battered women


Summary: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Paterson J, Feehan M, Butler S, Williams M, Cowley Malcolm E. Intimate partner violence within a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand. J Interpers Violence. 2007;22:698-721 pubmed
    ..Factors significantly associated with perpetration are ethnicity, cultural alignment, maternal birthplace and alcohol consumption since the birth of the child. ..
  2. Stickley A, Timofeeva I, Sparen P. Risk factors for intimate partner violence against women in St. Petersburg, Russia. Violence Against Women. 2008;14:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of crisis centers in Russia is highlighted by the study, as the women who turn to them are likely to have experienced more severe forms of violence. ..
  3. Naved R, Akhtar N. Spousal violence against women and suicidal ideation in Bangladesh. Womens Health Issues. 2008;18:442-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe physical and emotional violence against women has to be addressed to reduce suicidal ideation among women manifesting severe mental health problems. ..
  4. Silverman J, Decker M, Gupta J, Kapur N, Raj A, Naved R. Maternal experiences of intimate partner violence and child morbidity in Bangladesh: evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163:700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of IPV perpetration by men may be critical to the improvement of maternal and child health. ..
  5. Edin K, Dahlgren L, Lalos A, Hogberg U. "Keeping up a front": narratives about intimate partner violence, pregnancy, and antenatal care. Violence Against Women. 2010;16:189-206 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights the complexity of being pregnant when living with an abusive partner and challenges antenatal care policies from the perspective of pregnant women. ..
  6. Abeya S, Afework M, Yalew A. Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:913 pubmed publisher
    ..This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate the situation. ..
  7. Johnson D, Zlotnick C, Perez S. Cognitive behavioral treatment of PTSD in residents of battered women's shelters: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, results also suggest that modifications to HOPE may be required to improve treatment outcomes. ..
  8. Flicker S, Cerulli C, Swogger M, Talbot N. Depressive and posttraumatic symptoms among women seeking protection orders against intimate partners: relations to coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure. Violence Against Women. 2012;18:420-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim blaming. ..
  9. Speizer I. Intimate partner violence attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda. J Interpers Violence. 2010;25:1224-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Community-based prevention programs targeting men and women are needed in Uganda and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa where gender norms that justify IPV prevail. ..

More Information


  1. Gyuse A, Ushie A, Etukidem A. Prevalence of domestic violence among antenatal women attending a Nigerian hospital. Niger J Med. 2009;18:375-9 pubmed
    ..There is the need to routinely screen for domestic violence in pregnant women so as to prevent potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to interrupt existing abuse. ..
  2. Chu S, Goodwin M, D Angelo D. Physical violence against U.S. women around the time of pregnancy, 2004-2007. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..70, 3.27). Maternal characteristics (age, education, race, marital status, woman did not want the pregnancy) were less important predictors. Assessments of abuse should ask specifically about actions by both current and ex-partners. ..
  3. Okenwa L, Lawoko S. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia. Violence Vict. 2010;25:278-88 pubmed
    ..Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia. ..
  4. Stöckl H, Filippi V, Watts C, Mbwambo J. Induced abortion, pregnancy loss and intimate partner violence in Tanzania: a population based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012;12:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. ..
  5. Perez S, Johnson D, Wright C. The attenuating effect of empowerment on IPV-related PTSD symptoms in battered women living in domestic violence shelters. Violence Against Women. 2012;18:102-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of fostering empowerment and addressing PTSD in addition to provision of resources in battered women is discussed.
  6. Abasiubong F, Abasiattai A, Bassey E, Ogunsemi O. Demographic risk factors in domestic violence among pregnant women in Uyo, a community in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Health Care Women Int. 2010;31:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..There is therefore the need to evaluate the magnitude, as well as the risk factors for violence and the sociodemographic characteristics of the women, for purposes of prevention. ..
  7. Ruiz Perez I, Plazaola Castaño J, del Río Lozano M. Physical health consequences of intimate partner violence in Spanish women. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:437-43 pubmed
    ..IPV can negatively affect physical health of the victims. It is therefore necessary to detect cases of IPV at a primary health care level. ..
  8. Johnson M. Conflict and control: gender symmetry and asymmetry in domestic violence. Violence Against Women. 2006;12:1003-18 pubmed
    ..An argument is made that if we want to understand partner violence, intervene effectively in individual cases, or make useful policy recommendations, we must make these distinctions in our research. ..
