pregnant women


Summary: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.

Top Publications

  1. Meschke L, Holl J, Messelt S. Assessing the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome: understanding substance use among pregnant women. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003;25:667-74 pubmed
    ..FAS is 100% preventable. Preliminary data from 1704 pregnant women in Minnesota were assessed: substance use during pregnancy, risk factors related to substance use during ..
  2. Cantonwine D, CORDERO J, Rivera González L, Anzalota Del Toro L, Ferguson K, Mukherjee B, et al. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: distribution, temporal variability, and predictors. Environ Int. 2014;62:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking...
  3. Myer L, Daskilewicz K, Mcintyre J, Bekker L. Comparison of point-of-care versus laboratory-based CD4 cell enumeration in HIV-positive pregnant women. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18649 pubmed publisher
    Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in eligible pregnant women is a key intervention for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV...
  4. Morrison S, Shenassa E, Mendola P, Wu T, Schoendorf K. Allostatic load may not be associated with chronic stress in pregnant women, NHANES 1999-2006. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23:294-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Pregnant women are generally excluded from studies that measure allostatic load (AL) because there is concern that the changing levels of AL-related biomarkers during pregnancy do not reflect a woman's true AL...
  5. Liu N, Sprague A, Yasseen A, Fell D, Wen S, Smith G, et al. Vaccination patterns in pregnant women during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada. Can J Public Health. 2012;103:e353-8 pubmed
    Influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women has typically been low, and there is little population-based information on predictors of vaccination uptake within this group...
  6. Maina Gathigi L, Omolo J, Wanzala P, Lindan C, Makokha A. Utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services by pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a regional referral hospital in Kenya. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17:1236-42 pubmed publisher
    To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya...
  7. Lau T, Chan M, Salome Lo P, Chan H, Chan W, Koo T, et al. Non-invasive prenatal screening of fetal sex chromosomal abnormalities: perspective of pregnant women. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2616-9 pubmed publisher
    To study whether pregnant women would like to be informed if sex chromosomal abnormalities (SCA) were suspected with the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal Down syndrome (the NIFTY) test...
  8. Kashanian M, Hassan M, Roohi M, Yousefi H. Maternal outcomes of intimate partner violence during pregnancy: study in Iran. Public Health. 2014;128:410-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women and its relationship with adverse maternal outcomes, including preterm labour, abortion, caesarean section, antenatal hospitalization and vaginal ..
  9. Westreich D, Rosenberg M, SCHWARTZ S, SWAMY G. Representation of women and pregnant women in HIV research: a limited systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73398 pubmed publisher
    HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings...

More Information


  1. Rujumba J, Neema S, Tumwine J, Tylleskar T, Heggenhougen H. Pregnant women's experiences of routine counselling and testing for HIV in Eastern Uganda: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:189 pubmed publisher
    ..counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme...
  2. van der Wulp N, Hoving C, de Vries H. A qualitative investigation of alcohol use advice during pregnancy: experiences of Dutch midwives, pregnant women and their partners. Midwifery. 2013;29:e89-98 pubmed publisher
    two studies aimed to explore the advice Dutch midwives give and the information Dutch pregnant women and partners of pregnant women receive about alcohol consumption in pregnancy...
  3. Rujumba J, Neema S, Byamugisha R, Tylleskar T, Tumwine J, Heggenhougen H. "Telling my husband I have HIV is too heavy to come out of my mouth": pregnant women's disclosure experiences and support needs following antenatal HIV testing in eastern Uganda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15:17429 pubmed
    ..Data collection was through in-depth interviews with 15 HIV-positive and 15 HIV-negative pregnant women attending a follow up antenatal clinic (ANC) at Mbale Hospital, and six key informant interviews with health ..
  4. Yotsumoto J, Sekizawa A, Koide K, Purwosunu Y, Ichizuka K, Matsuoka R, et al. Attitudes toward non-invasive prenatal diagnosis among pregnant women and health professionals in Japan. Prenat Diagn. 2012;32:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A mail-in survey using a self-reported questionnaire was conducted among pregnant women and health professionals...
  5. Gu H, Li H, Zhang L, Luan H, Huang T, Wang L, et al. Diagnostic role of microRNA expression profile in the serum of pregnant women with fetuses with neural tube defects. J Neurochem. 2012;122:641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the expression of miRNAs in the serum of pregnant women with fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) has not been characterized...
  6. Radley A, Ballard P, Eadie D, Macaskill S, Donnelly L, Tappin D. Give It Up For Baby: outcomes and factors influencing uptake of a pilot smoking cessation incentive scheme for pregnant women. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:343 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes a series of positive outcomes achieved through the use of incentives to promote smoking cessation amongst pregnant smokers. ..
