materia medica


Summary: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.

Top Publications

  1. Pascual Carpe F, Vicente Ortega V, Campos Aranda M, Yánez Gascon J. In vivo treatment of melanoma (B16F10) with a homeopathic agent and with a cytokine (IFN-alpha). Oncol Res. 2006;16:211-6 pubmed
    ..An antitumour effect was displayed by both agents, as was the cytotoxicity of INF-alpha and the immune response-stimulating effect of Lymphomyosot. ..
  2. Jacobs J, Fernandez E, Merizalde B, Avila Montes G, Crothers D. The use of homeopathic combination remedy for dengue fever symptoms: a pilot RCT in Honduras. Homeopathy. 2007;96:22-6 pubmed
    ..The small sample size makes conclusions difficult, but the results of this study do not suggest that this combination homeopathic remedy is effective for the symptoms that are characteristic of dengue fever. ..
  3. Chan K, Shaw D, Simmonds M, Leon C, Xu Q, Lu A, et al. Good practice in reviewing and publishing studies on herbal medicine, with special emphasis on traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;140:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These guidelines provide a clear starting point for this important endeavour. They also provide a platform for adaptation, as appropriate, to other systems of traditional medicine. ..
  4. Williamson E, Lorenc A, Booker A, Robinson N. The rise of traditional Chinese medicine and its materia medica: a comparison of the frequency and safety of materials and species used in Europe and China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:453-62 pubmed publisher
    Due to the global rise in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese materia medica (medicinal materials, or CMM) are giving cause for concern over their evidence base, safety/possible toxicity, questionable quality and use of ..
  5. Bell I, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M, Bootzin R, Brooks A. Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia. Homeopathy. 2012;101:182-92 pubmed publisher
    ..MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. ..
  6. Bhattacharyya S, Das J, Das S, Samadder A, Das D, De A, et al. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate by a homeopathic mother tincture Phytolacca Decandra. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012;10:546-54 pubmed
  7. Efferth T, Kahl S, Paulus K, Adams M, Rauh R, Boechzelt H, et al. Phytochemistry and pharmacogenomics of natural products derived from traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica with activity against tumor cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..By COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses, candidate genes were identified, which significantly predicted sensitivity or resistance of cell lines to miltirone...
  8. Elia V, Napoli E, Germano R. The 'Memory of Water': an almost deciphered enigma. Dissipative structures in extremely dilute aqueous solutions. Homeopathy. 2007;96:163-9 pubmed
    ..These new experimental results strongly suggest the presence of an extended and 'ordered' dynamics involving liquid water molecules. ..
  9. Bell I, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M, Baldwin C, Bootzin R. Effects of homeopathic medicines on polysomnographic sleep of young adults with histories of coffee-related insomnia. Sleep Med. 2011;12:505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings are similar though not identical to those reported in animals with the same remedies. Possible mechanisms include initial disruption of the nonlinear dynamics of sleep patterns by the verum remedies. ..

More Information


  1. Brien S, Lachance L, Prescott P, McDermott C, Lewith G. Homeopathy has clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are attributable to the consultation process but not the homeopathic remedy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011;50:1070-82 pubmed publisher
    ..90). Homeopathic consultations but not homeopathic remedies are associated with clinically relevant benefits for patients with active but relatively stable RA. Current controlled trials,, ISRCTN09712705. ..
  2. Mishra N, Muraleedharan K, Paranjpe A, Munta D, Singh H, Nayak C. An exploratory study on scientific investigations in homeopathy using medical analyzer. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that it is possible to record the response of homeopathic medicines on physiologic parameters of the autonomic nervous system. ..
  3. Leonti M, Casu L, Sanna F, Bonsignore L. A comparison of medicinal plant use in Sardinia and Sicily-De Materia Medica revisited?. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..and Sicily by comparing the selection of medicinal species and specific uses with those of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. We use (i) a quantification of citations for medicinal species mentioned in ethnobotanical studies conducted ..
  4. Chaplin M. The Memory of Water: an overview. Homeopathy. 2007;96:143-50 pubmed
    ..There are also mechanisms by which such solutions may possess effects on biological systems which substantially differ from plain water. This paper examines the evidence. ..
  5. Milgrom L. A new geometrical description of entanglement and the curative homeopathic process. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The practitioner helps in forming these notional semiotic polyhedra, but the patient is at their epicenters (i.e., the practitioner facilitates but ultimately does not control the curative process). ..