  9. Thackeray J, Stelzner S, Downs S, Miller C. Screening for intimate partner violence: the impact of screener and screening environment on victim comfort. J Interpers Violence. 2007;22:659-70 pubmed
    ..Screeners should be aware of characteristics that impact victim comfort and should provide multiple opportunities for women to disclose IPV in a safe, respectful, and culturally effective environment. ..
  10. Petersen R, Moracco K, Goldstein K, Clark K. Moving beyond disclosure: women's perspectives on barriers and motivators to seeking assistance for intimate partner violence. Women Health. 2004;40:63-76 pubmed
    ..This study documents the difficulties that women face accessing or using services related to IPV. We need to address perceived barriers and better use the opportunity when women experience motivation to seek help and access services. ..
  11. Rodríguez Bolaños R, Márquez Serrano M, Kageyama Escobar M. [Gender based violence: knowledge and attitudes of health care providers in Nicaragua]. Salud Publica Mex. 2005;47:134-44 pubmed
    ..The finding of the present study will allow improvements in health care reforms at the first level of care in the health sector in Nicaragua. ..
  12. Feder G, Hutson M, Ramsay J, Taket A. Women exposed to intimate partner violence: expectations and experiences when they encounter health care professionals: a meta-analysis of qualitative studies. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:22-37 pubmed
  13. FRANZBLAU S, Echevarria S, Smith M, Van Cantfort T. A preliminary investigation of the effects of giving testimony and learning yogic breathing techniques on battered women's feelings of depression. J Interpers Violence. 2008;23:1800-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recasting women as authorities on domestic violence and teaching them how to calm their minds by focusing on yogic breathing may be simple and effective ways to help women take control over their bodies and lives. ..
  14. Lawoko S, Dalal K, Jiayou L, Jansson B. Social inequalities in intimate partner violence: a study of women in Kenya. Violence Vict. 2007;22:773-84 pubmed
    ..Finally, being in polygamous relationships was associated with IPV exposure. The findings indicate demographic, social, and structural differences in exposure to IPV with important implications for interventions. ..
  15. Raj A, Liu R, McCleary Sills J, Silverman J. South Asian victims of intimate partner violence more likely than non-victims to report sexual health concerns. J Immigr Health. 2005;7:85-91 pubmed
    ..Study findings demonstrate the need for increased gynecologic health outreach to abused South Asian women in the U.S. ..
  16. Pallitto C, O CAMPO P. Community level effects of gender inequality on intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia: testing the feminist perspective. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:2205-16 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate the need for reproductive health programs to target areas at particularly high risk for unintended pregnancy by reducing intimate partner violence and gender inequality. ..
  17. Kelly U. "What will happen if I tell you?" Battered Latina women's experiences of health care. Can J Nurs Res. 2006;38:78-95 pubmed
    ..Several parallels in the women's relationships with the abusers and with their health-care providers were identified. Requisites for safe disclosure of intimate partner abuse to health-care providers are discussed. ..
  18. Stephenson R, Koenig M, Ahmed S. Domestic violence and symptoms of gynecologic morbidity among women in North India. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006;32:201-8 pubmed
    ..Reproductive health care that incorporates domestic violence support services is needed to meet the special needs of abused women. ..
  19. Jeyaseelan L, Kumar S, Neelakantan N, Peedicayil A, Pillai R, Duvvury N. Physical spousal violence against women in India: some risk factors. J Biosoc Sci. 2007;39:657-70 pubmed
    ..The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions. ..
  20. Taft A, Small R, Hegarty K, Lumley J, Watson L, Gold L. MOSAIC (MOthers' Advocates In the Community): protocol and sample description of a cluster randomised trial of mentor mother support to reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant or recent mothers. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:159 pubmed publisher
    ..actrn12607000010493. ..
  21. Wilson K, Silberberg M, Brown A, Yaggy S. Health needs and barriers to healthcare of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007;16:1485-98 pubmed
    ..Greater coordination with the healthcare system is needed to respond more appropriately to the health needs of women who have experienced IPV. ..
  22. McCloskey L, Williams C, Lichter E, Gerber M, Ganz M, Sege R. Abused women disclose partner interference with health care: an unrecognized form of battering. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22:1067-72 pubmed
    ..Health care providers should be alert to signs of patient noncompliance or missed appointments as stemming from abusive partner control tactics. ..
  23. Fonck K, Leye E, Els L, Kidula N, Ndinya Achola J, Temmerman M. Increased risk of HIV in women experiencing physical partner violence in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2005;9:335-9 pubmed
    ..Multi-sector approaches are needed to change prevailing attitudes towards violence against women. ..
