR) may have a role in regulating the volume of RSLG acini...
  51. Komagiri Y, Nakamura K, Kubokawa M. A nicardipine-sensitive Ca2+ entry contributes to the hypotonicity-induced increase in [Ca2+]i of principal cells in rat cortical collecting duct. Cell Calcium. 2011;49:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggested that a nicardipine-sensitive Ca(2+) entry pathway would contribute to the mechanisms underlying the hypotonicity-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation of principal cells in rat CCD. ..
  52. Sahin E, Petrunkina A, Ekhlasi Hundrieser M, Hettel C, Waberski D, Harrison R, et al. Fibronectin type II-module proteins in the bovine genital tract and their putative role in cell volume control during sperm maturation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:479-88 pubmed
    ..While the protein had no effect on cauda spermatozoa, it caused caput spermatozoa to swell more in response to hypotonic stress, similarly to untreated cauda spermatozoa...
  53. Yachai M, Tanasupawat S, Itoh T, Benjakul S, Visessanguan W, Valyasevi R. Halobacterium piscisalsi sp. nov., from fermented fish (pla-ra) in Thailand. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:2136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, strain HPC1-2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium piscisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HPC1-2(T) (=BCC 24372(T)=JCM 14661(T)=PCU 302(T))...