  6. Khuda Bukhsh A, De A, Das D, Dutta S, Boujedaini N. Analysis of the capability of ultra-highly diluted glucose to increase glucose uptake in arsenite-stressed bacteria Escherichia coli. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011;9:901-12 pubmed
  7. Guimarães F, Abud A, Oliveira S, Oliveira C, Cesar B, Andrade L, et al. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:293 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they are attractive combination-therapy candidates, which may enhance the efficacy of conventional medicines by improving the immune response against tumor cells. ..
  8. Oberbaum M, Singer S, Vithoulkas G. The colour of the homeopathic improvement: the multidimensional nature of the response to homeopathic therapy. Homeopathy. 2005;94:196-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, beyond its biological effect, homeopathic treatment affects the awareness. ..
  9. Jacobs J, Williams A, Girard C, Njike V, Katz D. Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:799-806 pubmed
    ..Future studies should be carried out over a longer period of time and should include a control group that does not receive the homeopathic consultation. Comparison to conventional stimulant medication for ADHD also should be considered. ..
  10. Milazzo S, Russell N, Ernst E. Efficacy of homeopathic therapy in cancer treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:282-9 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of published literature on homeopathy found insufficient evidence to support clinical efficacy of homeopathic therapy in cancer care. ..
  11. Lev E. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006;2:11 pubmed
    ..Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. ..
  12. Weatherley Jones E, Thompson E, Thomas K. The placebo-controlled trial as a test of complementary and alternative medicine: observations from research experience of individualised homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy. 2004;93:186-9 pubmed
    ..Only with such trials will the results be generalisable to homeopathic practice in the real world. The authors propose that comparative trials are a meaningful way of evaluating the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. ..
  13. Lopes L, Godoy L, de Oliveira C, Gabardo J, Schadeck R, de Freitas Buchi D. Phagocytosis, endosomal/lysosomal system and other cellularaspects of macrophage activation by Canova medication. Micron. 2006;37:277-87 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), is lower in Canova treated macrophages. The net results demonstrate that Canova medication is an effective stimulator of macrophage activity. ..
  14. de Oliveira C, de Oliveira S, Godoy L, Gabardo J, Buchi D. Canova, a Brazilian medical formulation, alters oxidative metabolism of mice macrophages. J Infect. 2006;52:420-32 pubmed
    ..CA can be considered as a new adjuvant therapeutic approach to known therapies. ..
  15. Bell I, Lewis D, Schwartz G, Lewis S, Caspi O, Scott A, et al. Electroencephalographic cordance patterns distinguish exceptional clinical responders with fibromyalgia to individualized homeopathic medicines. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:285-99 pubmed
    ..Prefrontal cortex controls executive function, including ability to redirect attention. Interactions between executive function, absorption, and the simillimum remedy could facilitate exceptional responses. ..
  16. Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, Kaufmann F, Walther D, Hsu Schmitz S, et al. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:758-67 pubmed
    ..0001). The trial suggests scientific evidence of the effectiveness of homeopathy in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, particularly in the areas of behavioural and cognitive functions. ..
  17. Bellavite P. Complexity science and homeopathy: a synthetic overview. Homeopathy. 2003;92:203-12 pubmed
  18. Frei H, Thurneysen A, von Ammon K. Methodological difficulties in homeopathic treatment of children with ADD/ADHD. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12:104; author reply 104 pubmed
  19. Lev E. Reconstructed materia medica of the Medieval and Ottoman al-Sham. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;80:167-79 pubmed
    ..Our main goal was to arrive at a reconstruction of the unwritten materia medica of the medieval and Ottoman Levant...
  20. Gagnier J. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with herbal, vitamin, mineral, and homeopathic supplements. Spine J. 2008;8:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hoped that articles in this special focus issue will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating nonsurgical interventions for CLBP. ..
  21. Qiu X, Yang M, Xie X, Lai J, Chen S. [In vivo/in vitro evaluation of Kangfuxin colon targeting capsules]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1644-7 pubmed
    ..In the experiment, disintegration is stabilize among individuales, between 2.0-3.5 hours. Kangfuxin colon targeting capsules of two principles all release in fixed position to achieve the goal. ..
  22. Shah R. Hepatitis C Nosode: The preparation and homeopathic pathogenetic trial. Homeopathy. 2013;102:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The nosode should be further explored for the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases, infections including Hep C, fibrotic pathology and chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  23. Williamson J, Lacy Hulbert S. Lack of efficacy of homeopathic therapy against post-calving clinical mastitis in dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2014;62:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This, combined with lower bacteriological cure rates, has implications for duration of infection, individual cow somatic cell count, costs associated with treatment and animal welfare. ..