  24. Naved R, Azim S, Bhuiya A, Persson L. Physical violence by husbands: magnitude, disclosure and help-seeking behavior of women in Bangladesh. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62:2917-29 pubmed
    ..The findings show that although providing appropriate services is absolutely necessary, it is also important to foster the use of such services and to help women overcome the barriers for accessing these services. ..
  25. Zlotnick C, Johnson D, Kohn R. Intimate partner violence and long-term psychosocial functioning in a national sample of American women. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21:262-75 pubmed
    ..Also, nearly half of the women in an abusive relationship left the relationship within the period. Leaving the abusive relationship was associated with lower individual income and more social support at wave 1. ..
  26. Buken N, Sahinoglu S. Violence against women in Turkey and the role of women physicians. Nurs Ethics. 2006;13:197-205 pubmed
    ..The Commission is pivotal in the education of women physicians and in heightening awareness of the situation. An outline is given of this work and recommendations are made on how violence against women can be tackled and eliminated. ..
  27. Diop Sidibe N, Campbell J, Becker S. Domestic violence against women in Egypt--wife beating and health outcomes. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62:1260-77 pubmed
    ..Women's programmes must take domestic violence into account if they want to better address the needs of a non-negligible proportion of their target population. ..
  28. McCloskey L, Lichter E, Williams C, Gerber M, Wittenberg E, Ganz M. Assessing intimate partner violence in health care settings leads to women's receipt of interventions and improved health. Public Health Rep. 2006;121:435-44 pubmed
    ..Health care providers may make positive contributions to women's access to intimate partner violence services. Intimate partner violence interventions relate to women's reduced exposure to violence and better health. ..
  29. Roelens K, Verstraelen H, van Egmond K, Temmerman M. A knowledge, attitudes, and practice survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists on intimate partner violence in Flanders, Belgium. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:238 pubmed
    ..Additional introduction of enabling and reinforcement strategies such as screening tools, patient leaflets, formal referral pathways, and physician feedback may further enhance compliance with screening recommendations and guidelines. ..
  30. Stenson K, Sidenvall B, Heimer G. Midwives' experiences of routine antenatal questioning relating to men's violence against women. Midwifery. 2005;21:311-21 pubmed
    ..A routine that offers each woman a private consultation will ease the questioning and save time and distress. ..
  31. Zablotska I, Gray R, Koenig M, Serwadda D, Nalugoda F, Kigozi G, et al. Alcohol use, intimate partner violence, sexual coercion and HIV among women aged 15-24 in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:225-33 pubmed
    ..79, 95% CI: 1.25-2.56). Alcohol use before sex was associated with physical violence and sexual coercion, and both are jointly associated with HIV infection risk in young women. ..
  32. Koepsell J, Kernic M, Holt V. Factors that influence battered women to leave their abusive relationships. Violence Vict. 2006;21:131-47 pubmed
    ..Seeking but not receiving external support was negatively associated with leave taking. ..
  33. Fox A, Jackson S, Hansen N, Gasa N, Crewe M, Sikkema K. In their own voices: a qualitative study of women's risk for intimate partner violence and HIV in South Africa. Violence Against Women. 2007;13:583-602 pubmed
    ..A social environment of silence, male power, and economic constraints enabled abuse to continue. "Breaking the silence" and women's empowerment were suggested solutions. ..
  34. Zink T, Jacobson C, Pabst S, Regan S, Fisher B. A lifetime of intimate partner violence: coping strategies of older women. J Interpers Violence. 2006;21:634-51 pubmed
    ..Some women appeared to thrive, others merely survived, but all maintained the appearance of conjugal unity. ..
  35. Sabina C, Tindale R. Abuse characteristics and coping resources as predictors of problem-focused coping strategies among battered women. Violence Against Women. 2008;14:437-56 pubmed publisher
    ..e., amount of help seeking, pursuing an order of protection, and staying away from the abuser) among battered women. Predictor variables are categorized as abuse characteristics and three types of coping resources (i.e...
  36. Yoshihama M, Horrocks J, Kamano S. Experiences of intimate partner violence and related injuries among women in Yokohama, Japan. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:232-4 pubmed
    ..In addition to the need for increased prevention efforts, our findings indicate the need for an expanded legal definition of intimate partner violence in Japan given that the current definition excludes premarital violence. ..
  37. Bailey B, Daugherty R. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: incidence and associated health behaviors in a rural population. Matern Child Health J. 2007;11:495-503 pubmed
  38. Higgins L, Hawkins J. Screening for abuse during pregnancy: implementing a multisite program. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2005;30:109-14 pubmed
    ..This article also describes the lessons we learned in attempting to implement such a large scale change in clinical practice. ..