  7. Walcott M, Hatcher A, Kwena Z, Turan J. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1115 pubmed publisher
    ..we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya...
  8. Gao L, Larsson M, Luo S. Internet use by Chinese women seeking pregnancy-related information. Midwifery. 2013;29:730-5 pubmed publisher
    to investigate whether and how Chinese pregnant women used the Internet to retrieve pregnancy-related information...
  9. Jahanfar S, Janssen P, Howard L, Dowswell T. Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD009414 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (19 June 2012), scanned ..
  10. Gao H, Stiller C, Scherbaum V, Biesalski H, Wang Q, Hormann E, et al. Dietary intake and food habits of pregnant women residing in urban and rural areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Nutrients. 2013;5:2933-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions...
  11. da Silva R, da Costa Ores L, Jansen K, da Silva Moraes I, de Mattos Souza L, Magalhães P, et al. Suicidality and associated factors in pregnant women in Brazil. Community Ment Health J. 2012;48:392-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this sample (N = 1,334), 8.1% of pregnant women demonstrated suicidal potential...
  12. Agampodi S, Wickramasinghe N, Horton J, Agampodi T. Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural Sri Lanka. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64214 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were ..
  13. Pearson R, O Mahen H, Burns A, Bennert K, Shepherd C, Baxter H, et al. The normalisation of disrupted attentional processing of infant distress in depressed pregnant women following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. J Affect Disord. 2013;145:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..focus of the current study was to investigate whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) normalises depressed pregnant women's abnormal attentional processing of infant distress...
  14. Anderson A, Hure A, Powers J, Kay Lambkin F, Loxton D. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:777 pubmed publisher
    ..of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines...
  15. Cecchi A, Rovedatti M, Sabino G, Magnarelli G. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides: assessment of endocrine disruption and hepatotoxicity in pregnant women. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;80:280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective study was carried out with pregnant women (n=97) living in a rural area of the Rio Negro province where OPs are intensively applied throughout 6 months ..
  16. Polilli E, Parruti G, D Arcangelo F, Tracanna E, Clerico L, Savini V, et al. Preliminary evaluation of the safety and efficacy of standard intravenous immunoglobulins in pregnant women with primary cytomegalovirus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1991-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of standard human intravenous immunoglobulin significantly increase CMV IgG titers and avidity indexes in pregnant women, paving the way to their use for passive transfer of maternal CMV humoral immunity to fetuses...
  17. Stengel M, Kraschnewski J, Hwang S, Kjerulff K, Chuang C. "What my doctor didn't tell me": examining health care provider advice to overweight and obese pregnant women on gestational weight gain and physical activity. Womens Health Issues. 2012;22:e535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..How health care providers counsel overweight and obese pregnant women on appropriate GWG and physical activity remains largely unexplored.
  18. Wiley K, Massey P, Cooper S, Wood N, Ho J, Quinn H, et al. Uptake of influenza vaccine by pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey. Med J Aust. 2013;198:373-5 pubmed
    To determine influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in New South Wales, and factors associated with vaccine uptake during pregnancy...
  19. Russell B, Eaton L, Petersen Williams P. Intersecting epidemics among pregnant women: alcohol use, interpersonal violence, and HIV infection in South Africa. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013;10:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..of 3 mutually reinforcing health problems: alcohol use, interpersonal violence (IPV), and HIV infection among pregnant women residing in South Africa...
  20. Song H, May A, Vaidhyanathan V, Cramer E, Owais R, McRoy S. A two-way text-messaging system answering health questions for low-income pregnant women. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;92:182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An automated, two-way text messaging system is an efficient, cost-effective, and acceptable method for providing health information to low-income pregnant women.
  21. Kwatra G, Madhi S, Cutland C, Buchmann E, Adrian P. Evaluation of Trans-Vag broth, colistin-nalidixic agar, and CHROMagar StrepB for detection of group B Streptococcus in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2515-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and Trans-Vag selective broth enrichment for the isolation of GBS from 130 vaginal and 130 rectal swabs from pregnant women. The swabs were randomized for plating first on either CA or CNA, and they then were inoculated in Trans-Vag ..
  22. Daoud N, Urquia M, O CAMPO P, Heaman M, Janssen P, Smylie J, et al. Prevalence of abuse and violence before, during, and after pregnancy in a national sample of Canadian women. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1893-901 pubmed
    ..Large population-based studies on abuse around pregnancy can facilitate the identification of patterns of abuse and women at high risk for abuse. Before and after pregnancy may be particularly important times to monitor risk of abuse. ..