  24. Iranshahy M, Javadi B, Iranshahi M, Jahanbakhsh S, Mahyari S, Hassani F, et al. A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Portulaca oleracea L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;205:158-172 pubmed publisher
    ..oleracea. P. oleracea has been addressed in De Materia Medica as an astringent, and a remedy for headaches, inflammation of the eyes and other organs, burning of the ..
  25. Baars E, Gans S, Ellis E. The effect of hepar magnesium on seasonal fatigue symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..A more controlled trial is indicated to study the (long-term) effects of hepar magnesium. ..
  26. Clausen J, Albrecht H. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy. Homeopathy. 2010;99:189-91 pubmed publisher
  27. Jou J, Johnson P. Nondisclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use to Primary Care Physicians: Findings From the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176:545-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Koch I, Moriarty M, Sui J, Rutter A, Saper R, Reimer K. Bioaccessibility of mercury in selected Ayurvedic medicines. Sci Total Environ. 2013;454-455:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Incorporation of percent relative bioaccessibility of mercury into risk calculations decreased daily intake estimates by 29-900 times, and reduced them to acceptable levels for three of the five medicines. ..
  29. Saha S, Das S, Khuda Bukhsh A. Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012;10:462-70 pubmed
    ..This provides phenotypic evidence for the ability of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies to regulate expression of certain gene(s) depending on need of the organism. ..
  30. Yang C, Lin Y, Zhong Y, Qi F, Chen X. [Optimization of formulation matrix proportion and preparation technology of realgar floating tablets for gastric retention by uniform design and correlation analysis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:391-3 pubmed
    ..The drug-release mechanism was by diffusion and corrosion at the same time. The Realgar floating tablets for gastric retention achieved the goal of design, which demand sustained release and safety. ..
  31. Huh Y, Kim M, Yeo M. Homeopathic Rhus toxicodendron treatment increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in primary cultured mouse chondrocytes. Homeopathy. 2013;102:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that homeopathic treatment with Rhus tox induced chondrocyte dedifferentiation and inflammatory responses, such as COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, in primary cultured chondrocytes. ..
  32. Riley D. Thoughts on Homeopathic Drug Provings. Homeopathy. 2007;96:231-2 pubmed
  33. Adler U. No fear of ghosts in Lycopodium: a contribution to the discussion on repertory reliability. Homeopathy. 2011;100:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hahnemann's efforts to compile a reliable and complete dictionary of Materia Medica were also briefly presented, as well as Rückert's repertory, which, in addition to collating and ..
  34. Peng H, Wang D. [Textual research on the Chinese names of three medicinal plants from Chaenomeles Lindl]. Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2009;39:209-13 pubmed
    Mugua was commonly used Chinese Materia Medica in past generations, the original plant of that is the same as the Chenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai from the Rosaceae family; Mingzha in ancient times was misunderstood as and mixed with ..
  35. Prasad P, Narayana A. Biography of Narahari -- the author of Raja-Nighantu. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 2007;37:1-8 pubmed
    ..Some of the new and more interesting plants added are, Brahmadandi, Dhumrapatra, Ekavira, Hasti?undi, Jambu, Jhandu, Samudraphala, Svetamli, Sveta, Vr?cika etc. Thus information about Narahari and his work is presented in this article. ..
  36. He F, Zhou H, Luo J, Deng K, Fu J, Pi F, et al. [Theoretical and experimental studies on solubility parameters of multiple components for traditional Chinese materia medica with HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:642-8 pubmed
    ..42 J(1/2) cm(-3/2) respectively. The retention time of HPLC can be used to determine the solubility parameters of multiple componets. The established method is useful for the compatibility rule study of traditional Chinese medicine. ..
  37. Liang J, Mi S, Wang N. [Anticoagulative effect and antiplatelet aggregation effect of combination of Hirudo and Tabanus on rat model of blood stasis syndrome]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:1347-50 pubmed
    ..While in the four combination groups, the group recommended by classical TCM monograph with dose-ratio of Hirudo to Tabanus being 4:3, has the best anticoagulation effect. ..
  38. Wadhwani G. Homeopathic drug therapy. Homeopathy in Chikungunya Fever and Post-Chikungunya Chronic Arthritis: an observational study. Homeopathy. 2013;102:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A single homeopathic medicine was prescribed for each patient after case taking with the help of Materia Medica and/or Repertory. Results were evaluated on the basis of visual analogue scale and symptom scores...