  39. Krishnan S. Do structural inequalities contribute to marital violence? Ethnographic evidence from rural South India. Violence Against Women. 2005;11:759-75 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the urgent need for violence prevention initiatives, particularly those that address the contribution of structural inequalities. ..
  40. Minsky Kelly D, Hamberger L, Pape D, Wolff M. We've had training, now what? Qualitative analysis of barriers to domestic violence screening and referral in a health care setting. J Interpers Violence. 2005;20:1288-309 pubmed
    ..Limitations of this study and future research recommendations are also discussed. ..
  41. Chang J, Decker M, Moracco K, Martin S, Petersen R, Frasier P. Asking about intimate partner violence: advice from female survivors to health care providers. Patient Educ Couns. 2005;59:141-7 pubmed
    ..They emphasized that a provider's asking about IPV is an opportunity to raise patient awareness of IPV, communicate compassion and provide information and not merely a screening test to diagnose a pathologic condition. ..
  42. Lo Fo Wong S, Wester F, Mol S, Römkens R, Hezemans D, Lagro Janssen T. Talking matters: abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation. Patient Educ Couns. 2008;70:386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Talking about abuse is an important step in a woman's process of change. Doctors should acknowledge the advantage of their position as a professional confidant and ask women about abuse. ..
  43. Andersson N, Cockcroft A, Ansari N, Omer K, Chaudhry U, Khan A, et al. Collecting reliable information about violence against women safely in household interviews: experience from a large-scale national survey in South Asia. Violence Against Women. 2009;15:482-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Among women who disclosed physical violence, only one third had previously told anyone. Surveys of violence against women in Pakistan not using methods to minimize underreporting could seriously underestimate prevalence. ..
  44. Morland L, Leskin G, Block C, Campbell J, Friedman M. Intimate partner violence and miscarriage: examination of the role of physical and psychological abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Interpers Violence. 2008;23:652-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies can confirm findings and determine underlying mechanisms. Routine screening for traumatic stress and PTSD may reduce rates of miscarriage. ..
  45. Lawoko S. Factors associated with attitudes toward intimate partner violence: a study of women in Zambia. Violence Vict. 2006;21:645-56 pubmed
    ..Most variables remained significant even when possible confounding was adjusted for using a logistic regression. The findings are discussed and implications for prevention as well as methodological issues considered. ..
  46. Tower M. Intimate partner violence and the health care response: a postmodern critique. Health Care Women Int. 2007;28:438-52 pubmed
    ..To date, strategies to improve the health care response have been limited in effectiveness as structural constraints of the health service and models of practice employed have not been addressed. ..
  47. Vos T, Astbury J, Piers L, Magnus A, Heenan M, Stanley L, et al. Measuring the impact of intimate partner violence on the health of women in Victoria, Australia. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:739-44 pubmed
    ..Future research should concentrate on evaluating effective interventions to prevent women being exposed to violence, and identifying the most appropriate mental health care for victims to reduce short- and long-term disability. ..
  48. Garcia Moreno C, Heise L, Jansen H, Ellsberg M, Watts C. Public health. Violence against women. Science. 2005;310:1282-3 pubmed
  49. Lutz K. Abuse experiences, perceptions, and associated decisions during the childbearing cycle. West J Nurs Res. 2005;27:802-24; discussion 825-30 pubmed
    ..Leaving an abusive relationship was not considered unless the partner ended the relationship first or the woman perceived an increased risk of danger. Postpartum up to 2 years after birth was a critical transitional time for women. ..
  50. Montalvo Liendo N. Cross-cultural factors in disclosure of intimate partner violence: an integrated review. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65:20-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to understand the lived experiences of minority women, including Mexican-American women living in intimate partner violence. ..
  51. Pallitto C, Campbell J, O CAMPO P. Is intimate partner violence associated with unintended pregnancy? A review of the literature. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2005;6:217-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, further investigation is warranted to explore the nature of the association as well as the mechanisms through which these phenomena operate in the United States and in developing countries. ..
  52. Silverman J, Decker M, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Raj A. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among married Indian women. JAMA. 2008;300:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Among married Indian women, physical violence combined with sexual violence from husbands was associated with an increased prevalence of HIV infection. Prevention of IPV may augment efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. ..
  53. Saunders D, Holter M, Pahl L, Tolman R, Kenna C. TANF workers' responses to battered women and the impact of brief worker training: what survivors report. Violence Against Women. 2005;11:227-54 pubmed
    b>Battered women (n = 159) report on their experiences with their Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) case workers. Workers most often ask about physical harm, feelings of fear, and police involvement...