  23. Bojar I, Owoc A, Humeniuk E, Wierzba W, Fronczak A. Inappropriate consumption of vitamins and minerals by pregnant women in Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:263-6 pubmed
    ..512 pregnant women in their 20(th) -30(th) week of pregnancy took part in the research conducted by the means of observation of a ..
  24. Cormick G, Kim N, Rodgers A, Gibbons L, Buekens P, Belizan J, et al. Interest of pregnant women in the use of SMS (short message service) text messages for the improvement of perinatal and postnatal care. Reprod Health. 2012;9:9 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study is to 1) understand pregnant women's access and usage of cell phones and 2) survey the health information needs and interests in a population ..
  25. Wiley K, Massey P, Cooper S, Wood N, Quinn H, Leask J. Pregnant women's intention to take up a post-partum pertussis vaccine, and their willingness to take up the vaccine while pregnant: a cross sectional survey. Vaccine. 2013;31:3972-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Internationally, vaccination recommendations now include pregnant women in some countries...
  26. Asplin N, Wessel H, Marions L, Georgsson Ohman S. Pregnant women's experiences, needs, and preferences regarding information about malformations detected by ultrasound scan. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2012;3:73-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to explore pregnant women's experiences of received information in relation to fetal malformation detected on ultrasound. An exploratory descriptive design was used...
  27. Lu A, Halim A, Dendle C, Kotsanas D, Giles M, Wallace E, et al. Influenza vaccination uptake amongst pregnant women and maternal care providers is suboptimal. Vaccine. 2012;30:4055-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the uptake of influenza vaccination by pregnant women and maternity care providers and explore their attitudes towards influenza vaccination...
  28. Kay M, Koelemay K, Kwan Gett T, Cadwell B, Duchin J. 2009 pandemic influenza A vaccination of pregnant women: King County, Washington State, 2009-2010. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:S172-9 pubmed publisher
    The objectives were to estimate 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) vaccination coverage among pregnant women and identify associated factors...
  29. Vandevijvere S, Amsalkhir S, Van Oyen H, Moreno Reyes R. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43868 pubmed publisher
    ..There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe...
  30. Chan K, Brownridge D, Fong D, Tiwari A, Leung W, Ho P. Violence against pregnant women can increase the risk of child abuse: a longitudinal study. Child Abuse Negl. 2012;36:275-84 pubmed publisher
    To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy ..
  31. Kim D, Sockol L, Sammel M, Kelly C, Moseley M, Epperson C. Elevated risk of adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with depression. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013;16:475-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the retrospective study design and small sample size, these findings should be confirmed in a prospective cohort study. ..
  32. George A, Johnson M, Blinkhorn A, Ajwani S, Ellis S, Bhole S. Views of pregnant women in South Western Sydney towards dental care and an oral-health program initiated by midwives. Health Promot J Austr. 2013;24:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to record the views of pregnant women in Australia towards dental care and midwives promoting oral health...
  33. Ntaganira J, Muula A, Masaisa F, Dusabeyezu F, Siziya S, Rudatsikira E. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda. BMC Womens Health. 2008;8:17 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda...
  34. Han S, Crowther C, Middleton P. Interventions for pregnant women with hyperglycaemia not meeting gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD009037 pubmed publisher
    ..without meeting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnostic criteria affects a significant proportion of pregnant women each year. It is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  35. Ventura T, Gomes M, Carreira T. Cortisol and anxiety response to a relaxing intervention on pregnant women awaiting amniocentesis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pregnant women (n=154) awaiting amniocentesis, were randomly assigned in the morning and the afternoon to three groups for 30 ..
  36. Ezechi O, Kalu B, Ezechi L, Nwokoro C, Ndububa V, Okeke G. Prevalence and pattern of domestic violence against pregnant Nigerian women. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:652-6 pubmed
    ..0%) were not ready to report the abuse to the police. In conclusion, domestic violence is common in our environment and health-care providers should be alert to the clues in order to protect the women from further abuse. ..
  37. Morales S, Kendall P, Medeiros L, Hillers V, Schroeder M. Health care providers' attitudes toward current food safety recommendations for pregnant women. Appl Nurs Res. 2004;17:178-86 pubmed
    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 health care professionals who work with pregnant women in a preliminary study to understand health care providers' attitudes regarding current food safety recommendations for pregnant women ..
  38. Nordeng H, Koren G, Einarson A. Pregnant women's beliefs about medications--a study among 866 Norwegian women. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:1478-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To study pregnant women's beliefs about medication and factors that determine those beliefs...