  39. Han F, Li Y, Li L, Chen Y. [Simultaneous determination of geniposide, baicalin and berberine hydrochloride in Angong Niuhuang pill by RP-HPLC]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:1406-8 pubmed
    ..98% (RSD 1.76%) for baicalin, 101.08% (RSD 3.1%) for berberine hydrochloride. This method had been successfully applied to determine the content of geniposide, baicalin and berberine hydrochloride in Angong Niuhuang pill. ..
  40. Brand E, Leon C, Nesbitt M, Guo P, Huang R, Chen H, et al. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;200:209-227 pubmed publisher
    ..As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with ..
  41. Tan Y, Zeng Yong -. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2015;35:1167-9 pubmed
    ..innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and ..
  42. Liu X, Wang Q, Song G, Zhang G, Ye Z, Williamson E. The classification and application of toxic Chinese materia medica. Phytother Res. 2014;28:334-47 pubmed publisher
    Many important drugs in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) are known to be toxic, and it has long been recognized in classical Chinese medical theory that toxicity can arise directly from the components of a single CMM or may be induced by ..
  43. Xu Y, Zhang Y, Zhao C, Gu Y, Huang Y, Li L. [Prime study of Gekko gecko in HPLC fingerprint]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:1735-8 pubmed
    ..The established HPLC fingerprints of Gekko gecko can be used to identify Gekko gecko and its quality control. ..
  44. Li Y, Huang R, Sun X. [Experimental studies on anticoagulant activity of different extract of leech in vitro]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27:123-5 pubmed
    ..APTT was prolonged remarkably by n-Butylalcohol part of Leech. The different extracts of Leech have obvious anticoagulant effects. There are new anticoagulant components different from hirudin in Leech. ..
  45. Hou D, Song J, Shi L, Ma X, Xin T, Han J, et al. Stability and accuracy assessment of identification of traditional Chinese materia medica using DNA barcoding: a case study on Flos Lonicerae Japonicae. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:549037 pubmed publisher
    DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques...
  46. Gu X, Yun X, Wang C. [Antitumor effects of fresh gecko hydrolysate on H22 transplanted tumor in mice]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2013;36:1050-2 pubmed
    ..The crude extract of the fresh gecko and the hydrolysate can inhibit the growth of the H22 transplanted tumor. The enzymolysis by pepsin and papain can increase the antitumor activity of the crude extract of fresh gecko. ..
  47. Li C, Deng H, Li D, Li Z. Advances and challenges in screening traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..a better service for senior health care, we summarized screening studies of traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica (TCAM)...
  48. Zeng F. [Changes of powder prescriptions in Qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth A Thousand Gold) made by Song people]. Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2008;38:76-8 pubmed
    ..on the contents of powder prescriptions, including the related chapters and its contents, computation unit of materia medica, weights, and processing methods etc. without any remarks, nor notes in its preface...
  49. Yao H, Wang X, Huang L, Diao J, Deng H. [Effect of Oviductus Ranae on Cyclin D1, CDK6 and P15 expressions in the liver tissue of aged male rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:1044-6 pubmed
    ..The effect of OR against ageing is mediated possibly by up-regulation of the proteins associated with the cell proliferation in the liver, a mechanism different from that of VE. ..
  50. Xiao P, Zhao R, Long X, Guo B. [Macroscopic analysis on production and marketing of medicinal material resources for sustainable development]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:2135-9 pubmed
    ..e., the yield Top 60 items, rare and endangered species and several wild drugs should be deeply concerned. Relevant measures and implementation are recommended respectively. ..
  51. Wang X, Hao H, Wang J, Li R. [Study on the antitumor effects and synergism and attenuation effects of gecko alcohol extract]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1213-6 pubmed
    ..01), the indexes of thymus and spleen (P < 0.05) were significantly elevated in all Gecko alcohol extract and CTX combination groups. Gecko alcohol extract has anti-tumor effects in vivo and attenuation effects on CTX. ..
  52. de Souza M, Costa e Silva E, Macedo G, Soares B, Zúccari C. The effect of individualized homeopathic treatment on the semen quality of bulls with reproductive disorders: a case series. Homeopathy. 2012;101:243-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of homeopathy apparently improved the production of viable doses of semen from bulls with previous freezing problems and poor semen quality. Controlled studies should be conducted. ..
  53. Bao K. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement. Chin J Integr Med. 2017;23:166-169 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not ..