  39. Hall W, Hauck Y, Carty E, Hutton E, Fenwick J, Stoll K. Childbirth fear, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep deprivation in pregnant women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2009;38:567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Women's fear of childbirth was related to fatigue, available help, stressors, and anxiety. Fear of childbirth appears to be part of a complex picture of women's emotional experiences during pregnancy. ..
  40. Kaplan R, Orrell C, Zwane E, Bekker L, Wood R. Loss to follow-up and mortality among pregnant women referred to a community clinic for antiretroviral treatment. AIDS. 2008;22:1679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality rates between the two groups, the pregnant women had a substantially higher risk of loss to follow-up both pretreatment and on-treatment...
  41. Loutfy M, Walmsley S. Treatment of HIV infection in pregnant women: antiretroviral management options. Drugs. 2004;64:471-88 pubmed the development of guidelines for the management of HIV in pregnancy, which recommend that HIV-infected pregnant women should be offered combination antiretroviral therapy based on viral load and CD4+ cell count cut-offs used for ..
  42. Jayalakshmi J, Jayaram V. Evaluation of various screening tests to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:379-81 pubmed
    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Clean catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 630 consecutive pregnant women and processed...
  43. Gies S, Coulibaly S, Ouattara F, Ky C, Brabin B, D Alessandro U. A community effectiveness trial of strategies promoting intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. Malar J. 2008;7:180 pubmed publisher
    Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa...
  44. Holmlund E, Quiambao B, Ollgren J, Jaakkola T, Neyt C, Poolman J, et al. Antibodies to pneumococcal proteins PhtD, CbpA, and LytC in Filipino pregnant women and their infants in relation to pneumococcal carriage. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..C-terminal fragment (PhtD C), CbpA, and LytC were measured by enzyme immunoassay in 52 serum samples from pregnant women, 39 cord blood samples, and consecutive serum samples (n = 263) from 52 newborns between 6 weeks and 10 months ..
  45. Reid B, Sinclair M, Barr O, Dobbs F, Crealey G. A meta-synthesis of pregnant women's decision-making processes with regard to antenatal screening for Down syndrome. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:1561-73 pubmed publisher
    ..screening programmes for Down syndrome has triggered much discussion about their powerful potential to enhance pregnant women's autonomy and reproductive choices...
  46. Abasiubong F, Abasiattai A, Bassey E, Ogunsemi O. Demographic risk factors in domestic violence among pregnant women in Uyo, a community in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Health Care Women Int. 2010;31:891-901 pubmed publisher
    There has been increasing global concern about the level of violence against pregnant women. Anecdotal evidence from general observations shows that there may be higher prevalence in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria...
  47. Petik D, Timmermann G, Czeizel A, Acs N, Banhidy F. A study of the teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of large doses of amobarbital used for a suicide attempt by 14 pregnant women. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Self-poisoned pregnant women were identified from patients of the Department of Toxicology Internal Medicine, Korányi Hospital, Budapest, ..
  48. Ramirez Velez R, Aguilar de Plata A, Escudero M, Echeverry I, Ortega J, Salazar B, et al. Influence of regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and cardiorespiratory fitness in pregnant women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1601-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on the endothelial function and cardiorespiratory fitness in pregnant women. This was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial of 64 healthy primigravid women between 16 ..
  49. Fuglenes D, Aas E, Botten G, Øian P, Kristiansen I. Why do some pregnant women prefer cesarean? The influence of parity, delivery experiences, and fear. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:45.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    We sought to identify predictors of preferences for cesarean among pregnant women, and estimate how different predictors influence preferences...
  50. Su Y, Hung C, Lin S, Chen F, Chern J, Tsai C, et al. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in 107,611 pregnant women during the period 2005-2009: a prospective population-based cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17067 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a prospective population-based cohort study of 107,611 pregnant women from 25 counties in Taiwan conducted during the period January 2005 to June 2009...
  51. Lau Y, Yin L. Maternal, obstetric variables, perceived stress and health-related quality of life among pregnant women in Macao, China. Midwifery. 2011;27:668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..and obstetric variables and health-related quality of life with perceived stress among Macao Chinese pregnant women. a cross-sectional, exploratory quantitative study...
  52. Borkakoty B, Borthakur A, Gohain M. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women in Assam, India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25:431-2 pubmed
  53. Lagan B, Sinclair M, Kernohan W. Internet use in pregnancy informs women's decision making: a web-based survey. Birth. 2010;37:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..With pregnant women reportedly turning to the Internet for information during pregnancy, a better understanding of this behavior ..